Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.581
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 226, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692755

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the seroprevalence and the factors associated with viral hepatitis B among pregnant women at the Departmental University Hospital of Borgou (CHUD-B).We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study with prospective collection of data. It focused on pregnant women treated and/or having given birth at the CHUD-B from 1 April 2017 to 30 June 2017. The study included patients who gave their consent to participate in the study. The variables studied were the sociodemographic data of pregnant women and the result of HBsAg test. The detectionof HBsAg in blood sampling of pregnant women was performed using a biological test for rapid diagnosis. Positive results were confirmed by ELISA technique. Two hundred and fourteen (214) pregnant women were included in the study. The average age of patients was 26.73±5.68 years. The mean gestation age was 31 weeks of amenorrhea (WA) ranging from 4 WA and 42 WA. Among them, 30 women were positive for HBsAg, reflecting a prevalence of 14.02%. The factors associated with this colonization were the practice of scarification, a personal history of jaundice and family history of viral hepatitis B. The seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B among pregnant women at the CHUD-B is high. This best reflect this major public health problem due to Hepatitis B virus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692814

RESUMO

Introduction: HIV and syphilis are major public health problems in Morocco. The region of Souss-Massa, south-west of the country, hold more than 24% of HIV seropositive cases registered in Morocco during 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV seropositive patients in the region of Souss-Massa, south-west of Morocco. Methods: To evaluate the seroprevalence of syphilis and neurosyphilis among HIV seropositive patients, we retrospectively investigated the medical records of HIV-infected patients attending the regional hospital located in the city of Agadir, during the period comprised between 2011 and 2016. Results: The population studied involved 1381 males (49.18%) and 1427 females (50.82%) HIV seropositive patients. Among them, 481 patients were seropositive for syphilis and three cases were diagnosed with neurosyphilis. The sex ratio distribution was 243 male (52.71%) and 218 female (47.29%). The prevalence of syphilis among the studied population was estimated to 16.42% with a slight dominance in male (17.63%) compared to female (15.28%). By contrast, neurosyphilis was only detected in male patients, with a prevalence estimated to 0.11%. Conclusion: Even if the prevalence of HIV and syphilis is stable in the region of Souss-Massa, the prevalence of syphilis among HIV seropositive patients remained high and correlated positively with that of HIV infection. We did not find a significant difference between the genders, in relation to the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. We concluded that it was essential to continue monitoring the population, in order to improve the prevention and the access to the medical care in the south-west of Morocco.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neurossífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 516-518, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sero-positivity of Babesia infection in voluntary blood donors in Jiangsu region, so as to provide the evidence for transfusion safety. METHODS: A total of 950 blood samples were collected from voluntary blood donors in Jiangsu Provincial Blood Center from February to May, 2017, and detected by double antigen sandwich ELISA targeting peptides derived from B. microti-secreted antigen 1 (BmSA1). The positive samples were confirmed by microscopy and nested-PCR to determine parasitemia. The prevalence of anti-BmSA1 was analyzed between/among different genders, ages and occupations of the blood donors. RESULTS: Of the 950 blood screened samples, 5 were positive for anti-BmSA1, and the sero-prevalence of Babesia infection was 0.53%. The 5 samples were all negative by microscopy and nested-PCR. There were no gender- (χ2 = 0.01, P =0.92) or age-specific differences (χ2 = 0.11, P = 0.95) in the sero-prevalence of Babesia infection; however, there was an occupation-specific difference detected in the sero-prevalence of Babesia infection (χ2 = 11.93, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Babesia infection is detected in voluntary blood donors in Jiangsu region, which should be paid much attention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Babesia microti , Babesiose , Doadores de Sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
4.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 247-252, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599549

RESUMO

Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium with a wide range of hosts. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in cattle in Sicilian farms. A total of 4,661 serum samples, from cattle belonging to 198 Sicilian farms, were examined by ELISA test and 246 resulted positive. The average seroprevalence at the farm level was 38.8% (77/198) (95% CI), while at the animal level it was 5.28% (246/4,661) (95% CI). The present study highlights the need for continuous monitoring of C. burnetii spread as it represents a serious risk for human health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Febre Q/sangue , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sicília/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 427-430, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the serum anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province. METHODS: A total of 1 932 patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract were enrolled in Hainan Province from 2016 to 2019, including 376 esophageal cancer patients, 475 gastric cancer patients, 401 colorectal cancer patients, 427 hepatic cancer patients and 253 pancreatic cancer patients, and 400 healthy people served as controls. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies specific to T. gondii were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the seroprevalence was compared. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was significantly greater in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract than in healthy controls (19.82% vs. 3.75%; χ2 = 60.49, P < 0.01), and no significant difference was seen in the overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract and healthy controls (1.09% vs. 0.50%; χ2 = 1.17, P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was 15.16%, 19.58%, 21.70%, 23.65% and 17.79% in patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer and pancreatic cancer, which was all significantly greater than in healthy controls ( χ2 = 29.97, 50.29, 58.03, 67.85 and 36.59; all P < 0.01); however, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in patients with esophageal cancer (1.06%), gastric cancer (1.47%), colorectal cancer (0.75%), hepatic cancer (1.17%) and pancreatic cancer (0.79%) did not differ from that in healthy controls ( χ2 = 0.80, 2.02, 0.20, 1.11 and 0.21; all P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among various types of malignant tumors of the digestive tract ( χ2 = 10.65, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody ( χ2 = 1.33, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province, and there is a significant difference in the seroprevalence in terms of the cancer type. It is suggested that the screening for T. gondii infections should be intensified in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract to effective prevent and control the damages to patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract caused by T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Neoplasias , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1938-1946, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656477

RESUMO

Background: Co-infection of HBV with HIV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality globally. In spite of increasing reports of HIV/HBV co-morbidities in Nigeria, little or no data exists on this subject in Anyigba. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment programme in Anyigba, Kogi State, North-Central Nigeria. Methods: Sera samples obtained from 200 consented HIV patients were screened for HBsAg using the commercial rapid test membrane-based qualitative immunoassay. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on patients' demographic variables and probable risk factors for HBV transmission. Results: Overall, 3.5% of HIV patients were seropositive to HBsAg and the difference between seroprevalence rates and patients' age as well as gender was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was significant difference between patients' demographic variables such as marital status (p=0.013) and educational level (p=0.004) and HBsAg seropositivity. Patients with a history of surgical applications (p=0.01) and who indulged in alcoholism (p=0.03) significantly had higher rates of concomitant HIV/HBV infection in the study area. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the importance of routine screening for HBV in the HIV infected populations especially in developing countries where the infection is endemic. We advocate for public enlightenment programmes on routes of virus acquisitions with a view to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated HIV/HBV co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 691-700, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638021

RESUMO

A survey was conducted in the Czech Republic to determine whether serological responses to the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens had changed since the end of the communist era and if these responses were associated with drinking water sources. Sera from 301 blood donors residing in six areas served by various sources of drinking water were analysed by Western Blot (mini-immunoblots) to measure the IgG response. The intensity of response and percentage of persons with a strong response to the 27-kDa, but not the 15/17-kDa, antigen were higher than found 20 years earlier. A strong response to both the 15/17- and 27-kDa-antigens was higher than reported in other countries, and the probability of persons having a strong response was greater in areas with surface water sources than river-bank infiltration. Few cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported in spite of these high responses to Cryptosporidium antigens. These responses suggest a chronic low-level exposure from several sources that may be affording protection against symptoms and illness. Although strong serological responses were associated with surface water sources, drinking water is not likely to be the most important exposure for Cryptosporidium in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489077

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of brucellosis among smallholder farmers is poorly-documented in Uganda. The disease burden is likely to be high, given the high levels of endemicity, lots of exposures and due to lack of control measures. In order to designate appropriate control measures, the magnitude and risk factors for brucellosis need to be known. We established the burden of and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle, goats, and humans in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in Kigulamo Parish, Iganga District. We enrolled 226 households and administered a structured questionnaire to heads of households to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, human brucellosis-related risk factors, and livestock farming practices. Human, cattle, and goat blood samples were collected and tested serologically using commercial indirect-ELISA kits manufactured by USDA, USA. Results: Of 451 human blood samples, 20 (4.4%) were positive. Among 345 cattle blood samples, 4 (1.2%) were positive and among 351 goat blood samples, one (0.3%) was positive. Persons who reported consuming locally-made dairy products had 4 times higher odds of Brucella seropositivity (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.14-14.03, p = 0.031) than those who did not. None of the risk factors we asked about were significantly associated with seropositivity in cattle and goats. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in smallholder households in Kigulamo was relatively low and associated with consumption of locally made dairy products. No risk factors were significantly associated with seropositivity in livestock, likely due to the small number of seropositive animals. We recommend a One Health approach to control brucellosis simultaneously in animals and humans needed to sustainably reduce the burden of brucellosis in Uganda and beyond.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180860, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553367

RESUMO

The first cases of Zika virus infection in Colombia were reported and confirmed in October 2015. The objective of the study was estimate the seroprevalence of ZIKV infection during the pre-epidemic phase in Barranquilla, Colombia, and demonstrate the presence of virus before the Colombian Ministry of Health confirmed the first case. We conducted a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Zika virus in 390 samples obtained from a blood bank located in Barranquilla, Colombia - a city endemic for dengue, and with a recent history of a Chikungunya disease epidemic. The serum pools were tested using Euroimmun ZIKV ELISA kit. Seroprevalence of Zika virus IgG were: May 2015: 0%, June and July 2015: 2.62% (95% CI = 0.28-12.13) and August 2015: 5.35% (95% CI = 1.74-16.74). This brings to our attention the need for extending the surveillance period of this virus in order to adequately assess its teratogenic effects.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Zika virus/imunologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(9): 27-29, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561684

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) are two common viral infections causing cirrhosis. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV along with occurrence of co-infection of HBV and HCV in patients attending a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was done for a period of one year (January to December 2016) in the Department of Microbiology, Medical College, Kolkata. After obtaining ethical clearance and informed consent from the patients, serum samples were collected from all patients referred to Department of Microbiology for antibody to HCV and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening. ELISA was performed for anti HCV antibody and HBsAg. The results and relevant clinical information were noted and analysis was done. Results: A total of 10802 samples were received, of which 316 (2.92 %) were HBsAg positive, 115 (1.06%) were HCV antibody positive and a total of 7 (0.07%) patients were positive both for HBsAg and Anti HCV antibody. There was male preponderance. Anti HCV antibody was more common in age below 10 years and in thalassemia patients. Out of 7 patients positive for both, 5 patients were on regular blood transfusion due to beta thalassemia and 2 patients had history of chronic liver disease. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that there was seroprevalence of 2.92 % of HBsAg, 1.06% of HCV antibody and 0.07% positive both for HBsAg and HCV antibody among the patients of a tertiary care centre in Eastern India.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 826, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction. METHODS: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n = 161) or hyperthyroidism (n = 15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from cases and controls using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (6.3%) of 176 patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction and in 48 (9.1%) of 528 control subjects (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.33-1.31; P = 0.23). Stratification by two groups of age (50 years and younger, and 51 year and older) showed that the youngest group of patients with thyroid dysfunction had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender-matched control group (1/83: 1.2% vs 23/257: 8.6%; OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.93; P = 0.01). This stratification also showed that the youngest group of patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender matched control group (0/75: 0% vs 21/233: 9.0%; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in general; however, in young (50 years or less) patients, a negative association between infection and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism was found. Further research to confirm this negative association is needed.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 13-16, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395199

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is a worldwide occurring lungworm causing verminous pneumonia in cats. To date the Baermann method is the most used procedure to diagnose A. abstrusus infection by isolating first stage larvae from faeces, though its sensitivity and specificity can be impaired by several factors. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against A. abstrusus has been recently developed as a diagnostic alternative. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence for A. abstrusus infection in cats from two endemic areas of Italy. Overall, 250 sera were sampled and tested for the presence of antibodies against A. abstrusus. Based on the results obtained from 20 cats proven to be infected by A. abstrusus using Baermann technique and molecular methods, and from 20 negative cats (Subset A), a cut off value of 0.347 optical density (OD) was determined, leading to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100%. Two-hundred and ten cats (142 and 68 from Abruzzo and Umbria regions, respectively) were included in Subset B (i.e. 202 negative by Baermann examination and 8 positive for Troglostrongylus brevior). Antibodies against A. abstrusus were detected in forty-five (21.4%, 95% CI: 16.1-27.6%) samples. This study confirms the occurrence of A. abstrusus in endemic areas of Italy and indicates that one-fifth of randomly selected cats have or had a lungworm infection with production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
19.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 528-539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378189

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects about 0.5% to 2.3% of the world population with most of the cases occurring in developing countries. It is primarily transmitted through transfusion of blood and blood products. There exists dearth of information on burden and circulation of HCV and their attendant health challenges in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence rate and risk of HCV transmission among blood donors in Lagos State Nigeria. Methodology: Blood samples were collected between January 2002 and December 2006 from 3,002 consenting (Male = 2,922; Female = 80; Age range = 18-63; Median age = 32 years) donors in five selected public hospitals' blood donation centers between 2002 and 2006. Sera was tested for anti-HCV by ELISA technique. Demographic and other relevant information were obtained by a semi-structured questionnaire to assess risk factors for HCV transmission. Results: This study found an overall rate of 3.1% for anti-HCV among the blood donors sampled. Highest rate of 6.0% for HCV was found among participants age ranged ≥50 years and lowest in the age group 40-49 years. Prevalence of HCV was higher in female (6.3%) than in male (3.0%) and was 0.21 times less risky in female compared to their male counterparts (OR = 1.29, 95%CI 0.11-1.31). By location, MSCH had the highest HCV rate (3.9%) and lowest (2.1%) in GHOA. Sharing of sharps for tattoo/tribal markings had a statistical association (p = .0379) with HCV infection. However, no significant difference was found by gender (CI = 0.99-2.01; p = .1002), age (CI = 0.79-1.55; p = .1001) and location (p = .5326). Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of HCV infection detected and the risk of transmission among blood donors in this study are of public health importance. Hence, the institution of appropriate measures to stem down the trend of HCV circulation among this population in Nigeria is therefore advocated.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/transmissão , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1153, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles continues to circulate in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the country suffered from several important outbreaks over the last 5 years. Despite a large outbreak starting in the former province of Katanga in 2010 and the resulting immunization activities, another outbreak occurred in 2015 in this same region. We conducted measles seroprevalence surveys in four health zones (HZ) in the former Katanga Province in order to assess the immunity against measles in children 6 months to 14 years after the 2015 outbreak. METHODS: We conducted multi-stage cluster surveys stratified by age group in four HZs, Kayamba, Malemba-Nkulu, Fungurume, and Manono. The age groups were 6-11 months, 12-59 months, and 5-14 years in Kayamba and Malemba-Nkulu, 6-59 months and 5-14 years in Manono and Fungurume. The serological status was measured on dried capillary blood spots collected systematically along with vaccination status (including routine Extended Program of Immunization (EPI), and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)) and previous self-reported history of suspected measles. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence against measles was 82.7% in Kayamba, 97.6% in Malemba-Nkulu, 83.2% in Manono, and 74.4% in Fungurume, and it increased with age in all HZs. It was 70.7 and 93.8% in children 12-59 months in Kayamba and Malemba-Nkulu, and 49.8 and 64.7% in children 6-59 months in Fungurume and Manono. The EPI coverage was low but varied across HZ. The accumulation of any type of vaccination against measles resulted in an overall vaccine coverage (VC) of at least 85% in children 12-59 months in Kayamba and Malemba-Nkulu, 86.1 and 74.8% in children 6-59 months in Fungurume and Manono. Previous measles infection in 2015-early 2016 was more frequently reported in children aged 12-59 months or 6-59 months (depending on the HZ). CONCLUSION: The measured seroprevalence was consistent with the events that occurred in these HZs over the past few years. Measles seroprevalence might prove a valuable source of information to help adjust the timing of future SIAs and prioritizing support to the EPI in this region as long as the VC does not reach a level high enough to efficiently prevent epidemic flare-ups.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA