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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an influence of 8-week course of winter nordic walking as the multitask on the spatial-temporal characteristics of walking and motor disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven patients (3 men and 8 women, mean age 66.82±3.97 years) with Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to 2 PD were included in the study. Preliminary medical examination, including the anthropometric profile with the calculation of the body mass index (BMI), the grip strength on the right and left sides, spirometry, functional tests with the physical load (orthostatic test with the determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DPB) and type of reaction (normal, hypertonic, hypotonic), the 6 Minute Walk Test, timed Up and Go test), was performed to evaluate the physical state. The evaluation of motor function was performed using the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale of the Movement Disorder Society (MDS UPDRS), part III. A 8-week course of nordic walking training was carried out at the certified track on the stadium localized outside of the city, in the wood and parks area in the winter. RESULTS: Compared to the first training, gait velocity increased at the 3rd session, the step length at the 6th. The improvement of the spatial-temporal characteristics of walking was accompanied by the improvement of the motor function as measured by MDS UPDRS, part III. CONCLUSION: Winter nordic walking as multitask is the effective measure of exercise treatment in patients with PD, because it improves the spatial-temporal characteristics of walking and the motor function.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Caminhada , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on patients and healthcare providers and impact health care institutions financially. Reducing nosocomial infections requires an integrated program of prevention and control using key clinical best care practices. No instrument currently exists that measures these practices in terms of personnel time and material costs. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an instrument that would measure nosocomial infection control and prevention best care practice costs, including estimates of human and material resources. METHODS: An evaluation of the literature identified four practices essential for the control of pathogens: hand hygiene, hygiene and sanitation, screening and additional precaution. To reflect time, materials and products used in these practices, our team developed a time and motion guide. Iterations of the guide were assessed in a Delphi technique; content validity was established using the content validity index and reliability was assessed using Kruskall Wallis one-way ANOVA of rank test. RESULTS: Two rounds of Delphi review were required; 88% of invited experts completed the assessment. The final version of the guide contains eight dimensions: Identification [83 items]; Personnel [5 items]; Additional Precautions [1 item]; Hand Hygiene [2 items]; Personal Protective Equipment [14 items]; Screening [4 items]; Cleaning and Disinfection of Patient Care Equipment [33 items]; and Hygiene and Sanitation [24 items]. The content validity index obtained for all dimensions was acceptable (> 80%). Experts statistically agreed on six of the eight dimensions. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This study developed and validated a new instrument based on expert opinion, the time and motion guide, for the systematic assessment of costs relating to the human and material resources used in nosocomial infection prevention and control. This guide will prove useful to measure the intensity of the application of prevention and control measures taken before, during and after outbreak periods or during pandemics such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/economia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Algoritmos , Técnica Delfos , Desinfecção , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Saneamento
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2630-2633, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018546

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a valuable noninvasive tool of assessing the state of cardiovascular autonomic function. The interest in heart rate monitoring without electrodes led to the rise of alternative heart beat monitoring methods, such as gyrocardiography (GCG). The purpose of this study was to compare HRV indices calculated on GCG and ECG signals. The study on time domain and and frequency domain heart rate variability analysis was conducted on electrocardiograms and gyrocardiograms registered on 29 healthy male volunteers. ECG signals were used as a reference and the HRV analysis was performed using PhysioNet Cardiovascular Signal Toolbox. The results of HRV analysis show great similarity and strong linear correlation of HRV indices calculated from ECG and GCG indicate the feasibility and reliability of HRV analysis based on gyrocardiograms.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2314-2320, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965184

RESUMO

This study was designated to investigate the kinematical differences between successful and faulty spikes, in order to identify the best strategies leading to better spike performance. Simulating a real-game condition, 13 elite youth attackers performed 6 spikes in the presence of 2 blocks. The kinematic variables of the spike performances were recorded using 6 optoelectronic cameras (Vicon Motion systems, Oxford, UK). The paired sample t-test was used to compare the kinematic variables recorded during the delivery of successful and faulty spikes. Among the successful trials, both the angular velocities of the knees (≈12.4%) and hips (≈13.3%), and the vertical velocity of the centre of mass at take-off (≈6.5%) and arm swing (≈8.2%) were considerably higher during the plant phase. Consequently, the jump (≈4.3%) and spike (≈1.5%) heights, as well as the wrist velocity (≈5.5%), were significantly higher during the jump phase of successful spikes. In successful spike performances, the attackers adopted higher hip and knee angular velocities, combined with efficient arm swings, to produce higher take-off velocities and reach higher jump heights. This approach provides them with the better position regarding the ball and the blockers to find the best path and hit the ball with higher arm velocities.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Voleibol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Braço/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Punho/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0229194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966305

RESUMO

The current study determined the area-per-player during small- or large-sided games with or without goalkeeper that replicates the relative (m·min-1) total distance, high-intensity running distance, sprint distance and metabolic power covered during official matches. Time-motion analysis was performed on twenty-five elite soccer-players during 26 home-matches. A total of 2565 individual samples for SSGs using different pitch sizes and different number of players were collected and classified as SSGs with (SSG-G) or without goalkeeper (SSG-P). A between-position comparison was also performed. The area-per-player needed to replicate the official match demands was largely higher in SSG-G vs SSG-P for total distance [187±53 vs 115±35 m2, effect size (ES): 1.60 95%CI 0.94/2.21], high-intensity running distance [262±72 vs 166±39 m2, ES: 1.66(0.99/2.27)] and metabolic power [177±42 vs 94±40, ES: 1.99(1.31/2.67)], but similar for sprint distance [(316±75 vs 295±99 m2, ES: 0.24(-0.32/0.79)] with direction of larger area-per-player for sprint distance > high-intensity running > total distance ≌ metabolic power for both SSG-G and SSG-P. In SSG-G, forwards required higher area-per-player than central-defenders [ES: 2.96(1.07/4.35)], wide-midfielders [ES: 2.45(0.64/3.78)] and wide-defenders [ES: 3.45(1.13/4.99)]. Central-midfielders required higher area-per-player than central-defenders [ES: 1.69(0.20/2.90)] and wide-midfielders [ES: 1.35(-0.13/2.57)]. In SSG-P, central defenders need lower area-per-player (ES: -6.01/-0.92) to overall replicate the match demands compared to all other positions. The current results may be used to gain knowledge of the SSGs relative to the match demands. This imply manipulating SSGs using higher or lower ApP, the presence of the goalkeeper or design specific rules to increase or decrease the position-specific demands with respect to the desired external load outcomes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2200-2207, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921248

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (a) to describe the kinematics underlying the phenomenon of the knee of the swing leg passing medially in front of the athlete during the single push (SP) phase of the block sprint start, and (b) to determine the relationships between block phase pelvis range of motion (RoM), 1st step width and block phase performance. Three-dimensional kinematic data (250 Hz) were collected from eleven competitive sprinters (100 m PB: 11.17 ± 0.41) performing maximal effort block starts. The joint angles of the rear hip with respect to the pelvis and the pelvis segment angles with respect to the laboratory coordinate system were calculated during the block start phase to the end of the 1st stance. A combination of pelvis list and rotation (not hip adduction) was coupled with the thigh of the swing leg moving medially during the SP phase. A very high positive correlation was found between pelvic list RoM and 1st step width (r = 0.799, p = 0.003). No other significant correlations were found. Attempting to reduce pelvic RoM or changing frontal and transverse plane hip joint angles to minimise medial thigh motion is unlikely to lead to an improvement to performance.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0233475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946458

RESUMO

We aimed to compare the match-play and kinematic demands of the translation and rotation movements of elite wheelchair padel players as a function of match results. Twenty-two elite male players were video-analysed with a two-dimensional direct linear transformation (DLT) -corrected video system across seven matches of a professional tournament. Distance, turns, changes of direction, linear and angular speed, acceleration and the players' heart rate (HR) were recorded. Losing couples in wheelchair padel covered greater distances than winners (P <0.001; r = 0.024) and did so at a higher speed (P <0.001; r = 0.06), while making greater efforts by accelerating (P <0.001; ∅ = -0.021), braking (P <0.001; ∅ = -0.014), and remaining less time stationary (P <0.001; ∅ = 0.059). In addition, losers performed more turns per rally (P <0.001; r = 0.04) at a faster speed, greater angular accelerations (P <0.001; V = 0.06) and greater average (P = 0.007; d = 0.91) and maximum (P = 0.20; d = 0.69) HR values. These data suggest that winner couples performed a better court positioning and employed a strategy to move the opponent during rallies in order to avoid them optimally reaching the ball.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Paratletas , Esportes/fisiologia , Cadeiras de Rodas , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 899-903, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886828

RESUMO

AIM: Exercise therapy is a key intervention in the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to test the 6-month effectiveness of Wu Qin Xi Qigong (WQXQ) exercise versus a conventional physical therapy (control group [CG]) on physical functioning in patients with early knee OA. METHODS: This study was a 6-month follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Participants with knee OA were randomly allocated to the WQXQ or CG. Data from the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, 30-Second Chair Stand Test, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, knee extension strength and knee flexion strength were collected before and after the 6-month intervention. RESULTS: Both treatment groups demonstrated large (20%-50%) and clinically relevant reductions in activity limitations, pain and knee instability, which were sustained at 6 months post-treatment. No differences in effectiveness between experimental and control treatment were found on Timed Up and Go Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, knee extension strength and knee flexion strength except for a higher Berg Balance Scale score (P = 0.029) and lower Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain score (P = 0.031) in the WQXQ group. CONCLUSIONS: Both WQXQ and conventional physical therapy exercise programs were highly effective in reducing activity limitations and pain, and promoting balance and muscle power. WQXQ was found to be more effective in promoting balance and reducing pain than conventional physical therapy exercise in patients with knee OA. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 899-903.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qigong/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Dor/reabilitação , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 980-987, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886834

RESUMO

AIMS: Sarcopenia is a serious problem because of its poor prognosis. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance and oxidative stress, which may play crucial roles for the development of sarcopenia. We aimed to examine whether serum GDF15 level is associated with muscle mass, strength and lower extremity function in older patients with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: Serum GDF15 levels were measured in 257 patients with cardiometabolic diseases (including 133 patients with diabetes) who had visited the frailty clinic, using a latex turbidimetric immunoassay. Appendicular skeletal muscle index, handgrip strength, timed-up-and-go test and gait speed were evaluated. Power, speed, balance and total scores based on the sit-to-stand test were calculated to assess lower extremity function. RESULTS: The highest tertile of serum GDF15 was independently associated with low handgrip strength, low gait speed, long timed-up-and-go time and scores of lower extremity function but not an appendicular skeletal muscle index in multiple logistic regression analyses after adjustment for covariates. Patients in the highest tertile of GDF15 were at the risk of having three to nine times lower grip strength, three times lower gait speed, five to six times lower mobility and five to 11 times reduction in lower extremity function as compared with those in the lowest GDF15 tertile dependent on the models. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum GDF15 level was independently associated with low muscle strength and lower extremity function in older patients with cardiometabolic disease. Serum GDF15 could be one of the biomarkers for muscle weakness and low physical performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 980-987.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fragilidade , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1072-1080, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims at describing and comparing each other male and female soccer players kicking instep a stationary ball. The different measures we collected by the 3D motion capture system Movit G1 and the High-Speed Camera (240 fps) were considered as dependent variables, whereas the gender was considered as the independent one. METHODS: Twenty soccer well trained non-professional players: 10 men (age: 25.3±6.5 yrs; height 1.80±0.07 m; body mass 76.9±13.2 kg) and 10 women (age: 19±3.34 yrs; height 1.64±0.07 m; body mass 58.2±7.2 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. RESULTS: Gender differences were found, with a statistical significance (P<0.05) or interesting magnitude (Cohen d>0.5). The most relevant ones were the differences in hip extension of the kicking leg when the foot of the supporting one touches the ground, just before the impact on the ball (independent sample t-Test; P=0.03; Cohen d=1.64) and the speed of the ball, reached immediately after kicking (P<0.001;d=1.23). CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with the greater pelvic acceleration shown by men compared to women, highlight the need to develop a gender-differentiated training model, in order to customize the kicking technique in women and to reduce the likelihood, currently higher than for men, of kicking related injuries.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pelve/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1089-1100, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article details the development of adopting the Nesbit and McGinnis model of the golf swing as a starting point for studying golf performance optimization. The model was selected as it presents an opportunity to examine how non-naïve participants can learn and improve their swing mechanics, which could prove valuable in studying human learning in sports, rehabilitation, and re-education. METHODS: Kinematic data was acquired in laboratory and real-world environments using the motion capture systems Qualysis and CodaMotion CX-Sport, respectively. In the early stages of developing the model in MATLAB, we identified limitations in the Nesbit and McGinnis methodology, including the filtering techniques applied to swing vectors and the selection of swing variables and the solutions to their boundary conditions solutions during the downswing. By addressing these issues, our goal was to revise the model and make it more robust and capable of optimizing the impact velocities from a wider variety of subjects with varying swing mechanics. RESULTS: By increasing the cutoff frequency used to filter the swing vectors and expanding the swing variable polynomial equations, we found it was possible for all participants to increase their club head velocity at impact while respecting their unique kinematic limitations. The manner of the kinematic changes and the percent of velocity improvement are participant dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the observed and optimized hub paths differed among participants, which suggests participants might also differ in their approaches and capacities to adopt the latter.


Assuntos
Golfe/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752139

RESUMO

During later life, inadequate social interactions may be associated with worse quality of life in older adults. Rural older adults are prone to developing unhealthy lifestyles related to social activities, which can lead to a poorer quality of life than that enjoyed by older adults living in urban areas. This study aimed to describe longitudinal changes in social activity participation and health-related quality of life among rural older adults, exploring potential associations with changes to in-person social activity over four years. We used prospective community-based cohort data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) collected between December 2011 and January 2016. The sample included 525 older adults who completed the measure of health-related quality of life. Our results showed a significant change in health-related quality of life according to changes in participation in meeting with friends. Even though an individual's participation in other social activities did not show significant differences in health-related quality of life, our findings imply that in-person social activities may be an important resource to encourage participation in physical activities and to develop other positive outcomes, such as a sense of belonging or satisfaction with later life, among rural older adults.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Qualidade de Vida , Participação Social , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823719

RESUMO

Time series analysis in epidemiological studies is typically conducted on aggregated counts, although data tend to be collected at finer temporal resolutions. The decision to aggregate data is rarely discussed in epidemiological literature although it has been shown to impact model results. We present a critical thinking process for making decisions about data aggregation in time series analysis of seasonal infections. We systematically build a harmonic regression model to characterize peak timing and amplitude of three respiratory and enteric infections that have different seasonal patterns and incidence. We show that irregularities introduced when aggregating data must be controlled during modeling to prevent erroneous results. Aggregation irregularities had a minimal impact on the estimates of trend, amplitude, and peak timing for daily and weekly data regardless of the disease. However, estimates of peak timing of the more common infections changed by as much as 2.5 months when controlling for monthly data irregularities. Building a systematic model that controls for data irregularities is essential to accurately characterize temporal patterns of infections. With the urgent need to characterize temporal patterns of novel infections, such as COVID-19, this tutorial is timely and highly valuable for experts in many disciplines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Agregação de Dados , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 296-301, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been no comprehensive study determining the financial burden of breast cancer in the South African (SA) public sector. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method to determine the cost of breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy per episode of care and to quantify the associated costs relating to chemotherapy at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), a government hospital in SA. These costs included costs associated with the management of adverse events arising from chemotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective patient-level data were collected for 200 patients from electronic databases and patient folders between 2013 and 2015. Direct medical costs were determined from the health funder's perspective. The information collected was categorised into the following cost components: chemotherapy medicines, support medicines, administration of chemotherapy, laboratory tests, radiology scans and imaging, doctor consultations and adverse events. Time-and-motion studies were conducted on a set of new patients and the data obtained were used for the study sample of 200 patients. All the above costs were used to determine the cost of chemotherapy per episode of care. The episode of care was defined as the care provided from 2 months prior to the date of commencing chemotherapy (pre-chemotherapy phase), during chemotherapy (treatment phase) and until 6 months after the date when the last cycle of chemotherapy was administered (follow-up phase). RESULTS: A method was developed to determine the episode-of-care costs for breast cancer at GSH. The total direct medical cost for treatment of breast cancer at GSH for 200 patients was ZAR3 154 877, and the average episode-of-care cost per patient was ZAR15 774. The average cost of management of adverse events arising from the various treatment modalities was ZAR13 133 per patient. It was found that the cost of treating a patient with adverse events was 1.8 times higher than the cost of treating a patient without adverse events. Of the patients, 86.5% managed to complete their prescribed chemotherapy treatment cycles, and the average cost of treatment of these patients was 1.3 times more than the average cost for patients who could not complete their treatment, based on the number of treatment cycles received. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive method to determine the costs associated with breast cancer management per episode of care was developed, and costs were quantified at GSH according to the treatment protocol used at the hospital.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/economia , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/economia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/economia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2471-2478, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662349

RESUMO

A logarithmic curve fitting methodology for the calculation of badminton racket-shuttlecock impact locations from three-dimensional motion capture data was presented and validated. Median absolute differences between calculated and measured impact locations were 3.6 [IQR: 4.4] and 3.5 [IQR: 3.5] mm mediolaterally and longitudinally on the racket face, respectively. Three-dimensional kinematic data of racket and shuttlecock were recorded for 2386 smashes performed by 65 international badminton players, with racket-shuttlecock impact location assessed against instantaneous post-impact shuttlecock speed and direction. Mediolateral and longitudinal impact locations explained 26.2% (quadratic regression; 95% credible interval: 23.1%, 29.2%; BF10 = 1.3 × 10131, extreme; p < 0.001) of the variation in participant-specific shuttlecock speed. A meaningful (BF10 = ∞, extreme; p < 0.001) linear relationship was observed between mediolateral impact location and shuttlecock horizontal direction relative to a line normal to the racket face at impact. Impact locations within one standard deviation of the pooled mean impact location predict reductions in post-impact shuttlecock speeds of up to 5.3% of the player's maximal speed and deviations in the horizontal direction of up to 2.9° relative to a line normal to the racket face. These results highlight the margin for error available to elite badminton players during the smash.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento , Equipamentos Esportivos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2407-2414, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648526

RESUMO

This study investigated a method for modelling a landscape of opportunities for penetrative passing completed on the ground by ball carriers in association football. Analysis of video footage of competitive, professional football performance was undertaken, identifying a sample (n = 20) of attacking sub-phases of gameplay which ended in a penetrative pass being made between defenders to a receiver. Players' relative co-positioning during performance was modelled using bi-dimensional x and y coordinates of each player recorded at 25 fps. Data on player movements during competitive interactions were captured using an automatic video tracking system, recording player co-locations emerging over time, as well as current and estimated running velocities. Results revealed that the half spaces between the midfield and both sidelines were the key locations on field providing most affordances for penetrating passes in the competitive performance sample analysed. Due to the dynamics of players' co-adaptive performance behaviours, it was expected that opportunities for penetrative passing by ball carriers would not display a homogeneous space-time spread across the entire field. Results agreed with these expectations, showing how a landscape of opportunities for penetrative passing might be specified by information emerging from continuous player interactions in competitive performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2359-2366, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627681

RESUMO

Successful sprinting depends on covering a specific distance in the shortest time possible. Although external forces are key to sprinting, less consideration is given to the duration of force application, which influences the impulse generated. This study explored relationships between sprint performance measures and external kinetic and kinematic performance indicators. Data were collected from the initial acceleration, transition and maximal velocity phases of a sprint. Relationships were analysed between sprint performance measures and kinetic and kinematic variables. A commonality regression analysis was used to explore how independent variables contributed to multiple-regression models for the sprint phases. Propulsive forces play a key role in sprint performance during the initial acceleration (r = 0.95 ± 0.03) and transition phases (r = 0.74 ± 0.19), while braking duration plays an important role during the transition phase (r = -0.72 ± 0.20). Contact time, vertical force and peak propulsive forces represented key determinants (r = -0.64 ± 0.31, r = 0.57 ± 0.35 and r = 0.66 ± 0.30, respectively) of maximal velocity phase performance, with peak propulsive force providing the largest unique contribution to the regression model for step velocity. These results clarified the role of force and time variables on sprinting performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 858-866, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629505

RESUMO

This investigation examined the position-specific physical performance in different locomotor categories and physiological demands concurrently in official games of sub-elite players and to present a new performance index (PI). Time-motion (distance, velocity, acceleration) and heart rate data of 55 soccer players were simultaneously captured via a GPS tracking system. The relationship between external and internal match-load (PI) was determined on the basis of heart rate, average velocity and acceleration. In contrast to the mean heart rate (85.2±3.2%, P=0.806, ηp²=0.03), the average total distance covered (9946±715 m) was largely affected by players' position (P<0.001, ηp²=0.63). Furthermore, a mixed design ANOVA showed a large interaction effect between position and locomotor category (P<0.001, ηp²=0.44). On average, PI was 1.57±0.37 m/min²/%, with notably lower values in the 2nd half. The position-specific profiles already reported for higher leagues were also present in sub-elite soccer players. Despite lower values for total distance and smaller distances in the high-intensity zones (>14.4 km/h), internal loads were comparable to those observed in European top leagues. In comparison to a performance measure that ignores accelerations, PI was shown to be less dependent on the playing position and had higher variability. Consequently, PI is better suited to distinguish between players' performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2382-2389, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600126

RESUMO

Elliptical trainers that increase the inter-pedal distance may have potential benefits for knee osteoarthritis by decreasing the amount of knee varus. Modifying elliptical trainers with a converging footpath and reduced inter-pedal distance may be beneficial for reducing anterior knee pathology risk by decreasing knee valgus angles. Twenty-one college students participated in a single testing session. Participants exercised on two different elliptical trainers, one modified with a converging footpath and reduced inter-pedal width, and a standard elliptical trainer. Participants exercised for 2 min at three ramps incline at 120 strides per minute and constant work rate. Three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography of the dominant lower limb were recorded. Multiple 2 × 3 (Elliptical x Incline) ANOVAs with Bonferroni corrections were used to compare the two elliptical trainers at each incline for kinematics and muscle activity. The modified elliptical trainer displayed significantly decreased peak knee valgus (p = 0.031, η p 2 = 0.234 ), peak knee flexion (p = 0.006, η p 2 = 0.246 ), and interactions for peak knee flexion (p = 0.001, η p 2 = 0.250 ) and vastus lateralis (p < 0.01, η p 2 = 0.380 ) muscle activity compared to the standard elliptical trainer. The decreased peak knee valgus and flexion angles could be beneficial for reducing long-term injury risk for anterior knee pathologies.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2374-2381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600128

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of shoe collar-height and counter-stiffness on ground reaction force (GRF), ankle and knee mechanics in landing. Eighteen university basketball players performed drop landing when wearing shoes in different collar height (high vs. low) and counter-stiffness (stiffer vs. less stiff). Biomechanical variables were measured with force platform and motion capturing systems. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed with α = 0.05. Wearing high collar shoes exhibited smaller peak ankle dorsiflexion and total sagittal RoM, peak knee extension moment, but larger peak knee varus moment than the low collar shoes. Stiffer counter-stiffness shoes related to smaller ankle inversion at touchdown and total coronal RoM, but larger peak knee flexion and increased total ankle and knee sagittal RoM than the less stiff counter-stiffness. Furthermore, wearing stiffer counter-stiffness shoes increased forefoot GRF peak at high collar condition, while no significant differences between counter-stiffness at low collar condition. These results suggest that although higher collar height and/or stiffness heel counter used can reduce ankle motion in coronal plane, it would increase the motion and loading at knee joint, which is susceptible to knee injuries. These findings could be insightful for training and footwear development in basketball.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Joelho/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico , Sapatos , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/prevenção & controle , Basquetebol/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estresse Mecânico , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
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