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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 67, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is a skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes a pruritic skin eruption. In Ethiopia, the disease is common especially during natural or manmade disasters such as flooding, drought, civil war and conflict, poor water supply and sanitation, and overcrowding living condition. Though scabies is becoming a major public health problem, especially in low resource settings, there has been no study that reported the prevalence of scabies in the study area. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among students in primary schools in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was employed to determine the prevalence of scabies and associated factors among schoolchildren in Dabat district. A total of 494 students selected by a multi-stage sampling technique were included in this study. Scabies was diagnosed by medical practitioners based on lesions observed on body surfaces after a physical examination. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Significance level was obtained at p value < 0.05. RESULT: The prevalence of scabies was 9.3% (46/494) with 95% CI (5.66%, 12.94%). Among schoolchildren who were infested by scabies, 65.22% (30/46) had a mild, 28.26% (13/46) had moderate, and 6.52% (3/46) had severe lesions. Studying at a rural school (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI 1.33, 6.71), had illiterate father (AOR = 5.11, 95% CI 2.25, 11.58), being grade level 1-4 (AOR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.69, 9.05), rarely taking a bath (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.36, 9.25), contact with a person with itching symptom (AOR = 2.66, 95% CI 1. 21, 5.83), a family member with itchy symptoms (AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 2.20, 10.28), not living with both parents (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.02, 6.06), and using water only for hand washing (AOR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.78, 10.76) were factors associated with scabies infestation among schoolchildren. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of human scabies among schoolchildren in Dabat district northwest Ethiopia was high. The school localization, first cycle level of education, paternal educational status, frequency of taking a bath, and contact with a person having itchy lesions, presence of a family member with itchy lesion, and type of frequently used hand washing material were the factors significantly impacting the occurrence of scabies. Special attention should be given to students at first cycle education as they are at the highest risk of infestation.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/patologia , Estudantes
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819784

RESUMO

Introduction: More than 20 million infants were born with low birth weight in worldwide. Low birth weight contributes more than 80 percent of all the neonatal mortality. In Ethiopia, studies have shown that there is a high prevalence of low birth weight among newborns. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors with low birth weight among newborns delivered at term in Kambata-Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each hospital. The total of 341 study participants was enrolled using systematic random sampling techniques. Data were collected by interview-administered questionnaire and entered using Epi-Info version-7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify associated factors with the low birth weight. Results: The prevalence of low birth weight was 18% and significantly associated with the mothers' non-employment [aOR=5.4;95%CI:1.7-17.4], residing in the rural [AOR=5.4; 95%CI:2.1-14.7], unintended pregnancy [aOR=2.0;95%CI:1.2-3.8], not attending antenatal care [aOR=2.3;95%CI: 1.3-2.7], mothers with greater than three births [aOR=1.5;95% CI:1.8-2.6], birth interval less than or equal to two years [aOR=1.9;95%CI:1.6-3.6] and intimate partner violence during pregnancy [aOR=2.1:95% CI: 1.1-3.9]. Conclusion: The study finding shown that the prevalence of low birth weight among newborn was high (18%) in the study. Preventing of low birth weight is an important intervention to reduce neonatal death. Therefore, maximizing women economic status, providing quality family planning services, enabling pregnant women to use antenatal care and preventing intimate partner violence during pregnancy via launching women empowering strategies in the community level is highly recommend.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is a crucial gateway to all strategies related to care, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nevertheless, utilization of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service among adults is very low in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to identify determinants associated with VCT utilization among adult women aged 15-49 in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data taken from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. Using cluster sampling, 14,369 women aged 15-49 years were selected from all the nine administrative regions and two city administrations. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with HIV VCT utilization. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of ever tested for HIV was 53% (95% CI, 52, 54). Aged 20-44, ever married, being at higher socio economic position (SEP) and having risky sexual behavior were factors which are positively associated with VCT utilization. Being Muslims in urban and protestants in rural were factors significantly and negatively associated with VCT utilization. Those who had stigmatizing attitude both in urban and rural and who had comprehensive knowledge in rural were less likely to utilize VCT service. CONCLUSION: VCT utilization among women in Ethiopia is demonstrating better improvement in recent years. However, stigmatizing attitude continued to be among the major factors, which are negatively affecting VCT uptake among women in Ethiopia. Concerted efforts should be made by all stakeholders to mitigate stigma, improve socio economic inequities and increase awareness on the benefit of VCT in controlling HIV in the society. In this aspect, the role of religious leader, schools, health extension workers and community leaders should not be undermined.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1073, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. It is prevalent in areas where personal and community hygiene is poor, and it mainly affects deprived and marginalized communities most importantly in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children in Ethiopia. We searched databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. To estimate the prevalence, studies reporting the prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors were included. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format prepared in Microsoft excel and the analysis was done using STATA 14 statistical software. To assess heterogeneity, the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used. Since the included studies revealed considerable heterogeneity, a random effect meta- analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of active trachoma. Moreover, the association between factors and active trachoma were examined. RESULTS: The result of 30 eligible studies showed that the overall prevalence of active trachoma among children in Ethiopia was 26.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 31.0%). In the subgroup analysis, while the highest prevalence was reported in SNNP (35.8%; 95% CI: 22.7, 48.8), the lowest prevalence was reported in Oromia region (20.2%; 95% CI: 12.2, 28.2). Absence of latrine: OR 6.0 (95% CI 2.0, 17.5), the unclean faces of children: OR 5.5 (95% CI 2.8, 10.9), and no reported use of soap for washing: OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.8, 6.0) have shown a positive association with active trachoma among children. CONCLUSION: From this review, it has been concluded that active trachoma among children is still a public health problem in different districts of Ethiopia. The prevalence of almost all studies are significantly higher than WHO target for elimination. Absence of latrine, unclean faces of children, no reported use of soap for washing are the important factors associated with active trachoma among children.


Assuntos
Tracoma/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1008, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial global effort and updated clinical management guidelines, diarrhea continues to be among leading worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Infectious diarrhea, the most common form of diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries, and the muddled use of antibiotics needs caution due to potential problems of drug-resistance. The aim of this study is to identify etiologies of diarrhea and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates in under-five children in refugee camps in Gambella Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution- based matched case control study was conducted using a questionnaire-based interview from June to December 2017 in Pugnido and Teirkidi refugee camps. Stool samples were collected and parasites causing diarrhea were identified by wet mount microscopy. Conventional culture supplemented with API 20E identification kit was used to identify Salmonella and Shigella species. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates was investigated by using the disk diffusion method. The association between etiologies and diarrhea was analyzed using McNemar test or Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval at a level of significance of P < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of enteric pathogens were 55 (41.0%) in diarrhea cases and 18 (13.4%) in healthy controls. The detected etiologies include Giardia lambia (28), Shigella spp. (16), E. hystolyotica/dispar (13), Ascaris lumbricoides (10), Salmonella spp. (6), Cryptosporidium parvum (6), Hymenolepis nana (4) and Isospora belli (3). All isolates were sensitive to kanamycine and ceftazidime. The high resistance rate was observed against ampicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), erythromycin (52%), chloramphenicol (47.5%), tetracycline (40.5%), cotrimoxazole (34.8%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33%). The majorities of the isolates had a low rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (8.7%), naldxic acid (8.7%) and amikacin (13%). CONCLUSIONS: Giardia lamblia, E. Hystolytica/dispar, and Shigella spp are the common etiologies of diarrhea in children in the studied refugee camps. The study also showed that significant numbers of bacterial isolates were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, improving clinical laboratory services and promoting evidence-based drug prescription may reinforce proper use of antibiotics and reduce the emergence of microbial resistance.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Campos de Refugiados , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762929

RESUMO

Introduction: On April 17/2017 Janamora district, Amhara regional state health officials reported an increasing number of people with a cough. The objectives of this study was to investigate the outbreak, describe risk factors and implement control measures. Methods: We conducted a community based unmatched 1:1 case-control study April 22-May 10, 2017. We used a probable case definition (≥2 weeks cough with vomiting, apnea, or inspiratory whoop) to identify suspected pertussis cases. Neighbors of cases were considered as controls. We conducted a door-to-door active case search and reviewed medical records, assessed vaccination status by parental interview or vaccination card. We implemented multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outbreak. Results: We investigated 60 cases and 60 controls. Most (68.3%) of the cases were under the age of 15. The majority (86.6%) of pertussis suspected cases, and 83.4% controls had not received any pertussis vaccine. The overall attack rate was 0.13% and the case fatality rate was 3.3%. The age-specific attack rate for under-five children was 0.33%. Females were more likely to have pertussis (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.17-7.22), contact with pertussis suspected person (AOR: 6.29; 95% CI: 2.53-15.62) and living in a relatively poorly ventilated house (AOR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.17-7.70) were also significant risk factors of pertussis. Conclusion: Weak supplementary immunization activities might have contributed to the outbreak. Treating household contacts and integration of diagnostic laboratory test of pertussis into the local health system is of paramount importance to detect outbreaks early on.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692697

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, 50 million children under 5 were wasted; of which 16 million were severely wasted. A severely wasted child is at a nine times higher risk of dying. To prevent this problem, it is necessary to determine the magnitude and factors associated with childhood wasting. In Ethiopia specifically Wukro town, Tigray regional state there is no clear information regarding under five wasting. Therefore, the study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of wasting among under five children in Wukro town, North Ethiopia. Objective: to assess the prevalence of wasting and associated factors among under five children of Wukro town, Tigray, North Ethiopia, 2017/2018. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study design with a single population proportion formula was used with a total sample size of 400 children. Wukro town has three kebele, two kebelle were included in the study through simple random sampling method. There was proportional allocation of subjects to each kebelle and final study subject was selected using systematic method. In case there were more than one child in the household one child was selected randomly. The data were collected by face to face interview and measuring of weight and height after the instrument was pre-tested. The anthropometric results were entered in to Emergency nutritional assessment (ENA) to calculate Z-Score. The collected data and result of Z-score were entered in to Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Finally, results were presented in texts, graphs and tables. Results: A total of 394 under five children were participated in this study, which gave a response rate of 98.5%. The respondents were females 222 (56.3%) and 106(26.95%) were in the age group of 12-23 month. The overall prevalence of wasting was 28 (7.2%). Out of this 14 (3.6%) were wasted and 14 (3.6%) were severely wasted. Under five children those, whose family does not live together were 3.086 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose family live together (P=.038, OR=3.086, & 95% CI= (1.061, 8.970). Under five children those, whose mother did not taken family planning were 2.530 times more likely to be wasted compared to under five children those, whose mother take family planning (P=.038, OR=2.530, & 95% CI= (1.054, 6.074)). Conclusion: Significant numbers of mothers were not taken extra food during pregnancy and lactation. There was significant prevalence of wasting of under five children in the study area. Living condition of family and usage of family planning were associated with increased risk of wasting.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
Global Health ; 15(1): 62, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of nutritional status among children under age 5 (0-59 months) in Ethiopia. Child malnutrition is an underlying cause of almost half (45%) of child deaths, particularly in low socioeconomic communities of developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of stunting decreased from 47% in 2005 to 39% in 2016, but the prevalence of wasting changed little over the same time period (from 11 to 10%). Despite improvements in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition, the current rate of progress is not fast enough to reach the World Health Organization global target for reducing malnutrition 40% by 2025. METHODS: This study used data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Heath Survey (EDHS). The analysis used stunting and wasting as dependent variables, while the independent variables were characteristics of children, mothers, and households. Logistic regression was used to analyze the determinants of nutritional status among children. Bivariate analysis was also used to analyze the association between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Study results show that child's age, sex, and perceived birth weight, mother's educational status, body mass index (BMI), and maternal stature, region, wealth quintile, type of toilet facility, and type of cooking fuel had significant associations with stunting. Child's age, sex, and perceived birth weight, mother's BMI, and residence and region showed significant associations with wasting. The study found that child, maternal, and household characteristics were significantly associated with stunting and wasting among children under age 5. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that a multi-sectorial and multidimensional approach is important to address malnutrition in Ethiopia. The education sector should promote reduction of cultural and gender barriers that contribute to childhood malnutrition. The health sector should encourage positive behaviors toward childcare and infant feeding practices. More should be done to help households adopt improved types of toilet facilities and modern types of cooking fuels.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1349, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been shown to enhance the survival of people living with HIV worldwide. In Ethiopia, the number of ART users has increased from 47,422 in 2005 to 703,516 in 2017; yet, early mortality of patients has presented challenges to the success of the ART program. Because of gender roles, it is assumed that females are at risk of dying earlier after the start of the medications. Hence, this study aimed to assess the sex difference in the survival status among the ART users. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in March 2017 among sample of 687 ART users registered from 2010 to 2015. Data were extracted from patient records by using a structured checklist. The extracted data were analyzed by STATA version 13. Survival analysis and Cox regression were used to determine survival status and identify associated factors. RESULTS: Among 685 reviewed records of ART users, 20 males and 64 females died in the 5 years period of ART initiation. This makes the overall 5 years survival rate of 84.23%. Females had lower survival probability (80.10%) as compared to males (91.18%) (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.06). Divorced individuals as compared to married (AHR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.97), individuals with less education (AHR = 2.54 95% CI: 1.29, 4.98) or those who attended only primary education (AHR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.65) as compared to those who attended secondary or above had low survival probability. Those who never disclosed their HIV status (AHR = 3.62; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.46) as compared to disclosed, bedridden individuals as compared to normal functional status (AHR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.24, 5.89) and those who had tuberculosis (TB)-co infection (AHR = 2.60; 1.48, 4.45) had lower rates of survival. CONCLUSION: Females were at higher risk of dying within 5 years of ART initiation as compared to males. Hence, intervention to further reduce mortality should take sex differences into account. Behavioral interventions and HIV counseling service should also be strengthened to improve rate of disclosure and functional status as well as reduce TB co-infections.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1343, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of a surveillance system should be conducted on regular bases to ensure that the system is working as envisioned or not. Therefore, we evaluated Dangila district's public health surveillance system performance in line with its objectives. METHODS: In August 2017, a concurrent embedded mixed quantitative/qualitative, facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dangila district among 12 health facilities/sites. The qualitative part involved 12 purposively selected key stakeholders interview. A semi-structured questionnaire adapted from updated CDC guideline for evaluating public health surveillance system was used for data collection through face to face interview and record review. The major qualitative findings were narrated and summarized based on thematic areas to supplement the quantitative findings. The quantitative findings were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007. RESULTS: All necessary surveillance guidelines, registers and reporting formats were distributed adequately to health facilities. Only the district health office has Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP), but not supported by the budget required to respond in case an emergency occurred. There were no regular data analysis and interpretations in terms of time, place and person. Weekly report completeness and timeliness were 100 and 94.6% respectively. The information collected was considered relevant by its users to detect outbreaks early with high acceptability. All stakeholders agreed that the system is simple, easy to understand, representative and can accommodate modifications. Written feedbacks were not obtained in all health facilities. The supervision checklist obtained in the district was not adequate to assess surveillance activities in detail. The calculated positive predictive value for malaria was 11%. CONCLUSIONS: The surveillance system was simple, useful, flexible, acceptable and representative. Report completeness and timelines were above the national and international targets. However, the overall implementation of the system in the district was not satisfactory to achieve the intended objective of surveillance for public health action due to the lack of regular data analysis and feedback dissemination. To create a well-performing surveillance system, regular supervision and epidemiologically analyzed and interpreted feedback system is mandatory.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Instalações de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 886, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading infectious cause of blindness. It is transmitted via personal contact with infected ocular and nasal secretions by hands, fomites and eye- seeking flies. Active trachoma is more common among children aged 1 to 9 years. The objective of this study was determining the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among children aged 1 to 9 years in rural community of Lemo district. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2018 in rural community of Lemo district. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 589 study participants. Data were collected by using structured pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and observation. Binocular loupe was used to identify active trachoma cases. The data were entered by using EPi-data version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS. Binary logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with active trachoma. Variables with p-value < 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were used to declare significance of association. RESULT: Eighty seven (15.2%) children were positive for active trachoma. Absence of solid waste disposal pit (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI (1.12-4.37), do not use latrine as reported by respondent (AOR = 7.53, 95% CI (2.86-19.84), do not use soap for face washing as reported by respondent (AOR =2.3, 95% CI (1.32-4.12), washing face frequency as reported by respondent (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI (1.06-3.26), and family size greater than five (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI (1.06-3.67) were significantly associated with active trachoma. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma among children aged 1 to 9 years is high. Do not use latrine, do not use soap for face washing, and face washing frequency in a day as reported by respondents and family size were associated with active trachoma. Access to adequate water and sanitation can be important components in working towards eliminating trachoma as a public health problem. Therefore, prompt measures must be taken by concerned bodies to increase access to adequate water and sanitation facilities.


Assuntos
Saneamento/métodos , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Água Doce , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Sabões
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1369, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia remains a public health challenge in Ethiopia, affecting an estimated 56% of children under age 5 years, 23% of women of reproductive age and 18% of adult men. However, anemia etiology and the relative contribution of underlying risk factors for anemia remains unclear and has hindered implementation of anemia control programs. METHODS/DESIGN: Anemia Etiology in Ethiopia (AnemEE) is a population-based cross-sectional survey of six regions of Ethiopia that includes children, women of reproductive age, and men from regionally representative households. The survey will include detailed assessment of anemia, iron, inflammatory and nutritional biomarkers, diet, comorbidities, and other factors. The objectives of AnemEE are 1) to generate evidence for decision-making on the etiology of anemia in Ethiopia among men, women and children and 2) to simulate the potential effect of iron fortification and other interventions on the prevalence of anemia and risk of iron overload. DISCUSSION: AnemEE will provide the most comprehensive evaluation of anemia etiology in Ethiopia to date due to its detailed assessment of diet, biomarkers, infections and other risk factors in a population-based sample. By generating evidence and simulating potential interventions, AnemEE will inform the development of high-impact anemia control programs and policies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04002466 . Registered on 28 June 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1367, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood TB is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in a community and it is estimated to constitute 15-20% of all TB cases in many of developing countries. However, only few studies which dominated by industrial countries were engaged to assess the situation. Therefore, this study was aimed to see epidemiology of childhood TB and factors associated with poor treatment outcome in developing country. METHOD: Using retrospective cross-sectional study design; Socio-demographic and clinical data of children aged less than 15 years old, treated for all forms of TB in the past 10 years (2007-2016) was collected from randomly selected eight public hospitals of Tigray. Then, Univariate logistic regression and adjusted multivariate logistic regressions was done to identify variables which had association with unsuccessful treatment outcomes at P-value less than 0.05. RESULT: In the past 10 years, a total of 13,345 Tuberculosis cases were observed. Of these, 1086 (8.1%) cases were children aged less than 15 years old. Sixty seven (6.2%) cases were smear positive. Among those that tested for HIV, 69 (8.3%) cases were TB/HIV co-infected. Of those with treatment outcome record 746 (88.7%) were successfully treated. Factors like being female (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.07-3.00), Age 0-5 years (AOR, 3.35; 95% CI, 2.11-5.33), Unknown HIV status (AOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.51-3.95) and pulmonary positive case (AOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.13-5.77), were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: In Tigray 8.1% all TB cases were children age less than 15 years old. Childhood TB treatment outcome varied with sex, age and HIV status.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento
14.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 255, 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic illness have sexual dysfunction that may be related to the condition itself, drug side effects, emotional sequel, or a combination of those factors. Patients with epilepsy are no exception. Men and women with epilepsy are frequently complaining sexual dysfunction and they appear to have a higher incidence of sexual dysfunction than peoples with other chronic neurologic illness. These problems can have a substantial impact on their sexuality thus; it needs careful study and evaluation. METHODS: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from January to July, 2016 among Patient with Epilepsy at Amanuel Mental Specialty Hospital. Interviewer administered Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ-14) was used in order to assess the sexual problems. Finally, the data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) V-20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe the variables. Levels of significance of association determined at < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 694 respondents participated, with response rate 99.14%. Among them 576 completed all items. The result showed that 363 subjects (63.9, 95%CI = 59.5-67.7) had global sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of sexual dysfunction was reported as 55.6% (95%CI = 49.1-62.6) and 67.4% (95%CI = 62.8-72.1) in female and male participants, respectively. Among domains of sexual dysfunction; sexual arousal problem (97.8% (95%CI = 95.8-98.3)) and sexual pain problem (11.3% (95%CI = 8.8-13.9)) were the most and the least prevalent sexual dysfunctions respectively. Concerning associated factors; age grouped > 51, depression, being out of relationship or not satisfied with non-sexual aspect of relationship, being jobless and khat use has positive association with sexual dysfunction. By the other side alcohol use, level of education & age groups 18-21 years associated negatively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction among patients with epilepsy is very high; its prevalence is more among males than females. Sexual arousal problem and sexual pain problem were the most and the least prevalent sexual dysfunctions respectively.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/complicações , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1897-1909, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656473

RESUMO

Background: One of the public health problems in developing countries is child malnutrition. An important factor for children's well-being is good nutrition. Therefore, the malnutrition status of children under the age of five is an important outcome measure for children's health. This study uses the proportional odds model to identify risk factors associated with child malnutrition in Ethiopia using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: This study uses the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey results. Based on weight-for-height anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into four levels namely- underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Since this leads to an ordinal variable for nutrition status, an ordinal logistic regression (OLR)proportional odds model (POM) is an obvious choice for analysis. Results: The findings and comparison of results using the cumulative logit model with and without complex survey design are presented. The study results revealed that to produce the appropriate estimates and standard errors for data that were obtained from complex survey design, model fitting based on taking the survey sampling design into account is better. It has also been found that for children under the age of five, weight of a child at birth, mother's age, mother's Body Mass Index (BMI), marital status of mother and region (Affar, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Harari and Somali) were influential variables significantly associated with underfive children's nutritional status in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This child's age of a child, sex, weight of child at birth, mother's BMI and region of residence were significant determinants of malnutrition of children under five years in Ethiopia. The effect of these determinants can be used to develop strategies for reducing child malnutrition in Ethiopia. Moreover, these findings show that OLR proportional odds model is appropriate assessing thedeterminants of malnutrition for ordinal nutritional status of underfive children in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1930-1937, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656476

RESUMO

Background: Stillbirth is a death before the complete expulsion or extraction from the mother. The burden is severe and high in developing countries. Risk factors for stillbirth are not yet studied in Ethiopia. Objective: To identify risk factors of stillbirth among mothers delivered in public hospitals of Central Zone Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A case-control study design was used. Data collection period was from January to April 2018. Study subjects 63 cases and 252 controls were selected using systematic random sampling technique from respective hospitals. The interviewer-administered questionnaire, observational, and chart analysis were used to collect the data. A binary logistic regression model was employed. Results were presented at significance level P-value <0.05. Results: Maternal hypertension [AOR=12.83; 95% CI 3.38, 48.83], low birth weight [AOR=5.6; 95% CI 2.39, 13.38], pre-term [AOR=2.6;95%CI 1.12,6.16], alcohol intake [AOR=7.56; 95% CI 1.68, 34.04], polyhydramnios [AOR=13.43; 95% CI 3.63, 49.67], and meconium stained amniotic fluid [AOR=7.88; 95% CI 1.73, 8.18] were risk factors of stillbirth. Conclusion: The risk of stillbirth is increased with increasing maternal complication like maternal hypertension, alcohol consumption, polyhydramnios, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The occurrence of preterm and low birth weight of the fetus had an effect on the risk of stillbirth.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1392, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, the prevalence of psychological distress was higher among tuberculosis patients. Patients with tuberculosis infection were more prone to psychological distress than peoples without tuberculosis. However, little studies were conducted on psychological distress among tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia, particularly in the Eastern Ethiopian health institutions. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Based on the TB burden, four hospitals and six health centers were selected from Dire Dawa and Harar cities. Socio-demographic factors, psychological distress, TB related stigma experience, and alcohol use data were collected by face to face interview while TB and HIV related variables collected from TB registration book. All TB patients from the first month of TB treatment initiation through 6 were consecutively interviewed by trained data collectors from January to February 2018. The collected data were entered into Epi Data Version 3.1 software and exported into SPSS window version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was carried out. All variables with P-value ≤0.25 were taken into the multivariate model. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were estimated, and variables with P-value less than 0.05 in the final model were taken as significant predictors of psychological distress. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychological distress among tuberculosis in this study population was 63.3% (95% CI: 58.1, 68.1). Being from rural residence (AOR: 1. 98; 95% CI: 1.01,3.86), co-infection TB- HIV (AOR: 2.15; 95% CI:1.02, 4.56), presence of at least one chronic disease (AOR:3.04; 95% CI:1.59,5.79), experience of stigma (AOR: 1.71; 95% CI:1.01, 2.90), Pulmonary and MDR-TB (AOR:2.53; 95% CI:1.50,4.28) and smoking cigarette (AOR:2.53; 95% CI:1.06,6.03) were associated with psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, almost two-thirds of the tuberculosis patients had psychological distress. Chronic disease morbidity, HIV-TB co-infection and experienced TB related stigma were associated with psychological distress. Attention should be given to chronic diseases including HIV/AIDS diagnosis and referring to chronic disease units to prevent the impact on mental health. Consideration should be given for psychological distress and linking moderate to severe form of the disease to the Psychiatric clinics to hinder its effects.


Assuntos
Prática de Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/psicologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 17(2): 104-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome with typical symptoms that can occur at rest or on effort. It requires patients to manage their lifestyle with their disease and when to notify their healthcare provider. The study was aimed to identify medication adherence and associated factors among chronic heart failure clients on follow up Oromia region, West Ethiopia, 2017. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was employed, after selecting three hospitals by lottery method and allocating respondents to the three hospitals proportionally. A total of 424 patients were admitted to the medical ward and/or chronic follow up of Nekemte referral, Gimbi, and Shambu hospitals. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1, cleared, explored, and then exported to SPSS windows version 24.0 for further analysis. Variable having a p-value less than 0.05 in the bivariate analysis was a candidate for multivariable analysis and the effect of confounding variables was observed. Variables having a p-value less than 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were assumed significant. RESULTS: A total of 424 respondents were included in the final analysis giving a 95.3% response rate. The result indicated that more than half of the study participants have adhered to prescribed medication. Respondents with good medication adherence were more likely to adhere to good self-care behavior [AOR (95% CI of OR) = 3.5(2.044, 5.96)]. Respondents whose limited fluid intake was one or half-liter per day were more likely to adhere to the medication [AOR (95% CI of OR) = 2.5(1.43, 4.49)]. It was also found that those patients who avoided spices, sauces and others in food are more likely to adhere to the medication [AOR (95% CI of OR) = 2.2 (1.152, 4.039)]. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Even if more than half of the study respondents have good medication and self-care adherence, still it needs great attention in health education over their visit. Health institutions are strongly recommended to give health education for clients and researchers to use advanced study design for measuring medication adherence and self-care behaviors.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autocuidado , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 917, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus is one of the major public health concerns globally. It is highly infectious and can be transmitted from person to person through vertically or horizontally via contaminated body fluids. Despite the provision of an effective vaccine, it remains a major problem worldwide, particularly among the developing countries. METHODS: Online electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, African Index Medicus, African Journals Online, and WHO Afro Library were searched and published articles from 2010 to June 8, 2019, were considered. Both authors independently screened articles and extracted the data. Funnel-Plots and Egger's test statistics were used to determine the presence of small-study effects and publication bias. The pooled prevalence of HBV was analyzed using the random-effects model. The possible sources of heterogeneity was analyzed through subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV was 6% and among subgroups, pregnant women, healthcare workers, and HIV positive patients accounted for 5% for each group. Relatively low prevalence (4%) was obtained among blood donors. The Egger's test statistics (p = 0.747) indicated the absence of publication bias. In addition, from the sensitivity analysis, there was no influence on the overall effect estimate while removing a single study at a time. The level of heterogeneity was reduced among pregnant women, HIV positive and studies with unknown sampling techniques. After conducting meta-regression, province, study group, screening method, and quality of papers were identified as sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia was high. Strengthening and scaling up of the scope of the existing vaccination program and implementing novel approaches including screen-and-treat could be implemented to reduce the burden of the disease. Generally, the study can provide current prevalence estimate of HBV that could vital for intervention to tackle the disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/transmissão , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência , Vacinação
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 855, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases in the Ethiopian highlands and studies on assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of the community in endemic areas are scanty. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude towards cutaneous leishmaniasis and treatment seeking practices in people living in the endemic highlands areas in the Northwest, Ethiopia and to provide evidence-based information to guide development of appropriate interventions to reduce the impact of cutaneous leishmaniasis on communities. METHODS: Quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic districts (woredas) using a semi structured questionnaire. Households were randomly selected according to probability proportional to size of households in each enumeration area. Systematic random sampling of eligible households was based on the number of households recorded during listing of households. Descriptive statistics was used to describe numerical data, organise and summarise the data in a manner that gave meaning to the numerical form. Frequency tables were used to show descriptive analysis and regression analysis was used to determine correlation between variables. RESULTS: Majority of respondents 321(78.7%) lived in rural areas, age ranged between 18 and 85 years and most were farmers. Illiteracy was high (47.6%) among respondents and majority 358(87.8%) had seen patients with CL. Less than quarter (21.6%) had heard about sand flies and knowledge on the peak transmission period was low (46.3%). About 192 (47.1%) of the respondents indicated disfiguring lesions were the major clinical presentations, less than half 55(27.5%) of urban residents believed CL was treatable compared to 145(72.5%) of rural residents (P < 0.001). Traditional medicines were indicated as best treatment option by 209(51.2%) compared to 114(27.9%) for modern treatment. Major factors influencing treatment options included accessibility to treatment facilities, distance and short duration of treatment. Participants expressed negative experiential attitude and perceived control towards modern treatment because of inaccessibility and distance from where modern treatment is provided. CONCLUSION: Priority should be given to primary prevention and appropriate awareness campaigns on lesion recognition. Information on modern treatment should be intensified.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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