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1.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The availability of preferred habitats determines the spatial and temporal distribution of herbivores in savanna ecosystems. Understanding habitat preference of a targeted wildlife species is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. Habitat preference of large grazers in connection to grass height and post-fire effect has been debated for the last century. Here, we examined the effects of season, grass height and burning on the habitat preference on Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Maze National Park. Data for seasonal habitat selection were collected using both direct observation along established transect lines and pellet counting using permanently established plots. Every month, we measured grass height commonly preferred by Swayne's hartebeest in grassland habitat. Starting from the first week of burning, we recorded the abundance of Swayne's hartebeest in both burned and unburned grassland patches. RESULTS: From detected pellets, 94.3% were recorded in the grassland habitat indicating that other habitat types are less used despite their extensive cover > 50% of the Park. During wet and early dry seasons, Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat. We found that 85.2% (n = 1079) and 85.3% (n = 593) of individuals observed in areas with a grass height below 30 cm during wet and early-dry seasons, respectively; while 70.9% (n = 2288) preferred grass height below 30 cm during the dry season. The density of Swayne's hartebeest in burned grassland area was higher than unburned grassland areas up to 150 days since burning. However, in unburned grassland areas, the density was initially low but showed increasing trend for consecutive days, reaching similar density with burned areas after 150 days since burning. CONCLUSION: Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat, particularly during wet and early-dry seasons, shortest available grass height in all seasons and were attracted to burned grassland areas. Our results suggested that fire played an important role in maintaining habitat quality in grassland, and that management should continue using controlled burning as a tool for the conservation of Swayne's hartebeest. However, we remain cautious of our findings given the paucity of information regarding other confounding factors and the absence of long-term data on fire disturbance.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Ecossistema , Animais , Etiópia , Pradaria , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125370, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442699

RESUMO

Four Arabica coffees (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, and Guatemala) yield highly variant odours, attesting to the complexities of coffee aroma that command advanced analytical tools. In this study, their volatiles were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). Due to matrix complexity, some trace odourants were detected in SAFE extracts by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) but remained difficult to quantify by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This prompted the application of low energy electron ionisation (EI) coupled with GC-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC-QTOF). Optimal low EI GC-QTOF parameters (EI energy: 15 eV, acquisition rate: 3 Hz) were applied to achieve improved molecular ion signal intensity and reproducibility (relative standard deviation < 10%) across five compounds, which resulted in good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999) and lowered detection levels (e.g. 0.025 ±â€¯0.005 ng/mL for 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone). Therefore, this method potentially improves the measurement of trace odourants in complex matrices by increasing specificity and sensitivity.


Assuntos
Café/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Brasil , Coffea/química , Colômbia , Etiópia , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfatometria/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 67-72, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622698

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced and metastatic esophageal cancer are usually affected by cancer-related symptoms, which worsen their performance status and quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of short-course accelerated radiation therapy for symptomatic palliation in a low resourced setting where only a 2-dimensional radiation therapy (RT) technique was available. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A phase II trial based on Simon's 2-stage design was planned. A total dose of 12 Gy in 4 fractions, twice per day, over 2 days, ≥8 hours apart, using a 2-dimensional conventional RT technique was delivered with a Cobalt 60 unit (Equinox, Best Theratronics, Ottawa, Ontario). Symptoms were graded using the International Atomic Energy Agency scoring system. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients were treated (male/female = 10/7; median age, 50.0 years; range, 27-78 years; histology: 6 adenocarcinomas and 11 squamous cell carcinomas; tumor site: 4 gastresophageal junction and 13 esophagus). The most frequent baseline symptoms were dysphagia or regurgitation (100%), odynophagia (76%), and chest or back pain (53%). At 1 month after RT, all patients were alive with palliative response rates (complete plus partial) for dysphagia, regurgitation, odynophagia, and chest or back pain of 76%, 82%, 69%, and 56%, respectively. No patients presented acute ≥G3 toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-course accelerated radiation therapy treatment, planned and delivered using a conventional 2-dimensional RT technique, was effective and well tolerated for the symptomatic palliation of locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer. This schedule may be useful for RT centers in developing countries to reduce treatment times, costs, and patient waiting times before treatment.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 67, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes a pruritic skin eruption. In Ethiopia, the disease is common especially during natural or manmade disasters such as flooding, drought, civil war and conflict, poor water supply and sanitation, and overcrowding living condition. Though scabies is becoming a major public health problem, especially in low resource settings, there has been no study that reported the prevalence of scabies in the study area. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among students in primary schools in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was employed to determine the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among schoolchildren in Dabat district. A total of 494 students selected by a multi-stage sampling technique were included in this study. Scabies was diagnosed by medical practitioners based on lesions observed on body surfaces after a physical examination. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Significance level was obtained at p value < 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of scabies was 9.3% (46/494) with 95% CI (5.66%, 12.94%). Among schoolchildren who were infested by scabies, 65.22% (30/46) had a mild, 28.26% (13/46) had moderate, and 6.52% (3/46) had severe lesions. Studying at a rural school (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.33, 6.71), had illiterate father (AOR = 5.11, 95% CI 2.25, 11.58), being grade level 1-4 (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.69, 9.05), rarely taking a bath (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.36, 9.25), contact with a person with itching symptom (AOR = 2.66, 95% CI 1. 21, 5.83), a family member with itchy symptoms (AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 2.20, 10.28), not living with both parents (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02, 6.06), and using water only for hand washing (AOR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.78, 10.76) were factors associated with scabies infestation among schoolchildren. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of human scabies among schoolchildren in Dabat district northwest Ethiopia was high. The school localization, first cycle level of education, paternal educational status, frequency of taking a bath, and contact with a person having itchy lesions, presence of a family member with itchy lesion, and type of frequently used hand washing material were the factors significantly impacting the occurrence of scabies. Special attention should be given to students at first cycle education as they are at the highest risk of infestation.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/patologia , Estudantes
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819784

RESUMO

Introduction: More than 20 million infants were born with low birth weight in worldwide. Low birth weight contributes more than 80 percent of all the neonatal mortality. In Ethiopia, studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of low birth weight among newborns. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors with low birth weight among newborns delivered at term in Kambata-Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each hospital. The total of 341 study participants was enrolled using systematic random sampling techniques. Data were collected by interview-administered questionnaire and entered using Epi-Info version-7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify associated factors with the low birth weight. Results: The prevalence of low birth weight was 18% and significantly associated with the mothers' non-employment [aOR=5.4;95%CI:1.7-17.4], residing in the rural [AOR=5.4; 95%CI:2.1-14.7], unintended pregnancy [aOR=2.0;95%CI:1.2-3.8], not attending antenatal care [aOR=2.3;95%CI: 1.3-2.7], mothers with greater than three births [aOR=1.5;95% CI:1.8-2.6], birth interval less than or equal to two years [aOR=1.9;95%CI:1.6-3.6] and intimate partner violence during pregnancy [aOR=2.1:95% CI: 1.1-3.9]. Conclusion: The study finding shown that the prevalence of low birth weight among newborn was high (18%) in the study. Preventing of low birth weight is an important intervention to reduce neonatal death. Therefore, maximizing women economic status, providing quality family planning services, enabling pregnant women to use antenatal care and preventing intimate partner violence during pregnancy via launching women empowering strategies in the community level is highly recommend.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is a crucial gateway to all strategies related to care, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nevertheless, utilization of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service among adults is very low in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to identify determinants associated with VCT utilization among adult women aged 15-49 in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data taken from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. Using cluster sampling, 14,369 women aged 15-49 years were selected from all the nine administrative regions and two city administrations. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with HIV VCT utilization. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of ever tested for HIV was 53% (95% CI, 52, 54). Aged 20-44, ever married, being at higher socio economic position (SEP) and having risky sexual behavior were factors which are positively associated with VCT utilization. Being Muslims in urban and protestants in rural were factors significantly and negatively associated with VCT utilization. Those who had stigmatizing attitude both in urban and rural and who had comprehensive knowledge in rural were less likely to utilize VCT service. CONCLUSION: VCT utilization among women in Ethiopia is demonstrating better improvement in recent years. However, stigmatizing attitude continued to be among the major factors, which are negatively affecting VCT uptake among women in Ethiopia. Concerted efforts should be made by all stakeholders to mitigate stigma, improve socio economic inequities and increase awareness on the benefit of VCT in controlling HIV in the society. In this aspect, the role of religious leader, schools, health extension workers and community leaders should not be undermined.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1073, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. It is prevalent in areas where personal and community hygiene is poor, and it mainly affects deprived and marginalized communities most importantly in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children in Ethiopia. We searched databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. To estimate the prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft excel and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta- analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of active trachoma. Moreover, the association between factors and active trachoma were examined. RESULTS: The result of 30 eligible studies showed that the overall prevalence of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia was 26.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 31.0%). In the subgroup analysis, while the highest prevalence was reported in SNNP (35.8%; 95% CI: 22.7, 48.8), the lowest prevalence was reported in Oromia region (20.2%; 95% CI: 12.2, 28.2). Absence of latrine: OR 6.0 (95% CI 2.0, 17.5), the unclean faces of children: OR 5.5 (95% CI 2.8, 10.9), and no reported use of soap for washing: OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.8, 6.0) have shown a positive association with active trachoma among children. CONCLUSION: From this review, it has been concluded that active trachoma among children is still a public health problem in different districts of Ethiopia. The prevalence of almost all studies are significantly higher than WHO target for elimination. Absence of latrine, unclean faces of children, no reported use of soap for washing are the important factors associated with active trachoma among children.


Assuntos
Tracoma/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905

RESUMO

Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Etiópia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 551-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853180

RESUMO

Introduction: As hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease that contributes to a high proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide, favorable knowledge is crucial to control it. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to assess knowledge and associated factors of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients at the chronic illness follow-up Clinic of the University of Gondar comprehensive-specialized hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the presence and strength of association between covariates and the outcome variable. Results: A total of 404 participants took part in the study with a response rate of 97.3%. The overall good knowledge about blood pressure control was 51.7% (95% CI=46.3-56.8). Females were 3.79 (AOR= 3.79, 95% CI: (1.55, 9.28)) more knowledgeable about blood pressure control than males. In the multivariable analysis, the odds of being knowledgeable were 2.80 (AOR= 2.80, 95% CI (1.44, 5.46)), 8.05 (AOR=8.05, 95% CI (2.93, 22.10)), and 7.53 (AOR=7.53, 95% CI (2.52, 22.49)) for can read and write, secondary, preparatory and above education, respectively, compared to cannot read and write. Occupation was significantly associated with the knowledge of plod pressure control. For example, merchants 7.66 (AOR=7.66, 95% CI (3.01, 19.47)), government employee 6.33 (AOR=6.33, 95% CI (1.90, 22.07)), and self-employed 4.58 (AOR=4.58, 95% CI (1.80, 11.70)) times more likely to be knowledgeable than farmers, respectively. Participants with family history of hypertension were 2.36 (AOR=2.36, 95% CI (1.42, 3.92)) times more knowledgeable than their counterparts. Conclusion: In this study, knowledge of blood pressure control was lower compared to the finding of a study done at Bishoftu hospital, Ethiopia. But it is higher than studies in other African countries. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological awareness is vital for blood pressure control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hospitais Universitários , Hipertensão/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1008, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial global effort and updated clinical management guidelines, diarrhea continues to be among leading worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Infectious diarrhea, the most common form of diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries, and the muddled use of antibiotics needs caution due to potential problems of drug-resistance. The aim of this study is to identify etiologies of diarrhea and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in under-five children in refugee camps in Gambella Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution- based matched case control study was conducted using a questionnaire-based interview from June to December 2017 in Pugnido and Teirkidi refugee camps. Stool samples were collected and parasites causing diarrhea were identified by wet mount microscopy. Conventional culture supplemented with API 20E identification kit was used to identify Salmonella and Shigella species. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by using the disk diffusion method. The association between etiologies and diarrhea was analyzed using McNemar test or Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval at a level of significance of P < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of enteric pathogens were 55 (41.0%) in diarrhea cases and 18 (13.4%) in healthy controls. The detected etiologies include Giardia lambia (28), Shigella spp. (16), E. hystolyotica/dispar (13), Ascaris lumbricoides (10), Salmonella spp. (6), Cryptosporidium parvum (6), Hymenolepis nana (4) and Isospora belli (3). All isolates were sensitive to kanamycine and ceftazidime. The high resistance rate was observed against ampicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), erythromycin (52%), chloramphenicol (47.5%), tetracycline (40.5%), cotrimoxazole (34.8%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33%). The majorities of the isolates had a low rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (8.7%), naldxic acid (8.7%) and amikacin (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Giardia lamblia, E. Hystolytica/dispar, and Shigella spp are the common etiologies of diarrhea in children in the studied refugee camps. The study also showed that significant numbers of bacterial isolates were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, improving clinical laboratory services and promoting evidence-based drug prescription may reinforce proper use of antibiotics and reduce the emergence of microbial resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Campos de Refugiados , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762929

RESUMO

Introduction: On April 17/2017 Janamora district, Amhara regional state health officials reported an increasing number of people with a cough. The objectives of this study was to investigate the outbreak, describe risk factors and implement control measures. Methods: We conducted a community based unmatched 1:1 case-control study April 22-May 10, 2017. We used a probable case definition (≥2 weeks cough with vomiting, apnea, or inspiratory whoop) to identify suspected pertussis cases. Neighbors of cases were considered as controls. We conducted a door-to-door active case search and reviewed medical records, assessed vaccination status by parental interview or vaccination card. We implemented multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outbreak. Results: We investigated 60 cases and 60 controls. Most (68.3%) of the cases were under the age of 15. The majority (86.6%) of pertussis suspected cases, and 83.4% controls had not received any pertussis vaccine. The overall attack rate was 0.13% and the case fatality rate was 3.3%. The age-specific attack rate for under-five children was 0.33%. Females were more likely to have pertussis (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.17-7.22), contact with pertussis suspected person (AOR: 6.29; 95% CI: 2.53-15.62) and living in a relatively poorly ventilated house (AOR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.17-7.70) were also significant risk factors of pertussis. Conclusion: Weak supplementary immunization activities might have contributed to the outbreak. Treating household contacts and integration of diagnostic laboratory test of pertussis into the local health system is of paramount importance to detect outbreaks early on.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br Dent J ; 227(10): 863-864, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758119

RESUMO

In 2019, chief dental officers from Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan attended the inaugural End Infant Oral Mutilation Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The subsequent Addis Ababa Declaration has launched a public health action programme across the continent, aiming to impact over 100 million people in 5 years.


Assuntos
Etiópia , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Sudão , Tanzânia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1448, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few postpartum women want to become pregnant within the next 2 years, but approximately 60% of postpartum women in low- and middle-income countries are not using contraceptive methods. The World Health Organization recommends that women receive postpartum family planning (PPFP) counseling during antenatal, immediate postpartum, and postnatal services. Our objective was to establish whether PPFP counseling is being provided in antenatal and postnatal care services in SNNPR, Ethiopia and whether receipt of PPFP counseling improved uptake of postpartum family planning use by 6 months postpartum. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Performance Monitoring for Accountability 2020 - Maternal and Newborn Health study were used. At screening, 329 women were identified as six or more months pregnant; 307 completed the survey at 6 months postpartum. We used weighted parametric survival analysis with Weibull distribution to assess the effect of receipt of postpartum counseling in antenatal and/or postnatal care by 6 weeks postpartum on contraceptive uptake, after adjusting for intention to use family planning, wantedness of the index pregnancy, delivery location, amenorrhea, exclusive breastfeeding, residence, parity, and education. RESULTS: Coverage of PPFP counseling is low; by six-weeks postpartum only 20% of women had received counseling. Women who received counseling in postnatal care only and postnatal care and antenatal care took up contraception at significantly higher rates than women who did not receive any counseling (HR: 3.4, p < .01 and HR: 2.5, p = .01, respectively). There was no difference between women who received PPFP counseling only in ANC and women who did not receive counseling at all. Women who did not want the child at all took up contraception at significantly lower rates than women who wanted the child at that time (HR: 0.3, p = .04). Women who had four or more children took up contraception at significantly lower rates than woman with 1-3 children (HR: 0.3, p = .01). There were no significant differences by delivery location, exclusive breastfeeding, residence, or education. CONCLUSION: Integration of postpartum family planning counseling into postnatal care services is an effective means to increase postpartum contraceptive uptake, but significant gaps in coverage, particularly in the delivery and postnatal period, remain.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1443, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 in three rural districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, with 3784 women who had a pregnancy outcome in the year preceding the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering to identify the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use, and the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among pregnant women. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of interviewed women reported receiving at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy, while 47% reported attending four or more ANC visits. Common reasons for not attending ANC included women's lack of awareness of its importance (48%), distance to health facility (23%) and unavailability of transportation (14%). Important determinants of ANC attendance included higher education level and wealth status, woman's ability to make healthcare decisions, and pregnancy intendedness. An estimated 48% of women reported owning an ITN during their last pregnancy. Of these, 55% reported to have always slept under it during their last pregnancy. Analysis revealed that the odds of owning and using ITNs were respectively 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.63) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32-2.27) times higher among women who attended at least one ANC visit. The self-reported prevalence of malaria infection during pregnancy was low (1.4%) across the three districts. We found that young, uneducated, and unemployed women presented higher odds of malaria infection during their last pregnancy. CONCLUSION: ANC and ITN uptake during pregnancy in Jimma Zone fall below the respective targets of 95 and 90% set in the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan for 2020, suggesting that more intensive programmatic efforts still need to be directed towards improving access to these health services. Reaching ANC non-users and ITN ownership and use as part of ANC services could be emphasized to address these gaps.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 810, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though maternal mortality during the time of delivery can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities with skilled healthcare professionals, unexpectedly death is still high and is a persistent challenge for low-income countries. Therefore identifying factors affecting the preference of institutional delivery after antenatal care service attendance is a key intervention to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using face to face using interviewer-administered questionnaire from a total of 528 women who gave their last birth within 12 months prior to the study period who attended antenatal care (ANC) services. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions analysis were performed. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and odds ratio with 95% CI were calculated to examine factors associated with institutional delivery. RESULTS: Of the 528 pregnant women attending ANC services, 250 (47.3%) gave birth in health facilities (95% CI: 43.2, 51.7%). Urban residence [AOR = 7.8, 95% CI: 4.1, 15.6], four or more ANC visits [AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 12.3], those who got health education on ANC [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.6] and decision on place of delivery with her partner agreement [AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 8.7] were found to be contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery. CONCLUSION: Institutional delivery was not adequate. Residence, number of antenatal care visits, health education, decisions making on a place of delivery and having awareness of the difference of place of delivery were contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Etiópia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1481, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis is often more complex and toxic with longer treatment time and poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure or death. Monitoring drug-resistant tuberculosis therapy including early identification of prognostic factors and close monitoring of body weight in resource-limited settings is crucial to ensure successful treatment. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess time to poor treatment outcome which is defined as the proportion of all patients who died or failed treatment and its predictors among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients on second-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in Amhara region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all patients who started drug-resistant tuberculosis therapy from September 1, 2010 through December 31, 2017, at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Boru-Meda Hospital, and Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Data were entered using Epi-data Version 3.1 and analyzed using R version 3.41 software. The survival time was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the survival time between different categorical variables were compared using the log rank test. Event time ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value less than 0.05 were used to measure the strength of association and to declare statistically significant predictors respectively. RESULTS: A total of 508 patients with a median age of 28.5 [IQR: 22-40] years were included in this study. The overall cumulative survival probability of patients at the end of 24 months was 79% [95% CI,75,84%]. Rate of body weight change [Adjusted time ratio (ATR) = 5; 95% CI: 3.2, 7.7], secondary and above level of education [ATR = 2.3;95% CI:1.2,2.9], being non-anemic [ATR = 2.8,95% CI:1.2,3.8], being non-diabetic [ATR = 3.4;95% CI:1.3,8.8], without clinical complications [ATR = 7.6;95% CI:4.2,13.9], HIV negative [ATR = 1. 94:95% CI:1.35,2.35] and residing in rural [ATR = 0.51,95% CI:0.30,0.86] were predictors of time to poor treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: The survival rate of tuberculosis patients was higher at end of follow up relative to other studies. However, poor treatment outcome was higher in early phase of therapy. Educational level, rural residence, HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, previous treatment, clinical complication, rate of body weight change and smoking history were significant predictors of time to poor treatment outcome. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on the identified factors to improve survival time of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 796, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. The burden of the disease is high in low and middle income countries like Ethiopia. However, for highly vulnerable groups such as health professionals, vaccination coverage is a major issue in the developing countries where health professionals are expected to pay for vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess health professionals' acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) and associated factors for vaccination against HBV. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2017 in Gondar city administration governmental health institutions among 423 health professionals. Simple random sampling method was employed to select the study participants. Data were collected using self- administered questionnaire. Tobit model was used to analyze the determinants of WTP and the maximum amount of money the individuals might pay for HBV vaccination. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 423 health professionals (physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory technicians/technologists, and others) participated in the study with a response rate of 100, and 62.4% of them were willing to pay for HBV vaccination. The mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was 325.83 ± 283.46 ETB (US$ 14.39 ± 12.52). The study indicated that the WTP for HBV vaccination of health professionals from health centers was 179.41 ETB less compared to health professionals from hospital. The WTP for HBV vaccination of the participants who had no experience of seeing previous patients with HBV was 157.87 ETB less compared to participants who had experience of seeing previous patients with HBV. As monthly income of the study participants increased by one ETB, the WTP was increased by 0.027 ETB. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the mean amount of money the participants might pay for HBV vaccination was much less than the market price for HBV vaccination. Type of workplace and experience of seeing/observing patients with HBV, and income were the predictors of WTP for HBV vaccination. Availing the vaccine with affordable cost in governmental health institutions may increase WTP of health professionals for HBV vaccination.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/economia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Governo Local , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 165, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in Ethiopia and severely affects patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to assess HRQoL, factors influencing HRQoL, and utilities among breast cancer patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from December 2017 to February, 2018. A total of 404 breast cancer patients were interviewed using the validated Amharic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC QLQ-BR23, and Euro Quality of Life Group's 5-Domain Questionnaires 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5 L) instruments. Mean scores and mean differences of EORTC- QLQ-C30 and EORTC- QLQ-BR23 were calculated. One-way ANOVA test was employed to determine the significance of mean differences among dependent and independent variables while stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the global quality of life (GQOL). Coefficients and level specific utility values obtained from a hybrid regression model for the Ethiopian population were used to compute utility values of each health state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 43.94 ± 11.72 years. The mean score for GQoL and visual analog scale was 59.32 ± 22.94 and 69.94 ± 20.36, respectively while the mean utility score was 0.8 ± 0.25. Predictors of GQoL were stage of cancer (AOR = 7.94; 95% CI: 1.83-34.54), cognitive functioning (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.32-4.31), pain (AOR = 7.99; 95% CI: 4.62-13.83), financial difficulties (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI: 1.56-4.35), and future perspective (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.24-3.49). CONCLUSIONS: The overall GQoL of breast cancer patients was moderate. Targeted approaches to improve patients' HRQoL should consider stage of cancer, cognitive functioning, pain, financial status and worries about the patient's future health. This study also provides estimates of EQ-5D utility scores that can be used in economic evaluations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692697

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, 50 million children under 5 were wasted; of which 16 million were severely wasted. A severely wasted child is at a nine times higher risk of dying. To prevent this problem, it is necessary to determine the magnitude and factors associated with childhood wasting. In Ethiopia specifically Wukro town, Tigray regional state there is no clear information regarding under five wasting. Therefore, the study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of wasting among under five children in Wukro town, North Ethiopia. Objective: to assess the prevalence of wasting and associated factors among under five children of Wukro town, Tigray, North Ethiopia, 2017/2018. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study design with a single population proportion formula was used with a total sample size of 400 children. Wukro town has three kebele, two kebelle were included in the study through simple random sampling method. There was proportional allocation of subjects to each kebelle and final study subject was selected using systematic method. In case there were more than one child in the household one child was selected randomly. The data were collected by face to face interview and measuring of weight and height after the instrument was pre-tested. The anthropometric results were entered in to Emergency nutritional assessment (ENA) to calculate Z-Score. The collected data and result of Z-score were entered in to Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Finally, results were presented in texts, graphs and tables. Results: A total of 394 under five children were participated in this study, which gave a response rate of 98.5%. The respondents were females 222 (56.3%) and 106(26.95%) were in the age group of 12-23 month. The overall prevalence of wasting was 28 (7.2%). Out of this 14 (3.6%) were wasted and 14 (3.6%) were severely wasted. Under five children those, whose family does not live together were 3.086 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose family live together (P=.038, OR=3.086, & 95% CI= (1.061, 8.970). Under five children those, whose mother did not taken family planning were 2.530 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose mother take family planning (P=.038, OR=2.530, & 95% CI= (1.054, 6.074)). Conclusion: Significant numbers of mothers were not taken extra food during pregnancy and lactation. There was significant prevalence of wasting of under five children in the study area. Living condition of family and usage of family planning were associated with increased risk of wasting.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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