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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628674

RESUMO

This mixed-methods study examined awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among sexually active Black and Latinx adolescents (13-17 years) residing in five cities in the United States with some of the highest burden of HIV. Data are from adolescents who participated in a cross-sectional survey (n = 208) and one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 26) conducted from September 2017-August 2019. Approximately 50% of the sample were recruited through community efforts, and the other half through a panel. Logistic regression with covariates including sexual orientation, relationship status, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity were used to assess factors associated with PrEP awareness and willingness. For the qualitative data, thematic analysis was used to develop a codebook of a-priori and inductive codes while analytic memos were written to identify key themes. PrEP awareness was reported by 38% of the sample and was associated with Black race (AOR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.27, 0.90) and prior HIV testing (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.25, 12.08). PrEP willingness (defined as "definitely would use PrEP") was reported by 22% of the sample and was associated with higher age, more education, having had condomless sex in the past 6 months (AOR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.56), perceived likelihood of acquiring HIV (AOR = 3.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 12.21), and PrEP awareness (AOR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19, 0.89). Qualitative data showed that misconceptions about PrEP persist and PrEP stigma, fear of being punished, provider attitudes and recommendations, and empowerment were related to adolescents' willingness to use PrEP. Study findings reveal important strategies for improving PrEP delivery and scale-up to Black and Latinx adolescents. These strategies include using sociodemographic and health behavior data to target adolescents who may be more or less willing to use PrEP, improving provider communication about PrEP, and creating culturally and developmentally appropriate PrEP education materials that address common misconceptions held by adolescents.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/tendências , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
2.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 76-80, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193887

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Las personas de la tercera edad frágiles son un colectivo en riesgo de sufrir desnutrición. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el estado nutricional de una residencia asistida de 136 plazas y analizar su relación con otras variables. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo transversal sobre una muestra de 113 personas. Se recogieron las variables composición corporal del residente, estado de deterioro cognitivo, nutricional, tipo de desnutrición y alimentación (tipo de dieta, tratamiento nutricional, disfagia, anorexia y dependencia en la alimentación). Se realizaron comparaciones de medias mediante la prueba de la t de Student y comparación de proporciones mediante c2 de Pearson. RESULTADOS: El riesgo de desnutrición encontrada fue del 31% (n = 35); de ellos, el 22% (n = 25) presentaba desnutrición según Gasull. El 92% (104) de los participantes del estudio presentaban algún síntoma o patología y solamente 18 (15,9%) personas no padecían deterioro cognitivo. El 65,5% (74) seguía una dieta basal/diabética y el 35,4% (48) necesitaba ayuda para comer. El deterioro cognitivo moderado-elevado y las dietas terapéuticas obtuvieron mayor proporción de casos de desnutrición según Gasull. CONCLUSIÓN: El estado nutricional de la residencia se puede relacionar con la mayor complejidad que presentan los residentes (alto porcentaje de ellos con deterioro cognitivo moderado y grave y/u otras patologías) y con la calidad en la asistencia. La falta de asociación de desnutrición con el resto de las variables analizadas nos lleva a apoyar la hipótesis de que son múltiples factores los que interfieren en el estado nutricional de los adultos mayores


OBJECTIVE: elderly fragile people are a group at risk for malnutrition. Because of this, the study aimed to describe the nutritional status of an assisted residence of 136 beds and analyze the relationship between malnutrition and other variables. METHODS: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study on a sample of 113 people. Variables collected were body composition of resident, nutritional and cognitive impairment, type of malnutrition and feeding (type of diet, nutritional therapy, dysphagia, anorexia, and eating dependence). Comparison of means using the Student T test and compared proportions using Chi-square of Pearson were made. RESULTS: The risk of malnutrition found was 31% (n = 35), of them, 22% (n = 25) of total residents were classified as Gasull malnutrition. 92% (104) of the participants of the study showed some symptoms or disease and only 18 (15.9%) were not suffering from cognitive impairment. The 65.5% (74) was at basal/diabetic diet and the 35.4% (48) needed help to eat. Moderate-high cognitive impairment and therapeutic diets showed a positive correlation with malnutrition according to Gasull cases. CONCLUSION: Nutritional state of the residence may be related with greater resident complexity (high percentage of them with moderate and severe cognitive impairment and/or other illnesses) and with the quality of assistance. The lack of association of malnutrition with the rest of the variables analyzed, leads us to support the hypothesis that multiple factors interfere in the nutritional status of elder adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/psicologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Composição Corporal , Antropometria , Valor Nutritivo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574218

RESUMO

Common mental disorders (CMD) among mothers cause disability, negatively affect child development, and have high long-term economic costs. Little is known about how factors across multiple life dimensions, modeled together, are differentially related to maternal mental health in high poverty contexts. Further, there is limited evidence on determinants of CMD in areas where self-help groups (SHGs) exist to promote women's wellbeing. Filling this evidence gap is important given the high prevalence of CMD and the rapid expansion of SHGs in rural India. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1644 mother-infant pairs living in disadvantaged rural villages across five Indian states-Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh-surveyed in the Women Improving Nutrition through Group-based Strategies study. CMD were assessed using the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). We examined 31 factors across four life dimensions: work (work type, time spent in labor, domestic and caretaking activities), agency (SHG membership, decision-making, gender attitudes), health/nutrition (underweight, fertility, diet diversity, child illness), and household/environment (dependency ratio, wealth, food security, shocks, water, sanitation). Survey-adjusted multivariate logistic and ordinary least squares regression models were fit to examine predictors of CMD or SRQ score. On average, mothers were 26 (range 18-46) years old and their children were 15 (range 6-24) months old. CMD defined as ≥ 8 positive SRQ responses were reported by 262 women (16%). Protective factors included being engaged in agricultural labor as a main occupation relative to being a housewife (AOR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.32), more time working (0.85, 0.77-0.93), higher decision-making (0.33, 0.16-0.69), SHG membership (0.73, 0.56-0.96), and having an improved toilet (0.49, 0.33-0.72). Risk factors included food insecurity (1.13, 1.07-1.20) and shocks to non-farm livelihoods (2.04, 1.10-3.78). Practitioners and policymakers should aim to improve food security, economic wellbeing and social capital, such as that created through SHG membership, to improve maternal mental health. Future research should aim to understand why working outside the home, albeit in agricultural work, appears to protect maternal mental health in this context.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , População Rural , Grupos de Autoajuda , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(1): 14-20, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187569

RESUMO

Introducción: las diversas actividades relacionadas con un estilo activo que los escolares realizan durante el día y la semana interactúan para influir en el nivel total de actividad física de los niños. Objetivo: identificar la influencia que tienen las actividades ejecutadas por los escolares durante los diferentes momentos del día y la semana sobre los niveles de actividad física. Métodos: estudio de corte transversal analítico sobre 3598 estudiantes de escuelas públicas de entre 10 y 14 años de edad. Se aplicó una encuesta que midió las características sociodemográficas. Mediante el Cuestionario de Actividad Física para Escolares (PAQ-C) se evaluaron los niveles de actividad física. Se realizó una regresión logística multivariante como análisis estadístico a través del programa SPSS v.24. Resultados: el 64,3 % de los estudiantes no cumplen con las recomendaciones de actividad física. Son más inactivos los escolares que no realizan suficiente actividad física (AF) durante el fin de semana [OR: 3,7 (IC 95 %: 2,9-4,5)], los que no son activos físicamente después de la escuela [OR: 3,1 (IC 95 %: 2,3-4,2], los que no practican actividades como saltar en su tiempo libre [OR: 3,2 (IC 95 %: 1,9-5,2] y los que no usan la bicicleta [OR: 3,7 (IC 95 %: 2,7-5,1]. Conclusiones: los niveles de AF de los escolares dependen de la integración de diferentes contextos y periodos del día y la semana. La influencia de las actividades durante el fin de semana y la educación física muestra la función que tienen la familia y la escuela sobre la adquisición y práctica de estilos de vida activos


Introduction: the distinct activities related to an active lifestyle that schoolchildren perform during the day and week interact to influence the children's total level of physical activity. Objective: to identify the influence that the activities developed by school children during the different times of the day and the week have on the levels of physical activity. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted in 3,598 public school students aged between 10 and 14 years. The demographic characteristics were evaluated, as well as the levels of physical activity through the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Schoolchildren (PAQ-C). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed as statistical analysis using the SPSS v.24 software program. The raw odds ratio (OR) was estimated. Results: in all, 64.3 % of the students failed to comply with physical activity recommendations. Students who are more inactive include those who do not perform enough physical activity during the weekend [OR: 3.7 (95 % CI: 2.9-4.5)], those who are not physically active after school [OR: 3.1 (95 % CI: 2.3-4.2)], those who do not practice activities such as jumping in their free time [OR: 3.2 (95 % CI: 1.9-5.2)], and those who do not ride a bicycle [OR: 3.7 (95 % CI: 2.7-5.1)]. Conclusions: the levels of physical activity in students depend on the integration of different contexts and periods during the day and the week. The influence of weekend activities and physical education shows the role that the family and school play in the acquisition and practice of an active lifestyle


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Atividades Cotidianas , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes , Modelos Logísticos , Intervalos de Confiança
5.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 32(Supplement_1): 75-83, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026937

RESUMO

Healthcare organisations vary in the degree to which they implement quality and safety systems and strategies. Large-scale cross-sectional studies have been implemented to explore whether this variation is associated with outcomes relevant at the patient level. The Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA) study draws from earlier research of this type, to examine these issues in 32 Australian hospitals. This paper outlines the key implementation and analysis challenges faced by DUQuA. Many of the logistical difficulties of implementing DUQuA derived from compliance with the administratively complex and time-consuming Australian ethics and governance system designed principally to protect patients involved in clinical trials, rather than for low-risk health services research. The complexity of these processes is compounded by a lack of organizational capacity for multi-site health services research; research is expected to be undertaken in addition to usual work, not as part of it. These issues likely contributed to a relatively low recruitment rate for hospitals (41% of eligible hospitals). Both sets of issues need to be addressed by health services researchers, policymakers and healthcare administrators, if health services research is to flourish. Large-scale research also inevitably involves multiple measurements. The timing for applying these measures needs to be coherent, to maximise the likelihood of finding real relationships between quality and safety systems and strategies, and patient outcomes; this timing was less than ideal in DUQuA, in part due to administrative delays. Other issues that affected our study include low response rates for measures requiring recruitment of clinicians and patients, missing data and a design that necessarily included multiple statistical comparisons. We discuss how these were addressed. Successful completion of these projects relies on mutual and ongoing commitment, and two-way communication between the research team and hospital staff at all levels. This will help to ensure that enthusiasm and engagement are established and maintained.


Assuntos
Estudos Transversais/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Austrália , Coleta de Dados/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde
6.
BJU Int ; 125(4): 515-524, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives: To determine the additive value of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission topography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) when combined with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men undergoing initial biopsy for suspicion of PCa, and to determine the proportion of men who could have avoided prostate biopsy with positive mpMRI (PI-RADS ≥3) but negative PSMA-PET/CT. Secondary objectives: To determine the proportion of men who had csPCa detected only by PSMA-PET/CT or only by systematic prostate biopsy; to compare index lesions by template biopsies vs targeted lesions identified on mpMRI or PSMA-PET/CT; to assess whether there may be health economic benefit or harm if PSMA-PET/CT is incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm; and to develop a nomogram which combines clinical, imaging and biomarker data to predict the likelihood of csPCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The PRIMARY trial is a multicentre, prospective, cross-sectional study that meets the criteria for level 1 evidence in diagnostic test evaluation. PRIMARY will investigate if a limited (pelvic-only) PSMA-PET/CT in combination with routine mpMRI can reliably discriminate men with csPCa from those without csPCa. We conducted a power calculation based on pilot data and will recruit up to 600 men who will undergo PSMA-PET/CT (the index test), mpMRI (standard test) and transperineal template + targeted (PSMA-PET/CT and/or mpMRI) biopsies (reference test). The conduct and reporting of the mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT will be blinded to each other. RESULTS: The PRIMARY trial will measure and compare sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of both mpMRI and PSMA-PET/CT vs targeted prostrate biopsy. The results will be used to determine the proportion of men who could safely avoid biopsy without compromising detection of csPCa. Furthermore, we will assess whether there is a health economic benefit in incorporating PSMA-PET/CT into the diagnostic algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will provide robust prospective data to determine the diagnostic ability of PSMA-PET/CT used in addition to mpMRI. It will establish if certain patients can avoid biopsy in the investigation of PCa.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(2): 1-20, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1100164

RESUMO

Introdução:O presente estudo apresenta umagravequestão de saúde pública em Luanda, Angola, relacionada com situações de internamento e morte de recém-nascidos por onfalite que o país enfrenta. Objetivos:descrever a realidade de um hospital público geral na cidade de Luanda,relativamente a este problema; identificar as principais causas de onfalites no contexto Angolano; descrever os cuidados corretos com o coto umbilical; evidenciar as implicações sociais, culturais e de saúde nos cuidados ao recém-nascido. Método:estudo descritivo, exploratório e transversal. Foram analisados os processos de internamento de um serviço de pediatria de um hospital público com situações de internamento por onfalite, entre janeiro de 2017 ejunho de 2018. Resultados:no período em estudo,foram analisados 182 processos de internamento neste hospital com registos de onfalites no recém-nascido. Destes internamentos, 26 culminaram em óbito.Dos 156 recém-nascidos internados, 153 tiveram alta para o domicílio, 2 tiveram transferência para o hospital pediátrico e houve um registo de fuga. Conclusão:os resultados obtidos demonstram que as mães e os recém-nascidos angolanos permanecem vulneráveis no que se refere aos cuidados ao coto umbilical, o que se traduz pelo elevado número de onfalites registadas. Torna-se,assim,prioritária a formação dos profissionais de saúde nesse domínio, de modo a que as intervenções sejam efetivas e de qualidade, no sentido de diminuir este flagelo de saúde pública neste país (AU).


Introduction: This study presents a serious public health issue in Luanda, Angola, related to situations of hospitalization and death of newborns due to omphalitisthat the country faces. Objectives: to describe the reality of a general public hospital in the city of Luanda, regarding this problem; identify the main causes of omphalitis in the Angolan context; describe the correct care with the umbilical stump; evidence the social, cultural and health implications of newborn care. Method: descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study. The hospitalization processes of a pediatric service of a public hospital with situations of hospitalization for omphalitis between January 2017 and June 2018 were analyzed. Results: during the study period, 182 hospitalization processes were analyzed in this hospital with records of omphalitis in the newborn. Of these hospitalizations, 26 culminated in death. Of the 156 newborns admitted, 153 were discharged to the home, 2 were transferred to the pediatric hospital and there was a record of a leak. Conclusion: the results obtained demonstrate that Angolan mothers and newborns remain vulnerable with regard to the care of the umbilical stump, which translates into the high number of registered omphalitis. Thus, the training of health professionals in this field becomes a priority, so that interventions are effective and of quality, in order to reduce this scourge of public health in this country (AU).


Introducción: El presente estudio presenta un grave problema de salud pública en Luanda, Angola, relacionado con situaciones de hospitalización y muerte de recién nacidos debido a la onfalitis que enfrenta el país. Objetivos: describir la realidad de un hospital públicogeneral en la ciudad de Luanda, con respecto a este problema; identificar las principales causas de onfalitis en el contexto angoleño; describa el cuidado correcto con el muñón umbilical; evidencia las implicaciones sociales, culturales y de salud del cuidado del recién nacido. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y transversal. Se analizaron los procesos hospitalarios de un servicio pediátrico de un hospital público con situaciones de hospitalización por onfalitis entre enero de 2017 y junio de 2018.Resultados: en el período en estudio, se analizaron 182 procesos de hospitalización en este hospital con registros de onfalitis en el recién nacido De estas hospitalizaciones, 26 culminaron en la muerte. De los 156 recién nacidos admitidos, 153 fueron dados de alta a la casa, 2 fueron trasladados al hospital pediátrico y hubo un registro de una fuga. Conclusión: los resultados obtenidos demuestran que las madres y los recién nacidos angoleños siguen siendo vulnerables con respecto al cuidado del muñón umbilical, lo que se traduce en un alto número de onfalitis registrada. Por lo tanto, la capacitación de profesionales de la salud en este campo se convierte en una prioridad, para que las intervenciones sean efectivas y de calidad, a fin de reducir este flagelo de la salud pública en este país (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Cordão Umbilical/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Infantil , Saúde Pública , Cultura , Angola/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Hospitais Públicos
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 6(2): 66-81, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1100312

RESUMO

Introdução:O Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE) constitui-se em uma política intersetorialentre os Ministérios da Saúde e da Educação e prevê a realização de atividades técnico-assistenciais sob responsabilidade dos profissionais das Equipes de Saúde da Família (ESF), bem como atividades de educação popular em saúde.Objetivo:este estudo se propôs a identificar as atividades de educação em saúde realizadas nas escolas do ensino médio do município de Natal no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, bem como verificar as expectativas dos estudantes quanto ao papel dos profissionais de saúde e governantespara viabilizar uma melhoria de sua qualidade de vida.Metodologia:foi desenvolvido um estudo de avaliação com corte seccional e abordagem quantitativa com estudantes do segundo ano do ensino médio matriculados no ano de 2018. Esses estudantes responderam a um questionário para caracterização social e econômica afim de identificar as suas expectativas para melhoria da qualidade de vida e sobre atividades de educação em saúde realizadas na sua escola. A análise das respostas foi feita por meio de banco de dados no Excel para facilitar o cálculo das frequências absolutas e relativas das variáveis categóricas, bem como o cálculo da média e desvio-padrão das variáveis numéricas (idade, renda).Resultados:Dentre os principais resultados, destaca-se o baixo índice de ações voltadas à promoção da saúde nas escolas, sobretudo eventos do Programa de Saúde na Escola (PSE), bem como o desejo de que tanto os governantes quanto os profissionais de saúde exerçam de uma melhor forma o seu trabalho direcionado à comunidade.Conclusões:Concluiu-se, portanto, ser a ação do PSE na rede pública de Natal bastante falha, porquanto a maioria dos estudantes respondeunão reconhecer nenhuma ação exercida por este programa nassuas respectivas escolas (AU).


Introduction:The School Health Program (PSE) is an intersectoralpolicy between the Ministries of Health and Education and provides for technical assistance activities under the responsibility of the professionals of the Family Health Teams (ESF), as well as popular health education activities. Objective:This study aimed to identify health education activities carried out in high schools in the municipality of Natal in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, as well as to verify the expectations of students regarding the role of health professionals and government officials to enable an improvement in their quality of life. Methodology:an evaluation study was developed with a sectional cut and quantitative approach with second year high school students enrolled in 2018. These students answered a questionnaire for social andeconomic characterization in order to identify their expectations for improving the quality of life and on health education activities carried out in their school. The analysis of the answers was done through a database in Excel to facilitate the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, as well as the calculation of the mean and standard deviation of the numerical variables (age, income). Results:Among the main results, the low rate of actions aimed at promoting health in schools, especially events of the School Health Program (PSE), as well as the desire for both governments and health professionals to better exercise their work directed at the community. Conclusions:It was therefore concluded that the PSE action in the public Natal network was rather flawed, as most students responded by not recognising any action taken by this programme in their respective schools (AU).


Introducción: El Programa de Salud Escolar (PSE) es una política intersectorial entre los Ministerios de Salud y Educación y prevé actividades de asistencia técnica bajo la responsabilidad de los profesionales de los Equipos de Salud Familiar (ESF), así como actividades de educación sanitaria popular.Objetivo: este estudio tenía por objeto identificar las actividades de educación sanitaria realizadas en las escuelas secundarias del municipio de Natal, en elestado de Rio Grande do Norte, así como verificar las expectativas de los estudiantes en cuanto al papel de los profesionales de la salud y los funcionarios gubernamentales para permitir una mejora de su calidad de vida. Metodología: se desarrolló un estudio de evaluación con un corte seccional y un enfoque cuantitativo con estudiantes de segundo año de secundaria matriculados en 2018. Estos estudiantes respondieron a un cuestionario para la caracterización social y económica con el fin de identificar sus expectativas de mejora de la calidad de vida y sobre las actividades de educación sanitaria llevadas a cabo en su escuela. El análisis de las respuestas se realizó mediante una base de datos en Excel para facilitar el cálculo de las frecuencias absolutas yrelativas de las variables categóricas, así como el cálculo de la media y la desviación estándar de las variables numéricas (edad, ingresos). Resultados: Entre los principales resultados, el bajo índice de acciones dirigidas a promover la salud en las escuelas, especialmente los eventos del Programa de Salud Escolar (PSE), así como el deseo de que tanto los gobiernos como los profesionales de la salud ejerzan mejor su trabajo dirigido a la comunidad.Conclusiones: Por lo tanto, se llegó a la conclusión de que la acción del PSE en la red pública de Natalera bastante defectuosa, ya que la mayoría de los estudiantes respondieron no reconociendo ninguna acción realizada por este programa en sus respectivas escuelas (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Brasil , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Interpretação Estatística de Dados
9.
Medwave ; 19(8): e7698, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596838

RESUMO

Observational studies evaluate variables of interest in a sample or a population, without intervening in them. They can be descriptive if they focus on the description of variables, or analytical when comparison between groups is made to establish associations through statistical inference. Cross-sectional studies and ecologicalalso called correlationalstudies are two observational methodological designs. Cross-sectional studies collect the data of the exposure variable and the outcome at the same time, to describe characteristics of the sample or to study associations. Ecological studies describe and analyze correlations among different variables, and the unit of analysis is aggregated data from multiple individuals. In both types of studies, associations of interest for biomedical research can be established, but no causal relationships should be inferred. This is the second of a methodological series of articles on general concepts in biostatistics and clinical epidemiology developed by the Chair of Scientific Research Methodology at the School of Medicine, University of Valparaíso, Chile. In this review, we address general theoretical concepts about cross-sectional and ecological studies, including applications, measures of association, advantages, disadvantages, and reporting guidelines. Finally, we discuss some concepts about observational designs relevant to undergraduate and graduate students of health sciences.


Assuntos
Bioestatística/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Humanos
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 49-67, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021754

RESUMO

Introdução:A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica tem apresentado alta mortalidade em todo o mundo, associada a fatores de risco cardiovascular como o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal.Objetivo:Avaliar os índices antropométricos e pressão arterial em adolescentes e adultos jovens do município de Santa Cruz-RN.Método:Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, realizado com 86 indivíduos com idade média de 19,0 ± 0,97 anos. Foram avaliados o Índice deMassa Corporal (IMC), Relação Cintura Estatura (RCE), Relação Cintura Quadril (RCQ), Índice de Conicidade (IC) e Pressão Arterial (PA). Os dados foram analisados no programa SPSS versão 23.0, apresentados em percentual, média e desvio padrão. O teste T deStudentfoi aplicado para avaliar a diferença entre as médias, a correlação entre medidas antropométricas e a pressão arterial pela correlação de Pearson.Resultados:A prevalência maior foi do sexo feminino, 81,4%. A obesidade esteve mais presente nos meninos adolescentes do que nas meninas, 33,3 e 13,9% respectivamente, bem como nos adultos jovens 28,6% em homens e 11,8% em mulheres. A RCE se mostrou mais elevada nas meninas e mulheres adultas (0,46 ± 0,07, 0,50 ± 0,08). Em contrapartida, a RCQ e IC se mostraram maiores nos meninos(0,79 ± 0,06; 1,12 ± 0,74) e nos homens adultos(0,82 ± 0,09; 1,15 ± 0,12) respectivamente. Em ambos os grupos houve correlação positiva moderada entre o IMC e a RCE com a PA (p<0,05).Conclusão:Os índices antropométricosapresentaram correlação positiva com a elevação da pressão arterial, destacando-se o IMC e a RCE nos adolescentes e adultos jovens (AU).


Introduction:Systemic arterial hypertension has presented high mortality worldwide, associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and abdominal obesity.Objective:To evaluate the anthropometric indexes and blood pressure in adolescents and young adults in the municipality of Santa Cruz-RN.Methods:This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of 86 individuals with a mean age of 19.0 ± 0.97 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist Stature Ratio (WSR), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Conicity Index (CI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0, presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. The T test was applied to evaluate the difference between the means, the correlation between anthropometric measures and blood pressure by the Pearson correlation.Results:The highest prevalence was female, 81.4%. Obesity was more present in adolescent boys than in girls, 33.3 and 13.9% respectively, as well as in young adults, 28.6% in men and 11.8% in women. The WSR was higher in girls and adult women (0.46 ± 0.07, 0.50 ± 0.08). On the other hand, WHR and CI were higher in boys(0.79 ± 0.06, 1.12 ± 0.74)and in adult males (0.82 ± 0.09, 1.15 ± 0.12) respectively. In both groups there was a moderate positive correlation between BMI and WSR with BP (p <0.05).Conclusion:The anthropometric indices showed a positive correlation with the elevation of blood pressure, especially BMI, WSR in adolescents and young adults (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Antropometria/métodos , Adolescente , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 517-526, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040109

RESUMO

Patients with mental disorders are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders compared to the general population. Objective: To evaluate cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted at the Psychosocial Care Centers. Socioeconomic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected using a standard form. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the Framingham risk score. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined by the World Health- Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and associations were evaluated by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, as well as Odds Ratio. The significance level adopted for all statistical tests was 5%. Results: The chance of individuals diagnosed with MS be at intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk was greater (12.22, 8.01 and 6.23 times higher according to WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, respectively) than those without MS. Conclusion: A high percentage of patients with mental disorders were at intermediate / high cardiovascular risk, and this was significantly associated with MS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Transtornos Mentais , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Circunferência Abdominal , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , HDL-Colesterol
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5771-5775, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), also known as congenital hip dislocation or congenital hip dysplasia is usually diagnosed at birth. Studies on DDH at high-altitude are rare. Tibetans live mainly at altitudes above 3,500 m, and the prevalence of DDH in this population is not currently known. This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors for DDH in Tibet. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 1st June 2015 and 30 June 2016, infants in Tibet aged between 0-6 months and from ten districts at different altitudes in Shigatse, Tibet were referred to our hospital for the assessment of DDH. All the infants underwent clinical evaluation for DDH and ultrasound testing using the Graf method. RESULTS There were 606 infants who met the study inclusion criteria, including 253 female infants and 353 male infants, of which 106 infants had DDH. The prevalence of DDH in Shigatse, Tibet was approximately 174.9/1000 infants (106/606). Altitude was strongly associated with increased risk of DDH in Tibet (r=0.82, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS This is the first epidemiological study of DDH in the Tibetan population. The results showed that DDH is prevalent among native Tibetan people in Shigatse, and there was a significant correlation between altitude and the prevalence of DDH. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism of the association between altitude and the increased incidence of DDH in infants.


Assuntos
Luxação Congênita de Quadril/epidemiologia , Altitude , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tibet/epidemiologia
13.
Saudi Med J ; 40(6): 601-609, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To explores cultural differences between generations of faculty and students in undergraduate medical education and to develop an educational framework for stakeholders involvement. METHODS:  This is a prospective cross-sectional mixed method study. A survey was administered on students and faculty members to measure generational differences using Hofstede's dimensions of cultural orientation. The study took place at King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on February 2015. Quantitative methods, descriptive statistics, and correlations and regression analyses were used in data analysis. In addition, qualitative data from focus groups were used to explain findings obtained from the survey. RESULTS:  A total of 736 respondents were surveyed (129 faculty members and 607 medical students). Faculty members across all generations shared the same cultural values of low power distance and masculinity and high uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and collectivism. Advanced medical students showed higher power distance, collectivism, masculinity and long-term orientation than faculty members; junior medical students have higher masculinity and lower uncertainty avoidance and collectivism. CONCLUSION:  This study explains both the cultural gap between Saudi and Western medical students as well as between Saudi generations, demonstrating the need for customized curricular revisions.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Docentes/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e024823, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study investigates the trends in health-related inequalities in paid employment among men and women in different educational groups in 26 countries in 5 European regions. DESIGN: Individual-level analysis of repeated cross-sectional annual data (2005-2014) from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. SETTING: 26 European countries in 5 European regions. PARTICIPANTS: 1 844 915 individuals aged 30-59 years were selected with information on work status, chronic illness, educational background, age and gender. OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute differences were expressed by absolute differences in proportion in paid employment between participants with and without a chronic illness, using linear regression. Relative differences were expressed by prevalence ratios in paid employment, using a Cox proportional hazard model. Linear regression was used to examine the trends of inequalities. RESULTS: Participants with a chronic illness had consistently lower labour force participation than those without illnesses. Educational inequalities were substantial with absolute differences larger within lower educated (men 21%-35%, women 10%-31%) than within higher educated (men 5%-13%, women 6%-16%). Relative differences showed that low-educated men with a chronic illness were 1.4-1.9 times (women 1.3-1.8 times) more likely to be out of paid employment than low-educated persons without a chronic illness, whereas this was 1.1-1.2 among high-educated men and women. In the Nordic, Anglo-Saxon and Eastern regions, these health-related educational inequalities in paid employment were more pronounced than in the Continental and Southern region. For most regions, absolute health-related educational inequalities in paid employment were generally constant, whereas relative inequalities increased, especially among low-educated persons. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with a chronic illness have considerable less access to the labour market than their healthy colleagues, especially among lower educated persons. This exclusion from paid employment will increase health inequalities.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Emprego , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Transversais/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
15.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(3): 129-135, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183067

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar las características metodológicas de las investigaciones presentadas por los alumnos de pregrado en medicina, en los congresos de investigación médica de una universidad pública en México. Sujetos y métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, transversal y retrospectiva; la información se obtuvo de las listas de cotejo que se emplearon para determinar las mejores investigaciones que presentaron los alumnos, en los congresos de fin de clases. En las listas de cotejo, los indicadores tenían una elección dicotómica (sí/no), dependiendo de si estaba bien trabajado el aspecto de la investigación a evaluar. Para analizar los datos se calculó el porcentaje de respuestas afirmativas de cada indicador de las listas de cotejo y se promedió por cada congreso. Resultados: Se evaluaron 432 investigaciones estudiantiles provenientes de nueve congresos. Los datos muestran que el planteamiento lógico para hacer las investigaciones se trabajó adecuadamente en la mayoría de los congresos, mientras que en los aspectos metodológicos, los alumnos tuvieron dificultades para diseñar y ejecutar de forma adecuada sus investigaciones. La dificultad mayor para los alumnos estuvo en el análisis de los resultados y en la discusión del significado, la aplicabilidad y el alcance de su investigación. Conclusión: Es necesario evaluar constantemente el método de enseñanza de investigación en la carrera de medicina y trabajar más en la tutoría de las actividades de los alumnos


Aim: To analyze the methodological characteristics of the research works presented by the undergraduate medical students, at the medical research congresses of a public university in Mexico. Subjects and methods: An observational, transversal and retrospective research was carried out; the information was obtained from the checklists that were used to determine the best research works presented by the students at the end-ofcourse congresses. In the checklists the indicators had a dichotomous choice (yes/no), depending on whether the aspects to be evaluated in each research work was well worked out. To analyze the data, the percentage of affirmative responses of each item in the checklists was calculated, and averaged for each congress. Results: We evaluated the research presented by 432 students at nine congresses. The data show that the logical approach to the research was adequately worked in most of the congresses, while in methodological aspects the students had difficulties to design and adequately execute their research work. The greatest difficulty for the students was in the results' analysis, as well as in the discussion of the meaning, applicability and scope of their research. Conclusion: It is necessary to constantly evaluate the teaching method of the research skills in the medical career, and work more in the tutoring of the students' activities


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , México
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002220

RESUMO

Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Avaliação Nutricional , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Polegar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Antropometria , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Fatores Etários , Inflamação
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

RESUMO

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias , Brasil , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Modelos Animais , Camundongos , Manifestações Neurológicas
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 604-610, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184558

RESUMO

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of INSIG, PCSK9 and FTO genes with anthropometric, biochemical characteristics and presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe obesity. Material and methods: the present study enrolled 150 patients with grade II or III obesity, who were submitted to nutritional assessment, blood pressure measurement and peripheral blood collection. INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151), and FTO (rs9939609) polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays probes in real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The experimental data are processed in SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0.05). Results: in this study, 72.2% of obese subjects had metabolic syndrome (MS). There was a higher prevalence of AA (86.9%), CG (51.1%) and AT (46.2%) genotypes for the PCSK9, INSIG2 and FTO polymorphisms, respectively. There was no association of these polymorphisms with the prevalence of MS (p > 0.05). On the other hand, individuals with at least one variant allele (G) for the INSIG2 gene had higher triglycerides levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Conclusions: the polymorphism rs7566605 of the INSIG2 gene is associated with higher triglycerides levels and blood pressure values, which are also considered as risk factors for the development of MS


Objetivo: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la asociación entre polimorfismos de los genes INSIG, PCSK9 y FTO con las características antropométricas, bioquímicas y la presencia de síndrome metabólico (SM) en pacientes con obesidad grave. Material y métodos: el presente estudio incluyó 150 pacientes con obesidad de grado II o III, que fueron sometidos a evaluación nutricional, medición de la presión arterial y extracción de sangre periférica. Los polimorfismos INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151) y FTO (rs9939609) fueron genotipados utilizando sondas TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (PCR). Los datos experimentales se procesan en SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0,05). Resultados: en este estudio, el 72,2% de los sujetos obesos tenían síndrome metabólico (EM). Hubo una mayor prevalencia de genotipos AA (86,9%), CG (51,1%) y AT (46,2%) para los polimorfismos PCSK9, INSIG2 y FTO, respectivamente. No hubo asociación de estos polimorfismos con la prevalencia de SM (p > 0,05). Por otro lado, los individuos con al menos una variante de alelo (G) para el gen INSIG2 tenían niveles más altos de triglicéridos, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: el polimorfismo rs7566605 del gen INSIG2 se asocia con niveles más altos de triglicéridos y valores de presión arterial, que también se consideran factores de riesgo para el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Brasil , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Antropometria
19.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 47: 65-87, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136943

RESUMO

Tensiomyography™ (TMG) is a non-invasive method to monitor skeletal muscle mechanical characteristics. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on diagnostic accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMG (maximal radial displacement [Dm], contraction time [Tc], delay time [Td], and velocity of contraction [Vc]) to assess exercise-induced fatigue in healthy volunteers, with the specific aim to determine the current level of supporting evidence. Systematic literature searches within Medline, Embase and Sportdiscus databases were conducted from January 1990 through November 2018. Methodological quality was evaluated by the Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool or the Validity and Reliability Critical Appraisal Tool (CAT) or the Quality Appraisal of Diagnostic Reliability checklist (QAREL). Meta-analytical methods were utilised to summarize relative reliabilities of Dm, Tc, Td (95%, CI). The methodological quality of the 19 included studies (n = 373; female = 13.0%) ranged from low to high quality. The analysis revealed insufficient diagnostic accuracy and validity, mixed results regarding absolute reliability, and high to excellent relative reliability for the assessed measures. To conclude, robust evidence for diagnostic accuracy/validity of TMG has yet to be determined, whereas there is substantial evidence for its reliability. Higher methodological standards need to be established, including the avoidance of gender bias.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Miografia/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Miografia/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, may.-june. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006018

RESUMO

Background: Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm2 when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm2 (p = 0.034).Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Modelos Animais , Camundongos , Manifestações Neurológicas
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