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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 6687626, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340212

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, whether this association is causal is undetermined. Methods: Each participant from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study based on 27,009 retirees was interviewed face-to-face following a clinical examination. Covariance, logistic regression analysis, and instrumental variables were used to assess associations between SUA and (severity of) NAFLD and the causal link. Results: Among 8,429 subjects free of NAFLD at baseline, 2,007 participants developed NAFLD after 5 years of follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD for individuals in the fourth quartile of SUA level versus those in the first was 1.71 (95% CI: 1.45-2.01, P for trend <0.001) and was more dramatic in women or normal-weight persons. Furthermore, SUA was materially associated with greater mean markers of hepatic necroinflammation and greater probabilities of fibrosis. In genetic analyses, both single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11722228 to SLC2A9 and rs2231142 to ABCG2) were pronouncedly associated with increased SUA concentrations, ranging from 0.19 to 0.22 mg/dl. No significant associations were observed between SNPs and potential confounders. No association was observed between the SUA-increasing allele and NAFLD, with an OR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.90-1.08) per genetic score. This was not significantly different (P = 0.25) from what was expected (1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03). Conclusions: SUA was positively associated with NAFLD incidence especially in female and normal-weight individuals and the suspected progression risk of newly developed NAFLD. However, the Mendelian randomization analyses lend no causal evidence, suggesting high SUA as a marker and not a cause of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácido Úrico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMO

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Ontário , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
4.
Early Hum Dev ; 165: 105541, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for infants who survive mild-moderate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) into adolescence is relatively uncharted. AIMS: We examined neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with mild and moderate HIE, using both parent and self - informants, and including healthy peers and nearest age siblings as controls. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adolescents with a history of mild-moderate HIE (M age = 14.45 years, SD = 1.03; 14 boys and 9 girls) were recruited from an original cohort of 53. A group of their nearest - age siblings (n = 13), and healthy peers (n = 14) were recruited as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: A number of neuropsychological sub-tests, taken from the WISC-V.UK, Children's Memory Scale, NEPSY, WIAT-III.UK, Rey Complex Figure Copy Test and British Picture Vocabulary Scale were administered. Behavioral adjustment was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the competence subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: No differences in neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes were observed between mild and moderate HIE cohorts. Together they had significantly lower scores on tests of attention/executive functioning, verbal reasoning and sensory-motor ability compared to healthy peers, with moderate to large effect sizes. Remedial provision at school was greater in the HIE group. Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems in the HIE group compared to both siblings and healthy peers. Reduced competencies were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that both mild and moderate survivors of HIE experience neuropsychological, school and peer relationship problems in adolescence.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Wechsler
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13350, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922660

RESUMO

Hypertensive microvascular disease is associated with an increased risk of diastolic heart failure, vascular dementia and progressive renal impairment. This study examined whether individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) had more retinal hypertensive microvascular disease than those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hospital controls. This was a single-centre, cross-sectional, observational study of participants recruited consecutively from a general respiratory clinic and a general medical clinic. OSA was diagnosed on overnight polysomnography study (apnoea:hypopnoea index ≥ 5), and controls with COPD had a forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (forced expiratory ratio) < 70%. Individuals with both OSA and COPD were excluded. Hospital controls had no COPD on respiratory function testing and no OSA on specialist physician questioning. Study participants completed a medical questionnaire, and underwent resting BP measurement, and retinal photography with a non-mydriatic camera. Images were deidentified and graded for microvascular retinopathy (Wong and Mitchell classification), and arteriole and venular calibre using a semiautomated method at a grading centre. Individuals with OSA (n = 79) demonstrated a trend to a higher mean arterial pressure than other hospital patients (n = 143) (89.2 ± 8.9 mmHg, p = 0.02), and more microvascular retinopathy (p < 0.001), and narrower retinal arterioles (134.2 ± 15.9 µm and 148.0 ± 16.2 µm respectively, p < 0.01). Microvascular retinopathy and arteriolar narrowing were still more common in OSA than hospital controls, after adjusting for age, BMI, mean arterial pressure, smoking history and dyslipidaemia (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Individuals with OSA demonstrated a trend to a higher mean arterial pressure than those with COPD (n = 132, 93.2 ± 12.2 mmHg and 89.7 ± 12.8 mmHg respectively, p = 0.07), and more microvascular retinopathy (p = 0.0001) and narrower arterioles (134.2 ± 15.9 and 152.3 ± 16.8, p < 0.01). Individuals with OSA alone had more systemic microvascular disease than those with COPD alone or other hospital patients without OSA and COPD, despite being younger in age.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Hipertensiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Retinopatia Hipertensiva/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia
6.
World J Emerg Surg ; 17(1): 42, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid referral of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients requiring emergency neurosurgery to a specialized trauma center can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. Currently, no model has been reported to predict the need for acute neurosurgery in severe to moderate TBI patients. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Machine Learning-based models to establish to predict the need for neurosurgery procedure within 24 h after moderate to severe TBI. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study using data from a national trauma registry (Traumabase®) from November 2011 to December 2020. Inclusion criteria correspond to patients over 18 years old with moderate or severe TBI (Glasgow coma score ≤ 12) during prehospital assessment. Patients who died within the first 24 h after hospital admission and secondary transfers were excluded. The population was divided into a train set (80% of patients) and a test set (20% of patients). Several approaches were used to define the best prognostic model (linear nearest neighbor or ensemble model). The Shapley Value was used to identify the most relevant pre-hospital variables for prediction. RESULTS: 2159 patients were included in the study. 914 patients (42%) required neurosurgical intervention within 24 h. The population was predominantly male (77%), young (median age 35 years [IQR 24-52]) with severe head injury (median GCS 6 [3-9]). Based on the evaluation of the predictive model on the test set, the logistic regression model had an AUC of 0.76. The best predictive model was obtained with the CatBoost technique (AUC 0.81). According to the Shapley values method, the most predictive variables in the CatBoost were a low initial Glasgow coma score, the regression of pupillary abnormality after osmotherapy, a high blood pressure and a low heart rate. CONCLUSION: Machine learning-based models could predict the need for emergency neurosurgery within 24 h after moderate and severe head injury. Potential clinical benefits of such models as a decision-making tool deserve further assessment. The performance in real-life setting and the impact on clinical decision-making of the model requires workflow integration and prospective assessment.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Neurocirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Coma , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0265709, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925908

RESUMO

The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is a widely used data resource, representative in demographic profile, with accurate death recordings but it is unclear if mortality rates within CPRD GOLD are similar to rates in the general population. Rates may additionally be affected by selection bias caused by the requirement that a cohort have a minimum lookback window, i.e. observation time prior to start of at-risk follow-up. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated incorporating published population reference rates from the Office for National Statistics (ONS), using Poisson regression with rates in CPRD GOLD contrasted to ONS rates, stratified by age, calendar year and sex. An overall SMR was estimated along with SMRs presented for cohorts with different lookback windows (1, 2, 5, 10 years). SMRs were stratified by calendar year, length of follow-up and age group. Mortality rates in a random sample of 1 million CPRD GOLD patients were slightly lower than the national population [SMR = 0.980 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.973, 0.987)]. Cohorts with observational lookback had SMRs below one [1 year of lookback; SMR = 0.905 (0.898, 0.912), 2 years; SMR = 0.881 (0.874, 0.888), 5 years; SMR = 0.849 (0.841, 0.857), 10 years; SMR = 0.837 (0.827, 0.847)]. Mortality rates in the first two years after patient entry into CPRD were higher than the general population, while SMRs dropped below one thereafter. Mortality rates in CPRD, using simple entry requirements, are similar to rates seen in the English population. The requirement of at least a single year of lookback results in lower mortality rates compared to national estimates.


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Viés de Seleção
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 273, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waterlow scoring was introduced in the 1980s as a nursing tool to risk stratify for development of decubitus ulcers (pressure sores) and is commonly used in UK hospitals. Recent interest has focussed on its value as a pre-op surrogate marker for adverse surgical outcomes, but utility after kidney transplantation has never been explored. METHODS: In this single-centre observational study, data was extracted from hospital informatics systems for all kidney allograft recipients transplanted between 1st January 2007 and 30th June 2020. Waterlow scores were categorised as per national standards; 0-9 (low risk), 10-14 (at risk), 15-19 (high risk) and ≥ 20 (very high risk). Multiple imputation was used to replace missing data with substituted values. Primary outcomes of interest were post-operative length of stay, emergency re-admission within 90-days and mortality analysed by linear, logistic or Cox regression models respectively. RESULTS: Data was available for 2,041 kidney transplant patients, with baseline demographics significantly different across Waterlow categories. As a continuous variable, the median Waterlow score across the study cohort was 10 (interquartile range 8-13). As a categorical variable, Waterlow scores pre-operatively were classified as low risk (n = 557), at risk (n = 543), high risk (n = 120), very high risk (n = 27) and a large proportion of missing data (n = 794). Median length of stay in days varied significantly with pre-op Waterlow category scores, progressively getting longer with increasing severity of Waterlow category. However, no difference was observed in risk for emergency readmission within 90-days of surgery with severity of Waterlow category. Patients with 'very high risk' Waterlow scores had increased risk for mortality at 41.9% versus high risk (23.7%), at risk (17.4%) and low risk (13.4%). In adjusted analyses, 'very high risk' Waterlow group (as a categorical variable) or Waterlow score (as a continuous variable) had an independent association with increase length of stay after transplant surgery only. No association was observed between any Waterlow risk group/score with emergency 90-day readmission rates or post-transplant mortality after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative Waterlow scoring is a poor surrogate marker to identify kidney transplant patients at risk of emergency readmission or death and should not be utilised outside its intended use.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1498, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs), primarily musculoskeletal in nature, are the leading cause of unintentional injury worldwide, incurring significant individual and societal burden. Investigation of a large representative cohort is needed to validate early identifiable predictors of long-term work incapacity post-RTI. Therefore, up until two years post-RTI we aimed to: evaluate absolute occurrence of return-to-work (RTW) and occurrence by injury compensation claimant status; evaluate early factors (e.g., biopsychosocial and injury-related) that influence RTW longitudinally; and identify factors potentially modifiable with intervention (e.g., psychological distress and pain). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 2019 adult participants, recruited within 28 days of a non-catastrophic RTI, predominantly of mild-to-moderate severity, in New South Wales, Australia. Biopsychosocial, injury, and compensation data were collected via telephone interview within one-month of injury (baseline). Work status was self-reported at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 24-months. Analyses were restricted to participants who reported paid work pre-injury (N = 1533). Type-3 global p-values were used to evaluate explanatory factors for returning to 'any' or 'full duties' paid work across factor subcategories. Modified Poisson regression modelling was used to evaluate factors associated with RTW with adjustment for potential covariates. RESULTS: Only ~ 30% of people with RTI returned to full work duties within one-month post-injury, but the majority (76.7%) resumed full duties by 6-months. A significant portion of participants were working with modified duties (~ 10%) or not working at all (~ 10%) at 6-, 12-, and 24-months. Female sex, low education, low income, physically demanding occupations, pre-injury comorbidities, and high injury severity were negatively associated with RTW. Claiming injury compensation in the fault-based scheme operating at the time, and early identified post-injury pain and psychological distress, were key factors negatively associated with RTW up until two years post-injury. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term work incapacity was observed in 20% of people following RTI. Our findings have implications that suggest review of the design of injury compensation schemes and processes, early identification of those at risk of delayed RTW using validated pain and psychological health assessment tools, and improved interventions to address risks, may facilitate sustainable RTW. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered prospectively with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12613000889752).


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Dor , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 476, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) has been found to vary by maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and rural-urban residence. In this study, we examined associations of CHD with two maternal SES indicators and stratified the analysis by maternal rural-urban residence. METHODS: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. We included all singleton stillbirths and live hospital births from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2018 in Ontario, Canada. We linked the BORN Information System and Canadian Institute for Health Information databases. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations of CHD with material deprivation index (MDI), social deprivation index (SDI), and maternal residence while adjusting for maternal age at birth, assisted reproductive technology, obesity, pre-pregnancy maternal health conditions, mental health illness before and during pregnancy, substance use during pregnancy, and infant's sex. MDI and SDI were estimated at a dissemination area level in Ontario and were categorized into quintiles (Q1-Q5). RESULTS: This cohort study included 798,173 singletons. In maternal urban residence, the p trend (Cochran-Armitage test) was less than 0.0001 for both MDI and SDI; while for rural residence, it was 0.002 and 0.98, respectively. Infants living in the most materially deprived neighbourhoods (MDI Q5) had higher odds of CHD (aOR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.12-1.29) compared to Q1. Similarly, infants living in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods (SDI Q5) had an 18% increase in the odds of CHD (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.1-1.26) compared to Q1. Rural infants had a 13% increase in the odds of CHD compared to their urban counterparts. After stratifying by maternal rural-urban residence, we still detected higher odds of CHD with two indices in urban residence but only MDI in rural residence. CONCLUSION: Higher material and social deprivation and rural residence were associated with higher odds of CHD. Health interventions and policies should reinforce the need for optimal care for all families, particularly underprivileged families in both rural and urban regions. Future studies should further investigate the effect of social deprivation on the risk of CHD development.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , População Rural , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 113, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether seasonal variations and meteorological factors influence pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated reproductive medical center. SUBJECTS: Women aged < 35 years undergoing IVF from June 1, 2015, to June 1, 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Cycles were divided into four groups according to the date of the beginning of ovulation induction: spring (659 cycles), summer (578 cycles), autumn (519 cycles), and winter (534 cycles). RESULTS: The high-quality embryo rate was higher in autumn and winter than in cycles in which ovulation induction occurred in spring and summer (58.70% vs. 58.78% vs. 62.67% vs. 63.42%; P < 0.001). The results of linear regression analysis showed that the high-quality embryo rate was significantly correlated with the daily average temperature of ovulation induction (P = 0.037). The clinical pregnancy rates of cycles starting ovulation induction in spring, summer, and autumn were significantly higher than those starting in winter (70.71% vs. 73.18% vs. 70.13% vs. 65.17%; P = 0.031), while the biochemical pregnancy rate, early abortion rate, and live birth rate were not significantly different (P > 0.050). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant seasonal variation in clinical pregnancy (OR = 1.643, 95% CI = 1.203-2.243; P = 0.002), and that a higher daily average temperature at the time of ovulation induction increased the clinical pregnancy rate (OR = 1.012, 95% CI = 1.001-1.022; P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In women younger than 35 years who undergo IVF treatment, the season and ambient temperature on the date of the beginning of ovulation induction may have an impact on embryo development and clinical pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Indução da Ovulação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 623, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus reference range for serum lipid levels during pregnancy. The benefit of levothyroxine (L-T4) on serum lipid levels are unclear among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). OBJECTIVE: To determine the recommended reference ranges for serum lipid concentrations during pregnancy and effects of L-T4 treatment on serum lipids in pregnant women with SCH. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: A analysis of 20,365 women in the first trimester was conducted at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University during 2018-2020. After excluding women with adverse pregnancy outcomes, we determined the reference range of serum lipid in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy by using median and quartile to determine appropriate percentiles. Next, we divided into three groups as follows: SCH L-T4 treatment group (n = 319), SCH non-intervention group (n = 103) and the control group(n = 9598). RESULTS: The recommended reference range for serum lipids in the first trimester of pregnancy should be: TC < 5.33 mmol/L, TG < 1.73 mmol/L, LDL-C < 3.12 mmol/L and HDL-C > 1.1 mmol/L, and in third trimester of pregnancy should be: TC < 8.47 mmol/L, TG < 4.86 mmol/L, LDL-C < 5.3 mmol/L and HDL-C > 1.34 mmol/L. There are significant differences in TC and LDL-C levels between SCH treatment group and SCH non-intervention Group (P = 0.043, P = 0.046; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We determine the recommended reference ranges for serum lipid concentrations during pregnancy. TC and LDL-C levels in pregnant women with SCH could improve after L-T4 treatment.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Tiroxina , LDL-Colesterol , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Gestantes , Tireotropina , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1504, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using cohort data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), we previously reported that the risk of sleep deprivation in 1-year-old children was reduced with a higher maternal intake of fermented foods, particularly miso. The present study, which evaluates children from the same cohort at 3 years of age, is a continuation of that work. METHODS: After applying exclusion criteria to 104,062 records in the JECS dataset, we evaluated 64,200 mother-child pairs in which the child was 3 years old. We examined the association of the dietary intake of fermented foods during pregnancy with child sleep duration < 10 h at the age of 3 years. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis with the lowest quartile used as a reference revealed adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the second through fourth quartiles of 0.98 (0.90-1.06), 0.93 (0.85-1.01), and 0.85 (0.78-0.94) for cheese intake. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of fermented foods during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of sleep deprivation in 3-year-old children, albeit in a limited way.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados , Privação do Sono , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 757, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High bone mass (HBM, BMD Z-score ≥ + 3.2) and cam morphology (bulging of lateral femoral head) are associated with greater odds of prevalent radiographic hip osteoarthritis (rHOA). As cam morphology is itself a manifestation of increased bone deposition around the femoral head, it is conceivable that cam morphology may mediate the relationship between HBM and rHOA. We therefore aimed to determine if individuals with HBM have increased odds of prevalent cam morphology. In addition, we investigated whether the relationship between cam and prevalent and incident osteoarthritis was preserved in a HBM population. METHODS: In the HBM study, a UK based cohort of adults with unexplained HBM and their relatives and spouses (controls), we determined the presence of cam morphology using semi-automatic methods of alpha angle derivation from pelvic radiographs. Associations between HBM status and presence of cam morphology, and between cam morphology and presence of rHOA (or its subphenotypes: osteophytes, joint space narrowing, cysts, and subchondral sclerosis) were determined using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, height, weight, and adolescent physical activity levels. The association between cam at baseline and incidence of rHOA after an average of 8 years was determined. Generalised estimating equations accounted for individual-level clustering. RESULTS: The study included 352 individuals, of whom 235 (66.7%) were female and 234 (66.5%) had HBM. Included individuals contributed 694 hips, of which 143 had a cam deformity (20.6%). There was no evidence of an association between HBM and cam morphology (OR = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.63-1.51], p = 0.90) but a strong relationship was observed between cam morphology and rHOA (OR = 3.96 [2.63-5.98], p = 5.46 × 10-11) and rHOA subphenotypes joint space narrowing (OR = 3.70 [2.48-5.54], p = 1.76 × 10-10), subchondral sclerosis (OR = 3.28 [1.60-6.60], p = 9.57 × 10-4) and osteophytes (OR = 3.01 [1.87-4.87], p = 6.37 × 10-6). Cam morphology was not associated with incident osteoarthritis (OR = 0.76 [0.16-3.49], p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between cam morphology and rHOA seen in other studies is preserved in a HBM population. This study suggests that the risk of OA conferred by high BMD and by cam morphology are mediated via distinct pathways.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteófito , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Quadril/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia , Osteófito/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteófito/epidemiologia , Osteófito/patologia , Radiografia , Esclerose/patologia
15.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 452-461, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients often report various symptoms after recovery from acute COVID-19. Previous studies on post-COVID-19 condition have not corrected for the prevalence and severity of these common symptoms before COVID-19 and in populations without SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to analyse the nature, prevalence, and severity of long-term symptoms related to COVID-19, while correcting for symptoms present before SARS-CoV-2 infection and controlling for the symptom dynamics in the population without infection. METHODS: This study is based on data collected within Lifelines, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based, observational cohort study examining the health and health-related behaviours of people living in the north of the Netherlands. All Lifelines participants aged 18 years or older received invitations to digital COVID-19 questionnaires. Longitudinal dynamics of 23 somatic symptoms surrounding COVID-19 diagnoses (due to SARS-CoV-2 alpha [B.1.1.7] variant or previous variants) were assessed using 24 repeated measurements between March 31, 2020, and Aug 2, 2021. Participants with COVID-19 (a positive SARS-CoV-2 test or a physician's diagnosis of COVID-19) were matched by age, sex, and time to COVID-19-negative controls. We recorded symptom severity before and after COVID-19 in participants with COVID-19 and compared that with matched controls. FINDINGS: 76 422 participants (mean age 53·7 years [SD 12·9], 46 329 [60·8%] were female) completed a total of 883 973 questionnaires. Of these, 4231 (5·5%) participants had COVID-19 and were matched to 8462 controls. Persistent symptoms in COVID-19-positive participants at 90-150 days after COVID-19 compared with before COVID-19 and compared with matched controls included chest pain, difficulties with breathing, pain when breathing, painful muscles, ageusia or anosmia, tingling extremities, lump in throat, feeling hot and cold alternately, heavy arms or legs, and general tiredness. In 12·7% of patients, these symptoms could be attributed to COVID-19, as 381 (21·4%) of 1782 COVID-19-positive participants versus 361 (8·7%) of 4130 COVID-19-negative controls had at least one of these core symptoms substantially increased to at least moderate severity at 90-150 days after COVID-19 diagnosis or matched timepoint. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the nature and prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition, while correcting for individual symptoms present before COVID-19 and the symptom dynamics in the population without SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. Further research that distinguishes potential mechanisms driving post-COVID-19-related symptomatology is required. FUNDING: ZonMw; Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport; Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs; University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen; Provinces of Drenthe, Friesland, and Groningen.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMJ ; 378: e069901, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide clinicians and patients with accurate risk estimates of serious adverse events after common elective shoulder arthroscopic procedures, including reoperation within one year. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Hospital Episode Statistics for NHS England, including civil registration mortality data from the Office for National Statistics. PARTICIPANTS: 288 250 arthroscopic shoulder procedures performed in 261 248 patients aged ≥16 years between 1 April 2009 and 31 March 2017. Elective procedures were grouped into subacromial decompression, rotator cuff repair, acromioclavicular joint excision, glenohumeral stabilisation, and frozen shoulder release. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were rates of serious adverse events (mortality, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, stroke, and urinary tract infection) requiring inpatient care within 90 days post-surgery. Secondary outcomes were specific adverse event rates at 90 days, and reoperations (including for deep infection) within one year. RESULTS: The overall rate of complications within 90 days after arthroscopic shoulder surgery (including reoperation) was low at 1.2% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 1.3%), with one in 81 patients at risk, and varied according to type of procedure, from 0.6% (0.5% to 0.8%) for glenohumeral stabilisation to 1.7% (1.5% to 1.8%) for frozen shoulder release. After adjustment for age, comorbidities, and sex, no effect of procedure type was observed. Pneumonia was the most common adverse event (0.3%, 0.3% to 0.4%), with one in 303 patients at risk. Pulmonary embolic events were rare, at 0.1% (0.1% to 0.1%), with one in 1428 patients at risk. At one year, the overall rate for reoperation was 3.8% (3.8% to 3.9%), with one in 26 patients at risk, ranging from 2.7% (2.5% to 3.0%) for glenohumeral stabilisation to 5.7% (5.4% to 6.1%) for frozen shoulder release. The overall rate of further surgery for deep infection was low, at 0.1% (0.1% to 0.1%), with one in 1111 patients at risk, but was higher after rotator cuff repair (0.2%, 0.2% to 0.2%), with one in 526 patients at risk. Over the study period the number of arthroscopic shoulder procedures increased, except for subacromial decompression, which decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that risks of serious adverse events associated with common shoulder arthroscopy procedures are low. Nevertheless, serious complications do occur, and include the risk of reoperation in one in 26 patients within one year. STUDY REGISTRATION: Clinical. TRIALS: gov NCT03573765.


Assuntos
Bursite , Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Artroscopia/métodos , Bursite/epidemiologia , Bursite/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Reoperação , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ombro , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 1309-1318, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938702

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is emerging rapidly as the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. In this 3-year prospective, multicenter cohort study, a total of 1138 pre-dialysis CKD patients were recruited. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the etiologies of DKD and non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD). Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for confounding factors, resulting in 197 patients being assigned to DKD and NDKD groups, respectively. The primary endpoints were 50% estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and initiation of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The secondary endpoints were all-cause death and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We found that DKD patients have a higher risk to develop 50% eGFR decline endpoint (HR:2.30, 95%CI [1.48-3.58], p < 0.001) and KRT endpoint (HR:1.64, 95%CI [1.13-2.37], p < 0.05) than NDKD patients. The 3-year cumulative incidence of 50% eGFR decline and KRT endpoint was significantly higher in DKD patients (26.90% vs.13.71% and 35.03% vs. 22.34%, respectively). The Cox regression analyses showed that the increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), DKD, decreased serum albumin (Alb), and higher CKD stages were risk factors for the 50% eGFR decline endpoint; the increased SBP, DKD, decreased serum Alb, serum creatinine (Scr), higher CKD stages, presence of proteinuria and CVD were risk factors for KRT endpoint; the increased age, decreased hemoglobin (Hb), decreased serum Alb were risk factors for all-cause death endpoint; the increased age, decreased serum Alb were risk factors for CVD events endpoint. Appropriate preventive or therapeutic interventions should be taken to control these predictive factors to delay the development of CKD complications, thereby improving the prognosis and reducing the disease burden of the high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05029, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939273

RESUMO

Background: Sociodemographic and environmental factors are associated with incidence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. However, little is known about the role of such factors in persisting symptoms among recovering patients. We designed a cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors to describe persistent symptoms and identify factors associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome. Methods: We included patients hospitalized between March to August 2020 who were alive six months after hospitalization. We collected individual and clinical characteristics during hospitalization and at follow-up assessed ten symptoms with standardized scales, 19 yes/no symptoms, a functional status and a quality-of-life scale and performed four clinical tests. We examined individual exposure to greenspace and air pollution and considered neighbourhood´s population density and socioeconomic conditions as contextual factors in multilevel regression analysis. Results: We included 749 patients with a median follow-up of 200 (IQR = 185-235) days, and 618 (83%) had at least one of the ten symptoms measured with scales. Pain (41%), fatigue (38%) and posttraumatic stress disorder (35%) were the most frequent. COVID-19 severity, comorbidities, BMI, female sex, younger age, and low socioeconomic position were associated with different symptoms. Exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with higher dyspnoea and fatigue scores and lower functional status. Conclusions: We identified a high frequency of persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors that were associated with clinical, sociodemographic, and environmental variables. These findings indicate that most patients recovering from COVID-19 will need post-discharge care, and an additional burden to health care systems, especially in LMICs, should be expected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência ao Convalescente , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225876, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939299

RESUMO

Importance: Although numerous studies have separately investigated the associations of changes in weight or waist circumference with mortality risk, few studies have examined the associations of concurrent changes in these 2 anthropometric parameters with all-cause mortality. Objective: To assess the associations of changes in body weight, waist circumference, or both, combined with all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from 2 longitudinal cohort studies in Dongfeng-Tongji and Kailuan, China. Participants included 58 132 adults (aged 40 years and older) with measures of weight and waist circumference at baseline and follow-up visit. Statistical analysis was performed from June 2020 to September 2021. Exposures: Changes in weight and waist circumference between 2 visits (2008-2010 to 2013 in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, and 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 in the Kailuan study). Stable weight was defined as change in weight within 2.5 kg between the 2 visits and stable waist circumference was defined as changes within 3.0 cm. Changes were categorized as loss, stable, or gain for weight and waist circumference separately, and created a 9-category variable to represent the joint changes. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality from follow-up visit (2013 in Dongfeng-Tongji cohort and 2010-2011 in Kailuan study) until December 31, 2018. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the associations with adjustment for potential confounders. Results were obtained in the 2 cohorts separately and pooled via fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: A total of 10 951 participants in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort (median [IQR] age, 62 [56-66] years; 4203 [38.4%] men) and 47 181 participants in the Kailuan study (median [IQR] age, 51 [46-58] years; 36 663 [77.7%] men) were included in the analysis. During 426 072 person-years of follow-up, 4028 deaths (523 in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort and 3505 in the Kailuan study) were documented. When changes in weight and waist circumference were examined separately, U-shape associations were found: both gain and loss in weight (weight loss: pooled hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.23-1.43; weight gain: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19) or waist circumference (waist circumference loss: HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.24; waist circumference gain: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.21) were associated with higher mortality risk compared with stable weight or waist group. When changes in weight and waist circumference were jointly assessed, compared with participants with stable weight and waist circumference (16.9% of the total population [9828 of 58 132] with 508 deaths), participants with different combinations of weight and waist circumference change all had higher mortality risks except for those with stable weight but significant loss in waist. Notably, those who lost weight but gained waist circumference (6.4% of the total population [3698 of 58 132] with 308 deaths) had the highest risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.46-1.96; absolute rate difference per 100 000 person-years in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort: 414; 95% CI, 116-819; and in the Kailuan study: 333; 95% CI, 195-492) among the joint subgroups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, weight loss with concurrent waist circumference gain was associated with a higher mortality risk in middle-aged and older Chinese adults. This study's findings suggest the importance of evaluating the changes in both body weight and waist circumference when assessing their associations with mortality.


Assuntos
Redução de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225647, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939300

RESUMO

Importance: Studies focusing on genetic susceptibility of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are limited. Objectives: To identify genetic variants associated with childhood-onset HL vs adult-onset HL. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic association study was performed with 3 cohorts: the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE), initiated in 2007 with ongoing follow-up, and the original and expansion cohorts of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), initiated in the 1990s with ongoing follow-up. Results of these genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were combined via meta-analysis. Data were analyzed from June 2021 to June 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Childhood HL was the focused outcome. Single-nucleotide variant (SNV, formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) array genotyping and imputation were conducted for the CCSS original cohort, and whole-genome sequencing was performed for the SJLIFE and CCSS expansion cohort. Results: A total of 1286 HL cases (mean diagnosis [SD] age, 14.6 [3.9] years), 6193 non-HL childhood cancer cases, and 369 noncancer controls, all of European ancestry, were included in the analysis. Using step-wise conditional logistic regression, the odds ratios (ORs) for each of the 3 independent SNVs identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus were 1.80 (95% CI, 1.59-2.03; P = 2.14 × 10-21) for rs28383311, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.37-1.70; P = 2.05 × 10-14) for rs3129198, and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.35-1.69; P = 6.21 × 10-13) for rs3129890. Further HLA imputation revealed 9 alleles and 55 amino acid changes that potentially conferred HL susceptibility. In addition, 5 non-HLA loci were identified: (1) rs1432297 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.41; P = 2.5 × 10-8; r2 = 0.55; D' = 0.75 with previously reported rs1432295, REL); (2) rs2757647 (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18-1.42; P = 3.5 × 10-8; r2 = 0.59; D' = 0.83 with previously reported rs6928977, AHI1); (3) rs13279159 (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20-1.47; P = 1.7 × 10-8; r2 = 0.75; D' = 1.00 with previously reported rs2019960, PVT1); (4) rs3824662 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.33-1.73; P = 3.9 × 10-10; r2 = 0.91; D' = 1.00 with previously reported rs3781093, GATA3); and (5) rs117953624 (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.56-2.51; P = 1.5 × 10-8; minor allele frequency, 0.02), a novel uncommon SNV mapped to PDGFD. Twelve of 18 previously reported genome-wide significant non-HLA SNVs (67%) were replicated with statistically significant results. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genetic association study, a predominantly common and potentially unique genetic etiology was found between childhood-onset and adulthood-onset HL.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença de Hodgkin , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Antígenos HLA/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Humanos , Nucleotídeos
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