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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 814, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthrax is the second most highly prioritized zoonotic disease in Ethiopia due to its negative impact at the household level, causing disease and production losses in livestock and severe disease in humans. This study seeks to assess the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practices addressing (KAPs) anthrax in the communities of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted concurrently with focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) between May 2019 and April 2020. A total of 862 respondents participated in the questionnaire survey. Of these, 800 were local community members while 62 were professionals working at health service institutions. In addition, qualitative data were collected using six FGDs and 11 KIIs. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent (496/800) of the community respondents said that they were aware of anthrax while 38% (304/800) of them did not. Only 9.3% (74/800) of the respondents reported that the causative agent of anthrax is germs/microbial. About 56.5% (35/62) of professional respondents said that it is bacterial. More than 60% (64.1%, 513/800) of the respondents did not know that whether the disease was zoonotic or not. Regarding clinical signs, 26.3 (210/800) and 36.8% (294/800) of the respondents could identify at least one in animals and humans, respectively, while 21.3 (170/800) and 20.1% (161/800) knew one or more transmission routes in animals and humans, respectively. Moreover, 43.4% (347/800) and 45.6% (365/800) of the respondents mentioned one or more control/prevention method(s) in animals and humans, respectively. Regarding qualitative results, some of the participants knew the disease (in animals) by their local names: Lalish and Tafia (splenomegaly), and Gulbus (abdominal cramps and shivering). Some reported that anthrax was exclusively a human disease while others recognized its zoonotic potential after the clinical signs in both animals and humans were listed. CONCLUSION: The KAP of the participants regarding anthrax was low. There was no consistent understanding of the disease among the participants. The study also revealed that the participants did not receive consistent, adequate, and continuous education regarding the disease.


Assuntos
Antraz/psicologia , Conscientização , Bacillus anthracis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e044202, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Ethiopia, community-level knowledge about the current COVID-19 pandemic has not been well studied. This study is aimed to assess knowledge level and factors influencing the prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic among residents of Dessie and Kombolcha city administrations, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Dessie and Kombolcha city administrations. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were household heads or members (n=828, >18 years) who have lived in the study area for at least 2 months preceding the survey. METHODS: Binary logistic regression was used for a single outcome and multiple response variables. In the multivariable regression model, a value of p<0.05 and adjusted OR (AOR) with 95% CI were used to identify factors associated with knowledge level of the community. Epi Info V.7.2 and SPSS V.20 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. OUTCOME: Knowledge level. RESULTS: A total of 828 participants was involved with a response rate of 98%. Women were 61.7%. Participants' mean (±SD) age was 39 (±14) years. Of the total participants 54.11% (95% CI 50.6% to 57.6%) had inadequate knowledge about COVID-19 prevention. Significant associations were reported among women (AOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.92); age ≥65 years (AOR=2.72; 95% CI 1.45 to 5.11); rural residence (AOR=2.69; 95% CI 1.78 to 4.07); unable to read and write (AOR=1.60; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.51); information not heard from healthcare workers, mass media and social media (AOR=1.95; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.82), (AOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.58 to 4.19) and (AOR=2.13; 95% CI 1.33 to 3.42), respectively, with inadequate knowledge. CONCLUSION: These findings revealed that more than 50% of participants had inadequate knowledge about COVID-19. It highlights the need for widespread awareness campaigns about COVID-19 through mass media, healthcare professionals and social media as sources of information. House-to-house awareness creation is recommended to address older adults who are more vulnerable to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 751, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors of HIV Seropositivity. This study therefore showed the spatial variation of HIV Seropositivity and related factors in Ethiopia. METHODS: A total sample of 25,774 individual data collected from the 2016 EDHS data were primarily HIV biomarkers, IR, MR, and GPS. Spatial heterogeneity analysis was used with methods such as Morans I, Interpolation, and Kulldorff 's scan statistic. Spatial analysis was conducted using open source tools (QGIS, GeoDa, SaTScan). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata14 to identify HIV-associated factors. Finally, the AOR with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the mixed-effect logistic regression result in the full model. RESULT: The prevalence of HIV / AIDS at national level was 0.93%. The highest prevalence regions were Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari and Diredawa, accounting for 4.79, 3.36, 2.65 and 2.6%, respectively. Higher HIV seropositive spatial clusters have been established in the Gambela and Addis Ababa regions. Multilevel analysis at the individual level being married [AOR = 2.19 95% CI: (1.11-4.31)] and previously married [AOR = 6.45, 95% CI: (3.06-13.59)], female [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: (1.19-2.72)], first-sex at age ≤15 [AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: (1.70-11.34)], 18-19 [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], middle age group (25-34) [AOR = 6.53, 95% CI: (3.67-11.75)], older age group (>34) [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], primary school [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI: (1.92-4.79)], secondary school [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: (1.92-5.92) were significantly associated with serropositivity. Regarding household level, place of residence [urban: AOR = 6.13 CI: (3.12, 12.06)], female-headed households (AOR = 2.24 95% CI: (1.57-3.73), media exposure [low exposure (AOR = 0.53 95% CI: (0.33-0.86), no exposure AOR = 0.39 95% CI: (0.23-0.65)] and increased household size [AOR = 0.72 95% CI: (0.65-0.8)] were associated with HIV Seropositivity. CONCLUSION: High cluster HIV cases were found in Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari, and Diredawa. Having a history of married, start sex at a younger age, female-headed household, urban residence, and lower household size is more affected by HIV/AIDS. So any concerned body work around this risk group and area can be effective in the reduction of transmission.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 803, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic method in almost all health facilities in Ethiopia. Alternative diagnostic methods which have higher sensitivity are not yet implemented. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods for soil transmitted helminths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 school children was conducted from October to December, 2019 in Amhara National Regional State. The study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Stool samples were processed via formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz, spontaneous tube sedimentation and agar plate culture techniques. Data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated against the combined result. Strength of agreement of the diagnostic methods was determined by Kappa value. RESULTS: The Overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminths was 40.8% using combination of methods. The prevalence 24.4, 22.5, and 32.4%, respectively was recorded by using formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation. The highest prevalence of hookworm (29.2%) was detected by the agar plate culture. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of formol ether concentration were 57.9 and 78.4%, for Kato-Katz thick smear 55.2 and 76.4%, for spontaneous tube sedimentation were 79.2 and 87.5% to soil transmitted helminths detection, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of agar plate culture to hookworm detection were 86.4 and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous tube sedimentation shows higher sensitivity in the detection of soil transmitted helminth infections. Agar plate culture method also indicated better performance for hookworm detection than other methods. Therefore, the employment of spontaneous tube sedimentation technique for routine laboratory and agar plate culture for research purposes will significantly aid in accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Formaldeído , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant numbers of chronic obstructive respiratory disease patients are readmitted for Acute Exacerbation (AE) within 30 days of discharge. And these early readmissions have serious clinical and socioeconomic consequences. The objective of our study was to determine the rate of readmission within 30 days of discharge and it's predictors among patients treated for acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving 130 patients (asthma = 59, COPD = 71) was conducted from April-September, 2019, in Jimma Medical Center (JMC), South-West Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory, and drug-related data were recorded at admission and during hospital stay. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for readmissions following an AE of asthma and COPD. RESULTS: During the study period, 130 (male, 78(60%)) patients were admitted with AE of asthma and COPD. The median age was 59(IQR, 50-70) years. Of 130 patients, 21(18.10%) had a new AE of asthma and COPD that required hospitalization in the 30 days after discharge. The overall median survival time to 30-day readmission was 20 days (IQR, 16-29). Multivariate analysis revealed prolonged use of oxygen therapy (AHR = 4.972, 95% CI [1.041-23.736] and frequent hospital admissions (AHR = 11.482 [1.308-100.793]) to be independent risk factors for early readmissions. CONCLUSION: Early hospital readmission rates for AE of asthma and COPD were alarmingly high. Frequent hospital admission and long-term oxygen therapy during hospital stay were independent predictors of 30-day readmission.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and other fuels are associated with a wide variety of deleterious health effects including liver and kidney diseases. Gasoline station workers are exposed to a mixture of hydrocarbons during dispensing. However, no published studies investigated the liver and renal function tests of gasoline station workers in Ethiopia. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess liver and renal function tests among gasoline station workers. METHOD: A comparative cross sectional study was conduct from January 2018 to April 2018 at Mekelle city, Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Liver and renal function tests were analyzed on gasoline exposed (n = 43) and controls (n = 47) by Pentra C400 automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Student independent t-test and one way-ANOVA statistical methods were employed using SPSS Ver23. P-value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULT: The mean level of ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine, and uric acid was significantly higher among gasoline stations workers when compared to control study participants. There was also a significant increase in ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine and uric acid among gasoline stations with above 6 years exposure when compared with those exposed for ≤2 and3-6years. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increasing liver and renal parameters may be associated with exposure to gasoline and it is dependent on time of exposure to gasoline.


Assuntos
Gasolina/análise , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/análise , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Instalações de Transporte
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: School-aged children become a highly vulnerable group for malaria, yet they are less likely to use malaria prevention interventions. Previous studies exploring perception on cause of malaria mainly focused on pregnant mothers or parents of children under age five years. Exploring parent's perception on cause of malaria and their experiences on the prevention of malaria and associated challenges among school-aged children is important to develop a malaria prevention education package for school-aged children to reduce malaria and malaria related morbidities among school-aged children. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study is conducted in Kutcha district by recruiting 19 parents of school-aged children for semi-structured interviews, 6 key informants and 6 focus group discussion which consists of parents, health development army and health extension workers. A semi-structured interview guide is used to guide the interview process. The collected data is analyzed thematically with a focus on the three major areas of concern: perceived cause of malaria, experience of malaria prevention and challenges of bed net use for prevention of malaria. RESULTS: Five causes of malaria were identified, namely hunger, mosquito bite, exposure to hot sunshine, poor sanitation and hygiene and eating some sweet foods and unripe maize. Participants perceived that eating sweet foods and unripe maize lead to enlargement of the spleen that ends in malaria while poor hygiene and sanitation leads to either development of the ova of mosquito and the landing of the housefly to contaminate food for consumption. The experiences of malaria prevention were largely influenced by their perceived cause of malaria. The malaria prevention measures undertaken by parents were vectors control measures, homemade herbal remedies and restricting children from eating sweet foods. The challenges of malaria prevention by using bed nets were related to a negative attitude, sleeping behaviors of children; use of bed nets for unintended purposes, shortage of bed nets and delays in the distribution of bed nets. CONCLUSION: There were misconceptions about the cause of malaria and associated experiences of malaria prevention. Control of malaria among school-aged children need health education targeting the challenges and correcting identified misconceptions by parents in Kutcha district and in other similar settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/etiologia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pais/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine risk perception and precautionary health behavior toward coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among health professionals working in selected public university hospitals of Ethiopia. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was used with health professionals working in selected public university hospitals of Ethiopia. A structured survey questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, risk perception, and behavioral response items were used. The survey questions were designed on Google form. All academic and clinical staff invited to participate in the online survey, which was carried out from May 1-14, 2020. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24. Descriptive statistics computed and the result is presented by tables and figures. RESULTS: A total of 273 health professionals participated in this study. The mean (± SD) age of participants was 31.03 ± 5.11. Study participants' overall mean score of perceived risk was 23.59 ± 4.75. The study participants' mean score of perceived vulnerability (4.01 ± 1.17) was higher than the human immunodeficiency virus, common cold, malaria, and tuberculosis. Regarding precautionary health behavior, the lowest mean score is for wearing gloves 1.82 ± 1.15. CONCLUSION: Participants mean score of perceived vulnerability of coronavirus disease was higher than some of the prevalent infectious disease in the area. Almost all participants applied recommended protective measures to the acceptable level, except for wearing mask and gloves. Therefore, there is a need to further intensification of more effective ways to support health professionals' adherence to major precautionary measure is important.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life. Lack of knowledge of and negative attitude palliative care among nurses is one of the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study, therefore, aimed to assess nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude toward end-of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones, Ethiopia. METHODS: A multicenter institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from 372 nurses working in public hospitals in Wollega zones from October 02-22, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire with three different parts: Demographic characteristics of nurses, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN), and the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD). SPSS version 21 was used for analysis used for data analysis. The binary logistic regression test was used for analysis at p < 0.05. FINDINGS: Our final sample size was 422 nurses (response rate = 88%). With the mean total PCQN scores (9.34), the majority of them showed an inadequate level of knowledge about palliative care. The mean total FATCOD scores (79.58) displayed a positive attitude toward end-of-life care, with 52% of respondents eager to care for a dying person and their family. Nurses who had PC service experience [AOR = 1.94 CI (1.10-3.42), p = 0.02] and had ever attended training/lecture on PC [AOR = 1.87 CI (1.01-3.46), p = 0.04] were independently associated with nurses' knowledge about PC. Similarly, nurses who had no PC service experience [AOR = 0.41, CI (0.21-0.79), p = 0.008], who read articles/brochures about PC [AOR = 1.94, CI (1.11-3.39), p = 0.01] and had provided care for a smaller number of terminally ill patients [AOR = 1.74, CI (1.01-2.97), p = 0.04] were significantly associated with nurses' attitude towards end-of-life care. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted that nurses' knowledge about palliative care is inadequate, and showed a less favorable attitude toward end-of-life care. The findings also provide evidence for greater attentions and resources should be directed towards educating and supporting nurses caring for patients with palliative care needs in Wollega Zones.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Enfermagem , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage has stagnated over the past decade and fallen short of WHO targets in Ethiopia. Community engagement strategies that reach beyond traditional health systems may reduce dropout and increase coverage. This evaluation assesses changes in immunization, postpartum family planning, and antenatal care coverage after implementation of an enhanced community engagement and defaulter tracing strategy, entitled "Fifth Child" project, across two districts in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A formative evaluation was conducted to examine the contribution of the strategy on immunization, postpartum family planning and antenatal care utilization in Assosa and Bambasi districts of BGRS. The quantitative findings are presented here. Routine and project-specific data were analyzed to assess changes in uptake of childhood vaccinations, postpartum family planning and antenatal care. Between January 2013 and December 2016, pentavalent-3 coverage increased from 63% to 84% in Assosa, and from 78% to 93% in Bambasi. Similarly, measles vaccine coverage increased from 77% to 81% in Assosa, and from 59% to 86% in Bambasi. Approximately 54% of all eligible infants across both woredas defaulted on scheduled vaccinations at least once during the period. Among defaulting children, 84% were identified and subsequently caught up on the vaccinations missed. Secondary outcomes of postpartum family planning and antenatal care also increased in both woredas. CONCLUSION: The "Fifth Child" project likely contributed to enhanced immunization performance and increased utilization of immunization and select perinatal health services in two woredas of BGRS. Further research is required in order to determine the impact of this community engagement strategy.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Programas de Imunização , Assistência Perinatal , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036019

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi collected from Ofla (Ofl), Alamata (Ala), Yilmana Densa (Yil), Tarmaer (Tar), Butajira (Buta), and Bale (Bal) in Ethiopia against cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus) isolated from human teeth. Inhibition zones (IZs), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measures of the antibacterial activity. Significant bacterial inhibitions resulted in a dose-and EO-dependent manner. At 128 µl/mL, IZs against S. mutans were 37.33 mm (Tar), 36.00 mm (Bal), 33.67 mm (Yil), 33.33 mm (Ofl), 30.00 (Ala), and 29.67 mm (Buta) and IZs against Lactobacillus were 31.00 mm (Tar), 30.67 mm (Yil), 27.67 (Bal), 27.00 (Buta), 26.67 (Ofl), and 21.33 (Ala). The respective inhibition zones due to 3% DMSO (negative control) and 3% H2O2 (positive control) were 0.00 mm/30.00 mm against S. mutans and 0.00 mm/29.00 mm against Lactobacillus. At 128 µl/mL dose, all the EOs resulted in significantly higher inhibition zones than that of 3% H2O2 against S. mutans and Lactobacillus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Etiópia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV status disclosure in children is one of acontroversial issue in current health. Over 44,000 children in Ethiopia were living with HIV in the year 2019 with a variable level of disclosure, which ranges from 16.3% to 49%. Therefore, this study aimed to assess HIV-positive status disclosure and associated factors among HIV-infected children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten public health facilities providing pediatric antiretroviral therapy services. Systematic random sampling was used to select 221 caregivers of children aged 6-15 years. Face-to-face interviews were employed to generate the data. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between HIV-positive status disclosure to children and independent variables with statistical significance set at p-value <0.05. RESULTS: Out of the total, 134 (60.6%) of HIV-infected children knew about their HIV status. The mean age at disclosure was 10.71 years. Children aged older than 10 years [AOR = 22, 95% CI: 5.3-79.2], female children [AOR = 3; 95% CI = 1.2-8.7], children lost their family member by HIV [AOR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-10], caregiver's perception of child did not get stigmatized [AOR = 4, 95% CI: 1.6-11], and children's responsible for anti-retroviral therapy [AOR = 16, 95% CI: 5-50] were significantly associated with HIV positive status disclosure compared to their counterpart respectively. Children who stayed on anti-retroviral for 10-15 years were [AOR = 7; 95% CI: 2-27] more likely to know their HIV positive status compared to those staying on anti-retroviral therapy for <6 years. CONCLUSION: The proportion of disclosure of HIV-positive status among HIV-infected children was low. Factors associated were the age of the child, sex, existence of parent, stigma, ART duration, and responsibility of the child for his/her drugs. HIV care providers should consider these factors while supporting disclosure.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, health care-associated infections had become serious public health importance. Compliance with standard safety precaution is effective and inexpensive measure to improve quality of healthcare in reducing occurrence of healthcare associated infections. In developing countries, like Ethiopia adherence to recommended standard safety precaution is scanty. OBJECTIVE: To assess level of compliance with standard safety precaution and associated factors among healthcare workers in Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa comprehensive specialized hospital. Data were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were allocated proportionally based on their profession by using stratified random sampling method. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Bi-variable analysis and multi variable logistic regression model were used to check which variables were associated with dependent variable. P-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In this study the overall compliance with standard safety precaution among healthcare workers were only 56.5%. Being female healthcare worker AOR: 2.76(1.34, 5.54), married healthcare workers AOR: 4.2(2, 9.03), accessibility of safety box AOR: 3.4(1.6, 7.17), HCWs had perceived IP training AOR: 3.99(1.46, 10.9), availability of tape water AOR: 2.68(1.15, 6.2) and healthcare workers had internal infection prevention and control supportive supervision AOR: 5.8(2.54, 13.48) associated with compliance with standard safety precaution. CONCLUSION: According to findings of the current study, overall level of compliance with standard SP among HCWs considered to be very low. Factors such as healthcare workers being female, accessibility of safety box, availability of running tape water, training and supportive supervision were independent predictors of compliance with standard safety precaution. Thus ensuring availability and accessibility of safety precaution materials and regular observing and supervising healthcare workers' practices are highly recommended.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(s1): 8-19, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074082

RESUMO

The University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences (UoG-CVMASc) and the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine (OSU-CVM) developed an objective methodology to assess the curriculum of veterinary institutions and implement changes to create a curriculum that is harmonized with OIE standards while also covering the needs and realities of Gondar and Ethiopia. The process, developed under the sponsorship of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Veterinary Education Twinning Programme, is outlined in this article with the hope that it can be applied by other countries wishing to improve national veterinary services (VS) through the improvement of their academic programs. The plan created by the UoG-OSU Twinning team consisted of an in-depth curriculum assessment and development process, which entailed three consecutive stages. Stage 1 (Curriculum Assessment) included the design and development of an Evaluation Tool for OIE Day 1 Graduating Veterinarian Competencies in recent graduates, and the mapping and evaluation of the current UoG-CVMASc curriculum based on the OIE Veterinary Education Core Curriculum. Stage 2 (Curriculum Development) consisted of the identification and prioritization of possible solutions to address identified curriculum gaps as well as the development of an action plan to revise and update the curriculum. Finally, Stage 3 (Curriculum Implementation) focused on the process to launch the new curriculum. In September 2017, 53 first-year students started the professional program at the UoG-CVMASc as the first cohort to be accepted into the newly developed OIE Harmonized Curriculum, the first of its kind in Africa.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Currículo , Etiópia , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 797, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in the diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge against achieving effective TB prevention and control. Though a number of studies with inconsistent findings were conducted in Ethiopia; unavailability of a nationwide study determining the median time of patient delays to TB diagnosis is an important research gap. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the pooled median time of the patient delay to TB diagnosis and its determinants in Ethiopia. METHODS: We followed PRISMA checklist to present this study. We searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for studies. The comprehensive search for relevant studies was done by two of the authors (MA and LY) up to the 10th of October 2019. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale adapted for observational studies. Data were pooled and a random effect meta-analysis model was fitted to provide the overall median time of patient delay and its determinants in Ethiopia. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate how the median time of patient delay varies across different groups of studies. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria were included. Our meta-analysis showed that the median time of the patient delay was 24.6 (95%CI: 20.8-28.4) days. Living in rural area (OR: 2.19, 95%CI: 1.51-3.18), and poor knowledge about TB (OR: 2.85, 95%CI: 1.49-5.47) were more likely to lead to prolonged delay. Patients who consult non-formal health providers (OR: 5.08, 95%CI: 1.56-16.59) had a prolonged delay in the diagnosis of TB. Moreover, the narrative review of this study showed that age, educational level, financial burden and distance travel to reach the nearest health facility were significantly associated with a patient delay in the diagnosis of TB. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients are delayed more-than three weeks in the diagnosis of TB. Lack of awareness about TB, consulting non-formal health provider, and being in the rural area had increased patient delay to TB diagnosis. Increasing public awareness about TB, particularly in rural and disadvantaged areas could help to early diagnosis of TB.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis disease is the leading cause of death worldwide along with HIV/AIDS. Sputum smear microscopy plays an essential role for initial TB diagnosis and treatment follow up. But, misdiagnosis of sputum smear microscopy revealed a high economical crisis and missing of active TB cases. This study was aimed to determine blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy performance in public health facilities in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional retrospective study was conducted from January, 2017 to December, 2018 year. Data was collected retrospectively using electronic and paper based in Tigray health research institute. The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25 software. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the smear readings were calculated using 2X2 contingency table. The reading agreement between the microscopic center and reference center was determined using kappa statistics. RESULTS: A total of 23,456 blinded rechecked smear results were reviewed. In average, the performances of sputum smear quality were 61%, 68%, 64%, 66%, 62% and 75% for specimen quality, staining quality, smear size, smear thickness, smear evenness and smear cleanliness respectively. Of the total error (0.48%) reported, 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.085% were false positive, false negative and quantification errors respectively. The concordance rate of health facilities for smear reading was increased to 90% by the end of 2018. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the smear readings were 95%, 99.7%, 93% and 99.8% respectively. Likewise, the smear reading agreement was also perfect with kappa value, 0.87. CONCLUSION: The overall performance of public health facilities for blinded rechecking of smear microscopy was satisfactory. But, the high false positive and false negative errors found calls for continuous evaluation and monitoring of the health facilities by reference center.


Assuntos
Microscopia/métodos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Microscopia/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 58, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a major risk factor for the transmission of blood-borne infections to healthcare workers. There are several primary studies in Ethiopia yet they might not be at the national level to quantify the extent of occupational blood and body fluid exposures (splash of blood or other body fluids into the eyes, nose, or mouth) or blood contact with non-intact skin among the healthcare workers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of occupational blood and body fluid exposure of healthcare workers in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, Hinari, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched; withal, the references of appended articles were also checked for further possible sources. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Of the 641 articles identified through the database search, 36 studies were included in the final analysis. The estimated pooled lifetime and 12-month prevalence on occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers were found to be at 54.95% (95% confidence interval (CI), 48.25-61.65) and 44.24% (95% CI, 36.98-51.51), respectively. The study identified a variation in healthcare workers who were exposed to blood and body fluids across Ethiopian regions. CONCLUSION: The finding of the present study revealed that there was a high level of annual and lifetime exposures to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Sangue , Líquidos Corporais , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 750, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Mapping the genetic diversity of MTBC in high TB burden country like Ethiopia is important to understand principles of the disease transmission and to strengthen the regional TB control program. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates circulating in the South Omo, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: MTBC isolates (N = 156) were genetically analyzed using spacer oligotyping (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Major lineages and lineages were identified using MTBC databases. Logistic regression was used to correlate patient characteristics with strain clustering. RESULTS: The study identified Euro-American (EA), East-African-Indian (EAI), Indo-Oceanic (IO), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium africanum major lineages in proportions of 67.3% (105/156), 22.4% (35/156), 6.4% (10/156), 1.9% (3/156), 1.3% (2/156) and 0.6% (1/156), respectively. Lineages identified were Delhi/CAS 23.9% (37/155), Ethiopia_2 20.6% (32/155), Haarlem 14.2% (22/155), URAL 14.2%(22/155), Ethiopia_3 8.4% (13/155), TUR 6.5% (10/155), Lineage_7/Aethiops vertus 1.9% (3/155), Bovis 1.3% (2/155), LAM 1.3% (2/155), EAI 0.6% (1/155), X 0.6% (1/155) and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strain 0.6% (1/155). Of the genotyped isolates 5.8% (9/155) remained unassigned. The recent transmission index (RTI) was 3.9%. Orphan strains compared to shared types (AOR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) were associated with reduced odds of clustering. The dominant TB lineage in pastoral areas was EAI and in non-pastoral areas was EA. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological data, highly diverse MTBC strains and a low RTI in South Omo, provide information contributing to the TB Control Program of the country.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zootaxa ; 4859(1): zootaxa.4859.1.4, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056207

RESUMO

Ethiopia is known for its highly endemic and rich herpetofaunal diversity shaped by its biogeographical patterns. Here, a new species of skink, Trachylepis boehmei sp. nov., is described from the Ethiopian Highlands. It differs from its congeners in having smooth uncarinated dorsal scales, 26-29 scale rows around midbody, a slender body of small size, a relatively short tail, a low eye-snout distance and a unique colour pattern with 6-8 darkish brown dorsal stripes. Based on morphological characteristics, its biogeographical pattern and comparisons with other similar congeners this new species is closely related to Trachylepis megalura. A published new record of Trachylepis wingati for the Kafa region is re-examined and identified as T. megalura. An updated comprehensive key to the Trachylepis found in Ethiopia is provided. In the context of ongoing phylogenetic and taxonomic revisions of Trachylepis and its species complexes the presence of further cryptic taxa can be expected also for the Ethiopian biodiversity hotspots. Consequently, the need of further herpetological investigations in this region of ecological importance is stressed.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Etiópia , Filogenia
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