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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Often neglected, male-directed sexual violence (SV) has recently gained recognition as a significant issue. However, documentation of male SV patients, assaults and characteristics of presentation for care remains poor. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) systematically documented these in all victims admitted to eleven SV clinics in seven African countries between 2011 and 2017, providing a unique opportunity to describe SV patterns in male cases compared to females, according to age categories and contexts, thereby improving their access to SV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multi-centric, cross-sectional study using routine program data. The study included 13550 SV cases, including 1009 males (7.5%). Proportions of males varied between programs and contexts, with the highest being recorded in migratory contexts (12.7%). Children (<13yrs) represented 34.3% of males. Different SV patterns appeared between younger and older males; while male children and adolescents were more often assaulted by known civilians, without physical violence, adult males more often endured violent assault, perpetrated by authority figures. Male patients presented more frequently to clinics providing integrated care (medical and psychological) for victims of violence (odds ratio 3.3, 95%CI 2.4-4.6), as compared to other types of clinics where SV disclosure upon admission was necessary. Males, particularly adults, were disproportionately more likely to suffer being compelled to rape (odds ratio 12.9, 95%CI 7.6-21.8).Retention in SV care was similar for males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of male-directed SV varied considerably according to contexts and age categories. A key finding was the importance of the clinic setup; integrated medical and SV clinics, where initial disclosure was not necessary to access care, appeared more likely to meet males' needs, while accommodating females' ones. All victims' needs should be considered when planning SV services, with an emphasis on appropriately trained and trauma-informed medical staff, health promotion activities and increased psychosocial support.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Homens , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822366

RESUMO

Rape is the most demoralizing type of crime violating human rights worldwide. Research has primarily focused on children and women's experiences of rape, even though victims include men and little documentation available concerning their experiences of reporting these incidents. The study aimed to investigate men's experiences when reporting rape to the police. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to collect and analyze qualitative data from a purposive sample of eleven men who were rape victims. The findings of the study revealed three superordinate and twenty-two subordinate themes. First, motivation for reporting rape to the police included self-protection from re-victimization, being killed, and prevalent prison cultural practice, seeking justice and answers for rape, moral duty, family support, and encouraging reports of the crime. Second, perceived barriers for reporting rape included fear of stigmatization and ridicule, unknown perpetrators, internalized homophobia, men's preconceived prejudices, perceived justice system delays, fear of being killed, and protecting their reputation. Third, negative experiences when reporting rape included a long waiting period at the reception before opening a case file and the delayed responses of police investigating the rape scene. Also, there was discouragement from the police, disparaging behavior of police, victim-blaming, lack of communication with the victim about case progress and experiences of police homosexual intolerance. The findings show that most men were motivated to report rape to the police despite the perceived barriers and negative experiences they had with the police. Thus, this provides baseline evidence for strategies to be developed to encourage the reporting of rape. Each police station must provide dedicated personnel for professional and sensitive handling of all rape victims, including men. Furthermore, future studies should be conducted to evaluate rape victims' satisfaction with the services provided by the police.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Riso , Polícia/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Justiça Social , Apoio Social , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
5.
Georgian Med News ; (300): 153-157, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383720

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to analyze new edition of the article 152 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine «Rape¼, which was adopted with the aim of implementing the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. The analysis was carried out in terms of the possibility of implementing legal definitions in evidence, taking into account the fundamental medical scientific provisions related to sexual relations. The authors, taking into account the study of more than 100 sentences handed down by the courts of Ukraine in 2010-2018 in criminal cases of rape from the point of view of using medical knowledge in evidence, found a significant change in the objective side of rape, which affected the subject of evidence in criminal proceedings. Now rape is defined as committing acts of a sexual nature associated with vaginal, anal or oral penetration into the body of another person using the genitals or any other object, without the voluntary consent of the victim. A significant change in the rape modus operandi leads to a number of problematic issues in the practical application of these provisions by law enforcement agencies and courts. These issues can be solved, according to the authors' opinion, only by taking into consideration medical and legal aspects of rape. The medical aspect of rape is very important because the concept of rape is legal, but its interpretation is based on the use of medical concepts. The concept of "committing acts of a sexual nature associated with vaginal, anal or oral penetration into the body of another person using the genitals or any other object" is analyzed taking into account the existing and well-established in Forensic Medicine notions of sexual intercourse. The legal aspect of rape is not only to give a legal interpretation of the medical facts of committing sexual acts, but also to establish the absence of the voluntary consent of the victim. The problem of false statements about rape is analyzed, possible indicators of such statements are identified. This problem is quite topical in many countries with a similar interpretation of rape. It is concluded that the medical and legal aspects of rape are closely interrelated, since mechanism of this crime is based on physiological sexual act that is subject to legal assessment.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Estupro , Crime , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Ucrânia
7.
Aggress Behav ; 46(4): 341-353, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350879

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that there is higher tolerance of violence against women in cultures with salient gender-specific honor norms, especially when the violence occurs in intimate relationships and in response to threat to male honor. The present cross-cultural study (N = 398) extended these findings to sexual aggression (i.e., marital rape) by comparing participants from a culture that emphasizes honor (Turkey) and participants from cultures without strong honor traditions (Germany and Britain). Turkish participants blamed the victim and exonerated the perpetrator more than did German and British participants. In all cultural groups, participants blamed the victim and exonerated the perpetrator more when the husband's reputation was threatened than in the absence of such threat, and in all cultural groups, men blamed the victim and exonerated the perpetrator more than women. Yet, the effect of masculine reputation threat and this pattern of gender differences were somewhat more pronounced among Turkish than German or British participants. Results exploring the predictive role of honor norms at the individual level beyond rape myth acceptance and traditional gender role attitudes revealed that honor norms were the primary predictor of rape perceptions and blame attributions in Turkey (an honor culture), but not in Germany and Britain (dignity cultures) where rape myth acceptance was the strongest predictor. These results provide insights into the cultural factors influencing marital rape judgments in ways that may undermine victim's well-being and fair handling of rape cases, and highlight the domains most urgently in need of potential intervention.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Comparação Transcultural , Estupro , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Turquia , Reino Unido
8.
J Surg Res ; 254: 206-216, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic and intimate partner violence (DV) are under-reported causes of injury. We describe the health care utilization of DV patients, hypothesizing they are at increased risk of mortality. METHODS: We queried the 2014 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for adult patients (18 y and older) with a primary diagnosis of trauma. DV was abstracted using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth Revision codes for partner or spouse intimate violence, abuse, or neglect. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes included admission rates and charges. RESULTS: Among 14 million trauma patients, 654,356 (5.0%) had a diagnosis of DV. Compared with other trauma patients, DV patients were younger (34.6 versus 46.8 y, P < 0.001), more often male (69.5% versus 50.1%, P < 0.001), and more likely to be uninsured (31.5% versus 15.6%, P < 0.001). 9154 (1.4%) were injured because of intimate partner violence, of which 90.2% were female. Drug and alcohol abuse (22.2%), anxiety (1.8%), and depression (1.3%) were high among all DV trauma patients. DV emergency department charges were higher ($4462 versus $2,871, P < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, DV trauma patients had 2.1 higher odds of mortality (aOR: 2.31, P < 0.001). DV trauma patients were also associated with a $1516 increase in emergency department charges compared with non-DV trauma patients (95% CI: $1489-$1,542, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Injuries related to all types of DV are emerging as a public health crisis among both genders. To mitigate under-reporting, it is important to identify at-risk patients and provide them with appropriate resources.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 79-94, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common consequences of sexual assault, but it is not invariable. AIM: Our aim was to investigate pre-, peri- and post-traumatic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among adult women who had been sexually assaulted. METHODS: All women attending a specialist university clinic for victims of sexual assault referred by the courts for a mental health assessment were invited to participate. At the time, the Turkish penal code required such referral (the year up to September 2015). Consenting women completed a sociodemographic information form, the Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Short Form-36 reflecting perceived quality of life, the Beck Depression Scale and the Beck Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: Sixty women were eligible and agreed to participate. Two-thirds of them (41, 68%) reported features of PTSD. In bivariate analyses, the women with PTSD also rated themselves as having a wide range of health and social disadvantages. Self-perceived poverty of social support and having suicidal thoughts were independently associated with PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Although the rate of mental health and social problems among the women with PTSD were high, less than a third had actually sought help for their difficulties. While a requirement in the penal code that such women should have a psychiatric assessment seems over-intrusive and has since been dropped, our findings suggest that more efforts should be made to ensure that such women have help available if they want it.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estupro/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gender-based violence is a global public health crisis, which has health, social, and economic impacts on survivors. In Ghana, responding to and preventing sexual violence on university campuses, has become a priority area. However, data are lacking on the healthcare provider response to students who have experienced sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a situational analysis to better understand the healthcare provider response to sexual violence in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: First, an observational facility assessment about healthcare services for survivors of sexual violence was conducted at two hospitals serving university students in Cape Coast, Ghana. Next, healthcare providers at the two hospitals completed: 1) a 113-item questionnaire about healthcare services, knowledge, and attitudes related to sexual violence and 2) in-depth semi-structured interviews describing their experiences providing healthcare to survivors of sexual violence. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were computed, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: Both sites lacked supplies, including pre-packed rape kits, post-exposure HIV prophylaxis, and informational handouts on medications and support services for survivors. Further, healthcare providers lacked training on gender-based violence, including best practices for caring for survivors and evidence collection procedures. Providers described the clinical management for survivors of sexual violence, including providers' role in reporting sexual violence to authorities, medical forensic exams, reproductive and sexual health services, and referral for mental healthcare. Finally, providers described a number of barriers to survivors accessing post-assault healthcare, including stigma and structural barriers, such as cost of medical supplies and lack of privacy within the healthcare facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The current healthcare response to sexual violence in Ghana is limited by lack of supplies, knowledge, and training for healthcare providers. Personal and structural barriers may prevent survivors from accessing needed healthcare following sexual violence.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326331

RESUMO

The ability of a parent to step back from their own experiences in order to understand those of their child, reflective functioning (RF), can be impacted by myriad factors. We explored RF among refugee mothers in the context of having a child born of sexual violence (CBSV). A sample of 10 mothers now residing in the Netherlands, both with (n = 5) and without (n = 5) a CBSV, were interviewed, seeking to explore parents' representations of their children, themselves as parents, and their relationship with their children. After deriving a score of RF, interview narratives were qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. An ordinary level of reflective functioning was identified in this sample overall (average score 4.5); which was reduced in the group with CBSV (average score 3.0). Trends within the qualitative analyses indicated that emotion regulation and ambivalence as well as parenting challenges are factors that affect RF capabilities for mothers with CBSV. Wider findings show that the asylum process and mental well-being also impinge on RF capabilities. Experiences of having a CBSV as well as those pertaining to being a refugee appear to interact and impact reflective functioning for some mothers. Further investigation would add weight to this pilot data.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Estupro , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 310: 110255, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224430

RESUMO

The analysis of condom traces has recently been added to the standard forensic examination protocol of sexual assault and rape cases. Several recent studies have thus focussed on the detection of condom components and classification of the chemical profiles using statistics, obtaining very promising results. The purpose of the present article is to critically review the literature regarding condom chemical analysis. A large analytical panel of both destructive and non-destructive methods has been proposed for the analysis of condom traces, each offering completely different analysis type and thus complementary information. However, few studies have considered these traces within a human matrix, which is necessary to establish an accessible protocol for forensic laboratories to allow this type of analysis. Additionally, issues remain concerning reproducibility, sensitivity, and the validation of analytical parameters. Considering that the demand for condom residue analysis is increasing, there is a definite need for further research on the forensic analysis of condom traces in order to offer quality services to the criminal justice system.


Assuntos
Preservativos , Estupro , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 310: 110239, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199238

RESUMO

The number of sexual crimes in Brazil, as in several other countries, is very high. In many of these crimes the women raped are murdered and their bodies are found days later, in an advanced state of decomposition, with intense cadaverous fauna. Forensic Entomology studies insects and other arthropods that can be used in the expert analysis of various types of crimes. Diptera, the order of insects that comprises the two-winged or true flies, represents one of the largest known groups of insects and is the principal source of cadaveric entomofauna. Members of its Calliphoridae family are observed in cadavers in all phases of decomposition. The retrieval and identification of human Y-STR DNA from the gastrointestinal tract of Calliphoridae species Chrysomya albiceps maggots and pupae can provide a good tool for the gathering of evidence in sexual crime investigations involving rape and death, in which the abandoned victim's body is found in a putrefied state. In this study, the animal model used was a female pig, Sus scrofa, which was sacrificed in a forested area with three shots from a 0.40 calibre Taurus pistol, and inoculated with semen to its anal and vaginal regions, simulating rape and homicide. During decomposition, 20-80 maggots were collected every 24 h and preserved in 70 % alcohol, totalling 289 maggots and 157 pupae (446 immatures) over a period of 14 days (336 h) of decomposition. Each maggot was then dissected for removal of the digestive tract, which was placed in extraction buffer. The molecular phase proceeded with extraction, quantification, amplification and capillary electrophoresis of samples, testing 16 STR loci of the Y chromosome. It was possible to establish a partial Y-STR DNA profile, with the amplification of up to eight sites, by considering a combination of the samples taken at hours 144 h, 168 h, 192 h, 216 h, 240 h, 288 h, 312 h and 336 h.


Assuntos
Dípteros/química , Homicídio , Estupro , Sêmen/química , Animais , Brasil , DNA/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Entomologia Forense , Humanos , Larva/química , Masculino , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
16.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(3): 155, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989875

RESUMO

An estimated 11 million women in the United States have been raped while drunk or drugged. Occupational health nurses can offer education and sound advice to workers and international business travelers on how to protect themselves.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Vítimas de Crime , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Enfermagem do Trabalho/métodos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1700770, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934824

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Uganda are at risk of early sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, violence, and disproportionally high HIV infection rates, driven in part by transactional sex. This paper examines the extent to which AGYW's participation in transactional sex is perceived to be coerced. We conducted 19 focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews using semi-structured tools. Interviews were audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. While AGYW did not necessarily use the language of coercion, their narratives describe a number of coercive aspects in their relationships. First, coercion by force as a result of "de-toothing" a man (whereby they received money or resources but did not wish to provide sex as "obligated" under the implicit "terms" of the relationships). Second, they described the coercive role that receiving resources played in their decision to have sex in the face of men's verbal insistence. Finally, they discussed having sex as a result of coercive economic circumstances including poverty, and because of peer pressure to uphold modern lifestyles. Support for income-generation activities, microfinance and social protection programmes may help reduce AGYW's vulnerability to sexual coercion in transactional sex relationships. Targeting gender norms that contribute to unequal power dynamics and social expectations that obligate AGYW to provide sex in return for resources, critically assessing the meaning of consensual sex, and normative interventions building on parents' efforts to ascertain the source of their daughters' resources may also reduce AGYW's vulnerability to coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Coito , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Sexo sem Proteção , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(1): 16-27, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is continued debate about whether sexualisation in games can influence sexist attitudes and reduced empathy towards women in real life. There is research evidence both supporting and refuting the possibility. AIMS: Our aim was to examine the relationship between sexualised content in video games and players' sexist attitudes and empathy. Our research question was, do any such relationships exist once other factors including gender and trait aggression are controlled? METHODS: An online sample of 125 participants were recruited and asked to rate their video game playing experience, complete a trait aggression scale and record responses to a vignette about rape. Scores were first correlated, and then hierarchical multiple regression was employed followed by PROCESS examination of interactions between sexualised game content and trait aggression. RESULTS: Exposure to sexualised content in video games was neither correlated with higher sexist attitude ratings nor with lower empathy scores. Sexualised content in games was associated with slightly lower sexist belief scores for those with higher scores on trait aggression (the 12.8% of our current sample at one standard deviation above the mean). No effects were observed for those low in trait aggression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: While it is natural to be concerned about the impact of potentially arousing video games, actual effects may be counterintuitive, so if seeking to regulate, it is important to act from actual information. Further research with groups of particular concern will be important.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Empatia , Estupro , Sexismo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(2): 162-167, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the social and ethical challenges in enforcing sexual and reproductive rights of male and female adolescents abused at sexual debut in Ghana. METHODOLOGY: This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on 278 sexually experienced male and female teenagers from 12 communities selected by cluster random sampling in the Ejisu-Juben district. We extracted relevant data from a 2009 academic thesis project involving 481 respondents. We assessed differences between sexual debut experiences of males and females using Pearson's chi-square and ANOVA tests. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Mean ages at sexual debut for males and females were 16.05 ± 1.8 and 15.98 ± 1.47 years respectively (P=0.719). Adolescents of both sexes experienced defilement and forced sexual debut; similar proportions had early sexual debut. Females who had early sexual debut were more likely than their older counterparts to have low educational attainment and induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Many male and female adolescents experience sexual and reproductive rights breaches at sexual debut. Prevailing circumstances hinder optimization of sexual and reproductive rights of juveniles in Ghana. We recommend making clear provisions for young persons in the law on sexual offences in the criminal code to facilitate development of interventions to improve access to justice for offenders and victims.


Assuntos
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais
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