Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 581.128
Filtrar
1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069436

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations show a good response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). The subsequent treatments influence the evaluability of the efficacy of front-line therapy on overall survival (OS). Consequently, we evaluated the associations of relapse-free survival (RFS) and post-progression survival (PPS) with OS in patients who exhibited postoperative relapse of EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the data of 35 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC who underwent complete resection between January 2007 and June 2019. The correlations of RFS and PPS with OS were evaluated at the individual patient level. Results: Linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation analyses demonstrated that the PPS highly correlated with OS (r = 0.91, p < 0.05, R2 = 0.85), whereas the RFS weakly associated with OS (r = 0.36, p < 0.05, R2 = 0.25). Age and performance status at relapse were significantly associated with PPS. Conclusion: Overall, PPS was more strongly and significantly associated with OS than RFS. These results suggest that the OS of our cohort may be affected by treatments, besides postoperative relapse. However, larger-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071149

RESUMO

The dysregulation of both the innate and adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 have an impact on the course of COVID-19, and play a role in the clinical outcome of the disease. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in 82 patients with COVID-19, including 31 patients with a critical course of the disease. In COVID-19 patients who required hospitalization we analyzed T cell subsets, including Treg cells, as well as TCRα/ß and γ/δ, NK cells, and B cells, during the first two weeks after admission to hospital due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, with marked reductions in leukocytes subpopulations, especially in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We showed decreased levels of Th, Ts cells, Treg cells (both naïve and induced), TCRα/ß and γ/δ cells, as well as CD16+CD56+NK cells in ICU compared to non-ICU COVID-19 patients. We observed impaired function of T and NK cells in critically ill COVID-19 patients with extremely low levels of secreted cytokines. We found that the IL-2/INFγ ratio was the strongest indicator of a critical course of COVID-19, and was associated with fatal outcomes. Our findings showed markedly impaired innate and adaptive responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients, and suggest that the immunosuppressive state in the case of a critical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection might reflect subsequent clinical deterioration and predict a fatal outcome.


Assuntos
59585/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , 59565/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Imunidade Adaptativa , Idoso , 59585/diagnóstico , 59585/mortalidade , 59585/virologia , Deterioração Clínica , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 518, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limb salvage surgery (LSS) is the preferred method for treatment of patients with sarcomas and to a greater extent also to patients with metastatic bone disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adaptive remodeling of the periprosthetic cortical bone after insertion of a tumor prosthesis with cemented stem. METHODS: A prospective study of 21 patients (F/M = 12/9), mean age 55 years (range 15-81) with metastatic bone disease (n = 9), sarcomas (n = 8) or aggressive benign tumors (n = 4) who underwent bone resection due to a tumor, and reconstruction with a tumor-prosthesis (Zimmer® Segmental 130 mm straight fluted cemented stem with trabecular metal (TM) collars) in the proximal femur (n = 10), distal femur (n = 9) or proximal tibia (n = 2). Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2) were done postoperatively and after 3, 6, and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD was measured in 4 regions of interest around the cemented stem and in one region of interest 1 cm proximal from the ankle joint of the affected limb and measurement of the contralateral ankle was used as reference. Repeated measures ANOVA and students paired t-test was used to evaluate BMD changes over time. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, BMD decreased compared to baseline in all four regions of interest with a statistically significant bone loss of 8-15%. The bone loss was most pronounced (14-15%) in the 2 regions of interest closest to the trabecular metal (TM) collar and lowest (8%) adjacent to the tip of the stem. CONCLUSION: After 1 year the decrease in bone mineral density of the ankle on the affected limb was 9% and the contralateral ankle was close to baseline, thus suggesting that the periprosthetic bone mineral density changes during follow-up, mainly are caused by stress shielding and immobilization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Scientific Ethical Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (J. No. H-2-2014-105) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. No.: 2012-58-00004 ).


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Neoplasias , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 164, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has recently emerged as a viable management option for peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM). CRS and HIPEC is a complex, multidisciplinary and resource-intensive surgical procedure. It has a steep learning curve and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The expertise is mostly limited to few dedicated high-volume centers located in developed countries. We present a single institutional experience of 232 cases of CRS and HIPEC performed at a tertiary care cancer center in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). METHODS: A multidisciplinary PSM program was initiated in 2015 at a high-volume public-sector tertiary care cancer center in North India catering largely to patients belonging to low- and middle-income groups. Perioperative protocols were developed, and a prospective structured database was created to capture data. All patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC between January 2015 and December 2020 were identified, and the data was retrospectively analyzed for clinical spectrum, surgical details, and perioperative morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-two patients underwent CRS and HIPEC during the study period. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (56.5%) was the most common malignancy treated, followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei (18.5%), colorectal carcinoma (13.4%), and malignant mesothelioma (5.6%). Optimal CRS could be achieved in 94.4% of patients. Cisplatin and mitomycin were the most common drugs used for HIPEC. A total of 28.0% of patients had morbidity including deep vein thrombosis, subacute intestinal obstruction, sepsis, burst abdomen, lymphocele, urinoma, acute renal failure, and enterocutaneous fistula. The overall treatment-related mortality was 3.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the current study indicate that it is feasible to establish a successful CRS and HIPEC program for PSM in government-funded hospitals in LMIC facing resource constraints. The most common indication for CRS and HIPEC were carcinoma of the ovary followed by pseudomyxoma peritonei and colorectal carcinoma. Overall morbidity and mortality in the current series are comparable to global standards, reported from high-income countries. A protocol-based multidisciplinary team approach, optimal patient selection, and surgical expertise can help achieve optimal outcomes in government-funded hospitals in LMIC.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , 59575 , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1420-1423, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success rate of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. METHODS: The prospective cohort study was conducted at the Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology departments, Shifa Foundation Community Health Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, from October 2017 to September 2019, and comprised chronic dacryocystitis patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with or without lacrimal intubation was performed under general anaesthesia. The patients were followed up post-operative at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months and 12 months. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 47 patients, 41(87.2%) were females. The overall mean age was 40.70±10.84 years (range: 25-66 years). Lacrimal intubation was performed in 31(66%) patients. Surgical success was achieved in 46(97.9%) patients. Of them, 37(78.7%) patients were completely symptom-free, while 9(19.1%) were partially symptomatic and were managed conservatively. Treatment failure requiring repeat surgical procedure was the case with 1(2.1%) patient. Procedure failure was more likely in patients with previous attacks of acute dacryocystitis (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was found to be a safe procedure with good anatomical and functional outcomes in chronic dacryocystitis patients.


Assuntos
Dacriocistorinostomia , Adulto , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1428-1431, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of video-assisted thoracoscopy for evacuating retained / clotted haemothoraces to minimise the duration of chest tube drainage and length of hospital stay. METHODS: The prospective cohort study was conducted from July 2019 to February 2020 at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised consecutive patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy for retained or clotted haemothoraces. Outcome was measured as evacuation of retained haemothoraces resulting in partial or complete lung expansion and length of hospital stay. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 160 patients, 128(80%) were males and 32(20%) were females. The overall mean age was 36.08±11.91 years. Overall, 103(64.37%) patients underwent the procedure in within 4-7 days, and 57(35.63%) within 8-14 days. Complete lung expansion was achieved in 95(71.9%) patients when the procedure was performed in the first week, and in 37(28.1%) when performed in the second week (p=0.01). Within the first week, 87(84.4%) patients had shorter duration of stay compared to patients having undergone the procedure in the second week (p=0.001). Relapse of collection was found in 21(13.7%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Video-assisted thoracoscopy was found to be a safe, reliable and effective technique for the evacuation of retained haemothorax in haemodynamically stable patients. Early intervention resulted in better outcome.


Assuntos
Hemotórax , Toracoscopia , Adulto , Feminino , Hemotórax/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Toracotomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1515-1520, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the deficiencies in patient note record-taking with the aim of improving the quality to meet international standards. METHODS: This prospective clinical quality improvement audit study was conducted at the department of Neurosurgery, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Jinnah Hospital Lahore from January 2019 to February 2020. The first audit cycle was carried out in July 2019, after data anonymisation, the notes from 1st January to 31st June were analysed in the first audit cycle against a hybrid proforma containing entries deemed essential in operative notes according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The guidelines were subsequently disseminated among postgraduate trainees using various methods. Post-intervention, randomly selected patientnotes from 1st August to 31st December 2019 were analysed in the second audit which was done in February 2020. The result of the two audits were compared to assess significance of association between the cycles for each categorical variable. RESULTS: Of the 100 patient-notes audited, 50(50%) were part of each of the two cycles. Significant improvements (p<0.05) were seen between the two cycles in time of operation, pre-op status, post-op care, monitoring instruction, mobilisation, feeding instructions, wound care and position. There was 100% improvement in entries including name, age and sex, date of operation, elective/emergency, name of the procedure and name of operating surgeon and assistant, and the name of anaesthetist. Overall, marked improvement was observed in all parameters except in 'use of antibiotic prophylaxes'. CONCLUSIONS: Regular audits are needed to monitor and improve patient care.


Assuntos
Documentação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Departamentos Hospitalares , Humanos , Paquistão , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(20): 2630-2642, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vary between regions but have risen globally in recent decades. A lack of data from developing nations limits the understanding of IBD epidemiology. AIM: To perform a follow-up review of IBD epidemiology in the Tuzla Canton of Bosnia-Herzegovina during a 10-year period (2009-2019). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the hospital records of both IBD inpatients and outpatients residing in Tuzla Canton for the specified period of time between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2019. Since all our patients had undergone proximal and distal endoscopic evaluations at the hospital endoscopy unit, we used the hospital's database as a primary data source, alongside an additional cross-relational search of the database. Both adult and pediatric patients were included in the study. Patients were grouped by IBD type, phenotype, age, and gender. Incidence rates were calculated with age standardization using the European standard population. Trends in incidence and prevalence were evaluated as a 3-year moving average and average annual percentage change rates. RESULTS: During the 10-year follow-up period, 651 patients diagnosed with IBD were monitored (of whom 334, or 51.3%, were males, and 317, or 48.7%, were females). Of all the patients, 346 (53.1%) had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC), 292 (44.9%) with Crohn's disease (CD), and 13 (2%) with indeterminate colitis (IC). We observed 440 newly diagnosed patients with IBD: 240 (54.5%) with UC, 190 (43.2%) with CD, and 10 (2.3%) with IC. The mean annual crude incidence rates were found to be 9.01/100000 population for IBD [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.17-9.85], with 4.91/100000 (95%CI: 4.29-5.54) for UC and 3.89/100000 (95%CI: 3.34-4.44) for CD. Calculated IBD prevalence in 2019 was 146.64/100000 (95%CI: 128.09-165.19), with 77.94/100000 (95%CI: 68.08-87.70) for UC and 65.77/100000 (95%CI: 54.45-74.1) for CD. The average annual IBD percentage change was 0.79% (95%CI: 0.60-0.88), with -2.82% (95%CI: -2.67 to -2.97) for UC and 6.92% (95%CI: 6.64-7.20) for CD. During the study period, 24,509 distal endoscopic procedures were performed. The incidence of IBD was 3.16/100 examinations (95%CI: 2.86-3.45) or 1.72/100 examinations (95%CI: 1.5-1.94) for UC and 1.36/100 examinations (95%CI: 1.17-1.56) for CD. CONCLUSION: Trends in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in Tuzla Canton are similar to Eastern European averages, although there are significant epidemiological differences within geographically close and demographically similar areas.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of oral diseases in people with dementia has increased, and patients with dementia have worse oral health than people without dementia. However, in the provision of oral care, these patients often exhibit care-resistant behaviours. Empathy is important for health care professionals who provide dental care for people with dementia. A study was conducted to assess whether a multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme, Humanitude™, was associated with an improvement in empathy for people with dementia among oral health care professionals. METHODS: This research was a pre-post prospective study. A total of 45 dentists and dental hygienists participated in a 7-h multimodal comprehensive care methodology training programme. Participants' empathy for their patients was evaluated with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Health Professionals Version (JSPE-HP) before the training and 1 month after the training (primary outcome). Each participant listed 3 patients with poor oral health due to the refusal of usual oral care or dental treatment from his or her clinical practice. The oral health of the 3 care-resistant patients listed by each participant was evaluated by the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT) before the training and 1 month after the training (secondary outcome). RESULTS: The post-training response rate was 87% (21 dentists and 18 dental hygienists). From pre-training to post-training, the multimodal comprehensive care methodology training significantly increased the mean empathy score (from 113.97 to 122.95, P < 0.05, effect size = 0.9). Regardless of gender, profession and years of clinical experience, all post-training subgroup scores were higher than the pre-training subgroup scores. The tongue, natural teeth, and oral hygiene scores of patients with dementia who resisted usual oral care or dental treatment, as assessed by the OHAT, were significantly improved compared with those before the training. CONCLUSIONS: The multimodal comprehensive care methodology training was associated with an improvement in oral health professionals' empathy for patients with dementia. These findings suggest that randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes will be needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR), UMIN000041687 . Registered 4 September 2020 - Retrospectively registered, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000047586.


Assuntos
Demência , Empatia , Demência/terapia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(5): 838-845, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082870

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis because of its strong ability to invade tissues and metastasize. Immune checkpoint blockades significantly improve the clinical response in the development of melanoma. However, there are some obstacles to overcome, such as cost and limited application. Therefore, prospective approaches remain to be exploited. We designed cellular nanovesicles (NVs) expressing PD-1 to reactivate T cells by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 immunoinhibitory pathway. Furthermore, siNF90 was wrapped into PD-1 NVs to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. Such a dual target effect is helpful for the treatment of melanoma. In addition, our results showed that treatment with PD-1 @siNF90 NVs inhibited the growth of melanoma tumors and extended the survival time of mice, exhibiting a better effect than PD-1 NVs alone. The data also verified that the percentage of CD8+ T cells in tumors was highest after PD-1 @siNF90 NVs treatment. To sum up, PD-1 @siNF90 NVs could serve as safe and effective blockers in the treatment of melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Membrana Celular , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Int J Comput Dent ; 24(2): 207-223, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085505

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare inlay and onlay restorations fabricated from conventional impressions and two different digital impression systems in terms of clinical features and marginal fit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to three groups according to the type of impression system used. The impressions were taken with polyvinyl siloxane silicone material for the control group (CON). For the digital impressions, Trios Pod Scanner (3Shape) was used for the TRIOS group and Cerec AC Omnicam (Sirona) for the CEREC group. A total of 40 IPS e.max CAD and 20 IPS e.max Press (both Ivoclar Vivadent) inlay and onlay restorations were then placed in 24 participants. Clinical evaluations, Plaque Index, Gingival Index, and pocket probing depth measurements were taken at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months using FDI criteria. The continuous margin percentages were quantitatively examined by scanning electron microscopy at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: All the restorations showed clinically acceptable measurements at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The continuous margin evaluations showed no statistically significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the 12-month follow-up results, inlay and onlay restorations fabricated with digital impressions were found to be a reliable alternative to conventional impressions.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Restaurações Intracoronárias , Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e43, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085624

RESUMO

AIMS: The long-term physical health effects of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are well characterised, but the psychological effects remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to determine whether measures of exposure severity, as indirect measures of psychological trauma arising from exposure to the atomic bombings, are associated with suicide mortality among atomic bomb survivors. METHODS: The Life Span Study is a prospective cohort study of 93 741 Japanese atomic bomb survivors who were located within 10 km of the hypocentre in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombings in 1945, and 26 579 residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were not in either city at the time of the bombings, matched to survivors on city, sex and age. Measures of exposure severity included: proximity to the hypocentre, type of shielding between the survivor and the blast and self-reported occurrence of acute radiation and thermal injuries. Date of death was obtained from the Japanese National Family Registry system. Cause of death was obtained from death certificates. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from Cox regression models overall and stratified by sex and age. RESULTS: During the 60-year follow-up period (1950-2009), 1150 suicide deaths were recorded among 120 231 participants (23.6 per 100 000 person-years): 510 among 70 092 women (17.2 per 100 000 person-years) and 640 among 50 139 men (33.6 per 100 000 person-years). Overall, there was no association of proximity, type of shielding or the occurrence of acute injuries with suicide mortality. Among those <25 years of age at the time of the bombings, increased suicide risk was observed for survivors outside v. shielded inside any structure (HR: 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.48; interaction p = 0.054) and for those who reported flash burns (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.73; interaction p = 0.025). Sex-stratified analyses indicated that these associations were limited to men. Among women, closer proximity to the hypocentre was associated with a non-significant increase in suicide risk, with a positive association between proximity and suicide risk observed among women <15 years of age (HR: 1.09 per km; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18; interaction p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: Proximity to the hypocentre, shielding and acute injury presence do not generally appear to influence suicide mortality among atomic bomb survivors. However, heterogeneity may exist by age and sex, with younger survivors potentially more sensitive to psychological trauma. Coupled with other studies, our results suggest the importance of long-term monitoring of mental health among young populations exposed to catastrophic events or mass trauma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Armas Nucleares , Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sobreviventes
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 243, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate alterations in the serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and netrin-1 after intravitreal bevacizumab (BCZ) injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: This prospective case-control study included a total of 50 participants assigned to one of three groups, including 10 individuals with DME and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 13 with DME, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 27 healthy individuals as a control group. Serum VEGF and netrin-1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) immediately before, as well as 1 week and 1 month after, intravitreal BCZ injection. RESULTS: The mean VEGF serum concentrations in the PDR and NPDR groups were 388.4 and 196.9 pg/mL at baseline, respectively. After 1 week, these concentrations changed to 193.41 and 150.23 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively); after 1 month, the concentrations were 97.89 and 76.46 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). The mean netrin-1 serum concentrations in the PDR patients and NPDR groups were 318.2 and 252.7 pg/mL at baseline, respectively. After 1 week, these concentrations increased to 476.6 and 416.3 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.033 and P = 0.005, respectively), and after 1 month, they were 676.6 and 747.5 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). The correlation analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum VEGF and netrin-1 concentrations in both the PDR and NPDR groups (r = - 0.685, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal BCZ injections work systemically to significantly decrease serum VEGF levels, leading to a significant upregulation in the concentration of another angiogenic mediator, netrin-1.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Edema Macular , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Netrina-1/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
14.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 272, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closure of the appendix stump presents the most critical part of laparoscopic appendectomy. The aim of the present study was to compare the medical outcomes and cost analysis of laparoscopic appendectomy with respect to the different methods of stump closure. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial conducted in a single institution (University Hospital Ostrava) within a 2-year study period. All included patients were randomized into one of three trial arms (endoloop, hem-o-lok clips or endostapler). RESULTS: In total, 180 patients (60 patients in each arm) were enrolled into the study. The mean length of hospital stay (3.6 ± 1.7 days) was comparable in all study arms. The shortest operative time was noted in the hem-o-lok subgroup of patients (37.9 ± 12.5 min). Superficial surgical site infection was detected in 4.4% of study patients; deep surgical site infection was noted in 1.7% of the patients. The frequency of surgical site infections was comparable in all study arms (p = 0.7173). The mean direct costs of laparoscopic appendectomy were significantly the lowest in the hem-o-lok subgroup of patients. Laparoscopic appendectomy is not a profit-making procedure in our institution (mean profit of made from the study patients was-104.3 ± 579.2 Euro). Closure of the appendix stump by means of endostapler presents the most expensive and the highest loss-incurring technique (p = 0.0072). CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that all technical modifications of appendix stump closure are comparable with regards to postoperative complications. The stapler technique is significantly the most expensive. We concluded that hem-o-lok clips have the potential for becoming the preferred method of securing the appendix base during laparoscopic appendectomy. Trial registration NCT03750032 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Assuntos
Apendicite , Apêndice , Laparoscopia , Apendicectomia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067299

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Fluid disbalance is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we intended to assess fluid status using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and central venous pressure (CVP) measurement and to evaluate the association between hyperhydration and hypervolemia with the outcomes of severe AKI. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Hospital of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kauno Klinikos. Forty-seven patients treated at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe AKI and a need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) were examined. The hydration level was evaluated according to the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW) of bioimpedance analysis and volemia was measured according to CVP. All of the patients were tested before the first hemodialysis (HD) procedure. Hyperhydration was defined as ECW/TBW > 0.39 and hypervolemia as CVP > 12 cm H2O. Results: According to bioimpedance analysis, 72.3% (n = 34) of patients were hyperhydrated. According to CVP, only 51.1% (n = 24) of the patients were hypervolemic. Interestingly, 69.6% of hypovolemic/normovolemic patients were also hyperhydrated. Of all study patients, 57.4% (n = 27) died, in 29.8% (n = 14) the kidney function improved, and in 12.8% (n = 6) the demand for RRT remained after in-patient treatment. A tendency of higher mortality in hyperhydrated patients was observed, but no association between hypervolemia and outcomes of severe AKI was established. Conclusions: Three-fourths of the patients with severe AKI were hyperhydrated based on bioimpedance analysis. However, according to CVP, only half of these patients were hypervolemic. A tendency of higher mortality in hyperhydrated patients was observed.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Pressão Venosa Central , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072478

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: In October 2018, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) revised its classification of advanced stages of cervical cancer. The main points of the classification are as follows: stage IIIC is newly established; pelvic lymph node metastasis is stage IIIC1; and para-aortic lymph node metastasis is stage IIIC2. Currently, in Japan, radical hysterectomy is performed in advanced stages IA2 to IIB of FIGO2014, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended for patients with positive lymph nodes. However, the efficacy of CCRT is not always satisfactory. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and postoperative CCRT in stage IIIC1 patients. Materials and Methods: Of the 40 patients who had undergone a radical hysterectomy at Iwate Medical University between January 2011 and December 2016 and were pathologically diagnosed as having positive pelvic lymph nodes, 21 patients in the adjuvant CT group and 19 patients in the postoperative CCRT group were compared. Results: The 5 year survival rates were 77.9% in the CT group and 74.7% in the CCRT group, with no significant difference. There was no significant difference in overall survival or progression-free survival between the two groups. There was no significant difference between CT and CCRT in postoperative adjuvant therapy in the new classification IIIC1 stage. Conclusions: The results of the prospective Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) 1082 study are pending, but the present results suggest that CT may be a treatment option in rural areas where radiotherapy facilities are limited.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072775

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with an increased risk for left ventricular and right ventricular dysfunction. Most studies to date have examined populations with manifest cardiovascular disease using echocardiography to analyze ventricular dysfunction with little or no reference to ventricular volumes or myocardial mass. Our aim was to explore these parameters with cardiac MRI. We hypothesized that there would be stepwise increase in left ventricular mass and right ventricular volumes from the unaffected, to the snoring and the OSA group. Materials and Methods: We analyzed cardiac MRI data from 4978 UK Biobank participants free from cardiovascular disease. Participants were allocated into three cohorts: with OSA, with self-reported snoring and without OSA or snoring (n = 118, 1886 and 2477). We analyzed cardiac parameters from balanced cine-SSFP sequences and indexed them to body surface area. Results: Patients with OSA were mostly males (47.3% vs. 79.7%; p < 0.001) with higher body mass index (25.7 ± 4.0 vs. 31.3 ± 5.3 kg/m²; p < 0.001) and higher blood pressure (135 ± 18 vs. 140 ± 17 mmHg; p = 0.012) compared to individuals without OSA or snoring. Regression analysis showed a significant effect for OSA in left ventricular end-diastolic index (LVEDVI) (ß = -4.9 ± 2.4 mL/m²; p = 0.040) and right ventricular end-diastolic index (RVEDVI) (ß = -6.2 ± 2.6 mL/m²; p = 0.016) in females and for right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (ß = 1.7 ± 0.8%; p = 0.031) in males. A significant effect was discovered in snoring females for left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (ß = 3.5 ± 0.9 g/m²; p < 0.001) and in males for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (ß = 1.0 ± 0.3%; p = 0.001) and RVEF (ß = 1.2 ± 0.3%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that OSA is highly underdiagnosed and that it is an evolving process with gender specific progression. Females with OSA show significantly lower ventricular volumes while males with snoring show increased ejection fractions which may be an early sign of hypertrophy. Separate prospective studies are needed to further explore the direction of causality.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Ronco , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ronco/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Reino Unido , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210021, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with a higher probability of survival for men aged 60 and over in the course of almost 15 years. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, where time zero is the year 2000 and deaths (final event) were measured until November 2014. The independent variables were obtained from personal characteristics, childhood life, educational status, lifestyle, social support, work history, socioeconomic situation, and health condition. RESULTS: At the end of the period, 25.8% of elderly men remained alive and the factors that stood out associated with a higher probability of survival were: performing 50% or more of the Basic and/or Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (95%CI 0.41 - 0.64), being the head of the family (95%CI 0.42 - 0.82), participating in the community (95%CI 0.52 - 0.88), working on their own (95%CI 0.54 - 0.88), and owning a home and goods (95%CI 0.56 - 0.92). CONCLUSION: Characteristics related to a greater autonomy of the elderly men, even after almost 15 years, contributed to an increase in the probability of survival.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze early and late maternal complications associated with the mode of delivery in a birth cohort in Brazil, using the propensity score technique for analysis. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study, using data from the Pelotas Birth Cohort, RS, 2004. A total of 4,189 women were included and a descriptive analysis of the data and subsequent calculation of the propensity and pairing score of vaginal delivery women and cesarean delivery women with similar scores (1,366 pairs). We then assessed the difference in outcome risk between the groups. RESULTS: Women in the cesarean group had 2.9 percentage points (pp) more risk of postpartum infection, 1.13 p.p. more risk of urinary infection, 1.10 p.p. more risk of anesthetic complications and 1.24 p.p. higher risk of headache compared to vaginal delivery, but less risk of anemia (-2.43 pp) and hemorrhoids (-1.24 p.p.). The use of propensity scores is extremely useful for reducing bias and increasing accuracy in observational studies when experimental studies cannot be performed. CONCLUSION: Cesarean sections have been associated with a higher prevalence of postpartum and urinary tract infections, anesthetic complications and headache and lower prevalence of anemia and hemorrhoids, so they should be performed with clear indications and when their benefits outweigh potential risks.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1111-1118, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058866

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the trajectories of patient reported pain and functional disability over five years following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort sub-study within the National Joint Registry (NJR) was undertaken. In all, 20,089 patients who underwent primary THA and 22,489 who underwent primary TKA between 2009 and 2010 were sent Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires at six months, and one, three, and five years postoperatively. OHS and OKS were disaggregated into pain and function subscales. A k-means clustering procedure assigned each patient to a longitudinal trajectory group for pain and function. Ordinal regression was used to predict trajectory group membership using baseline OHS and OKS score, age, BMI, index of multiple deprivation, sex, ethnicity, geographical location, and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade. RESULTS: Data described two discrete trajectories for pain and function: 'level 1' responders (around 70% of cases) in whom a high level of improvement is sustained over five years, and 'level 2' responders who had sustained improvement, but at a lower level. Baseline patient variables were only weak predictors of pain trajectory and modest predictors of function trajectory. Those with worse baseline pain and function tended to show a greater likelihood of following a 'level 2' trajectory. Six-month patient-reported outcome measures data reliably predicted the class of five-year outcome trajectory for both pain and function. CONCLUSION: The available preoperative patient variables were not reliable predictors of postoperative pain and function after THA and TKA. Reviewing patient outcomes at six months postoperatively is a reliable indicator of outcome at five years. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1111-1118.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...