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1.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 517-526, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040109

RESUMO

Patients with mental disorders are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders compared to the general population. Objective: To evaluate cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted at the Psychosocial Care Centers. Socioeconomic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected using a standard form. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the Framingham risk score. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined by the World Health- Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and associations were evaluated by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, as well as Odds Ratio. The significance level adopted for all statistical tests was 5%. Results: The chance of individuals diagnosed with MS be at intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk was greater (12.22, 8.01 and 6.23 times higher according to WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, respectively) than those without MS. Conclusion: A high percentage of patients with mental disorders were at intermediate / high cardiovascular risk, and this was significantly associated with MS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Transtornos Mentais , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Índice de Massa Corporal , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Mellitus , Circunferência Abdominal , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , HDL-Colesterol
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 49-67, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021754

RESUMO

Introdução:A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica tem apresentado alta mortalidade em todo o mundo, associada a fatores de risco cardiovascular como o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal.Objetivo:Avaliar os índices antropométricos e pressão arterial em adolescentes e adultos jovens do município de Santa Cruz-RN.Método:Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, realizado com 86 indivíduos com idade média de 19,0 ± 0,97 anos. Foram avaliados o Índice deMassa Corporal (IMC), Relação Cintura Estatura (RCE), Relação Cintura Quadril (RCQ), Índice de Conicidade (IC) e Pressão Arterial (PA). Os dados foram analisados no programa SPSS versão 23.0, apresentados em percentual, média e desvio padrão. O teste T deStudentfoi aplicado para avaliar a diferença entre as médias, a correlação entre medidas antropométricas e a pressão arterial pela correlação de Pearson.Resultados:A prevalência maior foi do sexo feminino, 81,4%. A obesidade esteve mais presente nos meninos adolescentes do que nas meninas, 33,3 e 13,9% respectivamente, bem como nos adultos jovens 28,6% em homens e 11,8% em mulheres. A RCE se mostrou mais elevada nas meninas e mulheres adultas (0,46 ± 0,07, 0,50 ± 0,08). Em contrapartida, a RCQ e IC se mostraram maiores nos meninos(0,79 ± 0,06; 1,12 ± 0,74) e nos homens adultos(0,82 ± 0,09; 1,15 ± 0,12) respectivamente. Em ambos os grupos houve correlação positiva moderada entre o IMC e a RCE com a PA (p<0,05).Conclusão:Os índices antropométricosapresentaram correlação positiva com a elevação da pressão arterial, destacando-se o IMC e a RCE nos adolescentes e adultos jovens (AU).


Introduction:Systemic arterial hypertension has presented high mortality worldwide, associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and abdominal obesity.Objective:To evaluate the anthropometric indexes and blood pressure in adolescents and young adults in the municipality of Santa Cruz-RN.Methods:This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of 86 individuals with a mean age of 19.0 ± 0.97 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist Stature Ratio (WSR), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Conicity Index (CI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0, presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. The T test was applied to evaluate the difference between the means, the correlation between anthropometric measures and blood pressure by the Pearson correlation.Results:The highest prevalence was female, 81.4%. Obesity was more present in adolescent boys than in girls, 33.3 and 13.9% respectively, as well as in young adults, 28.6% in men and 11.8% in women. The WSR was higher in girls and adult women (0.46 ± 0.07, 0.50 ± 0.08). On the other hand, WHR and CI were higher in boys(0.79 ± 0.06, 1.12 ± 0.74)and in adult males (0.82 ± 0.09, 1.15 ± 0.12) respectively. In both groups there was a moderate positive correlation between BMI and WSR with BP (p <0.05).Conclusion:The anthropometric indices showed a positive correlation with the elevation of blood pressure, especially BMI, WSR in adolescents and young adults (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Antropometria/métodos , Adolescente , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Saudi Med J ; 40(6): 601-609, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To explores cultural differences between generations of faculty and students in undergraduate medical education and to develop an educational framework for stakeholders involvement. METHODS:  This is a prospective cross-sectional mixed method study. A survey was administered on students and faculty members to measure generational differences using Hofstede's dimensions of cultural orientation. The study took place at King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on February 2015. Quantitative methods, descriptive statistics, and correlations and regression analyses were used in data analysis. In addition, qualitative data from focus groups were used to explain findings obtained from the survey. RESULTS:  A total of 736 respondents were surveyed (129 faculty members and 607 medical students). Faculty members across all generations shared the same cultural values of low power distance and masculinity and high uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and collectivism. Advanced medical students showed higher power distance, collectivism, masculinity and long-term orientation than faculty members; junior medical students have higher masculinity and lower uncertainty avoidance and collectivism. CONCLUSION:  This study explains both the cultural gap between Saudi and Western medical students as well as between Saudi generations, demonstrating the need for customized curricular revisions.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Docentes/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002220

RESUMO

Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Avaliação Nutricional , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Polegar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Antropometria , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Fatores Etários , Inflamação
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

RESUMO

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias , Brasil , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Modelos Animais , Camundongos , Manifestações Neurológicas
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 604-610, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184558

RESUMO

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of INSIG, PCSK9 and FTO genes with anthropometric, biochemical characteristics and presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with severe obesity. Material and methods: the present study enrolled 150 patients with grade II or III obesity, who were submitted to nutritional assessment, blood pressure measurement and peripheral blood collection. INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151), and FTO (rs9939609) polymorphisms were genotyped using TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays probes in real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The experimental data are processed in SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0.05). Results: in this study, 72.2% of obese subjects had metabolic syndrome (MS). There was a higher prevalence of AA (86.9%), CG (51.1%) and AT (46.2%) genotypes for the PCSK9, INSIG2 and FTO polymorphisms, respectively. There was no association of these polymorphisms with the prevalence of MS (p > 0.05). On the other hand, individuals with at least one variant allele (G) for the INSIG2 gene had higher triglycerides levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Conclusions: the polymorphism rs7566605 of the INSIG2 gene is associated with higher triglycerides levels and blood pressure values, which are also considered as risk factors for the development of MS


Objetivo: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la asociación entre polimorfismos de los genes INSIG, PCSK9 y FTO con las características antropométricas, bioquímicas y la presencia de síndrome metabólico (SM) en pacientes con obesidad grave. Material y métodos: el presente estudio incluyó 150 pacientes con obesidad de grado II o III, que fueron sometidos a evaluación nutricional, medición de la presión arterial y extracción de sangre periférica. Los polimorfismos INSIG2 (rs75666605), PCSK9 (rs505151) y FTO (rs9939609) fueron genotipados utilizando sondas TaqMan Pre-Designed SNP Genotyping Assays en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (PCR). Los datos experimentales se procesan en SPß Statistics 22.0 (p < 0,05). Resultados: en este estudio, el 72,2% de los sujetos obesos tenían síndrome metabólico (EM). Hubo una mayor prevalencia de genotipos AA (86,9%), CG (51,1%) y AT (46,2%) para los polimorfismos PCSK9, INSIG2 y FTO, respectivamente. No hubo asociación de estos polimorfismos con la prevalencia de SM (p > 0,05). Por otro lado, los individuos con al menos una variante de alelo (G) para el gen INSIG2 tenían niveles más altos de triglicéridos, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: el polimorfismo rs7566605 del gen INSIG2 se asocia con niveles más altos de triglicéridos y valores de presión arterial, que también se consideran factores de riesgo para el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Brasil , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Antropometria
7.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(3): 129-135, mayo-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183067

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar las características metodológicas de las investigaciones presentadas por los alumnos de pregrado en medicina, en los congresos de investigación médica de una universidad pública en México. Sujetos y métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, transversal y retrospectiva; la información se obtuvo de las listas de cotejo que se emplearon para determinar las mejores investigaciones que presentaron los alumnos, en los congresos de fin de clases. En las listas de cotejo, los indicadores tenían una elección dicotómica (sí/no), dependiendo de si estaba bien trabajado el aspecto de la investigación a evaluar. Para analizar los datos se calculó el porcentaje de respuestas afirmativas de cada indicador de las listas de cotejo y se promedió por cada congreso. Resultados: Se evaluaron 432 investigaciones estudiantiles provenientes de nueve congresos. Los datos muestran que el planteamiento lógico para hacer las investigaciones se trabajó adecuadamente en la mayoría de los congresos, mientras que en los aspectos metodológicos, los alumnos tuvieron dificultades para diseñar y ejecutar de forma adecuada sus investigaciones. La dificultad mayor para los alumnos estuvo en el análisis de los resultados y en la discusión del significado, la aplicabilidad y el alcance de su investigación. Conclusión: Es necesario evaluar constantemente el método de enseñanza de investigación en la carrera de medicina y trabajar más en la tutoría de las actividades de los alumnos


Aim: To analyze the methodological characteristics of the research works presented by the undergraduate medical students, at the medical research congresses of a public university in Mexico. Subjects and methods: An observational, transversal and retrospective research was carried out; the information was obtained from the checklists that were used to determine the best research works presented by the students at the end-ofcourse congresses. In the checklists the indicators had a dichotomous choice (yes/no), depending on whether the aspects to be evaluated in each research work was well worked out. To analyze the data, the percentage of affirmative responses of each item in the checklists was calculated, and averaged for each congress. Results: We evaluated the research presented by 432 students at nine congresses. The data show that the logical approach to the research was adequately worked in most of the congresses, while in methodological aspects the students had difficulties to design and adequately execute their research work. The greatest difficulty for the students was in the results' analysis, as well as in the discussion of the meaning, applicability and scope of their research. Conclusion: It is necessary to constantly evaluate the teaching method of the research skills in the medical career, and work more in the tutoring of the students' activities


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , México
8.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 47: 65-87, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136943

RESUMO

Tensiomyography™ (TMG) is a non-invasive method to monitor skeletal muscle mechanical characteristics. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on diagnostic accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMG (maximal radial displacement [Dm], contraction time [Tc], delay time [Td], and velocity of contraction [Vc]) to assess exercise-induced fatigue in healthy volunteers, with the specific aim to determine the current level of supporting evidence. Systematic literature searches within Medline, Embase and Sportdiscus databases were conducted from January 1990 through November 2018. Methodological quality was evaluated by the Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool or the Validity and Reliability Critical Appraisal Tool (CAT) or the Quality Appraisal of Diagnostic Reliability checklist (QAREL). Meta-analytical methods were utilised to summarize relative reliabilities of Dm, Tc, Td (95%, CI). The methodological quality of the 19 included studies (n = 373; female = 13.0%) ranged from low to high quality. The analysis revealed insufficient diagnostic accuracy and validity, mixed results regarding absolute reliability, and high to excellent relative reliability for the assessed measures. To conclude, robust evidence for diagnostic accuracy/validity of TMG has yet to be determined, whereas there is substantial evidence for its reliability. Higher methodological standards need to be established, including the avoidance of gender bias.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Miografia/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Miografia/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, may.-june. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006018

RESUMO

Background: Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm2 when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm2 (p = 0.034).Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Modelos Animais , Camundongos , Manifestações Neurológicas
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, may.-june. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006052

RESUMO

Background: Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Avaliação Nutricional , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Polegar , Fatores Sexuais , Antropometria , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Fatores Etários , Inflamação
11.
Reumatol. clín. (Barc.) ; 15(2): 90-96, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184355

RESUMO

Objetivos: Describir la metodología del estudio de prevalencia de las enfermedades reumáticas en la población adulta en España, EPISER 2016, así como sus fortalezas y limitaciones. El objetivo del proyecto es estimar la prevalencia de artritis reumatoide (AR), artropatía psoriásica (APs), espondilitis anquilosante (EA), lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), síndrome de Sjögren (SS), artrosis (de rodilla, cadera, manos, columna cervical y lumbar), fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Material y método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico de base poblacional en el que participan 45 municipios de las 17 comunidades autónomas. La población de referencia está compuesta por adultos de 20 o más años residentes en España. La recogida de información se llevará a cabo mediante encuesta telefónica empleando el sistema Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI). Las sospechas diagnósticas y los diagnósticos autorreferidos serán estudiadas por reumatólogos del hospital de referencia de los municipios seleccionados. Análisis estadístico: se calcularán las prevalencias de enfermedades reumáticas mediante estimadores y sus IC del 95%. Se calcularán factores de ponderación en función de la probabilidad de selección en cada una de las etapas del muestreo. Se tendrá en cuenta la distribución de la población en España según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Conclusiones: Los cambios sociodemográficos y en hábitos de vida durante los últimos 16 años justifican la realización de EPISER 2016. El estudio ofrecerá datos actualizados de prevalencia en AR, EA, APs, LES, SS, artrosis, fibromialgia, gota y fractura osteoporótica clínica. Los resultados permitirán comparar los datos con estudios de otros países y con el EPISER 2000


Aims: To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Material and method: Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. Statistical analysis: the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Conclusions: Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Gota/epidemiologia , Artropatias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos
12.
Sanid. mil ; 75(1): 7-13, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183699

RESUMO

Introducción: La población infantil es más vulnerable a las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria que otros grupos demográficos. En los últimos años se han notificado brotes de enfermedades de origen alimentario en guarderías causados por agentes patógenos como Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes o Cronobacter sakazakii. Objetivos: Determinar la calidad microbiológica de las comidas servidas en los comedores de las guarderías en relación con los criterios de seguridad alimentaria y de higiene de los procesos. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 241 muestras del menú de iniciación y del menú completo en 13 guarderías. Se investigó la presencia de Salmonella spp. y Cronobacter spp. y se realizó el recuento de L. moncytogenes y de los microorganismos indicadores de la higiene de los procesos (aerobios mesófilos, enterobacterias totales, coliformes totales, Escherichia coli ß-glucuronidasa positivos y Staphylococcus aureus). Resultados: Salmonella spp. y L. monocytogenes no se detectaron en ninguna de las muestras analizadas. Cronobacter spp. se aisló en la guarnición de ensalada de un segundo plato. E. coli no se detectó en ninguna muestra y para el resto de indicadores de higiene las prevalencias fueron las siguientes: aerobios mesófilos 36,10 %, enterobacterias 13,28 %, coliformes totales 7,47 % y S. aureus 4,14 %. El grupo de frutas fue siempre el que presentó mayor prevalencia en todos los parámetros, seguido por los segundos platos debido principalmente a la presencia de ensaladas en la guarnición. Conclusiones: Conforme a los resultados microbiológicos obtenidos, se considera que las comidas servidas tienen un alto grado de calidad microbiológica


Introduction: Infants and children are more vulnerable to foodborne illnesses than other demographic population. In recent years, foodborne outbreaks have been reported in kindergartens because of the presence of pathogenic agents like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Cronobacter sakazakii. Objective: To determine the microbiological quality of foods ready for consumption in kindergarten foodservices regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria. Materials and Methods: 241 food samples from the initiation menu and full menu were analyzed in 13 kindergartens. Salmonella spp. and Cronobacter spp. were investigated and an enumeration of L. monocytogenes and of the hygiene indicator microorganisms (mesophilic aerobes, enterobacteriaceae, ß-glucuronidase positive Escherichia coli, total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus) was carried out. Results: No Salmonella spp. or L. monocytogenes were isolated from any of the samples. Cronobacter spp. was isolated in the fresh salad of a second plate. E. coli was not detected in any sample and the results shown in the rest of the hygiene indicators were the following: mesophilic aerobes 36,10 %, enterobacteriaceae 13,28 %, total coliforms 7,47 % and S. aureus 4,14 %. The fruits group was always the one that showed the highest prevalence in all the parameters, followed by the second courses mainly due to the presence of fresh salads. Conclusions: According to the microbiological results obtained, it is considered that the meals served have a high level of microbiological quality


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Creches/organização & administração , Creches/normas , Escolas Maternais/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Escolas Maternais/organização & administração , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Bacilos e Cocos Aeróbios Gram-Negativos/isolamento & purificação , Higiene dos Alimentos/normas
13.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 94(3): 125-129, mar. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178313

RESUMO

Introducción: El cáncer pulmonar (CP) es el tumor con mayor frecuencia y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Casos de metástasis coroideas y retinopatía asociada a cáncer han sido publicados en CP, sin embargo no existen estudios en población mexicana que describan las posibles alteraciones retinocoroideas y su relación con el estadio de CP. Objetivo: Evaluar a pacientes con CP para determinar la presencia de alteraciones en el segmento posterior y su relación con el estadio del mismo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal y descriptivo de 50 pacientes (100 ojos) con CP. Datos demográficos: edad, sexo, tipo histológico, tiempo de evolución, estadio, tratamiento y comorbilidades. Variables de medición: agudeza visual (LogMAR), biomicroscopía del segmento anterior, registro fotográfico de retina, fluorangiografía retiniana, tomografía de coherencia óptica y electrorretinograma. Cada paciente fue evaluado por dos oftalmólogos. Resultados: Un total de 26 hombres y 24 mujeres fueron evaluados, el promedio de edad fue de 65 años, el tiempo medio del diagnóstico de CP fue de 6 meses siendo el adenocarcinoma el principal tipo histológico (70%), al momento de la evaluación 50% presentaban estadio II y 30% estadio IV. Las alteraciones del segmento posterior encontradas fueron: metástasis coroideas (16%), metástasis retinianas (10%), retinopatía asociada a cáncer (6%) y oclusiones vasculares (4%). La mayoría de los pacientes con alteraciones retinocoroideas se encontraban en estadio IV. Conclusiones: En el CP pueden encontrarse oclusiones vasculares, retinopatía asociada a cáncer y metástasis a coroides y retina con una incidencia mayor a la publicada en la literatura, siendo más frecuentes en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad aunque pueden encontrarse desde el estadio II en pacientes asintomáticos


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is the most common tumour, and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although cases of choroidal metastasis and cancer-associated retinopathy have been reported in LC, no studies have been conducted on the Mexican population to describe retinochoroidal findings during the course of LC, and the relationship with its stage. Objective: To evaluate patients with a diagnosis of LC, and to describe the posterior segment findings in relationship to the stage of LC. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted on 50 patients with LC (100 eyes). The demographic data included age, gender, histological type, evolution time, stage, treatment, and comorbidities. The measurement variables included visual acuity (LogMAR), anterior segment biomicroscopy, retinal photography, fluorescein retinal angiography, optical coherence tomography, and electroretinogram. All patients were evaluated by two ophthalmologists. Results: The study included a total of 26 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 65 years, and a mean time from LC diagnosis of 6 months. The principal histological type was adenocarcinoma (70%), and most (50%) were in stage II at the time of evaluation, with 15 (30%) patients having a metastasis (stage IV). The changes in the posterior segment included choroidal metastasis (16%), retinal metastasis (10%), cancer-associated retinopathy (6%), and vascular occlusions (4%). The majority of patients who presented with posterior segment alterations were in stage IV. Conclusions: Vascular occlusions, cancer-associated retinopathy, choroidal and retinal metastases may be found in LC, with an incidence higher than that reported in the literature, especially in advanced stages of LC, although they can be found from stage II in asymptomatic patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias da Coroide/etiologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Retina/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Microscopia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although child physical abuse (CPA) is considered as a major global public health problem, it has not yet been recognized as such in Bangladesh. Very few studies have assessed the prevalence and victims' characteristics of multiple forms of CPA. OBJECTIVE: This population-based study assessed the prevalence of CPA committed by adults in a rural area of Bangladesh and examined its association with demographic and socio-contextual factors. METHODS: Data were obtained using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C) in a random sample of 1416 children (49% girls, 51% boys) aged 11 to 17 years by face-to-face interviews during March-April 2017. The response rate was 91.5%. To estimate predictors of CPA, physical abuse was categorized into frequent and less frequent groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least one form (≥ 1), two forms (≥2) and three or more forms (≥ 3) of CPA were estimated approximately to 99%, 95% and 83% in their lifetime and 93%, 79%, and 57% in the past year respectively. Hitting (except on buttocks), standing/kneeling and slapping were the most common physical abuse whereas given drugs or alcohol, pinched, burned or scalded, beaten-up and locked up were less reported. Female children were faced severe forms of CPA more than that of males. Male children, younger age groups, witnessing adults using weapons at home, bullied by siblings and low level of maternal education were found to be significant risk factors for both ≥ 1 form and ≥ 2 forms of frequent CPA whereas adding also adult shouting in a frightening way was found as a significant risk factor for ≥ 2 forms of frequent CPA. CONCLUSION: Self-reported prevalence of CPA is extremely common in the Bangladeshi rural society. The prevalence was associated with demographic and socio-contextual characteristics of the children such as being younger, witnessing domestic violence and maternal low education. The findings provide evidence to support parents and policy-makers to take effective measures to implement policy and programme on alternative up-bringing methods and creating awareness of negative effects of CM which in turn help Bangladesh to line up with UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which the country signed in 1990.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Abuso Físico/tendências , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Violência Doméstica , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Autorrelato
15.
Animal ; 13(10): 2356-2364, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808429

RESUMO

Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Keel bone damage included fractures and/or deviations, and was recorded, alongside with other animal based measures, by palpation and visual inspection of at least 50 randomly collected hens per flock between 52 and 73 weeks of age. Management and housing data were obtained by interviews, inspection and by feed analysis. Keel bone damage flock prevalences ranged from 3% to 88%. Compiled on the basis of literature and practical experience, 26 potential associative factors of KBD went into an univariable selection by Spearman correlation analysis or Mann-Whitney U test (with P<0.1 level). The resulting nine factors were presented to stepwise forward linear regression modelling. Aviary v. floor systems, absence of natural daylight in the hen house, a higher proportion of underweight birds, as well as a higher laying performance were found to be significantly associated with a higher percentage of hens with KBD. The final model explained 32% of the variation in KBD between farms. The moderate explanatory value of the model underlines the multifactorial nature of KBD. Based on the results increased attention should be paid to an adequate housing design and lighting that allows the birds easy orientation and safe manoeuvring in the system. Furthermore, feeding management should aim at sufficient bird live weights that fulfil breeder weight standards. In order to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between laying performance, feed management and KBD further investigations are needed.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Agricultura Orgânica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esterno
16.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4908, 01 Fevereiro 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-998262

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), and alveolar bone resorption with menopause duration in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was developed involving 59 subjects, aged 45 to 80 years and categorized the duration of menopause as ≤5 years and >5 years. Body mass index measurement and menopause duration were collected. Bone loss seen on radiography was measured by drawing a vertical line from the cementoenamel in the distal part of the 36 teeth and the mesial portion of 46 teeth to the base of the bone marked by the lamina dura intact. Categorical determinations of age, BMI, BMD, and alveolar bone resorption were based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Were used Pearson correlation and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. Results: The majority of subjects (54.2%) with menopause duration >5 years were aged >54.5 years, most had BMI >24.2 kg/m2 (39%), had bone resorption >2.95 mm (52.5%), and had bone density ≤73.89 (49.2%). Pearson and Spearman correlation tests showed no significant correlation between age, BMI, bone density, and alveolar bone resorption (p>0.05). Conclusion: The longer the duration of menopause showed a tendency for lower bone density and higher age, BMI, and bone resorption.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mulheres , Reabsorção Óssea , Menopausa , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Pós-Menopausa , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Indonésia
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4543, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-997899

RESUMO

Objective: To compare self-perceived information and clinically diagnosed dental caries status among Indonesian children aged 12­15 years. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was used to obtain self-perceived information. Clinical examinations were conducted to determine the mean number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) and the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement, ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments, fistula, and abscess (PUFA). The study included 494 children aged 12­15 years recruited from six junior high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. The clinical examination results and responses to the self-perceived assessment questionnaire were compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Results: The proportions of children with dental caries and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in this study were 69.4% and 17.6%, respectively, with mean DMFT and PUFA index scores of 2.4 and 0.2, respectively. For the DMFT index, the self-perceived need for oral treatment had the highest sensitivity (86%), while the dental pain had the highest specificity (89%). For the PUFA index, the self perceived oral health condition had the highest sensitivity (92%), while the self-perceived dental pain had the highest specificity (82%). However, none of the self-perceived variables had both high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Self-perceived information obtained from the questionnaire can not properly evaluate the clinical status of dental caries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Autoimagem , Diagnóstico Clínico/diagnóstico , Índice CPO , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Indonésia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4423, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-997917

RESUMO

Objective:To evaluate the oral health conditions of hospitalized children, as well as describe the knowledge and practices of oral health care adopted by their parents/guardians. Material and Methods:The sample was composed of 46 children who had been hospitalized for at least five days, who had erupted teeth in the oral cavity and were accompanied by their parents/guardians. Information was collected in relation to: theoral health status of children (DMFT/DEF), the socioeconomic profile and access to information on health and oral hygiene of the parents/guardians anddata regarding the hospitalization of the children. The data were analyzed using the Fisher, Pearson's and Mann Whitney's Chi-squared tests, with a confidence level of 95%.Results:47.8% of the hospitalized children had experienced caries, and the most relevant component for the determination of the experience of caries was the presence of decayed teeth (0.50 to 1.94). A total of 97.8% of parents/guardians said they had not received information on oral health and hygiene, 100.0% had not received guidance on the sugar contained in medicines or the salivary decrease caused by the medications. 34.8% of the children did not perform oral hygiene during hospitalization. According to medical records, 58.7% took liquid medication orally. Conclusion:The hospitalized children had precarious oral health conditions, with the occurrence of carious lesions of the teeth. The presence of risk factors for dental caries in hospitalized children was observed (poor oral hygiene, low schooling and income of parents/guardians, limited knowledge of parents/guardians regarding health care and oral hygiene, consumption of medicines with cariogenic potential) (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Erupção Dentária , Brasil , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Saúde Bucal , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Higiene Bucal/educação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
19.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4350, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-997959

RESUMO

Objective: To compare salivary transferrin levels between patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and healthy subjects. Material and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical, crosssectional study, 11 patients with OLP and 22 healthy subjects were selected after matching in terms of age and gender. OLP was confirmed by two oral medicine specialists based on clinical and histopathological criteria. Salivary samples were collected by spitting. The patients were asked to collect their saliva in their oral cavity and then evacuate it into sterilized Falcon tubes. The procedure was repeated every 60 seconds for 5-15 minutes. A total of 5 mL of saliva was collected using this method. The samples were collected from 8 to 9 in the morning in a fasting state to avoid circadian changes. The collected salivary samples were immediately placed next to ice and transferred to the laboratory to be centrifuged at 4°C at 800 g to isolate squamous cells and cellular debris. Then the samples were frozen at -80°C until the samples were prepared. An ELISA kit was used to determine salivary transferrin levels. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations) and t-test for independent groups using SPSS 17. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean salivary transferrin concentrations in patients with OLP and healthy subjects were 0.9055±0.28229 and 1.5932±0.80041 mg/dL, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: The salivary transferrin levels in patients with OLP were significantly lower than those in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva , Transferrina , Diagnóstico Clínico , Líquen Plano Bucal/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Irã (Geográfico)
20.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 3807, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-997960

RESUMO

Objective: To perform the transcultural adaptation to Brazil and validation of the Halitosis Associated Life-quality Test (HALT) for use in adolescents. Material and Methods: Students aged 12 to 15 years, of both sexes, with healthy permanent dentition, attending public schools in Piracicaba, Brazil, were selected for this study. The HALT was translated, backtranslated, reviewed by an expert committee and submitted to a pre-test. In the first phase (n = 13), 15% of the sample did not understand items 2, 12 and 15; therefore, these items were reformulated and resubmitted to 13 adolescents. The version with a sociocultural adaptation was self-applied by 56 adolescents (64% females, 13.4 ± 1.0 years), of whom 25 participated in the test-retest. The presence of visible biofilm, gingival bleeding, calculus and tongue coating, was evaluated. Selfperception of halitosis after exhalation/breathing was assessed by a single question. Results: The HALT score ranged from 0 to 62 points (mean = 10.1±13.4) and the floor effect was 5.4%. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92) and reproducibility was moderate (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.59). Individuals with "excessive" tongue coating had a higher HALT score than those with mild and/or moderate coating (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only the male sex was related to a higher HALT score (p<0.05). Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the HALT was easily understood by adolescents. Those with greater tongue coating accumulation reported more frequently the presence of halitosis, which was only associated to male sex.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Adolescente , Halitose/etiologia , Psicometria/métodos , Autoavaliação , Tradução , Diagnóstico Clínico , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Regressão , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
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