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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 117-124, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252364

RESUMO

Introdução: o trauma é uma doença significativa em perda de anos de vida, contribuindo para alta morbidade e mortalidade. Seu evento em idosos pode ocasionar desfechos indesejáveis devido às condições fisiológicas do idoso. Objetivo: analisar as características e associação com o óbito de idosos traumatizados hospitalizados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Material e métodos: estudo transversal, com dados de prontuários de idosos hospitalizados por trauma em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral. Foram incluídos pacientes com 60 anos ou mais de idade e admitidos por lesões. As variáveis coletadas relacionam-se às características sociodemográficas, da internação, de saúde, do trauma e do tratamento intensivo. Para identificação das principais características foi realizada análise descritiva, e para associação com o óbito foi realizado o teste de associação qui-quadrado. Resultados: observou-se predominância masculina (62,5%); idosos entre 60 e 79 anos (70,2%); com comorbidades (60,4%); politraumatizados (58,3%); trauma contuso (95,8%) tendo como principal causa externa as quedas (56,3%). A região do corpo mais afetada foi cabeça e pescoço (39,6%); e a gravidade do trauma foi leve (52,1%). Foram associados ao óbito a disfunção pulmonar (p=0,005), uso de nutrição enteral (p=0,027), drogas vasoativas (p=0,003) e ventilação mecânica (p<0,001). Conclusão: as informações sobre idosos hospitalizados por trauma em tratamento intensivo, sobretudo a observação de fatores associados ao óbito, são úteis para a composição de um perfil clínico capaz de direcionar para a assistência intensiva capaz de prevenir esse e demais desfechos indesejados durante a hospitalização.(AU)


Introduction: trauma is a significant disease in terms of loss of years of life, contributing to high morbidity and mortality. Its occurrence in the elderly can cause undesirable outcomes due to the physiological conditions of such a population. Objective: to analyze the characteristics and association with the death of traumatized elderly people hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Material and methods: cross-sectional study, with data collected from medical records of elderly hospitalized for trauma in a general intensive care unit. Patients aged 60 years' old and over, having been admitted for injuries, were included. The variables collected are related to sociodemographic, hospitalization, health, trauma, and intensive care characteristics. In order to identify the main characteristics, a descriptive analysis was performed. The chi-square association test was applied for the association with death. Results: the study presented predominance of male patients (62.5%); age ranging between 60 and 79 years' old (70.2%); with comorbidities (60.4%); polytrauma (58.3%); blunt trauma (95.8%) with falls being considered the main external cause (56.3%). The head and neck were the regions most frequently affected (39.6%), and the severity of the trauma being mild (52.1%). Lung dysfunction (p = 0.005), use of enteral nutrition (p = 0.027), vasoactive drugs (p = 0.003), and mechanical ventilation (p <0.001) were associated with death. Conclusion: information on elderly hospitalized for trauma in intensive care, especially the observation of factors associated with death, are useful for the composition of a clinical profile capable of guiding the patient to intensive care capable of preventing this and other undesirable outcomes during hospitalization.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Transversais/instrumentação
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(12): 1372-1377, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess small animal general practice veterinarians' use and perceptions of synchronous video-based telemedicine before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SAMPLE: 550 respondent veterinarian members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN). PROCEDURES: An anonymous online survey was used to gather data from VIN-member veterinarians in small animal general practice regarding their perceptions and use of synchronous video-based telemedicine. Two emails to all VIN members were used to distribute the web-based questionnaire. For consistency, only responses from North American veterinarians who reported working in small animal general practice were included in analyses. Responses were collected between September 28, 2020, and October 21, 2020. RESULTS: There were 69,488 recipients and 680 respondents (1.0% response rate), 550 of whom had North American internet protocol addresses and reported working in small animal general practice. Not all respondents answered all questions. Use of video-based telemedicine substantially increased among respondents during the COVID-19 pandemic, and most (86/130 [66.2%]) reported little to no difficulty in adopting videoconferencing. Respondents also reported that telemedicine took less time (61/135 [45.2%]) and resulted in less financial compensation (103/135 [76.3%]) than in-person consultation. Several respondents reported concerns regarding legal issues and potential inferiorities of telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results indicated that a substantial proportion of respondents incorporated synchronous video-based telemedicine into their practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite low perceived difficulty in adopting videoconferencing telemedicine, many planned to discontinue it for some clinical applications once the pandemic is over. Further research is required to elucidate the perceptions and challenges in successful use of veterinary telemedicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Telemedicina , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , América do Norte , Pandemias , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062783

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern, and the main measures to contain the spread of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 were social distancing, quarantine, and self-isolation. Although these policies are effective in containing the spread of the virus, they might represent a challenge to psychological well-being, increasing levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. AIMS: We explored the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms during COVID-19 restrictions and associations with sociodemographic factors in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: Data of a total of 936 Brazilian adults (68.2% women) aged 18 to 77 years old (M = 38.95, SD = 13.91) were collected through an online survey. RESULTS: In general, we observed a frequency of 17.36% for severe anxiety and 66.13% for severe depression symptoms, in which younger participants (18-39 years old) and women showed higher scores in anxiety and depression scales compared to older age groups. Logistic regressions showed that women were more likely to present severe symptoms of anxiety (20.4%) compared to men (10.9%), as well as respondents in the educational sector (24.3%) compared to those in the health sector (10%). CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the importance of mental health professionals in developing strategies to help younger adults to mitigate the effects of social restriction.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063476

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy has increased in the past few years, influenced by the socio-cultural differences, political populism, or concerns related to the effectiveness and safety of some vaccines, resulting a feeling of distrust. This feeling can become a barrier against the achievement of the immunity necessary to stop the expansion of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the vaccine against COVID-19 in Spain, as well as to identify the factors that have an influence on the concerns and attitudes of people against accepting the vaccine in the months prior to the start of vaccination on December 2020. An online questionnaire was created to obtain information about (1) sociodemographic characteristics; (2) concerns and sources of information about vaccines; and (3) attitudes about vaccination and state of health. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the influencing factors. Of the 2501 participants, 1207 (48.3%) would accept the COVID-19 vaccine, 623 (24.9%) were hesitant, and 671 (26.8%) would reject it. The logistic regression showed that being male, older than 60, married, retired, with a high level of education, or with a leftist political inclination, could increase the probability of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine. Disinformation and the lack of political consensus were the main sources of distrust. The patients with hypertension, immunodepression, hypercholesterolemia, or respiratory disease, or were overweight, showed a greater acceptance to the vaccine, while those with cancer took the longest to accept it. A low acceptance of the vaccine against COVID-19 was observed among the Spanish population in the phase prior to its availability, and the main fears of the population were identified. It is necessary to offer correct and transparent information about these vaccines to reduce the concerns and increase the trust of the population, to thereby guarantee the success of the vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Vacinação
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063714

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to health-related anxiety in times of pandemic as they are considered to have a high risk of being infected whilst being the vital workforce to manage the outbreak. This study determined the factors that influence health anxiety and its extent in correlations with perceived risk, knowledge, attitude, and practice of HCW. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted on a total of 709 HCW from both public and private healthcare facilities who completed a set of questionnaires on sociodemographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practice of HCW on COVID-19, and health anxiety traits assessed using the short version Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). Multiple linear regression (adjusted R2 = 0.06) revealed respondents with higher perceived risk for COVID-19 significantly predicted higher HAI scores (beta 1.281, p < 0.001, 95%, CI: 0.64, 1.92), and those with a higher cautious attitude towards COVID-19 significantly predicted higher HAI scores (beta 0.686, p < 0.001, 95%CI: 0.35, 1.02). Healthcare workers' perceived risk and cautious attitude towards COVID-19 might be potentially influenced by management of the sources and approaches to the dissemination of information of the pandemic. The implementation of certain measures that minimize the infection risk and its related anxiety is important to preserve both their physical and psychological wellbeing.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064580

RESUMO

(1) Background: because of close contacts with COVID-19 patients, hospital workers are among the highest risk groups for infection. This study examined the socioeconomic and behavioral correlates of COVID-19 infection among hospital workers in Indonesia, the country hardest-hit by the disease in the Southeast Asia region. (2) Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study, which collected data from 1397 hospital staff from eight hospitals in the Greater Jakarta area during April-July 2020. The data was collected using an online self-administered questionnaire and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests. We employed descriptive statistics and adjusted and unadjusted logistic regressions to analyze the data of hospital workers as well as the subgroups of healthcare and non-healthcare workers. (3) Results: from a total of 1397 hospital staff in the study, 22 (1.6%) were infected. In terms of correlates, being a healthcare worker (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.31, 95% CI 1.27-54.54) and having a household size of more than five (AOR = 4.09, 1.02-16.43) were significantly associated with a higher risk of infection. On the other hand, those with middle- and upper-expenditure levels were shown to have a lower risk of infection (AOR = 0.06, 0.01-0.66). Behavioral factors associated with COVID-19 infection among healthcare and non-healthcare workers included knowledge of standard personal protective equipment (PPE) (AOR = 0.08, 0.01-0.54) and application of the six-step handwashing technique (AOR = 0.32, 0.12-0.83). (4) Conclusion: among hospital staff, correlates of COVID-19 infection included being a healthcare worker, household size, expenditure level, knowledge and use of PPE, and application of appropriate hand washing techniques.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064814

RESUMO

Our aim was to examine perceived occupational turnover intentions among medical students and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study using a Web-based survey was conducted. A total of 2922 completed responses were received (response rate 55.7%). A total of 58.4% (95% CI 56.6-60.2) reported high turnover intention (score of 7-15). The odds of higher total turnover score among the fifth-year students was nearly four times that of first-year students (OR = 3.88, 95% CI 2.62-5.73). Perception of the medical profession as not being of high social status and reputation significantly influenced high turnover intention scores (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.90-2.68). All three dimensions of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) significantly predict turnover intention. Lower scores in the support from Significant Other (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84), Family (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.83) and Friend (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77) subscales were associated with higher turnover intention. Low score in the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was also associated with higher turnover intention (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.17-1.77). The findings shed light on the importance of changing public attitudes towards respecting the medical profession and improving the implementation of policies to protect the well-being of people in the medical profession.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064950

RESUMO

The use of traditional medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia stems mainly from consumers' belief in prophetic medicine. This study was conducted to explore changes in patients' use of dietary or herbal supplements among individuals infected with COVID-19 before and during infection and the association between herbal or dietary supplements and hospitalization. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted enrolling symptomatic patients who had recently recovered from COVID-19. Data were collected through phone interviews, and McNemar's test was used to investigate changes to consumption of dietary or herbal supplements before and during infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between supplements use during patients' infection and hospitalization. A total of 738 patients were included in this study, of whom 32.1% required hospitalization. About 57% of participants were male with a mean age of 36.5 (±11.9) years. The use of lemon/orange, honey, ginger, vitamin C, and black seed among participants significantly increased during their infection. In contrast, patients using anise, peppermint, and coffee peel before their infection were more likely to stop using them during their infection. In addition, using lemon/orange (p < 0.0001), honey (p = 0.0002), ginger (p = 0.0053), vitamin C (p = 0.0006), black seed (p < 0.0001), peppermint (p = 0.0027), costus (p = 0.0095), and turmeric (p = 0.0012) was significantly higher among nonhospitalized patients than hospitalized ones. However, in the multivariable logistic regression, only use of vitamin C (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.79), peppermint (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.31-0.90), and lemon/orange (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.33-0.88) was associated with significantly lower odds of hospitalization. The study reveals that patients' consumption of dietary or herbal supplements changed in response to their COVID-19 infection, with hospitalized patients having a lower likelihood of using these supplements. Because some supplements were associated with lower odds of hospitalization, these supplements or their bioactive components should be further investigated as feasible options for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064973

RESUMO

Despite older adults' extremely high vulnerability to COVID-19 complications and death, few studies have examined how personal characteristics and the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the mental health of older adults at the global level. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among demographics, COVID-19 life impacts, and depression and anxiety in adults aged 60 and older from 33 countries. A sample of 823 older adults aged 60-94 and residing in 33 countries completed a 10-min online survey following recruitment from mailing lists and social media. Being separated from and having conflicts with loved ones predicted both anxiety and depression, as did residing in a country with higher income. Getting medical treatment for severe symptoms of COVID-19 and having decreased work responsibilities predicted depression, but adjustment to working from home and younger age predicted both depression and anxiety. Participants from Europe and Central Asia reported higher depression than those from all other regions and higher anxiety than those from Latin America and the Caribbean. The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious deleterious effects on the mental health of older adults worldwide. The current findings have direct implications for mental health services that may be delivered to older adults to help facilitate healthy psychological adjustment.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presently the use of technological devices such as wearable devices has emerged. Physical activity monitoring with wearable sensors is an easy and non-intrusive approach to encourage preventive care for older adults. It may be useful to follow a continuous assessment of the risk of falling. The objective is to explore the relationship between the daily activity measured by Xiaomi Mi Band 2 and the risk of falling of older adults residing in or attending care facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on three different institutions located in Galicia (autonomous community) (Spain). RESULTS: A total of 31 older adults were included in the study, with a mean age of 84 ± 8.71 years old. The main findings obtained were that a greater number of steps and distance could be related to a lower probability of falling, of dependency in basic activities of daily living, or of mobility problems. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of focusing on daily steps, intrinsically related to the objective assessment of daily physical activity, is that it is a modifiable factor that impacts different aspects of health and quality of life.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Qualidade de Vida , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Espanha
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065023

RESUMO

Understanding the predictors of belief in COVID-related conspiracy theories and willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 may aid the resolution of current and future pandemics. We investigate how psychological and cognitive characteristics influence general conspiracy mentality and COVID-related conspiracy theories. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from an online survey of a sample of Czech university students (n = 866) collected in January 2021, using multivariate linear regression and mediation analysis. Sixteen percent of respondents believed that COVID-19 is a hoax, and 17% believed that COVID-19 was intentionally created by humans. Seven percent of the variance of the hoax theory and 10% of the variance of the creation theory was explained by (in descending order of relevance) low cognitive reflection, low digital health literacy, high experience with dissociation and, to some extent, high bullshit receptivity. Belief in COVID-related conspiracy theories depended less on psychological and cognitive variables compared to conspiracy mentality (16% of the variance explained). The effect of digital health literacy on belief in COVID-related theories was moderated by cognitive reflection. Belief in conspiracy theories related to COVID-19 was influenced by experience with dissociation, cognitive reflection, digital health literacy and bullshit receptivity.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Dissociativos , Humanos
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement. METHODS: Ninety-seven university teachers (51.5% women; most represented age group 60-69 years range, 40.2%) responded to an anonymous online cross-sectional survey between July 15 - September 30, 2020, on the advantages and disadvantages of DE, developed by one online teacher focus group. The emotional conditions were assessed by a short version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The internal consistency reliability survey and the 10-item BDI-II were measured by Cronbach's alpha. A correlation analysis (r-Pearson) was conducted between the overall evaluation of the experience of DE and the variables included in the study. RESULTS: Teachers reported difficulties in technical aspects, and in psychological factors, as the discomfort of "speaking in the void" (64.7%). The absence of "face-to-face" eye contact with the students was complained by 81% of teachers. Significant impairments in sleep patterns and loss of energy were reported, with female teachers having greater difficulty concentrating than their male colleagues. A quarter of teachers showed depressive symptoms of varying severity. The most satisfied teachers were those most stimulated by DE (r = 0.752, p < 0.000), who showed a lower impact of depressive symptoms (r = - 0.289, p = 0.005). The teaching load in hours influenced the perception of disadvantages (r = 0.214, p = 0.035) and contributed to a lower appreciation of the challenges of DE. The more significant the manifestation of depressive symptoms during the lockdown was, the greater the subjective recovery of a good emotional condition once the domestic confinement was over (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), despite maintaining DE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the impact of technical, didactic, and psychological difficulties of DE, reported by our teachers. The appreciation of their new learning promoted by DE seemed related to better emotional well-being of university teachers accepting this "challenge" in their important role in the high-education system, influencing good learning and promoting students' professional success.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical students experience difficulties in the process of making decisions about their careers, which is referred to as career indecision. This study aimed to examine the difficulties in the career decision-making processes of medical students and to explore the association of coping strategies and psychological health with career indecision. The findings may provide a reference for designing interventions to advance satisfying career decisions for medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 359 medical students was conducted in 5 Chinese medical schools. Students completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire measuring their career indecision, coping strategies, and psychological health. Independent t-test, F-test, bivariate Pearson's correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were applied to test the relation between career indecision and the associated factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS V.22 for Windows. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Difficulties regarding lack of readiness frequently occurred in medical students when making career decisions, with the highest score of 2.48 ± 0.58. Among all the associated factors in this study, career indecision was positively associated with psychological distress problem (ß = 0.20, p < 0.05). This study also proved that being at a higher level of career indecision is negatively associated with using problem-focused coping strategies (ß = - 0.14, p < 0.05). For the maladaptive coping strategies, applying dysfunctional coping strategies showed a significantly positive association with career indecision among medical students (ß = 0.25, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students experienced difficulties regarding lack of readiness frequently when making career decisions. Both coping strategies and psychological health were associated with career indecision among medical students. To prevent career indecision, it is necessary to promote earlier career awareness to medical students. Specifically, psychological health should be addressed in career intervention programs for medical students. Additionally, when helping medical students to cope with career indecision, cognitive techniques that reduce the use of maladaptive coping strategies and enhance the use of adaptive coping strategies should be adopted.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Adaptação Psicológica , China , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 336, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both simulation-based training and video-based training serve as educational adjuncts for learning TEE among medical students. In the present study, we hypothesized that simulation-based training would better enhance the performance of medical students in the interpretation of 20 cross-sectional views compared to video-based training. METHODS: A total of 120 4th-year undergraduate medical students were enrolled in the present study. The study began with a pre-test of all the participants, followed by a 90-min theoretical lecture and a post-test. Subsequently, the participants were randomly divided into the video-based group (Group V) and simulation-based group (Group S). Next, Group V received 60 min of TEE video learning, while Group S received 60 min of TEE simulator training. After the respective training, both the groups undertook the retention-test 1 and retention-test 2, 1 week and 1 month later, respectively. The performance for each test was evaluated by five views, which were selected randomly and, respectively, from a set of 20 cross-sectional views. The primary outcome was the performance of the retention-test 1. Secondary outcomes included: (1) comparison the performances of the pre-test, post-test, and retention-test 2 between two groups; (2) comparison the performances of pre-test and post-test in the same group; (3) comparison the performances of retention-test 1, and retention-test 2 in the same group. RESULTS: Better performances were observed in Group S in both retention-test 1 (Group V: 63.2 [52.6, 77.6] vs. Group S: 89.5 [68.4, 100.0], P < 0.001) and retention-test 2 (Group V: 58.0 [48.0, 72.0] vs. Group S: 74.0 [64.0, 80.0], P < 0.001) compared to Group V. No statistically significant differences were observed in the performances of pre-test (Group V: 8.3 [4.2, 12.5] vs. Group S: 8.3 [4.2, 12.5], P = 0.825) or post-test (Group V: 46.2 [38.5, 57.7] vs. Group S: 44.2 [38.5, 56.7], P = 0.694) between the two groups. The improvement had been observed in the post-test, compared with pre-test in the same group, respectively (Group V in post-test: 46.2 [38.5, 57.7] vs. Group V in pre-test: 8.3 [4.2, 12.5], P < 0.001; Group S in post-test: 44.2 [38.5, 56.7] vs. Group S in pre-test: 8.3 [4.2, 12.5], P < 0.001). However, the performance in retention-test 2 was significantly reduced, compared with retention-test 1 in the same group, respectively (Group V in retention-test 2: 58.0 [48.0, 72.0] vs. Group V in retention-test 1: 63.2 [52.6, 77.6] P = 0.005; Group S in retention-test 2: 74.0 [64.0, 80.0] vs. Group S in retention-test 1: 89.5 [68.4, 100.0], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Following a 90-min theoretical lecture, simulation-based training better enhanced the performance of medical students in the interpretation and short-term retention of 20 cross-sectional views compared to video-based training. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.chictr.org.cn ( ChiCTR2000033519 , 3/June/2020).


Assuntos
Treinamento por Simulação , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 569, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders impose heavy burdens on patients' families and children. It is imperative to provide family-focused services to avoid adverse effects from mental disorders on patients' families and children. However, implementing such services requires a great deal of involvement of mental health workers. This study investigated the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and practices in respect to family-focused practices (FFP) in a sample of Chinese mental health workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was employed to examine the attitudes, knowledge, skills, and practices of a convenience sample of Chinese mental health workers in respect to FFP, using the Chinese version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). RESULTS: In total, 515 mental health workers participated in our study, including 213 psychiatrists, 269 psychiatric nurses, and 34 allied mental health professionals (20 clinical psychologists, 9 mental health social workers, and 4 occupational therapists). Compared with psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists and allied mental health professionals provided more support for families and children of patients with mental illness and were more willing to receive further training in FFP. However, there were no significant differences on knowledge, skills, and confidence across different profession types. After adjusting for demographic and occupational variables, previous training in FFP was positively associated with mental health workers' knowledge, skills, and confidence about FFP, but not actual support to families and children. CONCLUSIONS: Professional differences on FFP exist in Chinese mental health workers. Training is needed to engage psychiatrists and other allied workforce in dissemination and implementation of FFP in China.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, and smoking adversely impacts the respiratory and immune systems; this confluence may therefore incentivize smokers to quit. The present study, conducted in four high-income countries during the first global wave of COVID-19, examined the association between COVID-19 and: (1) thoughts about quitting smoking; (2) changes in smoking (quit attempt, reduced or increased smoking, or no change); and (3) factors related to a positive change (making a quit attempt or reducing smoking) based on an adapted framework of the Health Belief Model. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 6870 adult smokers participating in the Wave 3 (2020) ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey conducted in Australia, Canada, England, and United States (US). These four countries had varying responses to the pandemic by governments and public health, ranging from advising voluntary social distancing to implementing national and subnational staged lockdowns. Considering these varying responses, and the differences in the number of confirmed cases and deaths (greatest in England and the US and lowest in Australia), smoking behaviours related to COVID-19 may have differed between countries. Other factors that may be related to changes in smoking because of COVID-19 were also explored (e.g., sociodemographics, nicotine dependence, perceptions about personal and general risks of smoking on COVID-19). Regression analyses were conducted on weighted data. RESULTS: Overall, 46.7% of smokers reported thinking about quitting because of COVID-19, which differed by country (p<0.001): England highest (50.9%) and Australia lowest (37.6%). Thinking about quitting smoking because of COVID-19 was more frequent among: females, ethnic minorities, those with financial stress, current vapers, less dependent smokers (non-daily and fewer cigarettes smoked/day), those with greater concern about personal susceptibility of infection, and those who believe COVID-19 is more severe for smokers. Smoking behaviour changes due to COVID-19 were: 1.1% attempted to quit, 14.2% reduced smoking, and 14.6% increased smoking (70.2% reported no change). Positive behaviour change (tried to quit/reduced smoking) was reported by 15.5% of smokers, which differed by country (p = 0.02), where Australia had significantly lower rates than the other three countries. A positive behavioural smoking change was more likely among smokers with: lower dependence, greater concern about personal susceptibility to infection, and believing that COVID-19 is more severe for smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Though nearly half of smokers reported thinking about quitting because of COVID-19, the vast majority did not change their smoking behaviour. Smokers were more likely to try and quit or reduce their smoking if they had greater concern about susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 related to smoking. Smokers in Australia were least likely to reduce or try to quit smoking, which could be related to the significantly lower impact of COVID-19 during the early phase of the pandemic relative to the other countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a great impact on every aspect of society. All countries launched preventive measures such as quarantine, lockdown, and physical distancing to control the disease spread. These restrictions might effect on daily life and mental health. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms in patients with COVID-19 at the Treatment Center. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was carried out at Hmawbi COVID-19 Treatment Center, Myanmar from December 2020 to January 2021. A total of 142 patients with COVID-19 who met the criteria were invited to participate in the study. A pre-tested Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used as a tool for depressive symptoms assessment. Data were analyzed by using binary logistic regression to identify associated factors of depressive symptoms. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to determine the level of significance with a p < 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in patients with COVID-19 was 38.7%, with the means (± standard deviation, SD) subscale of somatic symptom, negative effect, and anhedonia were 4.64 (±2.53), 2.51 (± 2.12), and 5.01 (± 3.26), respectively. The patients with 40 years and older (AOR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.36-6.59), < 4 of household size (AOR: 3.45, 95% CI: 1.46-8.15), ≤ 400,000 kyats of monthly family income (AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.02-5.54) and infection to family members (AOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.74-10.07) were significant associated factors of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of depressive symptoms, approximately 40%, was found in patients with COVID-19 in the Treatment Center. Establishments of psychosocial supports, providing psychoeducation, enhancing the social contact with family and friends, and using credible source of information related COVID-19 would be integral parts of mental health services in COVID-19 pandemic situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Epidemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the 27th of March 2020 the Zimbabwean government declared the Covid-19 pandemic a 'national disaster'. Travel restrictions and emergency regulations have had significant impacts on maternity services, including resource stock-outs, and closure of antenatal clinics during the lockdown period. Estimates of the indirect impact of Covid-19 on maternal and perinatal mortality was expected it to be considerable, but little data was yet available. This study aimed to examine the impact of Covid-19 and lockdown control measures on non-Covid outcomes in a government tertiary level maternity unit in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, by comparing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality before, and after the lockdown was implemented. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study, using a cross-sectional design to compare routine monthly maternal and perinatal statistics three months before and after Covid-19 emergency measures were implemented at Mpilo Central Hospital. RESULTS: Between January-March and April-June 2020, the mean monthly deliveries reduced from 747.3 (SD ± 61.3) in the first quarter of 2020 to 681.0 (SD ± 17.6) during lockdown, but this was not statistically significant, p = 0.20. The Caesarean section rates fell from a mean of 29.8% (SD ± 1.7) versus 28.0% (SD ± 1.7), which was also not statistically significant, p = 0.18. During lockdown, the percentage of women delivering at Mpilo Central Hospital who were booked at the hospital fell from a mean of 41.6% (SD ± 1.1) to 35.8% (SD ± 4.3) which was statistically significant, p = 0.03. There was no significant change, however, in maternal mortality or severe maternal morbidity (such as post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), uterine rupture, and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia), stillbirth rate or special care baby unit admission. There was an increase in the mean total number of early neonatal deaths (ENND) (mean 18.7 (SD ± 2.9) versus 24.0 (SD ± 4.6), but this was not statistically significant, p = 0.32. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, maternity services at Mpilo showed resilience during the lockdown period, with no significant change in maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes, with the same number of man-hours worked before and during the lockdown Maternal and perinatal outcomes should continue to be monitored to assess the impact of Covid-19 and the lockdown measures as the pandemic in Zimbabwe unfolds. Further studies would be beneficial to explore women's experiences and understand how bookings and deliveries at local clinics changed during this time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
19.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 111, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088329

RESUMO

|BACKGROUND: Women are at a higher risk for depression progression, especially during pregnancy. The current study purposed to investigate depression, anxiety, and stress levels of pregnant mothers in the initial stage of the COVID-19 infection in the southwest of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April, 2020, in Shiraz, Iran. Pregnant mothers registered in maternity clinics affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were included. An online self-administered checklist was used. It included socio-demographic, obstetric and medical histories, and the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: In total, 540 pregnant mothers answered the questionnaire. 83.5% had no comorbidity. Abnormal depression scores were significantly higher in those who had no insurance (OR = 2.5) and in those with poor self-rated health (SRH) (OR = 27.8). Pregnant mothers with lower SRH and two or more comorbidities had a higher chance of having an abnormal level of anxiety subscale (6.9, 3.7 times, retrospectively). CONCLUSION: The results revealed that an abnormal level of depression was associated with SRH and medical insurance status. Moreover, the number of comorbidities and poor SRH significantly increased the chance of achieving abnormal anxiety levels in pregnant mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 170, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We retrospectively examined the relationship among skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), prognosis, and chemotherapy side effects in patients with recurrent gastric cancer (RGC). METHODS: Sixty-seven patients who developed recurrence after undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Tottori University Hospital and received palliative chemotherapy were included in this study. Pretreatment computed tomography was performed to measure the skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and cross-sectional SMM at the third lumbar vertebra. We focused on haematologic toxicity (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anaemia), febrile neutropenia, and gastrointestinal toxicity (diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomatitis) as the side effects of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Median SMIs for males and females (43.9 and 34.7 cm2/m2, respectively) were used as cutoff values. The patients were classified into high (SMIHigh; n = 34) and low SMI groups (SMILow; n = 33). The SMILow group included more patients treated with monotherapy (P = 0.016) compared with the SMIHigh group, had a significantly lower number of chemotherapy lines (P = 0.049), and had a significantly higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 side effects (P = 0.010). The median survival rate was significantly higher in the SMIHigh group (17.8 vs 15.8 months; P = 0.034). In the univariate analysis, body mass index, SMI, histological type, and prognostic nutritional index were identified as prognostic indicators. The multivariate analysis identified SMI (P = 0.037) and histological type (P = 0.028) as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The incidence of grade 3 or 4 side effects was significantly higher in patients with SMILow RGC. SMI was a useful prognostic marker of RGC.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
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