Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.789
Filtrar
1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(6): 224-231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008349

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: Although percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules (PEI) has been used for more than 30 years, there are only two studies in thyroid cysts (THCY) and 2 in autonomously functioning nodule (AFN) in which the mean follow-up reaches at least five years, while in the event of non-autonomously functioning solid nodules (NAS), there is not any study with at least 5-year mean follow-up. Our study focuses on the long-term efficacy of PEI in benign thyroid nodules. Method: We analyzed the long-term success of PEI in 254 patients treated for more than 10 years. The success was defined as 50% or greater reduction in nodule volume. In addition, the patient had to remain euthyroid without thyrostatic therapy in AFN. Results: The 10-year success rate was 79.4%, 37.1% and 69.4% in THCY, AFN and NAS, respectively. In 23.3% of unsuccessful PEIs, the failure could be revealed only after 5 years of follow-up. The mean nodule volume at 10-year follow-up related to the initial size was 29.8%, 39.6% and 48.9% in THCY, NAS and AFN, respectively. In THCY, PEI proved to be significantly more effective in older patients while other parameters (size of the nodule, amount of the injected alcohol and the ratio of these) did not correlate significantly with the success rate. Conclusions: Our study which presents the longest follow-up in all 3 types of benign thyroid nodules confirms that PEI has a minimal role in AFN, is recommendable in THCY and might have a role in NAS. The success rate decreases over time which emphasizes the importance of the long-term follow-up in the judgement of PEI. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(6): 224-231.


Assuntos
Cistos/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 576-580, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833292

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To explore the change rules of blood ethanol and blood acetaldehyde concentration, the impairment of psychomotor functions of different acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 genotype individuals after alcohol consumption and the relationship among them. Methods The ALDH2 genotypes in seventy-nine healthy volunteers were obtained by SNaPshotTM method, then divided into ALDH2*1/*1 (wild type) and ALDH2*1/*2 (mutant type) group. After volunteers consumed 1.0 g/kg of alcohol, blood ethanol concentration and blood acetaldehyde concentration at a series of time points before and after alcohol consumption and psychomotor functions, such as, visual selective response time, auditory simple response time and tracking experiment were detected. Biphasic alcohol response questionnaires were collected. Results After alcohol consumption, ALDH2*1/*2 group's blood ethanol and blood acetaldehyde concentration reached the peak earlier than ALDH2*1/*1 group. Its blood acetaldehyde concentration was higher than that of ALDH2*1/*1 group, 1-6 h after alcohol consumption. The psychomotor functions, such as visual selective response time and auditory simple response time in ALDH2*1/*2 group were more significantly impaired than those in ALDH2*1/*1 group after alcohol consumption. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in excitement or sedation reactions (P>0.05). Pearson correlation coefficient test showed that blood acetaldehyde concentration was related with psychomotor function. Conclusion There are significant differences between the psychomotor function of ALDH2 wild type and mutant type individuals after alcohol consumption estimated to be related to the difference in blood acetaldehyde concentration after alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Etanol/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial , Aldeído Oxirredutases , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/sangue , Genótipo , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
4.
Arch Esp Urol ; 72(9): 968-971, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the presence of bladder foreign body as a rare complication following intraprostatic ethanol injection. CASE REPORTS:  A 71-year-old man and a 70-year-old male with bladder catheter probe due to obstructive benign prostatic enlargement underwent ethanol injection via transrectal echography. RESULTS: The first patient presented a urinary infection with acute urinary retention one year after the procedure. Ultrasonography revealed a 30 cc intravesical foreign body confirmed by urethrocystoscopy. Endoscopic treatment was unsuccessful, and the patient underwent cystotomy with retrieval of a soft, oval, brownish mass. Histological examination of the mass showed benign gland-stromal prostatic hyperplasia with extensive coagulative necrosis. The second patient had an acute urinary retention episode 3 months after surgery. The ultrasonography revealed an abnormal vesicoprostatic mass. Endoscopic treatment was successful, but required 2 sessions. Histological examination of the mass showed acute suppurative inflammation with marked autolysis of prostatic tissue. These foreign bodies in the bladder acted as a nest to promote infection, and generated a valve effect in the bladder neck, resembling a giant vesical lithiasis clinic, which was a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge since few centers worldwide manage this technique for prostatic hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the second report of a "calculus" or "foreign body" formed by prostatic tissue in the urinary tract after the injection of ethanol.


Assuntos
Etanol , Corpos Estranhos , Hiperplasia Prostática , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
5.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(5): 497-502, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535696

RESUMO

AIMS: The development of novel and more effective medications for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an important unmet medical need. Drug repositioning or repurposing is an appealing strategy to bring new therapies to the clinic because it greatly reduces the overall costs of drug development and expedites the availability of treatments to those who need them. Probenecid, p-(di-n-propylsulfamyl)-benzoic acid, is a drug used clinically to treat hyperuricemia and gout due to its activity as an inhibitor of the kidneys' organic anion transporter that reclaims uric acid from urine. Probenecid also inhibits pannexin1 channels that are involved in purinergic neurotransmission and inflammation, which have been implicated in alcohol's effects and motivation for alcohol. Therefore, we tested the effects of probenecid on alcohol intake in rodents. METHODS: We tested the effects of probenecid on operant oral alcohol self-administration in alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal as well as in nondependent rats and in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) paradigm of binge-like drinking in mice. RESULTS: Probenecid reduced alcohol intake in both dependent and nondependent rats and in the DID paradigm in mice without affecting water or saccharin intake, indicating that probenecid's effect was selective for alcohol and not the result of a general reduction in reward. CONCLUSIONS: These results raise the possibility that pannexin1 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AUD. The clinical use of probenecid has been found to be generally safe, suggesting that it can be a candidate for drug repositioning for the treatment of AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Conexinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Probenecid/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Conexinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Probenecid/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Autoadministração
6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 616-625, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497988

RESUMO

Impulsivity and subjective response (SR) to alcohol (i.e., individual differences in sensitivity to pharmacologic alcohol effects) are both empirically supported risk factors for alcohol use disorder; however, these constructs have been infrequently studied as related risk factors. The present investigation examined a self-report measure of impulsivity (i.e., the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Version 11) in relation to acute alcohol effects (i.e., stimulant and sedative SR). Participants came from 2 cohorts of the Chicago Social Drinking Project. Heavy and light drinkers from Cohort 1 (n = 156) and heavy social drinkers from Cohort 2 (n = 104) were examined using identical laboratory protocols following oral alcohol administration using a within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study design. Self-reported impulsivity and, for comparison purposes, sensation seeking were measured at baseline, and SR was measured once prior to and 4 times following alcohol administration. More impulsive light, but not heavy, drinkers reported heightened stimulant SR following alcohol administration. High impulsive, light drinkers reported stimulant SR at a magnitude similar to that for heavy drinkers, whereas low impulsive, light drinkers reported limited stimulant SR. The interaction between impulsivity and sensation seeking did not statistically predict stimulant SR, and overall, impulsivity was a stronger predictor than was sensation seeking. However, impulsivity was not statistically predictive of dampened sedative SR among light or heavy drinkers. These findings partially replicate and extend the recent literature linking self-reported impulsivity to heightened stimulant SR from alcohol. Future directions include longitudinal studies and research relating multiple facets of impulsivity to SR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Método Duplo-Cego , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato
7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489932

RESUMO

Erding granule (EDG) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has recently been identified as having anti-hypouricemic effects. However, the active components and underlying mechanism for this new indication have not been elucidated. Therefore, we compared the effects of different EDG extracts (water, 50% ethanol and 95% ethanol) on serum uric acid concentrations in the hyperuricemia model mouse. We also analyzed the constituents of different extracts by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to observe the variation between the active and inactive products. Extract activity and target site were evaluated by assessing uric acid- and inflammation-suppressing effects along with evaluating ability to regulate the uric acid transporter. The results showed that the 50% ethanol extract (EDG-50) had an obvious serum uric acid concentration lowering effect compared with water (EDG-S) and the 95% ethanol extract (EDG-95). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis showed that EDG-50 was compositionally different to EDG-S and EDG-95. EDG-50 showed dose-dependent effects on reducing uric acid, suppressing inflammation and regulating uric acid transporters. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that EDG-50 down-regulated GLUT9 and URAT1 expression, and up-regulated OAT1 expression. Therefore, our findings enable the preliminarily conclusion that EDG-50 lowers serum uric acid concentrations, mainly by down-regulating the expression of GLUT9 and URAT1 proteins and up-regulating the expression of OAT1 proteins. This provides a research basis for clinical use of EDG as an anti-hyperuricemic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ácido Úrico/sangue
8.
R I Med J (2013) ; 102(6): 44-46, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398969

RESUMO

We describe a case of disulfiram-ethanol reaction in a patient presenting with altered mental status. The patient was found to be profoundly hypotensive, requiring multiple vasopressor agents. As the symptoms associated with disulfiram reaction are non-specific, it is important to maintain a high level of suspicion for drug reaction when caring for the undifferentiated altered and hypotensive patient.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool/efeitos adversos , Dissulfiram/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Dissuasores de Álcool/administração & dosagem , Dissulfiram/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasopressinas/uso terapêutico
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387182

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Adult zebrafish have emerged as a new vertebrate model of alcoholic liver disease. In previous research, a high dose of chronic ethanol treatment induced characteristic features of steatosis and hepatic injury in adult zebrafish, yet the ethanol concentration in that study was significantly higher than the lethal dose in humans. In the current study, we examined whether a low dose of chronic ethanol exposure in adult zebrafish induced the metabolic and pathological features seen in alcoholic liver disease. We found that chronic ethanol treatment at 0.2% ethanol (v/v) concentration for 4 weeks induced a significant elevation of serum glucose and triacylglycerol in adult zebrafish. In addition, serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly elevated after ethanol treatment. Histological analysis revealed steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning phenotype. Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR suggested that ethanol treatment induced inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. In addition, we found significant increases in gene expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Importantly, expression of genes involved in oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, two major stress signaling pathways underlying hepatic injury in alcoholic liver disease, were highly upregulated in the livers of adult zebrafish after chronic ethanol treatment. In conclusion, we found that 4 weeks of low dose ethanol exposure leads to typical ethanol-induced liver disease, with pathological and gene expression patterns.


Assuntos
Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1158, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin antisepsis occurs in every healthcare environment. From basic hand hygiene, to antiseptic bathing and pre surgical care with alcohol/chlorhexidine, use of antimicrobial agents to reduce the skin microflora has skyrocketed in the past several years. Although used in hopes of reducing the likelihood of infection in patients, many products have been identified as the source of infection in several outbreaks, sometimes due to the nonsterile nature of the many readily available antiseptics. BODY: Intrinsic contamination of antiseptics during the manufacturing process is common. In fact, since the majority of these products are sold as nonsterile, they are allowed some level of microbial contamination based on the United States Pharmacopeia documents 61 and 62. Unfortunately, sometimes this contamination is with microorganisms resistant to the antiseptic and/or with those pathogenic to humans. In this scenario, healthcare-associated infections may occur, leaving the patient at higher risk of mortality and increasing costs of care substantially. Although antibiotic stewardship programs throughout the world suggest targeting use of antibiotics to limit resistance, few healthcare environments include other antimicrobial agents (such as antiseptics) in their programs. CONCLUSION: Due to the potential for contamination with pathogenic organisms and the increased likelihood of selecting for resistant organisms with widespread use of broad-spectrum agents with non-specific mechanisms of action, a discussion around including skin antiseptics in stewardship programs is necessary, particularly those labeled as nonsterile. At minimum, debating the pros and cons of targeting use of daily antiseptic bathing in hospitalized patients should occur. Through mindfully incorporating any antimicrobial agent, sterile or not, into our repertoire of anti-infectives, we can save patient lives, reduce infection, and save costs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde , Pele , Banhos , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
11.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 185: 172761, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425712

RESUMO

Alcohol use is frequently associated with mood disorders. Similarly, individuals suffering from these disorders have a higher risk of developing alcoholism. Several reports have implicated orexin signaling in different behaviors related to alcohol consumption, whereas antagonists block these actions. However, the involvement of orexin-1-receptor (Orx1R) in ethanol-induced anxiolysis remains relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-accumbal inhibition of Orx1R blocks the anxiolytic-like effect of ethanol and to determine if ethanol administration modifies orexin-A content and Orx1R expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The elevated-plus-maze test (EPM-test) was used to measure anxiety; orexin-A content and Orx1R expression were determined by enzyme-immunoassay and western blot, respectively. The results showed that the pretreatment with a selective antagonist of Orx1R, SB-334867 (SB, 3 µg/side), prevents the anxiolytic-like behavior induced by acute ethanol (2.5 g/kg). SB-334867 per se had no effect on anxiety levels. Pretreatment with SB-334867 followed by ethanol (SB + Et) increased orexin-A content and Orx1R levels in the NAc in comparison to the groups that only received ethanol (V + Et) or SB-334867 (SB + S). Ethanol treatment significantly augmented Orx1R expression but not the peptide content. The increase in orexin-A observed in SB + Et animals could be due in part to the inhibition of Orx1R, since SB-334867 prevents the binding of orexin-A to the receptor. This increase in orexin-A may, in turn, induce an up-regulation of receptor. Other possible explanations were discussed. In general, these findings suggest that orexin-A contributes largely to expression of ethanol-induced anxiolytic-like effect through the signaling of Orx1R in the NAc.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/farmacologia , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftiridinas/administração & dosagem , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Orexina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ureia/administração & dosagem , Ureia/farmacologia
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 312, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the curative effect and complications in cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) patients treated with a transvaginal injection of absolute ethanol (AE) around the gestation sac (GS) under ultrasound guidance. METHODS: This retrospective clinical investigation analyzed 26 CSP patients treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University in Guilin, Guangxi, China, between January 1, 2018 and January 30, 2019. Outcomes and complications were analyzed following treatment with AE. RESULTS: Out of the entire group, 20 patients were successfully treated with a single AE injection, while the remaining six patients required two or three repeat injections. In 21 patients, the serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG) level was reduced to > 50% 1 day after a single AE injection; in 19 patients, the serum ß-hCG level was reduced to > 80% 4 days after a single AE injection. In all patients, the average time for serum ß-hCG to reduce to normal levels (< 3.0 mIU/mL) was 36.50 ± 12.54 days. The overall cure rate of CSP by AE injection was 100%. Average length of hospitalization was 6.73 ± 3.66 days, with Patient 2 having the longest hospitalization at 17 days, and Patient 3 the shortest at 2 days. No adverse effects on hematopoietic, hepatic or renal function were observed in the short term. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that transvaginal injection of AE around the gestation sac under ultrasound guidance had good clinical effects, fewer complications, and merit as a novel treatment for CSP. However, larger multi-center trials are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of this treatment.


Assuntos
Aborto Terapêutico/métodos , Cicatriz/complicações , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Gravidez Ectópica/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Saco Gestacional/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(3): 1127-1138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257463

RESUMO

Due to their high prevalence, blunt chest trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock have a significant influence on the outcomes of trauma patients, causing severe modulations of the immune system and high mortality rates. Alcohol consumption in trauma patients has a high clinical impact. Studies investigating the timing of alcohol intoxication prior to trauma are limited, although there are two typical scenarios regarding alcohol consumption: Acute ('drink and drive scenario') and sub­acute ('evening binge drinking'). Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of either an acute or sub­acute alcohol­drinking scenario in an in vivo model of TxT and hemorrhagic shock, focusing on liver inflammation and outcomes. At 12 h (sub­acute) or 2 h (acute) before the experiment, female Lewis rats received a single oral dose of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) or saline (NaCl, ctrl), followed by TxT, hemorrhagic shock (35±3 mm Hg) and resuscitation (H/R). The animals were either sacrificed 2 h later or their survival was determined for 72 h. The results revealed that EtOH induced significant fatty changes in the liver. TxT + H/R­induced increases in the gene expression of interleukin (IL)­6 and intercellular adhesion molecule­1 and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α and IL­1ß were significantly reduced in both EtOH groups compared with those in the corresponding TxT + H/R ctrl groups. The local presence of IL­10­expressing cells in the liver was significantly increased following TxT + H/R in all groups, although the sub­acute EtOH TxT + H/R group had a significantly higher proportion of IL­10­positive cells compared with all other groups. Stimulating peripheral whole blood with lipopolysaccharide led to significantly lower levels of TNF­α release in the sub­acute EtOH group compared with the levels in all other groups. Significant TxT + H/R­induced increases in liver transaminases and liver damage were most prominent in the sub­acute EtOH group. The TxT + H/R EtOH group exhibited the lowest levels of glucose. There were no significant differences in mortality rate among the TxT + H/R groups. The data obtained indicates that the severity of liver damage following TxT + H/R may depend on the timing of alcohol consumption and severity of trauma, but also on the balance between pro­ and anti­inflammatory responses.


Assuntos
Etanol/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/complicações , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew
14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3477-3496, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289885

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypothetical moral dilemmas, pitting characteristically utilitarian and non-utilitarian outcomes against each other, have played a central role in investigations of moral decision-making. Preferences for utilitarian over non-utilitarian responses have been explained by two contrasting hypotheses; one implicating increased deliberative reasoning, and the other implicating diminished harm aversion. In recent field experiments, these hypotheses have been investigated using alcohol intoxication to impair both social and cognitive functioning. These studies have found increased utilitarian responding, arguably as a result of alcohol impairing affective empathy. OBJECTIVES: The present research expands existing investigations by examining the acute effects of alcohol on affective empathy and subsequent moral judgments in traditional vignettes and moral actions in virtual reality, as well as physiological responses in moral dilemmas. METHODS: Participants (N = 48) were administered either a placebo or alcohol in one of two dosages; low or moderate. Both pre- and post intervention, participants completed a moral action and moral judgment task alongside behavioural measures of affective empathy. RESULTS: Higher dosages of alcohol consumption resulted in inappropriate empathic responses to facial displays of emotion, mirroring responses of individuals high in trait psychopathy, but empathy for pain was unaffected. Whilst affective empathy was influenced by alcohol consumption in a facial responding task, both moral judgments and moral actions were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that facets, beyond or in addition to deficits in affective empathy, might influence the relationship between alcohol consumption and utilitarian endorsements.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: We will perform a dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) of cohort studies to explore the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and MCI. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wan-Fang Database will be conducted. Two investigators will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of the included study. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale will be used to assess the quality of include studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system and A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) will be used to assess the quality of evidence and methodological quality. Any disagreement will be resolved by the third investigator. We will use the hazard ratio as the effect indicator, and piecewise linear regression model and restricted cubic spline model will be used for linear and nonlinear trend estimation, respectively. There is no requirement of ethical approval and informed consent. DISCUSSION: This is the first DRMA to explore the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and MCI. We predict it will provide high-quality evidence to prevent clinical MCI and dementia. REGISTRATION: The DRMA is registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42019127261) international prospective register of systematic review.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
16.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 121-124, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322527

RESUMO

In our experiments it has been established that during pregnancy the impact of ethanol high dose on rats' offspring induces a well pronounced increase of plasma viscosity, which is extremely important in blood circulation. The disruption of blood circulation causes a hypoxic condition (especially, in nervous tissues) and the disturbance of its functioning. This is the result of what has been seen in the behavioral experiments of female rats' offspring under the influence of ethanol high dose. We consider that it has a crucial importance, as we speak about the remote results of ethanol consumption, which are manifested not only in rats, taking ethanol, but also in its offspring.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos
17.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(5): 487-496, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322647

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic alcohol use is associated with cerebral metabolite abnormalities, yet alcohol's acute effects on neurometabolism are not well understood. This preliminary study investigated cerebral metabolite changes in vivo on the descending limb of blood alcohol in healthy moderate drinkers. METHODS: In a pre/post design, participants (N = 13) completed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans prior to and approximately 5 hours after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol (0.60 grams alcohol per kilogram of body weight). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was used to quantify cerebral metabolites related to glutamatergic transmission (Glx) and neuroimmune activity (Cho, GSH, myo-inositol) in the thalamus and frontal white matter. RESULTS: Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) peaked at 0.070±0.008% (mean ± standard deviation) and averaged 0.025±0.011% directly prior to the descending limb scan. In the thalamus, Glx/Cr and Cho/Cr were significantly elevated on the descending limb scan relative to baseline. BrAC area under the curve, an index of alcohol exposure during the session, was significantly, positively associated with levels of Glx/Cr, Cho/Cr and GSH/Cr in the thalamus. GSH/Cr on the descending limb was inversely correlated with subjective alcohol sedation. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers preliminary evidence of alcohol-related increases in Glx/Cr, Cho/Cr and GSH/Cr on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration. Findings add novel information to previous research on neurometabolic changes at peak blood alcohol in healthy individuals and during withdrawal in individuals with alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 184: 172740, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is a serious illness marked by uncontrollable drinking and a negative withdrawal state when not using. Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescent populations. Given that adolescence is a unique developmental stage during which alcohol has long-term effects on future drug-taking behavior; it is essential to understand how early exposure to ethanol during adolescence may affect the abuse liability of the drug later in life. Our studies focused on characterizing how exposure to alcohol in adolescence alters later adult alcohol dependence behaviors, by using well-established mouse models of ethanol drinking. We hypothesized that early exposure to ethanol leads to increased ethanol intake in adults and other behavioral phenotypes that may lead to dependence. METHODS: We investigated the impact of ethanol drinking in early adolescent C57BL/6J mice using a modified Drinking in the Dark (DID) model. RESULTS: Our results showed that exposure to ethanol during adolescence enhanced ethanol intake in adulthood in the DID, and the 2-bottle choice drinking paradigms. In contrast, adult exposure of alcohol did not enhance later alcohol intake. We also conducted tests for ethanol behavioral sensitivity such as loss of righting reflex and anxiety-related behaviors to further elucidate the relationship between adolescent ethanol exposure and enhanced ethanol intake in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that adolescence is a critical period of sensitivity and binge drinking that can lead to lasting changes in ethanol intake in adulthood. Further research will be required in order to more fully examine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the lasting changes in adulthood.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos de Coortes , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reflexo de Endireitamento/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(5): 465-471, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361816

RESUMO

AIMS: In acute alcoholic liver injury, alcohol can directly or indirectly induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) to participate in liver injury, and it is found that the expression of serum exosomal miR-122 is significantly affected. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition on the expression of serum exosomal miR-122 and acute liver injury. METHODS: The acute alcoholic liver injury models were established by the intragastric administration of ethanol (5 g/kg) in ICR mice. Intervention group received 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor; 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 12 and 24 hours before intragastric administration. Mice treated with saline were used as controls. RESULTS: The ethanol treated mice exhibited significantly elevated hepatosomatic index (liver weight/body weight) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). The ERS inhibitor 4-phenylbutyric acid protected against ethanol induced acute liver injury and hepatocyte necrosis, and PBA 150 mg/kg significantly attenuated ethanol induced hepatic ER stress-related proteins (GRP78, pIRE1α and pIF2α) (P < 0.05). Moreover, PBA 150 mg/kg markedly alleviated ethanol induced elevation of hepatic and serum exosomal miR-122 and pri-miR-122 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ER stress inhibitor PBA attenuated ethanol induced acute liver injury and serum exosomal miR-122, and provides a potential therapy strategy for acute alcoholic liver injury.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/toxicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Fenilbutiratos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(3): 301-304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346864

RESUMO

We studied the possibility of formation of endogenous opioid dependence in rats during periodic intake of 5% ethanol solution. In the control group, both drinking bottles contained water. In the experimental group, the second bottle was filled with 5% ethanol solution for 12 h per day; in the following 12 h, these rats were deprived of food and ethanol. This regimen was maintained over 8 days. The rats were subdivided into alcohol- and water-preferring subgroups. Ethanol deprivation followed by naloxone injection evoked the signs of opiate withdrawal syndrome in both subgroups. These findings suggest that periodic voluntary intake of a weak ethanol solution over 8 days led to the formation of endogenous opioid dependence in rats irrespective of amount of the consumed alcohol.


Assuntos
Etanol/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Animais , Masculino , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA