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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(1-2): NP25-NP47, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911373

RESUMO

Research Questions: Rape prevention practice and policy have roots in data from 1985. This study uses 2015 national data to project recent prevalence, assesses whether rates now differ from those of 30 years ago, and disaggregates 2015 prevalence into rape of alcohol incapacitated victims, rapes combining both alcohol and physical tactics, and violent rape. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted comparing two national samples. The first was collected in 1984-85 (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987); the second was collected 30 years later in 2014-2015. Both surveys used in-person administration and measurement by the most current version at the time of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES). Prevalence rates were compared using Bayesian binomial tests. Results: In 2015, 33.4% (1 in 3) of women reported experiencing rape or attempted rape and 12.7% of men reported perpetration (1 in 8). Using Jeffreys' label for effect size of the Bayes binomial (1961), both results are "decisively" greater than expected given the 1985 benchmarks of 27.9% for victimization and 7.7% for perpetration. Victimization when incapacitated characterized approximately 75% of incidents in 2015 up from 50% in 1985. Cautions apply as cross-sectional data does not establish causality and the recent data set involved the revised SES. Conclusions: Across 30 years, neither containment nor reduction of rape was demonstrated and the increasingly prominent association with alcohol was apparent. Among the men who disclosed raping, 9 of 10 incidents were alcohol-involved. Prevention focus might profitably be directed to constraining alcohol environments and policies that facilitate rape of incapacitated persons and on misconduct responses that are proportional to the harm caused to rape victims, thereby raising the perceived risks of perpetration.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare official data on notifications of sexual violence against girls aged 10 to 13 years with data on pregnancy for the same age group between 2012 and 2018. METHODS: This is an epidemiological, descriptive, cross-sectional study with data from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS) on violence against and pregnancy of girls aged 10 to 13 years from 2012 to 2018. Data on sexual violence were accessed in the Health Information System (SINAN); on pregnancy, in the Live Births Information System (SINASC), on fetal deaths, in the Mortality Information System (SIM), and on abortions, in the Hospital Admission System (SIH). RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2018, out of 136,387 pregnancies, there were 120,185 live births and 15,402 interrupted pregnancies by abortions or fetal deaths of mothers who became pregnant aged 13 years or younger. In the same period, SINAN received 46,548 notifications of sexual abuse against girls aged 10 to 13 years. The number of girls who became pregnant before the age of 14, victims of statutory rape, was 2.9 times higher than the number of cases notified to SINAN. CONCLUSION: The lack of adequate notification of statutory rapes in Brazilian official statistics leads to the underestimation of its magnitude.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Violência
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(5): 758-764, 2021 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751329

RESUMO

Since 2017, women in Chile are allowed to interrupt voluntarily a pregnancy on three grounds: 1) When a woman's life is at risk due to the pregnancy, 2) When there are fetal anomalies incompatible with life, or 3) When pregnancy is result of rape. Women who qualify for any of these three pregnancy interruption requirements are entitled to a psychosocial accompaniment program to promote an integrative approach. In this article we will discuss the role of the psychosocial team in cases of rape resulting pregnancy. Specifically, the clinical and ethical dilemmas posed by the need to certify the rape in a general hospital such as difficulties in assessment of the story's plausibility, clinician's dual role and the limits to confidentiality, are discussed.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peacekeeper-perpetrated sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) account for 36% of the global reports of formal SEA allegations to the UN between 2007 and 2021. However, formally reported SEA represents only a fraction of that which occurs, and community experiences of peacekeeper-perpetrated SEA are likely different than those reflected in official UN documents. METHODS: Using mixed-methods, cross-sectional data collected in the DRC in 2018, we used descriptive analysis and multivariate Poisson regression with robust error estimates to examine the participant and narrative characteristics associated with sharing an experience about peacekeeper-perpetrated SEA. RESULTS: Participants in Bukavu (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) and Kalemie (aRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.81) were less likely to share narratives about sexual interactions, while civilian UN personnel (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.34) were slightly more likely to be implicated in narratives about sexual interactions. Narratives in which the outcome was deemed fair to the woman/girl were more likely to be about sexual interactions (aRR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.12). Both the regression analysis and the participants' interpretation of the shared narratives illustrated the significant role poverty played in SEA, suggesting that the outcomes of sexual interactions may have been deemed fair since affected women/girls were perceived to have benefited financially/materially. CONCLUSION: There is significant variation between host communities in the likelihood of sharing narratives about SEA, which could prove useful for informing more targeted SEA prevention initiatives. Narratives about sexual interactions with UN personnel were more often deemed to have fair outcomes for the affected women/girls, likely related to ongoing poverty in host communities and perceived financial/material gain. These findings highlight how extreme poverty may impact perceptions around informed consent as well as fairness and require further study. Perceptions around fair outcomes would disincentivise formal reporting, which needs to be considered when devising community-based complaint networks.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3787-3790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468672

RESUMO

The debate on abortion has not yet found a clear solution. In fact, there is still discussion about what the limits of this procedure should be. This uncertainty is related to the lack of a clear definition of human life: when can the product of conception be defined as a human being with full medical-legal rights? Based on the answer to this question, the various world governments have drafted more or less restrictive laws regulating abortion. Since May 2019, some American states have considerably restricted the possibility of carrying out abortion on their territory. Alabama has practically banned abortion in any circumstance (including incest and rape). Obviously, these restrictive policies have had a significant impact on the social, bioethical and legal debate, concerning abortion, globally. This paper analyses the implications of these policies with a focus on women's fundamental rights: the right to health and the right to self-determination.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Estupro , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Direitos da Mulher
6.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(4): 202-209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine college women's self-labeling as a victim or a survivor following a sexual assault and describe the relationship of self-labeling with mental health, self-blame, control over recovery, and help-seeking. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data in an online anonymous survey in November and December of 2018. Participants (N = 375) were recruited from two public universities, were 18- to 24-year-old undergraduate students, identified as female, and had experienced a sexual assault since entering college. RESULTS: Most respondents (46.4%, 174/375) chose labels other than victim or survivor. Statistically significant differences were found between choice of label (survivor, victim, or other) and depression, well-being, characterological self-blame, and perceived control over recovery. Short-answer responses revealed three major themes for alternative labels: choosing no label, normalizing, and seeking congruence. CONCLUSION: As when caring for a patient with any diagnosis, nurses and other healthcare providers should see a person-not a patient, a survivor, or a victim.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(4): 210-218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In China, rape is defined as forced sexual intercourse against a woman's will by violence, coercion, or any other means or intentionally having sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 14 years who is legally incompetent of giving consent. METHOD: A retrospective study of 292 cases of rape in Fujian Province, China, between the years 2014 and 2017 was conducted. Sociodemographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, perpetration patterns of rape, and associated factors were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: Over a quarter of rape victims were under the age of 18 years. In over half of cases, the perpetrators were known to the victims, which was more frequent in minors than in adult victims. Over half of perpetrators were within the age range of 18-30 years. Most perpetrators had received a low level of education and were from low-income populations. Nighttime has the highest occurrence of rapes: 39.9% of rapes occurred during late night; and 24.6%, during early night. Victim perpetrator relationship and the location were significantly related (χ2 = 23.667; df = 3, 266; p < 0.001). Risk evaluation showed that 30.8% and 28.1% of cases occurred under medium- and high-risk settings, respectively. Sexual motivation was present in over 95% of cases. Physical force was used in almost half of cases. Less than half of victims received forensic clinical examination after perpetration. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide population-based data to contribute to the future development of prevention strategies and to raise awareness of the urgent need for victim assistance services.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Violência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114401, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555745

RESUMO

The abduction and sexual violation of adolescents, especially in township contexts, has increasingly made headlines in South Africa. These incidents are evocative of jackrolling, a phenomenon that plagued townships during the apartheid upheavals in the late 1980s. The abduction of adolescents on their school journeys has been reported in several South African townships. In this paper, we report on a study in which we used participatory visual methods (i.e., cellphilms: short videos made with cellphones) to explore how 19 adolescent girls and boys living in the Inanda, Ntuzuma, and KwaMashu (INK) township precinct, outside Durban reflected on their vulnerability to sexual violence. Although the question was broad, our analysis of the visual data suggests that adolescents believed that their vulnerability to abduction and rape was almost inevitable. As such, in their cellphilms, they chose to portray their risk and vulnerability to abduction, rape, and even murder on their daily journeys to and from school. We found that through this methodology, adolescents were able to illustrate and/or articulate their fear of sexual violence. For them, violence was an inescapable reality that created fear and helplessness. This underscores the need for interventions, including the provision of safe scholar transport and visible policing in the community.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Violência
9.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 116(7): 627-634, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533583

RESUMO

Relevant exposure to important infectious pathogens can occur during sexual assault. If there is a latent period between exposure and illness due to an infection with pathogens, a postexposure prophylaxis can effectively inhibit the infection. In the present review article possible postexposure prophylaxis treatment for tetanus, hepatitis B, HIV and hepatitis A are discussed with a focus on the time window within which a specific regimen should be started and in which temporal order. These recommendations are based on the epidemiologic conditions in Germany. Moreover, the two most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial infections, namely Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis are presented, as victims of sexual assault in particular often do not return for control investigations in an outpatient setting.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501964

RESUMO

Sexual abuse of children is increasing at an alarming rate. This study aims to describe the risk factors and the effects of sexual abuse on children. This unobtrusive qualitative study was conducted on children aged 10 to 18 years old who experienced sexual abuse and followed-up at a psychiatric clinic between the years 2019 and 2021. The information from case records was transcribed. Thematic analysis was performed. Thirty case records were reviewed. The mean age of the victims was 14.6 years; 94% of the victims had experienced vaginal penetration, and 23% of the cases involved incest. The results indicated that socio-psychological predisposing factors involving family structure and dynamic dysfunction, low intrapersonal strength, social influence, and low family socioeconomic status could lead to sexual victimization. This sexual victimization can then lead to emotional turmoil, negative effects on cognitive, academic and social function, negative parental reactions toward the incident, the creation of baby-mother relationships and love-hate relationships, and a lack of goals and hope for the future. Children who experienced sexual abuse may show rape or pregnancy symptoms but may also show entirely non-specific ones. A thorough examination of their history, including biopsychosocial aspects, is necessary to appropriately care for them.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incesto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(3): 580-596, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342671

RESUMO

Neste artigo, investigamos os modos como o jornalismo enquadra narrativas testemunhais de estupro publicadas na última década na seção 'Eu, leitora' da revista Marie Claire brasileira. A partir de uma análise textual narrativa, cotejada com estudos de trauma e testemunho e com estudos feministas, buscamos problematizar a maneira como o jornalismo lida com o testemunho. Dialogamos com o conceito de fait divers e sua presença no jornalismo dito feminino para compreender os modos como Marie Claire enquadra esses relatos. Concluímos que a revista opera ambiguamente em relação à verdade testemunhal das feridas traumáticas dessas mulheres, ao mesmo tempo se aproximando e se afastando delas, por meio de estratégias narrativas e editoriais.


In this article, we investigate how the journalism frames narratives of testimonies about rapes published in the last decade in the 'Eu, leitora' section of the Brazilian Marie Claire magazine. By means of a narrative textual analysis, compared with testimony and trauma studies as well as feminist studies, we seek to problematize the way journalism deals with testimony. We dialogue with the concept of fait divers and its presence in so-called female journalism to understand how Marie Claire frames these reports. We conclude that the magazine operates ambiguously with regard to the testimony truth of the traumatic wounds of these women, at the same time approaching and moving away from them, through narrative and editorial strategies.


En este artículo investigamos cómo el periodismo encuadra las narrativas testimoniales de violación publicadas en la última década en la sección de 'Eu, leitora' de la revista brasileña Marie Claire. A partir de un análisis textual narrativa, comparado con estudios del trauma y del testimonio y con estudios feministas, buscamos problematizar la forma cómo el periodismo aborda el testimonio. Dialogamos con el concepto de fait divers y su presencia en el llamado periodismo femenino para entender las formas cómo Marie Claire enmarca esas narraciones. Concluimos que la revista opera de manera ambigua con relación a la verdad testimonial de las heridas traumáticas de esas mujeres, al mismo tiempo acercándose y alejándose de ellas, a través de estrategias narrativas y editoriales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Estupro , Jornalismo , Estudos de Gênero , Relatos de Casos , Vítimas de Crime , Violência contra a Mulher , Violência de Gênero
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(3): 614-635, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342682

RESUMO

Este artigo se propõe a analisar a representação e repercussão do estupro na minissérie brasileira Justiça (2016), produzida e exibida pela Rede Globo e de autoria de Manuela Dias. O artigo discute o papel que a representação tem na construção do imaginário coletivo em relação a esse crime, abordando a noção de cultura do estupro, o modo como o crime de estupro é representado na mídia, bem como os mitos perpetuados pelas abordagens feitas. A presente pesquisa apresenta então três momentos de análise: 1) análise da representação do estupro na série; 2) análise da repercussão de tal representação; 3) análise da presença ou ausência dos chamados mitos da cultura do estupro na trama de Justiça.


This article aims to analyze the representation and repercussion of rape in the Brazilian miniseries Justiça (2016), produced and aired by Rede Globo and written by Manuela Dias. The article discusses the role that representation plays in the construction of the collective imagination concerning this crime, addressing the notion of rape culture, the way this crime is represented in the media, as well as the myths perpetuated by the approaches made. This research then presents three moments of analysis: 1) analysis of the representation of rape in the series; 2) analysis of the repercussion of such representation; 3) analyzes the presence or absence of the so-called myths of the culture of rape in the plot of Justiça.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la representación y repercusión de la violación en la miniserie brasileña Justiça (2016), producida y televisada por Rede Globo y escrita por Manuela Dias. El artículo discute el papel que juega la representación en la construcción del imaginario colectivo en relación a este delito, abordando la noción de cultura de la violación, la forma en que el delito de violación es representado en los medios de comunicación, así como los mitos perpetuados por los enfoques adoptados. A continuación, la presente investigación presenta tres momentos de análisis: 1) análisis de la representación de la violación en la serie; 2) análisis de la repercusión de dicha representación; 3) análisis de la presencia o ausencia de los llamados mitos de la cultura de la violación en la trama de Justiça.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estupro , Violência contra a Mulher , Obras de Ficção como Assunto , Delitos Sexuais , Meios de Comunicação , Vítimas de Crime , Sistema de Justiça , Narração
13.
Soins ; 66(858): 35-38, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462067

RESUMO

Sport is a place of fulfilment, dreams and pleasure. But far from these principles, there are situations where it becomes a place of violence of all kinds. In the name of performance and success, sportsmen and women suffer aggression, most often committed by the person who is supposed to protect them, namely the coach. In recent years, several sportswomen have testified and journalists have investigated. A heavy silence has been broken. Analysing the meaning of this silence is a necessary step in welcoming and taking into account what has been said.


Assuntos
Estupro , Feminino , Humanos , Violência/prevenção & controle
14.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1940763, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402763

RESUMO

With over 1.4 million refugees, Uganda is Sub-Saharan Africa's largest refugee-hosting nation. Bidi Bidi, Uganda's largest refugee settlement, hosts over 230,000 residents. There is a dearth of evidence-based sexual violence prevention and post-rape clinical care interventions in low- and middle-income humanitarian contexts tailored for refugee youth. Graphic medicine refers to juxtaposing images and narratives, often through using comics, to convey health promotion messaging. Comics can offer youth-friendly, low-cost, scalable approaches for sexual violence prevention and care. Yet there is limited empirical evaluation of comic interventions for sexual violence prevention and post-rape clinical care. This paper details the study design used to develop and pilot test a participatory comic intervention focused on sexual violence prevention through increasing bystander practices, reducing sexual violence stigma, and increasing post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) knowledge with youth aged 16-24 and healthcare providers in Bidi Bidi. Participants took part in a single-session peer-facilitated workshop that explored social, sexual, and psychological dimensions of sexual violence, bystander interventions, and post-rape clinical care. In the workshop, participants completed a participatory comic book based on narratives from qualitative data conducted with refugee youth sexual violence survivors. This pilot study employed a one-group pre-test/post-test design to assess feasibility outcomes and preliminary evidence of the intervention's efficacy. Challenges included community lockdowns due to COVID-19 which resulted in study implementation delays, political instability, and attrition of participants during follow-up surveys. Lessons learned included the important role of youth facilitation in youth-centred interventions and the promise of participatory comics for youth and healthcare provider engagement for developing solutions and reducing stigma regarding SGBV. The Ngutulu Kagwero (Agents of change) project produced a contextually and age-tailored comic intervention that can be implemented in future fully powered randomized controlled trials to determine effectiveness in advancing sexual violence prevention and care with youth in humanitarian contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estupro , Refugiados , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estupro/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
15.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 17: 17455065211031079, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals who have experienced repeat sexual violence victimization face adverse mental and physical health outcomes, including immune and stress response functioning. We aim to further understand repeat sexual violence victimization to develop responsive and appropriate treatment for survivors of sexual violence. METHODS: We present the immunological and contextual findings of a participant (N = 1) who experienced repeat sexual violence victimization during her enrollment in The THRIVE Study, a prospective case-control study of women aged 14-45 years, who have experienced recent consensual vaginal penetration ("controls") or forced vaginal penetration ("cases"). Participants complete a survey, HIV/sexually transmitted infection, and pregnancy testing, blood sampling for C-reactive protein and adrenocorticotrophic hormone, collection of cervicovaginal fluid for immunological biomarkers, and self-collection of saliva samples for cortisol measurements, across study visits (Baseline, 1, and 3 months). RESULTS: The case study participant, aged 18 years upon enrollment, experienced sexual trauma before four of five study visits. Trends in the mental health indicators demonstrate reciprocal fluctuations in adverse mental health and resilience in accordance with revictimization and circumstantial changes. Suppressed immune biomarkers appear to correlate with increased adverse mental health, while mental health recovery trends with immunological recovery. The participant presents with dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis diurnal profile. CONCLUSIONS: This profile illustrates the intra-individual biobehavioral impact of experience with revictimization over the course of 6 months, capturing experiences that are rarely studied either longitudinally or with the depth of the current research. The findings underscore the value of monitoring cervicovaginal immune functioning and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in coordination with changes in mental health over the course of repeated sexual trauma.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Gravidez , Sobreviventes
16.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 33(2): 145-150, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247145

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, DNA evidence has become a very powerful tool in forensics, but it also has its limitations. DNA, being a very fragile molecule, can be easily damaged and contaminated. It can be very challenging to find enough DNA in an investigation to really make a breakthrough in certain types of evidence samples. For instance, about half of all rape kits do not yield sufficient genetic information to determine the perpetrator's DNA profile. This is where proteomics, the modern concept of protein analysis, steps in. By observing the amino acid sequence of protein fragments, researchers can work backward to conclude the DNA sequence used to make proteins. Proteomics methods can be used to classify and explain the circumstances that produced the biological samples. This article provides a conceptual overview on the different proteomics applications in forensics, including human identification using hair samples and fingermarks, species determination utilizing teeth and bones, and the determination of postmortem intervals.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Estupro , DNA , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(3): 395-402, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272659

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of reported, later-reported and unreported cases of sexual assault. All cases with female complainants (> 15 years) of sexual assault, who had been examined at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault (CVSA) in the Region of Southern Denmark in a 10-year period, were included. Retrospective data were collected from medico-legal examination reports and police reports. Descriptive bivariate analysis and logistic analysis were performed. Forensic pathologists examined 850 complainants of sexual assault in 2009-2018, of which 753 cases were included in this study. Of these, 191 cases (25%) were initially not reported to the police, but 53 women (7%) filed a police report, days, weeks or months later. There was a higher relative risk (RR) of not-reporting for young adults, for single women, if the accused was well known to the complainant, if the complainant experienced amnesia, or if there had been some degree of consensual physical interaction at time of the incident but before the assault. The non-reporters also showed a higher degree of delayed examination. The later-reporters only differed from the non-reporters in one parameter - they had a higher degree of partial amnesia. Interestingly, injuries (ano-genital or other) or verbal/physical resistance was not associated with reporting tendency, reflecting the modus of the local judicial system. The opportunity of a reflection period after a high-quality forensic examination, which is not dependent of police involvement, is essential for sexual assault complainants. Furthermore, education and guidance of victims and of the police and judicial system on the unique nature of sexual assault cases is important.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Exame Físico , Polícia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sex Med ; 18(8): 1383-1397, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggression-related sexual fantasies (ASF) are considered an important risk factor for sexual aggression, but empirical knowledge is limited, in part because previous research has been based on predominantly male, North-American college samples, and limited numbers of questions. AIM: The present study aimed to foster the knowledge about the frequency and correlates of ASF, while including a large sample of women and a broad range of ASF. METHOD: A convenience sample of N = 664 participants from Germany including 508 (77%) women and 156 (23%) men with a median age of 25 (21-27) years answered an online questionnaire. Participants were mainly recruited via social networks (online and in person) and were mainly students. We examined the frequencies of (aggression-related) sexual fantasies and their expected factor structure (factors reflecting affective, experimental, masochistic, and aggression-related contents) via exploratory factor analysis. We investigated potential correlates (eg, psychopathic traits, attitudes towards sexual fantasies) as predictors of ASF using multiple regression analyses. Finally, we examined whether ASF would positively predict sexual aggression beyond other pertinent risk factors using multiple regression analysis. OUTCOMES: The participants rated the frequency of a broad set of 56 aggression-related and other sexual fantasies, attitudes towards sexual fantasies, the Big Five (ie, broad personality dimensions including neuroticism and extraversion), sexual aggression, and other risk factors for sexual aggression. RESULTS: All participants reported non-aggression-related sexual fantasies and 77% reported at least one ASF in their lives. Being male, frequent sexual fantasies, psychopathic traits, and negative attitudes towards sexual fantasies predicted more frequent ASF. ASF were the strongest predictor of sexual aggression beyond other risk factors, including general aggression, psychopathic traits, rape myth acceptance, and violent pornography consumption. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: ASF may be an important risk factor for sexual aggression and should be more strongly considered in prevention and intervention efforts. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: The strengths of the present study include using a large item pool and a large sample with a large proportion of women in order to examine ASF as a predictor of sexual aggression beyond important control variables. Its weaknesses include the reliance on cross-sectional data, that preclude causal inferences, and not continuously distinguishing between consensual and non-consensual acts. CONCLUSION: ASF are a frequent phenomenon even in in the general population and among women and show strong associations with sexual aggression. Thus, they require more attention by research on sexual aggression and its prevention. Bondü R, Birke JB, Aggression-Related Sexual Fantasies: Prevalence Rates, Sex Differences, and Links With Personality, Attitudes, and Behavior. J Sex Med 2021;18:1383-1397.


Assuntos
Fantasia , Estupro , Adulto , Agressão , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Prevalência , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual
19.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(3): 140-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Examination of the adult female genitalia after an acute sexual assault may reveal findings interpreted by the examiner as injuries, which may be linked to later legal outcomes. There is no consistent definition in the literature regarding what findings constitute genital trauma after sexual assault. We studied how the prevalence of genital trauma is impacted by the inclusion/exclusion of various genital findings reported in the literature. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive chart review of the sexual assault forensic records from a provincial regional sexual assault treatment center was conducted over a 4-year period and included 67 female patients, 12 years old and over, who reported being sexually assaulted in the previous 72 hours and received a complete forensic examination. We studied the prevalence of genital trauma, using eight definitions of trauma, as well as the percentage of each type of genital finding within this population. RESULTS: The prevalence of genital trauma in this population ranged from 52%, the majority, to 31% of women, depending on the definition of trauma utilized. Forty-one percent of the findings, the greatest number overall, were redness. Bruises, abrasions, and tears (lacerations), the components of blunt force trauma, accounted for 4%, 15%, and 14% of the findings, respectively. INTERPRETATION: A universal definition of what findings constitute genital trauma after acute sexual assault is required if the examiner, as expert witness, is to compare findings in a given case with the broader literature and assist the court in ensuring an informed process of decision making.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/lesões , Estupro , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Enfermagem Forense , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 476-483, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085727

RESUMO

Several of the known risk factors for sexual violence concern a lack of capacity for engaging in mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships. Socio-cognitive deficits may be approached from a theory of mind (ToM) perspective, where lack of ability to attribute mental states to others is seen as the core feature. This study focuses on imprisoned men (n = 26) convicted of rape against an adult. A video-based measure of ToM (MASC) was applied, depicting social interaction in a dynamic real-life setting. The results showed that the rape-convicted men have a markedly inferior ability to infer the mental states of others. Clinical as well as theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros/psicologia , Estupro/legislação & jurisprudência , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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