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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 71-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374351

RESUMO

Background: Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including asymptomatic and past infections, are important to estimate the scale of the disease outbreak and to establish quarantine measures. We evaluated the clinical performance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays available in Korea for use in seroprevalence studies. Methods: The sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and interference of five SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays were evaluated using the following: 398 serum samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients, 510 negative control samples from before 2018 (pre-pandemic), 163 serum samples from patients with SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and other viral infections, and five samples for the interference study. Results: The sensitivities of the five assays ranged from 92.2% to 98%, and their specificities, including cross-reactivity and interference, ranged from 97.5% to 100%. The agreement rates were excellent (kappa >0.9). Adjustment of the cutoff values could be considered through ROC curve analysis. The positive predictive values of the individual assays varied from 3.5% to 100% at a 0.1% prevalence but were as high as ≥95% when two assays were combined. Conclusions: The prevalence of COVID-19 in Korea is considered to be exceptionally low at present; thus, we recommend using a combination of two or more SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays rather than a single assay. These results could help select SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays for COVID-19 seroprevalence studies in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e009921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495125

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected and endemic zoonosis that occurs throughout Brazil; nevertheless, few studies have focused on the early detection of the disease. The municipality of Ourinhos is a non-receptive, silent and vulnerable area for VL, where the seroprevalence of this disease has so far not been investigated. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine VL in Ourinhos-SP, and to identify the presence of risk factors. Blood samples were obtained from 604 dogs during a rabies vaccination campaign together with application of a socioeconomic questionnaire, environmental and animal characteristics and tutor's knowledge about the disease. The samples were subjected to indirect ELISA and new samples were collected from reactive and suspect animals, including whole blood and lymph node aspiration evaluated by parasitological method, complete blood count and PCR. No animal was diagnosed as positive based on the combination of direct and indirect tests and the tutors' answers indicated little knowledge about leishmaniasis, being often confused with other diseases transmitted by arthropods; hence, according to the proposed methods, the presence of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ourinhos was not confirmed and health education campaigns about the disease should be carried out.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01822021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Previous identification of parasitized dogs can also help prevent the disease in humans, even in non-endemic areas of the country. The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends diagnosis in dogs using a DPP® (rapid test) as a screening test and an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) as a confirmatory test (DPP®+ELISA), and culling infected dogs as a legal control measure. However, the accuracy of these serological tests has been questioned. METHODS: VL in dogs was investigated in a non-endemic area of the São Paulo state for three consecutive years, and the performances of different diagnostic tests were compared. RESULTS: A total of 331 dog samples were collected in 2015, 373 in 2016, and 347 in 2017. The seroprevalence by DPP®+ELISA was 3.3, 3.2, and 0.3%, respectively, and by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), it was 3.0, 5.6, and 5.5%, respectively. ELISA confirmed 18.4% of DPP® positive samples. The concordance between the IFA and DPP® was 83.9%. The concordance between IFA and DPP®+ELISA was 92.9%. A molecular diagnostic test (PCR) was performed in 63.2% of the seropositive samples, all of which were negative. CONCLUSIONS: In non-endemic areas, diagnostic tests in dogs should be carefully evaluated to avoid false results.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Patologia Molecular , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1659, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the new causative agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the city of Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and its spread worldwide, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a pandemic. The disease has caused high mortality among traditional populations and the most socially vulnerable groups such indigenous and refugees. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the population of Venezuelan indigenous Warao refugees residing in private and public shelters in the city of Belem, capital of Para State, in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: One hundred one individuals of both sexes (43 men and 58 women) with ages varying from 18 to 77 years (average of 36 years) were investigated. Whole blood samples were collected and subsequently separated into plasma and leukocytes. Serological analysis was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - ELISA (Anti-SARS-COV-2 S1 IgG, EUROIMMUN, USA). RESULTS: The results indicate a positive serum prevalence of 83.2% (84), of which 77.6% (45/58) were females and 90.7% (39/43) were males. An indeterminate profile was observed in 6.9% (7), where it was not possible to confirm the presence of antibodies, and 9.9% (10) individuals were negative for IgG antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of the high seroprevalence of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies reveals a high exposure of the Warao population in Belem to infection with the new coronavirus. These results underscore the importance of maintaining epidemiological surveillance with testing in traditional populations due to the high possibility of spreading the virus, especially among the most socioeconomically vulnerable groups, which depend exclusively on the Unified Health System (SUS), such as refugees and indigenous people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(3): 283-288, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in occupational exposure among Healthcare Workers (HCWs) and a high risk of nosocomial transmission. Asymptomatic infection and transmission of infection before the development of symptoms are well-recognized factors contributing to the spread of infection. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study to understand the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs and to verify the appropriateness of infection control measures, particularly Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) prophylaxis. METHODS: A cross-sectional sero-surveillance study was conducted among 500 HCWs in Dombivli and surrounding Mumbai Metropolitan area (Maharashtra, India) between 21st July and 3rd August 2020. The vulnerability of the study participants to SARS-CoV-2 infection was ascertained through a history of (i) involvement in direct care, (ii) exposure to aerosol-generating procedures, (iii) co-morbidities, (iv) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) use, and (v) HCQ prophylaxis. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were tested using COVID KAVACH anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from Zydus Cadila. A systematic analysis of the correlation between the development of antibodies and factors affecting vulnerability to infection was performed. RESULTS: The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the study population was 11%. Providing direct care to COVID-19 patients (Adjusted OR 16.4, 95% CI 3.3-126.9, p = 0.002) for long hours and irregular use of PPE (Adjusted OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.1-11.9, p = 0.02) were associated with an increased incidence of seropositivity. Prophylaxis with HCQ may have a role in reducing the vulnerability to infection as depicted by univariate and multivariate analysis (Adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, p = 0.047). It was also noted that those not on HCQ prophylaxis were threefold more prone to infection and developed severe disease as compared to those on HCQ prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis with HCQ may have a role in mitigating the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although vaccination is the most robust strategy to safeguard against COVID-19, it will be months before vaccination percolates to the masses. In the face of the second wave of COVID-19, the use of HCQ prophylaxis in combination with use of face-masks regularly may be considered as a cost-effective measure for population dense areas like urban slums where social distancing is not possible.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hidroxicloroquina , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Índia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050341, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475178

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Onchocerciasis, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, remains endemic in Cameroon despite decades of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). CDTI is often hampered by coendemicity with loiasis (another filariasis caused by Loa loa) in some areas. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that O. volvulus infection increases the risk for onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) among Cameroonian children. This highlights the urgent need to strengthen onchocerciasis elimination programmes in mesoendemic/hyperendemic areas. Novel alternative strategies, such as the 'slash and clear' (S&C) vector control method, may be required to complement ongoing CDTI to accelerate elimination of transmission. The short-term impact of S&C on the biting rates of the blackfly vectors has been demonstrated in other settings. However, its long-term effectiveness and impact on parasitological and serological markers of onchocerciasis transmission as well as on OAE are still unknown. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to assess the effectiveness of annual S&C interventions combined with CDTI in reducing onchocerciasis transmission and epilepsy incidence. Eight onchocerciasis-endemic villages located <5 km from the Mbam or Sanaga rivers will be randomised to two arms: four villages will receive yearly CDTI only for two consecutive years (Arm 1), while the other four villages will receive CDTI plus annual S&C for 2 years (Arm 2). Study outcomes (blackfly biting rates, infectivity rates and seroprevalence of onchocerciasis antibodies (Ov16 antibodies) in children, prevalence of microfilaridermia and epilepsy incidence) will be monitored prospectively and compared across study arms. We expect that S&C will have an added benefit over CDTI alone. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (reference number: IRB2021-03) and has been registered with the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry. Findings will be disseminated at national and international levels via meetings and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR202101751275357.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Oncocercose , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 631411, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513776

RESUMO

Background: Cytomegalovirus seroconversion during pregnancy is common and has a substantial risk of congenital infection with longterm sequale. Screening during pregnancy or vaccination have not been shown to be effective for eliminating congenital infections. Preconception screening policy has not been evaluated adequately in a large scale. This nationwide study aimed to investigate epidemiological features of cytomegalovirus seropositivity and its geographic variation among Chinese women planning a pregnancy to gather epidemiological evidence as an essential for developing novel prevention strategies. Method: This cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey enrolled women intending to become pregnant within 6 months in mainland China during 2010-2012. The primary outcomes in this study were cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G and M seropositivity. Secondary outcomes were the associations between Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M, with socio-demographic characteristics, including age, occupation, education level, place of residence, and ethnicity. The overall seropositivity and regional disparity was analyzed on the individual and regional level, respectively. Results: This study included data from 1,564,649 women from 31 provinces in mainland China. Among participants, 38.6% (n = 603,511) were cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G+, 0.4% (n = 6,747) were immunoglobulin M+, and 0.2% (n = 2,879) were immunoglobulin M+ and immunoglobulin G+. On individual level, participant's age, ethnicity, and residing region were significantly associated with IgG+, IgM+, and IgM+IgG+ (P < 0.001), while occupation, education level, and place of residence were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). On regional level, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M seropositivity was highest in the eastern region (49.5 and 0.5%, respectively), and lowest in the western region (26.9 and 0.4%, respectively). This geographic variation was also noted at the provincial level, characterized by higher provincial immunoglobulin M+ and immunoglobulin G+ rates associated with higher immunoglobulin G seropositivity. In the subgroup analysis of immunoglobulin G seropositivity, areas of higher immunoglobulin G positivity had a higher rate of immunoglobulin M+, indicating an expected increased risk of reinfection and primary infection. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of women (>60%) were susceptible to cytomegalovirus in preconception period in China, and immunoglobulin G seropositivity was seen at a low-medium level with substantial geographic variation. Integration of cytomegalovirus antibody testing in preconception screening program based on regional immunoglobulin G seropositivity, should be considered to promote strategies directed toward preventing sero-conversion during pregnancy to reduce the risk of this congenital infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Citomegalovirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485215

RESUMO

Immunity certificates related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been under discussion since the beginning of the pandemic with conflicting opinions. In order to identify arguments in favor of and against the possible implementation of documents certifying immunity of an individual based on serological testing, we developed a qualitative study in Geneva, Switzerland. The study took place between two lockdowns with a sense of semi-normalcy during summer 2020 in Switzerland but at a time when no vaccine was available and seroprevalence was below 21%. Eleven focus groups with members of the public and 14 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were conducted between July and November 2020, with a total of 68 participants with an age range between 24 and 77 years. Interviews and focus groups transcripts were coded with the ATLAS.ti CAQDAS. Few participants considered immunity certificates based on serological testing as an acceptable public health measure. Major concerns included the reliability of scientific data related to COVID-19 immunity and serological testing potential re-infection as well as the possibility that the use of certificates could result in deleterious outcomes. Discrimination, counterfeiting, incitement for self-infection, invasion of the private sphere, violation of personal integrity, and violation of medical secrecy were perceived as the major risks. Benefits of immunity certificates were more perceived when in relation to vaccination, and included gains in medical knowledge and protection in certain contexts involving leisure or work-related activities. The consequences of implementing immunity certificates are numerous, and the acceptability by the general population has to be considered when engaging in such policy. Even if the results provide a snapshot of arguments discussed around immunity certificates based on serological testing before the implementation of the COVID-19 vaccine, most of the issues discussed are central in the current debates about vaccination certificates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(7): 607-611, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is currently the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Risk factors for GBS include previous viral or bacterial infections or vaccination. Recently, an outbreak of Zika virus led to an outbreak of GBS in Latin America, mostly in Brazil, concomitant to continuous circulation of dengue virus serotypes. However, there is no study about cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a risk for GBS in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we report a series of cases of GBS with the aim of determining the prevalence of CMV and the characteristics associated with the infection. METHODS: A cohort of 111 GBS cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in Natal, northeastern Brazil, was studied. Presence of CMV IgM antibodies was determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The analysis was performed considering CMV infection status and the clinical outcome. RESULTS: We found seroprevalence of 15.3% (n = 17) for CMV. CMV patients were younger (26 vs. 40; p = 0.016), with no apparent gastrointestinal (p = 0.762) or upper respiratory infections (p = 0.779) or sensory loss (p = 0.03). They presented more often with a classic GBS sensorimotor variant (p = 0.02) and with a demyelinating pattern in electrophysiological studies (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Brazil, the clinical-epidemiological profile of GBS associated with CMV infection is similar to that described in other countries. Better understanding of the relationship between infectious processes and GBS is a key component of the research agenda and assistance strategy for global health initiatives relating to peripheral neuropathic conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCWs, and to study the factors associated with this seroprevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of HCWs from a Dedicated COVID Hospital was conducted from December 2020 to February 2021. Universal sampling for qualitative testing(by COVID-19 IgG rapid test device by Voxpress) was done and the samples which tested positive were subjected to quantitative testing (chemiluminescent immunoassay) by Serial testing.3 Results: A total of 1005 HCWs were tested out of which 124(12.3%) tested positive by qualitative test and 101(10%) tested positive by both tests. Out of the 1005 HCWs, 155(15.4%) were doctors and 496 (49.4%) were nurses. There was statistically no significant difference between the seropositivity of HCWs with regards to the designation, age, place of work, duration of work in this DCH and Comorbidities. Most HCWs received training in Infection prevention and control(IPC) 988(98.3%), used personal protective equipment(PPE) whenever indicated 997(99.2%), performed hand hygiene before and after handling patients or their material 981(97.6%). Out of 1005 HCWs, 116(11.5%) had a history of COVID-19.The seroprevalence in HCWs not having history of COVID-19 was 74(8.3%). CONCLUSION: Good infection prevention practices can keep the infection rate in HCWs low. HCWs with mild symptoms should also be tested and asymptomatic HCWs should be screened periodically to decrease the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 414-416, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections among patients with diabetes mellitus in Hangzhou City. METHODS: A total of 337 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 624 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 384 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus living in Hangzhou City during the period from March 2017 through May 2020 were recruited as the study subjects, while age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers and pregnant women without gestational diabetes mellitus served as controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect serum IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii in patients with diabetes mellitus and controls, and the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody was compared between diabetes mellitus patients and controls. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody (18.10% vs. 4.45%, χ2 = 31.38, P < 0.01) and the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody (14.54% vs. 2.97%, χ2 = 28.28, P < 0.01) were both significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus than in healthy controls, while no significant difference was seen in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients and controls (3.56% vs. 1.48%, χ2 = 2.96, P > 0.05). The seroprevalence rates of serum anti-T. gondii (23.56% vs. 6.57%, χ2 = 70.37, P < 0.01) and anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (21.15% vs. 5.45%, χ2 = 66.73, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus than in healthy controls, while no significant difference was seen in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients and controls (2.40% vs. 1.12%, χ2 = 2.96, P > 0.05). In addition, the overall seroprevalence of serum anti-T. gondii antibody (26.30% vs. 19.53%, χ2 = 4.98, P < 0.05) and the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody (23.70% vs. 17.71%, χ2 = 4.20, P < 0.05) were both significantly higher in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus than in pregnant women without gestational diabetes mellitus, while no significant difference was seen in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (2.60% vs. 1.82%, χ2 = 0.54, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The patients with diabetes mellitus present a higher seroprevalence rate of anti-T. gondii antibody than controls in Hangzhou City. Screening of T. gondii infections and health education pertaining to toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge should be reinforced in patients with diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 420-423, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the surveillance data of schistosomiasis in Xiaogan City, Hubei Province from 2016 to 2020, so as to provide the scientific evidence for understanding the epidemiological changes of schistosomiasis and evaluating the schistosomiasis control strategy. METHODS: A total of 16 surveillance sites were selected in the schistosomiasis endemic foci of Xiaogan City from 2016 to 2020, where Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock and Oncomelania snails and the schistosomiasis transmission risk were monitored. The schistosomiasis surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: During the period from 2016 to 2020, there was no schistosomiasis emergency epidemic in Xiaogan City. A total of 660 sero-positive individuals were identified in Xiaogan City during the 5-year period, and the seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 2.08% in 2016 to 0.97% in 2020. Higher seroprevalence of S. japonicum infections was detected in men than in women, and in individuals at ages of over 60 years than in those at other age groups; however, no egg-positives were detected in humans or livestock. The mean density of living snails was 0.05 to 0.06 snails/0.1 m2 during the 5-year period, and the occurrence of frames with snails increased from 2.99% in 2016 to 3.92% in 2020; however, no S. japonicum infection was found in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis remarkably decreases in Xiaogan City during the period from 2016 through 2020. Further improvements of the sensitive and effective schistosomiasis surveillance system are required with an emphasis on the monitoring of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and management of floating populations.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos
13.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151(33-34)2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are more frequently exposed to SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. Little is known about healthcare settings outside of hospitals. We studied the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers in outpatient facilities and retirement or nursing homes in the Canton of Solothurn, Switzerland in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Longitudinal seroprevalence study among healthcare workers with examinations at baseline and 2 months between June and September 2020. The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Liaison/Diasorin SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay were used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. All participants provided demographic information. We report descriptive statistics and calculated the seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 357 healthcare workers; their median age was 43 years (interquartile range 29-54), and 315 (88.2%) were female. Forty-nine (13.7%) were physicians, 87 (24.4%) practice assistants and 221 (61.9%) nurses. Overall seroprevalence among healthcare workers in outpatient facilities and retirement or nursing homes was 3.4% (12/357). The 12 seropositive healthcare workers were all nurses (12/221, 5.5%); 11 worked at retirement or nursing homes and one at the hospital's outpatient clinic. Symptoms such as loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath, and fever were more prevalent among seropositive healthcare workers than seronegative healthcare workers. No close contact had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence among healthcare workers was low, but higher among nursing staff of retirement or nursing homes. Healthcare workers at private practices were able to protect themselves well during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Aposentadoria , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suíça/epidemiologia
14.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103534, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392147

RESUMO

Background In early March 2020, a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the ski resort Ischgl in Austria triggered the spread of SARS-CoV-2 throughout Austria and Northern Europe. In a previous study, we found that the seroprevalence in the adult population of Ischgl had reached 45% by the end of April, representing an exceptionally high level of local seropositivity in Europe. We performed a follow-up study in Ischgl, which is the first to show persistence of immunity and protection against SARS-CoV-2 and some of its variants at a community level. Methods Of the 1259 adults that participated in the baseline study, 801 have been included in the follow-up in November 2020. The study involved the analysis of binding and neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses. In addition, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants in Ischgl was compared to the incidence in similar municipalities in Tyrol until April 2021. Findings For the 801 individuals that participated in both studies, the seroprevalence declined from 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 47.9-54.9) to 45.4% (95% CI 42.0-49.0). Median antibody concentrations dropped considerably (5.345, 95% CI 4.833 - 6.123 to 2.298, 95% CI 2.141 - 2.527) but antibody avidity increased (17.02, 95% CI 16.49 - 17.94 to 42.46, 95% CI 41.06 - 46.26). Only one person had lost detectable antibodies and T cell responses. In parallel to this persistent immunity, we observed that Ischgl was relatively spared, compared to similar municipalities, from the prominent second COVID-19 wave that hit Austria in November 2020. In addition, we used sequencing data to show that the local immunity acquired from wild-type infections also helped to curb infections from variants of SARS-CoV-2 which spread in Austria since January 2021. Interpretation The relatively high level of seroprevalence (40-45%) in Ischgl persisted and might have been associated with the observed protection of Ischgl residents against virus infection during the second COVID-19 wave as well as against variant spread in 2021. Funding Funding was provided by the government of Tyrol and the FWF Austrian Science Fund.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Áustria , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360442

RESUMO

The new coronavirus has been affecting health worldwide and essential service workers are continually exposed to this infectious agent, increasing the chance of infection and the development of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the frequency of infection and seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 in military firefighters in a city in Northeastern Brazil in January 2021. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out with 123 firefighters who answered a brief questionnaire to collect socio-epidemiological data and underwent RT-PCR and immunofluorescence test (IgM and IgG). The results found reveal a positive seroprevalence, with a high rate of infection in this class of workers, since they are essential service professionals who are exposed to risk due to their working hours, in addition to sharing some spaces and work materials. Besides, there were significant associations between positivity for IgG and IgM, as well as for positive RT-PCR prior to the study and the presence of IgG, with odd ratios of 3.04 and 4.9, respectively. These findings reinforce the need for immunization in this category, whose line of service hinders the adoption of distancing measures, since in many situations physical contact is inevitable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bombeiros , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015-2016, a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak occurred in the Americas. Although the exact ZIKV antibody kinetics after infection are unknown, recent evidence indicates the rapid waning of ZIKV antibodies in humans. Therefore, we aimed to determine the levels of ZIKV antibodies more than three years after a ZIKV infection. METHODS: We performed ZIKV virus neutralization tests (VNT) and a commercial ZIKV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) IgG ELISA in a cohort of 49 participants from Suriname who had a polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed ZIKV infection more than three years ago. Furthermore, we determined the presence of antibodies against multiple dengue virus (DENV) antigens. RESULTS: The ZIKV seroprevalence in this cohort, assessed with ZIKV VNT and ZIKV NS1 IgG ELISA, was 59.2% and 63.3%, respectively. There was, however, no correlation between these two tests. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of a potential negative influence of DENV immunity on ZIKV antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: ZIKV seroprevalence, assessed with two commonly used serological tests, was lower than expected in this cohort of participants who had a confirmed previous ZIKV infection. This can have implications for future ZIKV seroprevalence studies and possibly for the duration of immunological protection after a ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Suriname , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0029121, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406813

RESUMO

We systematically evaluated SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity in a provincial cohort to understand the local epidemiology of COVID-19 and support evidence-based public health decisions. Residual blood samples were collected for serology testing over 5-day periods monthly from June 2020 to January 2021 from six clinical laboratories across the province of Alberta, Canada. A total of 93,993 individual patient samples were tested with a SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody assay with positives confirmed using a spike antibody assay. Population-adjusted SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity was 0.92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91 to 0.93%) shortly after the first COVID-19 wave in June 2020, increasing to 4.63% (95% CI: 4.61 to 4.65%) amid the second wave in January 2021. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between males and females (1.39% versus 1.27%; P = 0.11). Ages with highest seropositivity were 0 to 9 years (2.71%, 95% CI: 1.64 to 3.78%) followed by 20 to 29 years (1.58%, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.04%), with the lowest rates seen in those aged 70 to 79 (0.79%, 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.93%) and >80 (0.78%, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.97%). Compared to the seronegative group, seropositive patients inhabited geographic areas with lower household income ($87,500 versus $97,500; P < 0.001), larger household sizes, and higher proportions of people with education levels of secondary school or lower, as well as immigrants and visible minority groups (all P < 0.05). A total of 53.7% of seropositive individuals were potentially undetected cases with no prior positive COVID-19 nucleic acid test (NAAT). Antibodies were detectable in some patients up to 9 months post positive NAAT result. This seroprevalence study will continue to inform public health decisions by identifying at-risk demographics and geographical areas. IMPORTANCE Using SARS-CoV-2 serology testing, we assessed the proportion of people in Alberta, Canada (population 4.4 million) positive for COVID-19 antibodies, indicating previous infection, during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic (prior to vaccination programs). Linking these results with sociodemographic population data provides valuable information as to which groups of the population are more likely to have been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus to help facilitate public health decision-making and interventions. We also compared seropositivity data with previous COVID-19 molecular testing results. Absence of antibody and molecular testing were highly correlated (95% negative concordance). Positive antibody correlation with a previous positive molecular test was low, suggesting the possibility of mild/asymptomatic infection or other reasons leading individuals from seeking medical attention. Our data highlight that the true estimate of population prevalence of COVID-19 is likely best informed by combining data from both serology and molecular testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452296

RESUMO

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452482

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of understanding the immune response to seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections such as HCoV-NL63, how existing neutralising antibodies to HCoV may modulate responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the utility of seasonal HCoV as human challenge models. Therefore, in this study we quantified HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres in a healthy adult population using plasma from 100 blood donors in Australia. A microneutralisation assay was performed with plasma diluted from 1:10 to 1:160 and tested with the HCoV-NL63 Amsterdam-1 strain. Neutralising antibodies were detected in 71% of the plasma samples, with a median geometric mean titre of 14. This titre was similar to those reported in convalescent sera taken from individuals 3-7 months following asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 2-3 years post-infection from symptomatic SARS-CoV-1 patients. HCoV-NL63 neutralising antibody titres decreased with increasing age (R2 = 0.042, p = 0.038), but did not differ by sex. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutralising antibody to HCoV-NL63 is detectable in approximately 71% of the healthy adult population of Australia. Similar titres did not impede the use of another seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV-229E) in a human challenge model, thus, HCoV-NL63 may be useful as a human challenge model for more pathogenic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452497

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns that companion animals might be infected with, and could become a reservoir of, SARS-CoV-2. As cats are popular pets and susceptible to Coronavirus, we investigated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in shelter cats housed in Dutch animal shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this large-scale cross-sectional study, serum samples of shelter cats were collected during the second wave of human COVID-19 infections in The Netherlands. Seroprevalence was determined by using an indirect protein-based ELISA validated for cats, and a Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) as confirmation. To screen for feline SARS-CoV-2 shedding, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs of cats positive for ELISA and/or VNT were analyzed using PCR tests. In 28 Dutch animal shelters, 240 shelter cats were convenience sampled. Two of these cats (0.8%; CI 95%: 0.1-3.0%) were seropositive, as evidenced by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. The seropositive animals tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Based on the results of this study, it is unlikely that shelter cats could be a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 or pose a (significant) risk to public health.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/veterinária , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
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