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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5671-5685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821096

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the current work was to develop vardenafil hydrochloride (VRD)-loaded ethosome-derived invasomes as a possible transdermal system which could be used for patients suffering from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods: VRD-loaded ethosomes were developed at three concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) and three percentages of ethanol (20%, 30% and 40%, v/v). The best achieved VRD-loaded ethosomes (ETH9) were optimized to invasomes via incorporation of terpenes (limonene, cineole and a 1:1 mixture) at three concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2%, v/v). All systems were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), cumulative drug permeated percentages after 0.5hrs (Q0.5h) and 12hrs (Q12h) and steady-state flux (Jss). The optimized system (ETH9-INV8) was further characterized for morphology, histopathology and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was employed to estimate VRD pharmacokinetic parameters from the optimized transdermal system and an oral aqueous drug dispersion, in adults and geriatrics. Results: The optimized invasomal system (ETH9-INV8) was characterized with spherical vesicles (159.9 nm) possessing negative zeta potential (-20.3 mV), promising EE% (81.3%), low Q0.5h (25.4%), high Q12h (85.3%) and the largest steady-state flux (6.4 µg.cm-2h-1). Following a leave-on period of 12hrs in rats, it showed minor histopathologic changes. CLSM studies proved its ability to deeply permeate rat skin. Lower Cmax values, delayed Tmax estimates and greater AUC0-24h folds in adults and geriatrics (≈ 2.18 and 1.69, respectively) were estimated following the transdermal application of ETH9-INV8 system. Conclusion: ETH9-INV8 is a promising transdermal system for VRD.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Geriatria , Modelos Biológicos , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/administração & dosagem , Dicloridrato de Vardenafila/farmacocinética , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Lipossomos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea , Eletricidade Estática
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461280, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709331

RESUMO

Polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) are outstandingly suitable to play a key role in chiral HPLC method selection strategies, since they provide high success rates. One reason for this ability is that they adopt a diversity of higher order structures in various eluents, resulting in versatile chiral environments. A potential to extend this versatility further was expected and examined in the present study, based on the recently discovered hysteretic behavior of a widely used chiral selector (CS), amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). The hindered transitions of its structure, which are behind the history dependence of its separation ability, were used as a tool to identify distinct states of the chiral selector in order to exploit an extended selectivity space. The identification was carried out using a single diagnostic compound, as opposed to the common approach where testing a library of compounds is required. Eluent mixtures consisting of 2-propanol and either methanol or ethanol were scrutinized in terms of stability and robustness of the observed retentions. The solvent mixtures that were eligible for practical application in these respects were used to construct a screening sequence, including identical compositions combined with different column pretreatment. The gain achievable by using the proposed sequence was then evaluated using 15 enantiomer pairs with focus on resolution, enantiomer elution order and chemoselectivity.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , 2-Propanol/química , Amilose/análogos & derivados , Amilose/química , Etanol/química , Indanos/química , Metanol/química , Oxidiazóis/química , Fenilcarbamatos/química , Solventes/química , Estereoisomerismo , Estilbenos/química
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127390, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603922

RESUMO

Revalorization of mushroom by-product (stalks of A. bisporus) by extracting its components is proposed. The extraction kinetics at 25 °C of ergosterol, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by mechanical agitation (at 130 rpm) and ultrasound assistance (at 182 and 321 W/L) in 70 and 96% v/v ethanol/water solutions during 30 min were evaluated and satisfactorily modelled, using the Weibull model (mean relative error ≤ 7.8%). The effect of the ethanol concentration was high in the ergosterol extraction yield (2 times higher yields in 96% than in 70%) but slight in those of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assistance promoted considerable yield increases (up to 2 times higher in ergosterol, 46% in phenolic compounds and 25% in antioxidant activity) depending on the ethanol concentration and ultrasound power density. The residues after extraction were characterized and constituted a potential source of high value polysaccharides as ß-glucans (average 12.2 ± 1.7g/100 g dm).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ergosterol/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , beta-Glucanas/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ergosterol/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/química , Modelos Teóricos , Fenóis/química , Sonicação
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461236, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540076

RESUMO

On-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HPLC-GC-FID) used for determining mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foods, particularly in certain oils and fats, may be disturbed by interfering olefins present as natural food components or resulting from raffination of the oils and fats. While some interference can be coped with by disregarding their peaks, others overload GC to the extent of obscuring the MOAH or form humps which need to be distinguished from the hump formed by the MOAH. In the latter cases, it is necessary to remove these interferences prior to HPLC-GC analysis. So far, epoxidation of the olefins to increase their retention time beyond that of the MOAH in HPLC is the best method available, though imperfect by causing some loss of MOAH and sometimes incomplete removal of the interference. Two methods are re-evaluated; preference is given to a slightly modified version of that proposed by Nestola and Schmidt. The performances are comparable: the losses of MOAH are similar and with both methods not all interfering olefins may be removed from refined edible oils. However, the Nestola/Schmidt method has practical advantages, the main ones being that no cooling is necessary and no solvent needs to be evaporated, which facilitates automation. Potential residual interferences must be recognized and subtracted, which can be by the characteristics of the hump they form in HPLC-GC-FID, by GCxGC-FID or by GCxGC-MS using characteristic mass fragments.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/análise , Óleo Mineral/análise , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Sistemas On-Line
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461260, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540085

RESUMO

Complexation between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borax in aqueous solution yields a dynamic polyelectrolyte. Study of chain conformation of such a polyelectrolyte is challenging due to the difficulty in separating different macromolecular species. In this study, we investigated conformation of dilute PVA chains complexed with borax in a wide concentration range between 0.02 and 78.6 mM using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). We find that elution of the complexes is strongly influenced by the borax concentration owing to (1) the charged complex is repelled electrostatically by the charged bottom membrane of the AF4 channel, and (2) the Debye screening length reduces with increasing a charge density. The chain conformation of PVA-borax complexes depends on both polymer molar mass and borax concentration. At low borax concentrations of 0.02~0.5 mM, a transition from random coil to rod-like conformation is observed with increasing the chain size. At borax concentrations of 1 mM and higher, all chains become random coil owing to a reduced screening length of the electrostatic repulsion.


Assuntos
Boratos/química , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Conformação Molecular , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Etanol/química , Peso Molecular , Eletricidade Estática , Água
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2756, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488003

RESUMO

Trifluoroethanol and difluoroethanol units are important motifs in bioactive molecules, but the methods to direct incorporate these units are limited. Herein, we report two organosilicon reagents for the transfer of trifluoroethanol and difluoroethanol units into molecules. Through intramolecular C-Si bond activation by alkoxyl radicals, these reagents were applied in allylation, alkylation and alkenylation reactions, enabling efficient synthesis of various tri(di)fluoromethyl group substituted alcohols. The broad applicability and general utility of the approach are highlighted by late-stage introduction of these fluoroalkyl groups to complex molecules, and the synthesis of antitumor agent Z and its difluoromethyl analog Z'.


Assuntos
Etanol/análogos & derivados , Etanol/química , Compostos de Organossilício/química , Trifluoretanol/química , Álcoois/química , Alquilação , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Food Chem ; 329: 127085, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512390

RESUMO

The refractive index is a basic optical property of materials. This study explores the effect of ethanol, glycerol, tartaric acid and glucose/fructose on the refractive index in model aqueous solutions and in dry white wines. Various model aqueous solutions consisting of these components were prepared and the refractive index was measured at 20 °C and each component was studied both alone and in mixtures with the others. The refractive index of white dry wines samples was also measured. A linear regression analysis was performed and linear multi-dependence equations were derived. The resulting regression models had a coefficient of determination over 97.3%. Glucose/fructose was found to have the greatest effect on the refractive index, followed by tartaric acid and glycerol while ethanol had the smallest effect. The knowledge of the correlation of the concentration of each wine component to the refractive index can be of value for the estimation of fermentation kinetics.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Glicerol/química , Tartaratos/química , Água/química , Vinho/análise , Refratometria
10.
Food Chem ; 328: 127091, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474237

RESUMO

Methanol is highly toxic for human, so methanol detection is valuable especially in water and ethanol medium without complicated and time consuming procedure. In this work, we present a new fluorescence probe for direct detection of methanol in aqueous and ethanol medium based on the ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dot (QDs) and soluble N-methylpolypyrrole (NMPPy) hybrid. Moreover, the number of spectroscopic techniques were used to study the chemical composition and optical properties of the resultant QDs as well as investigation on the sensing mechanism toward methanol. Also, methanol can be determined by using ZnS:Mn2+ QDs/NMPPy hybrid based switchable fluorescence sensing system, with high sensitivity, high selectivity and a very good detection limit of 1 mM with linearity in the concentration range of 25-230 mM (~0.1-0.9% v/v) in aqueous solution. Finally, the ZnS:Mn2+ QDs/NMPPy hybrid as optical sensor was successfully utilized to determine the amount of methanol in real alcoholic beverage samples.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Metanol/análise , Polímeros/química , Pirróis/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Sulfetos/química , Água/química , Compostos de Zinco/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Magnésio/química , Metanol/química
11.
Food Chem ; 329: 127157, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504918

RESUMO

The processing and digestive stability of ethanolic extracts from four Thai rice bran varieties, namely Khao Dawk Mali 105, Hom Nil, Kiaw Ngu, and Leum Pua, were assessed by applying different thermal and pH conditions, as well as in vitro gastrointestinal digestion models. High-performance liquid chromatography, Folin-Ciocalteu analysis, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the chemical composition, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity. Thermal treatment at 100 °C for 15 min induced the degradation of phenolic components and TPC, whereas the antioxidant activities measured by DPPH and FRAP assays remained stable after the heat treatment. Higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity values were observed in the extracts incubated at acidic pH levels of 3 and 5. After simulated digestion, all extracts exhibited the decrease of phenolic compounds and anthocyanin contents, as well as antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Oryza/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Etanol/química , Calefação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tailândia
12.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127274, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569956

RESUMO

The main aim of this work was to develop sustainable catalyst from geothermal waste by hydrothermal process for enhanced biohydrogen production. The effects of Si/Al ratio and pH neutralization on the catalyst were also investigated to provide further insight into the hydrogen production capability. Results have shown with increasing Si/Al ratio, a lower amount of catalyst was synthesized and smaller particle size was obtained. pH neutralization treatment resulted in higher conversion compared to non-neutralized ones. Meanwhile, the highest conversion of biohydrogen from ethanol through steam reforming process (95.19%) was obtained from catalyst with pH neutralization treatment and Si/Al ratio of 10. The catalyst developed in this study was concluded to be suitable for framework/supporting catalyst due to relatively low selectivity.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/análise , Etanol/química , Hidrogênio/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Zeolitas/química , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vapor , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Food Chem ; 330: 127266, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540528

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the nutritional value and potential use of elderberries as a source of antioxidant compounds. The chemical composition, fatty acids and phenolic compounds were determined for elderberries. The optimization of extraction parameters was designed with a Box-Behnken design coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function analysis. The process parameters tested included extraction temperature, % of ethanol and pH, while response variables were global extraction yield, total phenolic and anthocyanins content (TAC), carotenoids and antioxidant activity. Analyses revealed that elderberry was a rich source of total soluble solids, proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3: 38.12 g/100 g and omega-6: 39.54 g/100 g fatty acids). Regarding phenolic compounds, elderberries were found abundant in flavonoids (rutin and quercetin), and phenolic acids (i.e. gallic acid and gentisic acid). Finally, numerical optimization indicated that the best extraction parameters were the following: temperature 60 °C, 50% of ethanol and pH 2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Sambucus nigra/química , Antocianinas/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análise , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392253

RESUMO

In this work, a novel sensor based on printed circuit board (PCB) microstrip rectangular patch antenna is proposed to detect different ratios of ethanol alcohol in wines and isopropyl alcohol in disinfectants. The proposed sensor was designed by finite integration technique (FIT) based high-frequency electromagnetic solver (CST) and was fabricated by Proto Mat E33 machine. To implement the numerical investigations, dielectric properties of the samples were first measured by a dielectric probe kit then uploaded into the simulation program. Results showed a linear shifting in the resonant frequency of the sensor when the dielectric constant of the samples were changed due to different concentrations of ethanol alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. A good agreement was observed between the calculated and measured results, emphasizing the usability of dielectric behavior as an input sensing agent. It was concluded that the proposed sensor is viable for multipurpose chemical sensing applications.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , 2-Propanol/química , Desinfetantes/química , Radiação Eletromagnética , Engenharia , Desenho de Equipamento , Etanol/química , Vinho/análise
15.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 55(4): 354-356, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400852

RESUMO

AIM: In view of the increase in the use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizers throughout the world due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, we wished to review the possible risks to patients treated with disulfiram, following a case report in which an apparent DER (disulfiram-ethanol reaction) was attributed to the cutaneous absorption of alcohol from hand sanitizers as well as by inhalation of vapour. METHOD: Simple experiments to assess the levels of absorption by each route separately. RESULTS: Our results strongly suggest that while amounts of alcohol sufficient to cause a DER may be inhaled when hand sanitizers are used in confined spaces, absorption can be avoided by dispersal of the fumes, and absorption from the skin alone does not occur in pharmacologically significant quantities. CONCLUSION: Warnings about absorption of alcohol through the skin from hand sanitizers and products such as perfumes, deodorants and after-shave (whose use is often warned against when disulfiram is prescribed) should be modified accordingly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Dissulfiram/efeitos adversos , Dissulfiram/química , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacocinética , Higienizadores de Mão/efeitos adversos , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacocinética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Administração por Inalação , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dissulfiram/farmacocinética , Dissulfiram/uso terapêutico , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Higienizadores de Mão/administração & dosagem , Higienizadores de Mão/química , Humanos , Pandemias , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 503-515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378552

RESUMO

In the present work, the palladium (Pd) modification and supporting effect of W/TiO2 catalysts on catalytic ethanol dehydration to ethylene and diethyl ether were investigated. The Pd modification with different sequence of Pd and W impregnation on the catalysts was prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation technique. The catalyst characterization and activity testing revealed that the different sequence during impregnation influenced the physicochemical properties and ethanol conversion of catalyst. The differences in structure and surface properties were investigated by XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, XPS and NH3-TPD. Upon the reaction temperature between 200 to 400°C, it was found that the conversion increased with increasing of temperature for all catalysts. The Pd incorporated into catalysts enhanced the ethanol conversion depending on the sequence of impregnation. At low temperature (ca. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether is a major product and the Pd modification over W/TiO2 catalyst resulted in increased diethyl ether yield. This is because an increase of ethanol conversion was obtained with Pd modification, while diethyl ether selectivity did not change. This can be attributed to the higher amount of weak acids sites present after Pd modification into catalyst. Among all catalysts, the PdW/TiO2 catalyst (coimpregnation) achieved the highest diethyl ether yield of 41.4% at 300℃. At high temperature (ca. 350 to 400°C), ethylene is the major product. The W/Pd/TiO2 catalyst (with sequential impregnation of Pd on TiO2 followed by W) exhibited the highest ethylene yield of 68.1% at 400°C. It can be concluded that the modification of Pd onto W/TiO2 upon different sequence of Pd and W impregnation can improve the diethyl ether and ethylene yield in catalytic ethanol dehydration.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Éter/química , Etilenos/química , Paládio/química , Titânio/química , Tungstênio/química , Catálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Hidrólise , Temperatura
17.
Food Chem ; 321: 126746, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278276

RESUMO

This work describes the screening of twenty three per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in twenty five paper and board (P/B) packaging materials and their migration to several food simulants (50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and Tenax®) at different conditions of time and temperature. A different migration pattern depending on the carbon chain length was observed; while short carbon chain PFASs tend to migrate more to 50% ethanol than to 95% ethanol, long chain PFASs showed the opposite trend. On the other hand, very low migration percentages of all PFASs to Tenax® were found. Finally, migration of 9 PFASs into real foods (cereals, rice and infant milk powder) for 6 months was quantified and compared with the results obtained with the simulants. As a result, significant underestimations of the PFASs migration to foodstuffs were obtained using Tenax®, especially for short carbon chain PFASs and milk powder.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/análise , Grão Comestível , Etanol/química , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Papel , Polímeros/química , Temperatura
18.
Food Chem ; 322: 126767, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330787

RESUMO

Due to the lack of innovative valorization strategies, berry pomaces are a poorly utilized as a cheap source of valuable nutrients and phytochemicals. An effective biorefining scheme was developed to recover functional components from lingonberry pomace by consecutive supercritical CO2 (SFE-CO2), pressurized liquid (PLE) and enzyme assisted (EAE) extractions. SFE-CO2 at optimized parameters yielded 11.8 g/100 g of lipophilic fraction, containing 43.3 and 37.4% of α-linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, respectively. The combined PLE with ethanol and water additionally recovered 61.8 g/100 g of polar constituents and reduced the antioxidant capacity of starting material by up to 94%. The major portion of the antioxidants (89-94% in different assays), anthocyanins (231 mg/100 g pomace) and proanthocyanidins (15.9 g/100 g pomace) was present in PLE-EtOH extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was the major anthocyanin (146.9 mg/100 g). High-pressure fractionation was more efficient for obtaining bioactive pomace constituents as compared with conventional and enzyme-assisted extractions.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Etanol/química , Frutas/química , Galactosídeos/análise , Galactosídeos/química , Química Verde , Resíduos Industriais , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Pressão , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Água
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 846-853, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237485

RESUMO

To explore the relationship between the variations of the physiochemical properties of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction before or after precipitation in alcohol and the wall stickiness in spray drying. In this study, widely used TCMs in clinic were selected to determine the physiochemical properties of TCM decoction before or after precipitation in alcohol separately.Afterwards, the principle component analysis(PCA),Hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA),and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminate analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the relationship between the variations of those liquid before or after precipitation in alcohol and hot-melt stickiness in spray drying.Three types of statistical analysis methods all indicated that ethanol precipitation affected physiochemical properties of TCM decoction, and the variations of physical properties showed significant association with hot-melt stickiness in spray drying.The results of PCA-X and HCA suggested that the dynamic surface tension(DST) was impacted most by the alcohol deposition treatment,at the same time,the other 5 physiochemical properties were also affected.OPLS-DA verified that PCA-X and HCA results, and revealed that DST,equilibrium surface tension(EST) and pH were significantly affected by alcohol deposition treatment,and the order of the affecting factors from high to low was DST,EST and pH.Therefore,the downward trend of DST and pH were the important factors that directly affected the hot-melt stickiness of TCM after precipitation in alcohol,which would be probably caused by losing macromolecules alcoholic insoluble components and increasing relative proportions of organic acid and small molecule sugar.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Etanol/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Temperatura Alta , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 83(4): 135-152, 2020 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114934

RESUMO

Triplaris gardneriana Wedd. is a tree used in folk medicine to treat venereal diseases and inflammation as well as a source of biological compounds with antioxidant capacity. In order to assess the safety of these bioactive compounds, the present study aimed to determine the toxicity of an ethanolic extract of T. gardneriana, (EETg). Toxicological tests included hemolytic activity, toxicity toward the brine shrimp Artemia, cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (MCF7) and acute oral toxicity in rodents. In addition, toxicogenomics techniques were used to determine genome expression in MCF7 cells exposed to EETg. The results showed that the extract exhibits approximately 60% of hemolytic activity at the highest tested concentration (64 µg/ml) and toxicity against nauplii of Artemia sp. (LC50 of 67.85 µg/ml). Further, EETg appears to be cytotoxic to MCF7 (cell viability reduced to 40% at 250 µg/ml after 24 hr). Genomic data demonstrated differential expression of 14 genes. Data analysis indicated possible altered pathways (e.g., xenobiotic metabolism), possible adverse health risks (e.g., hepatotoxicity), and drugs with similar gene expression profile (e.g., antimicrobials). The investigation provides important information on potentially adverse aspects of EETg, which need to be considered prior to the therapeutic utilization of this plant.Abbreviations: EETg: ethanolic extract of T. gardneriana seeds; MCF7: michigan cancer foundation-7 which refers to a human breast cell line (adenocarcinoma); NGS: next-generation sequencing; edgeR: empirical analysis of digital gene expression data in R; Consensus: consensus path database; FDR: false discovery rate; NCBI: national center for biotechnology information; KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes; Ingenuity: ingenuity pathway analysis software; CMAP: connectivity map; OECD: organization for economic co-operation and development; HL-60: human promyelocytic leukemia cells; PC3: prostate cancer cells.


Assuntos
Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polygonaceae/química , Sementes/química , Adulto , Animais , Artemia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transcriptoma , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
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