Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.493
Filtrar
1.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101890, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056808

RESUMO

This retrospective study sought to identify a regular pattern of limb bruising which occurs in association with suicidal or accidental hanging. Following exclusion of cases suspicious for homicide, 82 consecutive cases of hanging from a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed to identify the pattern of traumatic limb injury in each case. Relevant information such as location, toxicology, and type of suspension was also noted. 72% of the reviewed cases had traumatic limb lesions, the majority of which occurred on the posterior upper limb and the anterior lower limb. Although the distribution of limb injury in our study mirrored that found in the literature, the incidence is much higher than in previous studies (7.4-20%). This could either be due to differences in confounding factors such as intoxication and location of hanging or differences in the practice of recording of limb trauma in hanging between centres. Neither type of suspension nor location of hanging were significantly associated with an increased incidence of traumatic limb injury. Positive toxicology was found to increase the likelihood of sustaining limb injury (p = .044084). In conclusion, the presence of this well documented pattern of traumatic limb lesions in cases of hanging should not always raise suspicion of foul play.


Assuntos
Asfixia/patologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Lesões do Pescoço/patologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Asfixia/mortalidade , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/urina , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/urina , Feminino , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(1): 30-38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to reduce alcohol relapse after liver transplantation (LT), the German national guidelines for waiting-list maintenance and organ allocation demand a minimum 6-month period of alcohol abstinence pre-LT, confirmed by measuring urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG). METHODS: Between January 2015 and June 2016, uEtG was measured at least once in 339 cirrhotic patients with an indication for LT at the University Medical Center Mainz. uEtG was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening test (cutoff value: 500 µg/L). For uEtG values ≥ 500 µg/L, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed as a confirmatory assay. Data were collected prospectively in a transplant database. RESULTS: Of the 339 potential liver transplant candidates, uEtG was negative in 86.4 %. Most patients were male (64.3 %), with an average age of 56.42 ±â€Š10.1 years. In the multivariate analysis, mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.001), urinary creatinine (p = 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transferase (p = 0.001), and hemoglobin (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with a positive uEtG test result. The sensitivity of the ELISA screening test was 100 % for uEtG values > 2000 µg/L, as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: uEtG is an effective parameter to reveal alcohol consumption by patients on the waiting list for LT. The sensitivity of the ELISA is excellent for uEtG values > 2000 µg/L, for which LC-MS/MS confirmation could be omitted.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Glucuronatos/urina , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/urina , Transplante de Fígado , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Listas de Espera
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110890, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628963

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this work, a food-grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis co-expressing both alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (scADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola (istALDH) were successfully constructed via double-crossover homologous recombination. When cultured at 37 °C for 48 h, the activities of scADH and istALDH were 57.56 ±â€¯7.44 and 81.41 ±â€¯8.26 U/mL, respectively. In pH 4.0, the alcohol degradation rate of recombinant B. subtilis fmb8 was 33% and the ΔLog10 was 0.1, indicating that fmb8 could be used as whole-cell biocatalysts for biodegradation of alcohols under low pH conditions. Mice experiments indicated that recombinant B. subtilis significantly alleviate recombinant alcohol-induced increases of mouse liver index, blood alcohol content, and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Furthermore, recombinant B. subtilis significantly reduced liver malondialdehyde levels and increased total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase levels in mouse liver. Overall, our findings suggested that food-grade B. subtilis fmb8 co-expressing scADH and istALDH could be used as a potential probiotic for alcohol detoxification and alleviation of alcoholic liver injury.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Etanol/toxicidade , Inativação Metabólica , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Etanol/sangue , Recombinação Homóloga , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 576-580, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833292

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To explore the change rules of blood ethanol and blood acetaldehyde concentration, the impairment of psychomotor functions of different acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 genotype individuals after alcohol consumption and the relationship among them. Methods The ALDH2 genotypes in seventy-nine healthy volunteers were obtained by SNaPshotTM method, then divided into ALDH2*1/*1 (wild type) and ALDH2*1/*2 (mutant type) group. After volunteers consumed 1.0 g/kg of alcohol, blood ethanol concentration and blood acetaldehyde concentration at a series of time points before and after alcohol consumption and psychomotor functions, such as, visual selective response time, auditory simple response time and tracking experiment were detected. Biphasic alcohol response questionnaires were collected. Results After alcohol consumption, ALDH2*1/*2 group's blood ethanol and blood acetaldehyde concentration reached the peak earlier than ALDH2*1/*1 group. Its blood acetaldehyde concentration was higher than that of ALDH2*1/*1 group, 1-6 h after alcohol consumption. The psychomotor functions, such as visual selective response time and auditory simple response time in ALDH2*1/*2 group were more significantly impaired than those in ALDH2*1/*1 group after alcohol consumption. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in excitement or sedation reactions (P>0.05). Pearson correlation coefficient test showed that blood acetaldehyde concentration was related with psychomotor function. Conclusion There are significant differences between the psychomotor function of ALDH2 wild type and mutant type individuals after alcohol consumption estimated to be related to the difference in blood acetaldehyde concentration after alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Etanol/metabolismo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial , Aldeído Oxirredutases , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/sangue , Genótipo , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
5.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(5): 43-46, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626194

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is the development of mathematical models in the forensic diagnosis of poisonings by the main groups of toxicologically important substances, on the basis of biochemical characteristics of blood. The most informative forensic and biochemical indicators of cadaveric blood used to detect lethal poisoning are the urea content, total protein content, and the ratio of urea to creatinine. Mathematical models of poisoning can be used to diagnose poisoning with narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and substitutes of ethyl alcohol.


Assuntos
Etanol/sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Entorpecentes/sangue , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Cadáver , Etanol/envenenamento , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Envenenamento/sangue , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), each year, over eight hundred thousand people worldwide die as a result of suicide. The most common risk factors for suicide are depressive disorders and alcohol dependence. Alcohol can directly influence a decision about suicide, or be a factor facilitating this decision. The aim of the study was to analyse the seasonality of suicides among persons under the influence of alcohol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for analysis were obtained from the Department of Forensic Medicine (DFM) of the Medical University of Warsaw. A retrospective analysis was performed on 317 victims of suicides by hanging, those which were entered into the registry of deaths kept by the DFM in the years 2009-2013. The analysis took into account the age and sex of victims, initial cause of death, date of post-mortem examination, autopsy result and alcohol concentration in the blood or muscles of the victims. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. RESULTS: In the analysis, a spring peak of suicides was found for men, and an autumn peak was revealed for women. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the age of victims and the concentration of alcohol; the older the victims, the higher the alcohol concentration. However, this correlation was reported only in the spring months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis seem to be consistent with seasonal patterns observed in other studies, and they indicate the occurrence of suicide seasonality. In order to improve the strategies of suicide prevention, it is necessary to identify factors which are related to the seasonal variation of suicidal behaviours, as well as to gain knowledge about the mechanisms behind this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Clima , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
J Surg Res ; 244: 196-204, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol (EtOH) poses a challenge in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) given its metabolic and neurologic impact. Studies have had opposing results regarding mortality and complication rates in the intoxicated TBI patient. We hypothesized that trauma mechanism, brain injury severity, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) would influence the impact of EtOH on mortality in TBI. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of consecutive adult trauma patients tested for EtOH and a diagnosis of TBI. The primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes included infectious complications. The primary analysis included univariate and multivariate regression comparing mortality between intoxicated and sober patients, at different values of BAC, different brain injury severities, and among mechanisms of trauma. RESULTS: Admission EtOH was assessed in 583 patients with TBI, with 256 testing positive for EtOH and 327 testing negative. Overall, EtOH was associated with lower mortality on univariate analysis (4.7% versus 8.9%, P = 0.05) but not on multivariate analysis (P = 0.21). There was no effect of EtOH on mortality when patients were stratified by brain injury severity or among penetrating trauma victims. However, EtOH was associated with lower overall infectious complications on univariate and multivariate regression. Finally, EtOH was predictive of mortality with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: We found that EtOH is not associated with mortality in the patient with TBI, suggesting no causative effect. However, EtOH showed some predictability of mortality based on a receiver operator characteristic analysis. Interestingly, EtOH was associated with lower infectious complications, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect of EtOH in TBI.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/imunologia , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Etanol/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/imunologia , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/imunologia
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109857, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284201

RESUMO

This study was conducted to understand alcohol kinetics for Koreans and to determine whether an individual is in absorption phase or elimination phase at the time of blood collection by analyzing of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in blood. A total of 50 healthy adults was selected and assigned to drink 1g of ethanol per kg body weight of individual within 1h. Blood samples were then collected every 15min for the first 3h, 30min next 3h, and 1h last 9h. Urine samples were also collected from the individual, but not under the controlled environment. All samples were then analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for alcohol and liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for EtG and EtS. The maximum BAC (Cmax) was 0.138% (g/100mL) in average under the controlled experimental condition. Alcohol elimination rates (ß) in average were 0.020% for male and 0.024% for female, respectively. It was found that the ratio of UAC and BAC was less than 1 in the absorption phase and the average ratio of UAC and BAC was 1.47 in the elimination phase. The comparison of BAC (g/L) and EtG (mg/L) absorption and elimination curves showed that the intersection time was 3.9h in average. It is shown that the ratio of EtG (mg/L)/BAC (g/L) is higher than 1, the individual would be in elimination phase of BAC. At the time of Cmax, the ratio of EtG (mg/L)/BAC (g/L) was 0.255±0.132 (SD) in average.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacocinética , Etanol/farmacocinética , Glucuronatos/sangue , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/sangue , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109853, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255435

RESUMO

Model cannons are usually considered to be harmless toys; therefore no legal regulations are required. Nevertheless, suicidal intentions or playful experimentation can turn this toy into a lethal weapon. This paper describes two cases of misuse of model cannons, leading to severe injuries and consequently death: the first case was the result of a suicidal intention, where the cannon caused a bullet injury into the forehead with marked signs of close-firing and intensive brain damage. The second case was an accidental event, where the cannon induced an entry wound at the left chest wall with surrounding carbonization and a fatal rupture of the heart. Circumstances of the lethal situations and mechanisms of the cannons leading to fatal injuries including ballistic considerations are described. The report is supported by a thorough literature research.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/patologia , Suicídio , Armas , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Adulto , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/urina , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/urina , Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Torácicos/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Orv Hetil ; 160(30): 1184-1192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327247

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: The available literature and protocols have unequivocally suggested that the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised is a psychometric scale for identifying and following the signs of alcohol withdrawal. However, there has not been any validated tool for the identification of withdrawal symptoms in Hungarian general hospital settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the Hungarian version of this scale among patients hospitalized with alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Method: The translation of the scale into Hungarian was done by 'back translation' method, followed by testing the face validity. The empirical phase was performed in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Szeged. Patients admitted with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (n = 30) were recruited from the inpatient units of the clinic. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised and Clinical Global Impression - Severity Scale were recorded every two days. Statistical comparisons of data were performed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Cronbach's alpha, item-total correlation, convergent and discriminant validity were determined. Results: Significant decrease of the total scores of Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised and Clinical Global Impression - Severity Scale was observed between the six measurements (F = 202.46, p<0.001; F = 503.04, p<0.001). Cronbach alpha values were above 0.7 during the first 3 measurement days. The withdrawal and severity scores recorded the same day showed positively significant correlations (>0.45). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol, Revised is a reliable and valid psychometric tool for the detailed analysis of withdrawal symptoms in Hungarian general hospital settings. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(30): 1184-1192.


Assuntos
Delirium por Abstinência Alcoólica , Convulsões por Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/sangue , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Hungria , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Traduções
11.
World Neurosurg ; 130: 454-458, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252079

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol intoxication is often present concurrently with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent studies have looked at the effect alcohol has on TBI and on coagulopathy. Typically, cases reviewed in the current literature report only on the effects of modest alcohol intoxication. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old male presented to the trauma center after a fall, with rapidly deteriorating mental status. Computed tomography of the head demonstrated a 1.9-cm acute subdural hematoma. Of note, classical coagulation studies were normal, but blood ethanol level was high, 436 mg/dL. Postoperatively, the patient suffered an intracerebral hemorrhage requiring emergent return to the operating room, where a large volume of unclotted blood and clinical coagulopathy was encountered. DISCUSSION: We review the literature pertaining to coagulopathy in the context of TBI and ethanol intoxication. This case is a cautionary tale of a phenomenon of unmeasured coagulopathy in the face of severe alcohol intoxication manifested by intraoperative coagulopathy with new postoperative hemorrhage. Although routine preoperative testing indicated normal clotting function, a thromboelastogram demonstrated delayed clot formation. The protective effects of alcohol are well described; however, we believe that there is a population of patients with severe acute intoxication who have coagulopathy that may go undetected by routine preoperative screening. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised when taking care of patients with very high levels of alcohol because physiologic derangements may be unpredictable. Additional research is needed for patients with very high levels of alcohol intoxication and the effect it may have on coagulation.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral Traumática/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/etiologia , Adulto , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral Traumática/sangue , Etanol/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/sangue , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 42(8): 1273-1283, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041517

RESUMO

High cost and high viscosity of ionic liquid restricted its commercial application in pretreatment of lignocellulose. Water and ethanol were used as additive in [EMIM][OAc] to pretreat corn cob at moderate temperature (< 100 °C). It was found that enzyme hydrolysis (EH) sugar yield was increased with the increase of IL content. The largest EH sugar yield of 68.8% was obtained when pure IL was used. However, for [EMIM][OAc]/ethanol, the EH sugar yield as high as 66.9% was gained when the IL content was 80%, which was comparable to that for pure IL pretreatment. In addition, Kamlet-Taft parameter was calculated to characterize the polarity solvency of binary liquid phase, to illustrate the underlying reason for the increase of EH sugar and the lignin removal. Finally, to demonstrate the crystalline and microstructure change after pretreatment, XRD and SEM were performed for the raw materials and the pretreated samples.


Assuntos
Celulase/química , Etanol/sangue , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Lignina/química , Água/química , Zea mays/química , Hidrólise
13.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(5): 488-491, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023411

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aerospace Medicine (AAM) is required by law to identify pilots who have driving under the influence (DUI) convictions. It is the responsibility of AAM to determine, based on the DUI, if the pilot has a drinking problem and needs follow-up treatment. Pilots with alcohol problems are at risk to themselves and the public and need to have treatment to reduce the extent of the risk. It has been suggested by some that a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.15 g · dL-1 is evidence of tolerance and the pilot should be placed in an alcohol treatment program.METHOD: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Clinician's Guide considers a person at risk for a drinking problem when a man drinks 5 or more drinks or a woman drinks 4 or more drinks in a day and reaches a 0.08 g · dL-1 of ethanol in the blood. It is possible to estimate from a BAC or breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) the number of drinks consumed using the volume of distribution for ethanol and the weight of the individual. A spread sheet tool was developed to estimate the number of drinks consumed.RESULTS: It was determined that DUI/DWI concentrations could be used to determine the minimum number of drinks consumed. Overweight people reach binge drinking levels and higher Hingson levels at lower DUI/DWI concentrations than people with an average weight or lower.DISCUSSION: Using this tool there is a high probability (99.7%) of identifying a true binge drinker.Canfield DV, Forster EM, Cheong Z-I, Cowan JM. Breath/blood alcohol concentration as an indicator of alcohol use problems. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(5):488-491.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Dirigir sob a Influência , Pilotos , Medicina Aeroespacial/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/sangue , Peso Corporal , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
eNeuro ; 6(2)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963106

RESUMO

Src is highly expressed in CNS neurons and contributes not only to developmental proliferation and differentiation but also to high-order brain functions, such as those contributing to alcohol consumption. Src knock-out mice exhibit no CNS abnormalities, presumably due to compensation by other Src family kinases (SFKs), but have a shortened lifespan and osteopetrosis-associated defects, impeding investigations of the role of Src on behavior in adult mice. However, the Unique domain of Src differs from those in other SFKs and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Cdk5 at Ser75, which influences its postmitotic function in neurons. Therefore, ethanol consumption in mice harboring nonphosphorylatable (Ser75Ala) or phosphomimetic (Ser75Asp) Src mutants was investigated. Mice harboring the Ser75Ala Src mutant, but not the Ser75Asp mutant, had a higher preference for and consumption of solutions containing 5% and 10% ethanol than wild-type mice. However, plasma ethanol concentrations and sensitivities to the sedative effects of ethanol were not different among the groups. In mice harboring the Ser75Ala Src mutant, the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in the striatum was significantly lower and Akt Ser473 phosphorylation was significantly higher than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that Src regulates voluntary ethanol drinking in a manner that depends on Ser75 phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Quinases da Família src/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Etanol/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Fosforilação , Quinases da Família src/genética
16.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 145-153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922154

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. and Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) is traditionally known to improve general liver health. However, its effect on hangover is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated PHYLLPRO™, a standardized ethanol extract of P. amarus leaves for protection against oxidative stress and recovery from hangover symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten days daily oral supplementation of 750 mg/day followed by intoxication was evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled (containing only excipient), crossover study in 15 subjects (21-50 years old), for oxidative stress, liver damage, alleviating hangover symptoms (Hangover Severity Score: HSS) and mood improvement (Profile-of-Mood-Scores: POMS). RESULTS: PHYLLPRO™ was able to remove blood alcohol in the active group while the placebo group still had 0.05% at 12 h post-intoxication (p < 0.0001). For HSS, the active group showed reduced hangover symptoms while there were higher levels of nausea, headache, anorexia, tremulousness, diarrhoea and dizziness in the placebo group (p < 0.05) at hour 10 post-intoxication. Increased fatigue at hour 2 and tension (p > 0.05) from baseline to hour 22 was reported in the placebo group using POMS. Significant anti-inflammatory group effect favouring the active group, by the upregulation of cytokines IL-8 (p = 0.0014) and IL-10 (p = 0.0492) and immunomodulatory effects via IL-12p70 (p = 0.0304) were observed. The incidence of adverse events was similar between groups indicating the safety of PHYLLPRO™. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Preliminary findings of PHYLLPRO™ in managing hangover, inflammation and liver functions following intoxication, is demonstrated. Future studies on PHYLLPRO™ in protecting against oxidative stress and hangover in larger populations is warranted.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Phyllanthus , Fitoterapia/métodos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Intoxicação Alcoólica/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Cefaleia/sangue , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/etiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 286: 608-615, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827653

RESUMO

The effects of honeys from different floral origins on alcohol metabolism were compared, and the correlation between their chemical compositions and antialcholic effects was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the five types of investigated honeys from different floral origins had different effects on alcohol metabolism, and the blood alcohol removal rate by these honeys ranged from 18.01% to 49.17%. Ziziphus jujuba honey exhibited the best blood alcohol removal effect, and meanwhile significantly enhanced the activity of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Chemical composition analysis also showed that honeys from different floral origins were considerably different in the contents of sugars, minerals, ascorbic acid and phenolics. Ziziphus jujuba honey had the highest fructose/glucose ratio, ascorbic acid and phenolics contents, and higher contents of minerals, especially K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. This chemical composition might contribute to its better anti-alcoholic effect.


Assuntos
Etanol/farmacocinética , Flores , Mel/análise , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Etanol/sangue , Etanol/metabolismo , Frutose/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Robinia , Vicia , Ziziphus
18.
NMR Biomed ; 32(5): e4081, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835926

RESUMO

Determination of the ethanol concentration in corpses with MRS would allow a reproducible forensic assessment by which evidence is collected in a noninvasive manner. However, although MRS has been successfully used to detect ethanol in vivo, it has not been applied to postmortem ethanol quantification in situ. The present study examined the feasibility of the noninvasive measurement of the ethanol concentration in human corpses with MRS. A total of 15 corpses with suspected alcohol consumption before demise underwent examination in a 3 T whole body scanner. To address the partial overlap of the ethanol and lactate signal in the postmortem spectrum, non-water-suppressed single voxel spectra were recorded in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the left lateral ventricle via the metabolite cycling technique. The ethanol signals were quantified using the internal water as reference standard, as well as based on a reference signal acquired in a phantom. The measured values were compared with biochemically determined concentrations in the blood (BAC) and CSF (CSFAC). In 8 of the 15 corpses a BAC above zero was determined (range 0.03-1.68 g/kg). In all of these 8 corpses, ethanol was measured in CSF with the proposed MRS protocol. The two applied MRS calibration strategies resulted in similar concentrations. However, the MRS measurements generally overestimated the ethanol concentration by 0.09 g/kg (4%) to 0.72 g/kg (45%) as compared with the CSFAC value. The presented MRS protocol allows the measurement of ethanol in the CSF in human corpses and provides an estimation of the ethanol concentration prior to autopsy. Observed deviations from biochemically determined concentrations are mainly explained by the approximate correction of the relaxation attenuation of the ethanol signal.


Assuntos
Etanol/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Água/química , Adulto , Idoso , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 62: 92-96, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708197

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to collect all available data from 2009 to 2016 focusing on the epidemiological, clinical and pharmacological issues only related to acute intoxication fatalities in the Unit of Legal Medicine of the Department of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Parma. All death certificates and autopsy reports were retrieved from the archives and evaluated to identify cases in which only acute intoxication from xenobiotics could be defined as the cause of death, however statistical and descriptive analyses were applied to all the data. A more comprehensive analysis on all causes of death showed that out of 1005 total cases the most common is haemorrhagic shock/traumatic shock (36.5%), followed by cardiogenic shock with 27.4%; asphyxia ranks as the third cause of death (11.8%); concerning encephalic injuries, our data show 10.9% of cases, while acute intoxication by xenobiotics accounts for 5.7%. Data show that the majority of subjects are poly-abuser (75.4%); people not enrolled within a preventive treatment (59.4%) were more likely to commit suicide (28.1%), whereas only 6.2% in the sub-population in treatment (40.6%) committed suicide: therefore, data strongly suggest the evidence that joining a preventive programme can decrease the probability of extreme action. Access to a full case history may indeed save considerable time and expense in carrying out tests, but also valuable targeted samplings. The investigating officer should, therefore, submit as much information as possible about the case, as this may influence the type and extent of analysis undertaken, as well as the interpretation of analytical results.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Preparações Farmacêuticas/sangue , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Asfixia/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/sangue , Afogamento/mortalidade , Etanol/sangue , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Choque/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(3): 155-160, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796807

RESUMO

This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some animal species, the LD50 of CE was lower than for cocaine. CE is also considered more toxic to the heart and liver compared with the parent drug cocaine. The plasma elimination half-life of CE is ~2 h compared with ~1 h for cocaine. The concentrations of CE in blood after drinking alcohol and taking cocaine are difficult to predict and will depend on the timing of administration and the amounts of the two precursor drugs ingested. After an acute single dose of cocaine and ethanol, the concentration-time profile of CE runs on a lower level to that of cocaine, although CE is detectable in blood for several hours longer. A strong case can be made for adding together the concentrations of cocaine and CE in forensic blood samples when toxicological results are interpreted in relation to acute intoxication and the risk of an overdose death.


Assuntos
Cocaína/análogos & derivados , Etanol/toxicidade , Toxicologia Forense , /toxicidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Animais , Cocaína/sangue , Cocaína/toxicidade , Etanol/sangue , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA