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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Often neglected, male-directed sexual violence (SV) has recently gained recognition as a significant issue. However, documentation of male SV patients, assaults and characteristics of presentation for care remains poor. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) systematically documented these in all victims admitted to eleven SV clinics in seven African countries between 2011 and 2017, providing a unique opportunity to describe SV patterns in male cases compared to females, according to age categories and contexts, thereby improving their access to SV care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multi-centric, cross-sectional study using routine program data. The study included 13550 SV cases, including 1009 males (7.5%). Proportions of males varied between programs and contexts, with the highest being recorded in migratory contexts (12.7%). Children (<13yrs) represented 34.3% of males. Different SV patterns appeared between younger and older males; while male children and adolescents were more often assaulted by known civilians, without physical violence, adult males more often endured violent assault, perpetrated by authority figures. Male patients presented more frequently to clinics providing integrated care (medical and psychological) for victims of violence (odds ratio 3.3, 95%CI 2.4-4.6), as compared to other types of clinics where SV disclosure upon admission was necessary. Males, particularly adults, were disproportionately more likely to suffer being compelled to rape (odds ratio 12.9, 95%CI 7.6-21.8).Retention in SV care was similar for males and females. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of male-directed SV varied considerably according to contexts and age categories. A key finding was the importance of the clinic setup; integrated medical and SV clinics, where initial disclosure was not necessary to access care, appeared more likely to meet males' needs, while accommodating females' ones. All victims' needs should be considered when planning SV services, with an emphasis on appropriately trained and trauma-informed medical staff, health promotion activities and increased psychosocial support.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Homens , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Surg Res ; 254: 206-216, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic and intimate partner violence (DV) are under-reported causes of injury. We describe the health care utilization of DV patients, hypothesizing they are at increased risk of mortality. METHODS: We queried the 2014 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for adult patients (18 y and older) with a primary diagnosis of trauma. DV was abstracted using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, ninth Revision codes for partner or spouse intimate violence, abuse, or neglect. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes included admission rates and charges. RESULTS: Among 14 million trauma patients, 654,356 (5.0%) had a diagnosis of DV. Compared with other trauma patients, DV patients were younger (34.6 versus 46.8 y, P < 0.001), more often male (69.5% versus 50.1%, P < 0.001), and more likely to be uninsured (31.5% versus 15.6%, P < 0.001). 9154 (1.4%) were injured because of intimate partner violence, of which 90.2% were female. Drug and alcohol abuse (22.2%), anxiety (1.8%), and depression (1.3%) were high among all DV trauma patients. DV emergency department charges were higher ($4462 versus $2,871, P < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, DV trauma patients had 2.1 higher odds of mortality (aOR: 2.31, P < 0.001). DV trauma patients were also associated with a $1516 increase in emergency department charges compared with non-DV trauma patients (95% CI: $1489-$1,542, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Injuries related to all types of DV are emerging as a public health crisis among both genders. To mitigate under-reporting, it is important to identify at-risk patients and provide them with appropriate resources.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia
5.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(3): 155, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989875

RESUMO

An estimated 11 million women in the United States have been raped while drunk or drugged. Occupational health nurses can offer education and sound advice to workers and international business travelers on how to protect themselves.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Vítimas de Crime , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Enfermagem do Trabalho/métodos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 101-124, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238826

RESUMO

Sex offenders who cross over in victims' age, gender and relationship usually have a greater number of victims, which is associated with sexual recidivism. This investigation aimed to examine the prevalence of crossover index offending in Portugal, and to explore the predictive ability of sociodemographic and criminological variables on this outcome. A retrospective sample of 247 male individuals incarcerated for sex offenses in a Portuguese prison was drawn from official records. From those offenders with multiple victims (n = 94), 48% had victims of different age categories, 10% had both gendered victims, and 12% had intrafamilial and extrafamilial victims. Comparative statistics and logistic regressions were able to identify variables that distinguished noncrossover and crossover offenders and that predicted crossover, respectively. While likely underestimates of the prevalence of victim crossover, these findings are compared to previous international studies and provide a better understanding of the phenomenon.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Literatura Erótica , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Família , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(1): 12-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Few societal-level factors are established as risk or protective factors for sexual violence. Traditional gender norms and gender inequality are linked to sexual violence, but much of this research was conducted internationally or is becoming outdated and may not reflect current norms in the U.S. This study expands on previously published research by examining gender inequality's association with state-level sexual violence. METHODS: Using state-level prevalence estimates published in the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 2010-2012 State Report and the Gender Inequality Index, Pearson correlations were examined to investigate the relationship between state-level gender inequality and lifetime victimization for various types of sexual violence among U.S. female and male adults. The analysis was conducted in 2019. RESULTS: Findings indicate that states with a high degree of gender inequality also report higher prevalence estimates among women for rape using physical force. Gender inequality was also negatively correlated with noncontact unwanted sexual experiences among women and men. In addition, an exploratory analysis of the relationship between individual indicators of gender inequality and violence outcomes suggest that the adolescent birth rate, female government representation, and labor force participation demonstrate an association with certain state-level violence outcomes, although the patterns were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study relied on cross-sectional data, collectively, these findings suggest that gender inequality may represent an important societal-level factor associated with sexual violence among women and men. However, this relationship appears complex and requires further research. These findings have potential to inform population-level violence prevention approaches.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Identidade de Gênero , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 148(2): 162-167, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the social and ethical challenges in enforcing sexual and reproductive rights of male and female adolescents abused at sexual debut in Ghana. METHODOLOGY: This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data on 278 sexually experienced male and female teenagers from 12 communities selected by cluster random sampling in the Ejisu-Juben district. We extracted relevant data from a 2009 academic thesis project involving 481 respondents. We assessed differences between sexual debut experiences of males and females using Pearson's chi-square and ANOVA tests. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Mean ages at sexual debut for males and females were 16.05 ± 1.8 and 15.98 ± 1.47 years respectively (P=0.719). Adolescents of both sexes experienced defilement and forced sexual debut; similar proportions had early sexual debut. Females who had early sexual debut were more likely than their older counterparts to have low educational attainment and induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Many male and female adolescents experience sexual and reproductive rights breaches at sexual debut. Prevailing circumstances hinder optimization of sexual and reproductive rights of juveniles in Ghana. We recommend making clear provisions for young persons in the law on sexual offences in the criminal code to facilitate development of interventions to improve access to justice for offenders and victims.


Assuntos
Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais
9.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(2): 157-167, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885445

RESUMO

Rape of girls under the age of 14 is common in Latin America, and forced pregnancy and motherhood among these girls is a major public health and human rights problem. Even though abortion in the case of rape is legal in a handful of the countries in the region, and is legal in most countries when the life or health of the pregnant woman is in danger, many girls under 14 are forced to continue pregnancies conceived due to rape and to become mothers long before they have the capacity to do so.1 The paper demonstrates how forced pregnancy and motherhood among girls aged 9-14 in the Latin America region who have been the victims of rape adversely affects all aspects of their health and lives, exacerbated by discrimination and the absence of legal abortion services. It then describes a multidimensional strategy, which includes legal, communications, and advocacy work developed by Planned Parenthood Global and partners in response to these realities. This unique strategy seeks to ensure that access to legal abortion is universally available and accessible to girls aged 9-14 on the grounds that continuing pregnancy poses a serious risk to their health and lives.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos da Mulher/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia
10.
Torture ; 29(2): 81-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670706

RESUMO

This paper outlines the narratives of a female and male survivor of sexual violence. It draws attention to the benefits of assisting survivors break their silence as a strategy to overcome the sequelae of shame that accompanies these acts. The two cases illustrate that both men and women experience sexual violation as de-humanising and assisting them to access and make meaning of their memories can be empowering. The need to develop a screening tool to assist survivors access treatment in a timely manner and further develop appropriate strategies incorporating both individual and group sessions is highlighted.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tortura/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes , Tanzânia
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 440-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined testimonies of women who were sexually assaulted multiple times by multiple unknown offenders. In these testimonial narratives, it is possible to detect specific modalities of traumatic event expression. This expression lacks any spatial, temporal, auditory or emotional determinants of the event. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: These fourteen women (out of 17) were imprisoned and forcefully isolated in detention camps or private houses in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war. At the same time, some of these women were raped by the offenders that were previously known to them. The average length of detention was 141 days among the seventeen victims (range of 7 to 395 days), while the average time from the first day of imprisonment to the first day of testimony was 311 days (range of 30 to 889 days). RESULTS: Based on the narrative descriptions of the events acquired from these testimonies, our analysis showed that these expressions differed when the offender was known to the victim, contrasted to the situation when the offender was completely unknown. This finding has a significant implication in victim's testimony at judicial hearings. Specifically, women that were raped by unknown perpetrator(s) were often unable to provide persuasive testimony and their recollection of the events was deemed insufficient for the further prosecution. Testimonies in these cases substantially lacked in vividness and were devoid of visuospatial determinants of the rape event. Consequently, this often resulted in the case's dismissal. CONCLUSION: The unusual and problematic expression of these traumatic memories might indicate that these events were not properly stored in the conceptual form of memory. Ultimately, victims could not make any coherent recollection or reconstruct the cascade of events by using perceptual information. We argue that this could be due to an aberrant mechanism of memory storage and difficulties that emerge on the level of sensory input. This problem needs to be further examined and correspondingly accounted for since it can exert significant influence on judicial outcomes in the domain of sexual assault cases worldwide.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Episódica
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 13(6): 1557988319882589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779511

RESUMO

Globally, rape is regarded as the most demoralizing type of trauma, and it has negative implications for victims and their families. Although rape affects the community in general, there is a paucity of literature on rape victimization of men. As a result, the types of rape experienced by them are not understood, and thus it is often difficult to develop contextually relevant interventions to prevent male rape and to support male rape victims. The objective of this study was to first determine and then describe, the types of rape experienced by men. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze data from a purposive sample of 11 participants, using semistructured individual interviews. The findings of the study reveal six themes and related subthemes as six types and related subtypes of rape experienced by men as follows: acquaintance rape, including familial rape; stranger rape; gang rape, including corrective-gang rape, drug-facilitated gang rape, pack-hunting rape, women retributive rape (or women vengeance) for violence experienced from men; homophobic rape; prison rape, including transactional rape and gang initiation rape; and armed rape. The findings reveal the different contexts or settings where men are vulnerable to rape. This highlights the possibilities for the development of context-specific sexual violence prevention interventions for men, which include self-defense training and awareness campaigns specific to rape victimization of men. Furthermore, future studies are recommended to expose this pandemic. Activism is advocated to stop the silence around this public and social health issue.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Problemas Sociais/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Narração , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/ética , Problemas Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 19(1): 29, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women has particular importance for women's health and wellbeing in the Arab world, where women face persistent barriers to social, political and economic equality. This review aims to summarize what is known about the prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in the 22 countries of the Arab League, including geographic coverage, quality and comparability of the evidence. METHODS: A systematic review of IPV prevalence in Arab countries was carried out among peer-reviewed journal articles and national, population-based survey reports published by international research programmes and/or governments. Following PRISMA guidelines, Medline and the Social Sciences Citation Index were searched with Medical Subject Headings terms and key words related to IPV and the names of Arab countries. Eligible sources were published between January 2000 and January 2016, in any language. United Nations databases and similar sources were searched for national surveys. Study characteristics, operational definitions and prevalence data were extracted into a database using Open Data Kit Software. Risk of bias was assessed with a structured checklist. RESULTS: The search identified 74 records with population or facility-based IPV prevalence data from eleven Arab countries, based on 56 individual datasets. These included 46 separate survey datasets from peer-reviewed journals and 11 national surveys published by international research programmes and/or governments. Seven countries had national, population-based IPV estimates. Reported IPV prevalence (ever) ranged from 6% to more than half (59%) (physical); from 3 to 40% (sexual); and from 5 to 91% (emotional/ psychological). Methods and operational definitions of violence varied widely, especially for emotional/psychological IPV, limiting comparability. CONCLUSIONS: IPV against women in Arab countries represents a public health and human rights problem, with substantial levels of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological IPV documented in many settings. The evidence base is fragmented, however, suggesting a need for more comparable, high quality research on IPV in the region and greater adherence to international scientific and ethical guidelines. There is a particular need for national, population-based data to inform prevention and responses to violence against women, and to help Arab countries monitor progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Mundo Árabe , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(2): 1610275, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533592

RESUMO

Fifty-two maternal deaths occurred between September 2017 and August 2018 in the Rohingya refugee camps in Ukhia and Teknaf Upazilas, Cox's Bazar District, Bangladesh. Behind every one of these lives lost is a complex narrative of historical, social, and political forces, which provide an important context for reproductive health programming in Rohingya camps. Rohingya women and girls have experienced human rights violations in Myanmar for decades, including government-sponsored sexual violence and population control efforts. An extension of nationalist, anti-Rohingya policies, the attacks of 2017 resulted in the rape and murder of an unknown number of women. The socio-cultural context among Rohingya and Bangladeshi host communities limits provision of reproductive health services in the refugee camps, as does a lack of legal status and continued restrictions on movement. In this review, the historical, political, and social contexts have been overlaid below on the Three Delays Model, a conceptual framework used to understand the determinants of maternal mortality. Attempts to improve maternal mortality among Rohingya women and girls in the refugee camps in Bangladesh should take into account these complex historical, social and political factors in order to reduce maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Materna , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/psicologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Política , Controle da População , Gravidez , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Normas Sociais
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028247, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical violence and rape among female sex workers (FSWs) in Ethiopia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling technique. SETTING: Eleven major towns in Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: 4900 FSWs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of experiences of physical beating and rape. RESULTS: Among FSWs, 17.5% reported physical beating within the last year and 15.2% reported rape since they started selling sex. FSWs aged 35+ years (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.92) were less exposed to physical beating than those aged 15-24 years. FSWs working on the street (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.39), in red-light houses (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.38) and in local drinking houses (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.78) experienced more physical beating than FSWs working in bars/hotels. FSWs who consumed alcohol four or more days in a week (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.04), and who chewed khat frequently experienced more physical violence. Rape was associated with having a low monthly income, drinking alcohol four or more days per week (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.7), experience of heavy episodic drinking in a month (AOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.38) and chewing khat 3-4 days per week (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.98). Condom breakage was more frequent among FSWs who reported both physical beating (AOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.84) and rape (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.55). CONCLUSION: FSWs in Ethiopia are vulnerable to physical and sexual violence, and the risk increases when they are younger, street-based and high consumers of alcohol or khat. Therefore, targeted efforts are needed for prevention and harm reduction.


Assuntos
Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Catha , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Violence Against Women ; 25(11): 1290-1308, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379296

RESUMO

Québec university communities are facing intensified pressure to address the incidence of sexual violence on campus. The ESSIMU (Enquête Sexualité, Sécurité et Interactions en Milieu Universitaire) survey (2016) revealed that one third of respondents (students and employees from six universities, all genders combined) reported having experienced at least one form of sexual violence since arriving at university, committed by someone affiliated with the same university. As the issue is becoming increasingly institutionalized, a process that often erodes activism, this article highlights the role feminist activism has played in placing sexual violence on university campuses on the political agenda. From the dual perspective of feminist activists and researchers on the ESSIMU team, the article explores the backdrop of this mobilization, and the network of feminist resistance that fostered the ESSIMU study, itself a significant contribution to the increased recognition of sexual violence in universities. It also considers the role of university and government institutions in (re)producing such violence and the role of media in making it a public issue.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Estupro/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Feminismo , Humanos , Masculino , Quebeque , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(5): 559-578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429115

RESUMO

This research investigates violent stranger rapes and the factors leading these cases to sexual homicides. Variables relating to modus operandi characteristics on one part and offender behavior on the other part are examined using conjunctive analysis of cases configuration to identify the different combinations leading to a lethal outcome. Using a French sample of 1263 cases of violent rapes and 303 cases of sexual homicides involving female adult victims, we find that blows given by offenders and information about physical resistance of victims are strongly associated intentional and non-intentional sexual homicides. Psychoactive substance consumption by offenders as well associal isolation are in a lesser extend also associated with the lethal outcome.


Assuntos
Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agressão , Vítimas de Crime , Comportamento Criminoso , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto
20.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 33(9): 399-405, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386552

RESUMO

Adherence to nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) among sexual violence (SV) victims and their retention in care after SV represent significant challenges. This study aimed at identifying predictors of adherence to nPEP and retention in clinical-laboratory follow-up among SV victims in São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SV victims admitted to care and follow-up at the SV unit of the main reference hospital in São Paulo within 72 h following the SV episode. Eligible patients were submitted to a standardized protocol that included nPEP, screening, and management for other sexually transmitted infection as well as emergency contraception. Predictors of adherence to nPEP for 28 days and retention in care until discharge at 180 days after admission were analyzed. A total of 199 SV episodes in 197 victims were recorded from January 2001 to December 2013 (156 months). Of those episodes, 167 were eligible to receive nPEP and 160 (96%) actually received a prescription. Overall 104/160 [65%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 57-72] SV victims, who received nPEP, were fully adherent to nPEP up to 28 days, whereas 89/199 (45%, 95% CI 38-52) were retained in care for 180 days following admission. In multi-variate analysis, patients undergoing at least one psychological consultation (n = 126) were more likely to adhere to nPEP [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 8.32; 95% CI 3.0-23.3] and be retained in care for 6 months (adjOR 40.33; 95% CI 8.33-195.30) compared to patients not receiving psychological support. In contrast, study outcomes were not associated with victims' age and sex and with type of perpetrator. In our cohort, provision of psychological care was shown to be associated with enhanced adherence to nPEP and retention in care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Retenção nos Cuidados , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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