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1.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109917, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063305

RESUMO

Use of wild tree species by smallholder farmers for various purposes is crucially important for their daily livelihoods. However, the growing demand for these natural resources could lead to their overexploitation and environmental change. The aims of this ethnobotanical research in the Wechiau Community-based Hippopotamus Sanctuary (WCHS) were to i) document wild tree species, uses and analyze their cultural importance, ii) investigate socio-demographic variables of smallholder farmers influencing their traditional knowledge on wild tree species and uses, and iii) examine smallholder farmers ' perceptions about the establishment of the WCHS. To attain the above-stated aims, 135 smallholder farmers were interviewed in nine villages belonging to the Waala and Birfor ethnic groups. The primary data were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis (using Cognitive Salience index reflecting cultural importance, univariate and use value analysis). Given the results of this study, the WCHS is enriched with 43 ethnoecologically important wild tree species belonging to 22 families and 41 genera. This study showed that eight topmost wild tree species in descending order of cultural importance included Vitellaria paradoxa, Burkea Africana, Diospyrous mespiliformis, Bombax costatum, Parkia biglobosa, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Terminalia avicennioides and Acacia gourmaensis. It is also established in this paper that the family cultural importance for Fabaceae and Sapotaceae is predominantly high as reflected in the frequency and ranking of citations of wild tree species under these families by local informants. The 43 wild tree species cited by local informants were categorized into nine different uses including food (9 species), forage (30), firewood (40), medicine (6), construction (9), soil improvement (3), social use (2), gardening (5) and fiber/ropes (2). Among these use categories, firewood, forage, food and construction topped the list as the most culturally important to the smallholder farmers. It is also revealed that the traditional knowledge on varied wild tree species and their uses was significantly affected by age of smallholder farmers (ps < 0.05), but not ethnicity and other factors. This study thus suggests the need for community-based conservation measures for sustainable management of natural resources for rural livelihood improvement in the tropics and sub-tropics.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Árvores , Animais , Grupos Étnicos , Etnobotânica , Gana , Humanos
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112205, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476442

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Currently, more than two thirds of the world's 36.9 million people living with HIV/AIDS reside in Sub-Saharan Africa. Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with HIV are the single most important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV/AIDS patients in poor countries. There is widespread use of medicinal plant species to manage the HIV infection and it's associated OI in Uganda, even by patients already on antiretroviral drugs (ARV). However, much of this information remains undocumented and unverified. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to systematically and comprehensively document the traditional indigenous knowledge and practices associated with the management of HIV/AIDS infections by herbalists in Uganda. METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Ninety traditional medicine practitioners (TMP) or herbalists were interviewed in Arua, Dokolo, Mbale, Bushenyi, Iganga, Rakai, Luwero and Kaabong districts to gather information on the plant species used. Data were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics and the Informant Consensus Factor. RESULTS: We documented 236 medicinal plant species from 70 families and 201 genera. Acacia was the most widely represented genus with five species. The most frequently used medicinal plant species for treating various OI were Erythrina abyssinica (45), Warburgia ugandensis (43), Zanthoxylum chalybeum (38), Acacia hockii (37), Mangifera indica (36), Aloe vera (35), Albizia coriaria (34), Azadirachta indica (32), Psorospermum febrifugum (27) Vernonia amygdalina (22) and Gymnosporia senegalensis (21). Some of the plant species were used for treating all the OI mentioned. There is a high degree of consensus among the TMP on which plant species they use for the different OI, even though they are geographically separated. Herbalists contribute to the widespread practice of simultaneously using herbal medicines and ARV. Some TMP are also engaged in dangerous practices like injecting patients with herbs and encouraging simultaneous use of herbs and ARV. Although the TMP relied on biomedical laboratory diagnoses for confirming the patients' HIV sero status, they were familiar with the signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: There is wide spread use of a rich diversity of medicinal plants species and practices by TMP to manage OI in HIV/AIDS patients in Uganda.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112211, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533076

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae) is prized in the Chinese, Tibetan, Nepalese, Bhutanese, Indian and Japanese systems of medicine. Its medicinal properties are well documented in ancient literature such as the Ayurvedic classics, the Old Testament, Ben-Cao- Shi-Yi, and Homer's Iliad. The plant is critically endangered and found in the alpine and sub-alpine regions of the Himalayas. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aims to show the challenges and opportunities of harnessing the untapped pharmaceutical resources of N. jatamansi. Another aim is to explore the possibilities of translating ethnobotanical information into health benefit applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sources of information used in the study are government reports, dissertations, books, research articles and databases like Science-Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and ACS Publications on N. jatamansi. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the study, we have examined and discussed reports on phytochemicals present in the plant, their structure, biological activity, pharmacological properties of extracts derived from plant parts, isolated compounds, and commercially available products from the plant. We have identified and discussed ambiguities and confusions about the plant's nomenclature and geographical distribution, and highlighted various studies that failed to discuss this issue. We analyzed the links between various reports on ethnobotanical information as well as studies on phytochemistry and pharmacologyconfirming the therapeutic properties of N. jatamansi. However, in many of these findings which had used dried samples, there was an uncanny resemblance between the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of N. jatamansi and Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. (another genus from family, Caprifoliaceae). Since both the species share identical vernacular names, a possible reason could be that the samples may not have been of two separate species. Other limitations of different studies were the use of out-dated techniques for phytochemical profiling, absence of toxicology studies using animal models and clinical trials using human subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of various studies revealed a confusion about the botanical nomenclature of the plants and their geographical distributions. Absence of proper markers for identification of correct samples and improperly conducted studies on N. jatamansi were found to be the major hurdles to the use of ethnobotanical information and research findings into applications for human health. Development of markers using molecular, chemical and pharmacognosy based approaches for plant authentication and, in vitro propagation of authenticated material for easy availability of genuine plant material are the possible solutions to the problems identified.


Assuntos
Nardostachys , Fitoterapia , Animais , Ásia , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112258, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574342

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In northwestern Argentina inhabit several ancient indigenous communities with diverse cultural and historical background. Geographical isolation has contributed to the prevalence of a native plant-based folk medicine; "jarilla" species are medicinal plants widely used in local communities for the treatment of mycosis, respiratory, gastrointestinal and rheumatic disorders. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To assemble the traditional knowledge acquired through years with scientific data concerning to phytochemistry, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of three "jarillas" species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data of three "jarillas", Zuccagnia punctata (Zp), Larrea cuneifolia (Lc), and Larrea divaricata (Ld), were explored by interviewing native people from Indigenous Community of Amaicha del Valle, Tucumán. Phenolic profiles from each infusion were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, and ferrous iron chelating activity. It was also assessed their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase, and hyaluronidase. RESULTS: Ethnobotanical interviews showed that local people use "jarillas" mainly as infusions and baths. It was reported different categories of uses, such as medicinal (10 curative applications), to religious purposes, tinctorial, as construction material and as fuel. From infusions prepared, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 27 compounds from Z. punctata, and 11 from both Larrea sp. The infusions showed an important antioxidant activity through different mechanisms, highlighting Zp and Lc in free radical scavenging capacity and Ld on lipid peroxidation inhibition and iron binding. They were also capable of inhibit xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase enzymes, being Lc the most active one. CONCLUSIONS: This research work provides novel information concerning to several categories of traditional uses of "jarilla" species in a Diaguita-Calchaquí community and focus attention to infusions from a phytochemical and biological approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnobotânica , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Argentina , Banhos , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112254, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580942

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Currently various scientific and popular sources provide a wide spectrum of ethnopharmacological information on many plants, yet the sources of that information, as well as the information itself, are often not clear, potentially resulting in the erroneous use of plants among lay people or even in official medicine. Our field studies in seven countries on the Eastern edge of Europe have revealed an unusual increase in the medicinal use of Epilobium angustifolium L., especially in Estonia, where the majority of uses were specifically related to "men's problems". THE AIM OF THE CURRENT WORK IS: to understand the recent and sudden increase in the interest in the use of E. angustifolium in Estonia; to evaluate the extent of documented traditional use of E. angustifolium among sources of knowledge considered traditional; to track different sources describing (or attributed as describing) the benefits of E. angustifolium; and to detect direct and indirect influences of the written sources on the currently documented local uses of E. angustifolium on the Eastern edge of Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we used a variety of methods: semi-structured interviews with 599 people in 7 countries, historical data analysis and historical ethnopharmacological source analysis. We researched historical and archival sources, and academic and popular literature published on the medicinal use of E. angustifolium in the regions of our field sites as well as internationally, paying close attention to the literature that might have directly or indirectly contributed to the popularity of E. angustifolium at different times in history. RESULTS: Our results show that the sudden and recent popularity in the medical use of E. angustifolium in Estonia has been caused by local popular authors with academic medical backgrounds, relying simultaneously on "western" and Russian sources. While Russian sources have propagated (partially unpublished) results from the 1930s, "western" sources are scientific insights derived from the popularization of other Epilobium species by Austrian herbalist Maria Treben. The information Treben disseminated could have been originated from a previous peak in popularity of E. angustifolium in USA in the second half of the 19th century, caused in turn by misinterpretation of ancient herbals. The traditional uses of E. angustifolium were related to wounds and skin diseases, fever, pain (headache, sore throat, childbirth), and abdominal-related problems (constipation, stomach ache) and intestinal bleeding. Few more uses were based on the similarity principle. The main theme, however, is the fragmentation of use and its lack of consistency apart from wounds and skin diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Historical ethnobotanical investigations could help to avoid creating repeating waves of popularity of plants that have already been tried for certain diseases and later abandoned as not fully effective. There is, of course, a chance that E. angustifolium could also finally be proven to be clinically safe and cost-effective for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, but this has not yet happened despite recent intensive research. Documented traditional use would suggest investigating the dermatological, intestinal anti-hemorrhagic and pain inhibiting properties of this plant, if any.


Assuntos
Epilobium/química , Etnobotânica/história , Etnofarmacologia/história , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana/história , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Europa Oriental , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/história
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112220, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494198

RESUMO

The non-random selection of medicinal plants theory, which predicts taxonomical biases in ethnopharmacopeias, indirectly demonstrates that traditional medicinal systems are rational and based in part on the therapeutic efficacy of plants. This theory suggests that because members of a taxonomical group share similar characteristics, some groups will be over-utilized in pharmacopeias, while other groups bereft of therapeutic potential will be under-utilized medicinally. Empirical evidence fo this theory comes from studies that used data collected at the national level which may lead to the overestimation of medicinal plant list given that some parts of the country (e.g., protected areas) can be unavailable for medicinal plant collection. Similarly, because medicinal plant importance and knowledge can be gender-specific and depends on the degree of exposure of a community, failure to account for gender and community experience can limit our understanding of non-random selection of medicinal plants. In this study, we used the negative binomial model and an examination of studentized residuals to demonstrate that a Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon over-utilized different sets of medicinal plant families depending on the gender of the informants or the experience of the community. We showed that utilizing local data instead of nationwide data reveals new over-utilized families. Seven of the nine most over-utilized medicinal plant families we found were previously reported in different biogeographical regions. The other two families are novel reports. Overall, our study proposes a novel method to uncover the intracultural heterogeneity of traditional knowledge and people non-random selection of medicinal plants at the local level.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Equador , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112217, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520672

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mauritania is a country in which few ethnobotanical studies have been conducted and consequently the ethnomedical data is scarce. Since the geographical region reflects the transition between tropical and Northern Africa, influenced by the Mediterranean floristic region, the traditional knowledge was influenced by several cultures from tropical Africa as well as Arab, Berber and Islamic societies. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper aims to explore and compile the diversity of ethnomedical knowledge in one of the regions of Mauritania and to compare the data with similar studies from surrounding territories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveys and interviews were carried out in 11 villages of Adrar province in northern Mauritania. Data were collected through open, semi-structured interviews (with individuals and focus groups). A sample of 120 people aged between 20 and 70 years, including 24 herbalists and 28 traditional healers was included. RESULTS: Ethnomedical data for 68 plant species belonging to 27 families were obtained. They are used to treat 50 health conditions grouped in 14 pathological groups. Remedies for digestive system disorders, skin problems and respiratory ailments were among the most frequent indications. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part and remedies generally used as a powder for the various applications and a total of 2'317 use reports were gathered. About 55% of the reported species were not cited previously in the literature focusing on Mauritania and neighbouring countries. Moreover, only 6 species are also cited by Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE). CONCLUSIONS: This work shows a promising perspective for future studies, shedding light on the richness and the risk for conservation of traditional knowledge of herbal medicine in Mauritania.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112172, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L., which is called Kudouzi in China, is a medicinal plant distributed in Western and Central Asia, especially in China, and has been used for decades to treat fever, bacterial infection, heart disease, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on S. alopecuroides, including its botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to this article was systematically collected from the scientific literature databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, published books, PhD and MS dissertations, and other web sources, such as the official website of Flora of China and Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). RESULTS: A total of 128 compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polysaccharides, were isolated from S. alopecuroides. Among these compounds, the effects of alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, were extensively studied and developed into new drugs. S. alopecuroides and its active components had a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and neuroprotective functions, as well as protective properties against pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: As an important traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that S. alopecuroides has prominent bioactivities, especially on gynecological inflammation and hepatitis B, and anticancer activities. These activities provide prospects for novel drug development for cancer and some chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the comprehensive evaluation, quality control, understanding of the multitarget network pharmacology, long-term in vivo toxicity, and clinical efficacy of S. alopecuroides require further detailed research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Agricultura , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465817

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the pre-antibiotic era, a broad spectrum of medicinal plants was used to treat livestock. This knowledge was neglected in European veterinary medicine for decades but kept alive by farmers. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains requires a severely restricted use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. We conducted a survey on the ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in the bilingual (French and German speaking) Western region of Switzerland, namely the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Jura, and in the French speaking part of the canton of Bern. AIM OF THE STUDY: To find out whether differences exist in plants used by farmers in French speaking and bilingual regions of Switzerland as compared to our earlier studies conducted in Switzerland. Additional focus was on plants that are used in diseases which commonly are treated with antimicrobials, on plants used in skin afflictions, and on plants used in animal species such as horses, for which the range of veterinary medicinal products is limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted in 2015 semistructured interviews with 62 dialog partners, mainly cattle keeping farmers but also 18 horse keeping farmers. Of these, 41 were native French (FNS) and 21 native German speakers (GNS). Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (target animal species, category of use, route of administration, dosage, source of knowledge, frequency of use, last time of use and farmers satisfaction) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 345 homemade remedies were reported, of which 240 contained only one plant species (Homemade Single Species Herbal Remedy Reports; HSHR). A total of 289 use reports (UR) were mentioned for the 240 HSHR, and they comprised 77 plant species belonging to 41 botanical families. Of these, 35 plant species were solely reported from FNS, 20 from GNS, and 22 from both. Taking into account earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland only 10 (FNS) and 6 (GNS) plant species connected with 7% of FNS and GNS UR respectively were "unique" to the respective language group. The majority of the UR (219) was for treatment of cattle, while 38 UR were intended to treat horses. The most UR were for treatment of gastrointestinal and skin diseases. The most frequently mentioned plants were Linum usitatissimum L., Coffea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Quercus robur L. for gastrointestinal diseases, and Calendula officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Sanicula europaea L. for skin afflictions. CONCLUSION: No clear differences were found between the medicinal plants used by French native speakers and German native speakers. Several of the reported plants seem to be justified to widen the spectrum of veterinary therapeutic options in gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders in cattle and horses, and to reduce, at least to a certain degree, the need for antibiotic treatments. Our findings may help to strengthen the role of medicinal plants in veterinary research and practice, and to consider them as a further measure in official strategies for lowering the use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Etnobotânica , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Suíça
11.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 65, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ecological migration serves as an important measure for poverty eradication as well as for the protection, inheritance, and utilization of traditional ecological knowledge. This study investigated and cataloged the traditional forage plant resources and recorded the associated traditional knowledge of immigrant villages in Hongsibu District of Ningxia, China. The diversity of traditional forage plant resources and the changes in associated traditional ecological knowledge were compared among ecological immigrant villages from different emigration areas, with a hope of providing a reference for forage development, the conservation of wild forage plant resources, and the development of regional animal husbandry. METHODS: From March 2018 to May 2019, a field investigation was conducted in six villages in Ningxia. Through the snowball technique, a total of 315 immigrants were interviewed using various methods, including semistructured interviews and key person interviews, which included opportunities for free listing. The changes in the utilization of traditional forage plants were compared between the ecological migrants and the original inhabitants, and the causes underlying the changes were analyzed. In addition, the major forage plant species in the research area were investigated and evaluated. RESULTS: (1) The six investigated villages reported 224 traditional forage plant species that belong to 42 families and 150 genera. Compared with their original living areas, the number of traditional forage plant species used in the immigrant villages decreased with the increase in the relocation distance. (2) The utilization of traditional forage plants varied among the immigrants who moved to Hongsibu District from forest areas, loess hilly areas, and semiarid desertified areas. The smaller the difference was in ecological environment between the immigration and emigration areas, the more the traditional forage plant knowledge had been retained. (3) The diversity and associated knowledge of traditional forage plants retained by ecological migrants are closely correlated to gender, age, education level, and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the diversity of traditional forage plants and associated knowledge retained after migration vary among ecological immigrants from different areas; generally, the immigrants that relocated from a closer place retained more ecological knowledge. In the immigrant villages with significantly different natural resources and a long distance from the migrants' original locations, the diversity of traditional forage plants decreased, and the traditional knowledge about forage plants showed signs of being forgotten and abandoned by the younger generation. Therefore, measures are urgently needed to document and protect the forage plant resources and preserve the traditional knowledge of ecological immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Etnobotânica , Conhecimento , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Adulto , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 67, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-derived utility products (PDPs) play an important role in sustaining humans, especially tribal communities. Despite this, knowledge on PDPs is declining. METHODS: The present study was therefore carried to document the PDPs used by Bhangalis, a tribal community of western Himalaya, through door-to-door surveys (n=420) and detailed questionnaire recordings (n=240). In addition to taxonomic richness, frequency of species used; use value (UV), use diversity (UD), and cultural importance index (CI) were also analysed. Knowledge comparison between genders, four identified age groups (group 1: 16-32 years, group 2: 33-49 years, group 3: 50-66 years, group 4: >66 years), and level of education of the respondents was also carried out using multiple regression in SPSS. RESULTS: Bhangalis reported 55 PDPs under five use categories namely tools (34), artefacts (7), construction and storage (6 each), and miscellaneous (2). For making these PDPs, 20 plant species representing 12 families were used. Picea smithiana (16.54%), Cedrus deodara (14.96%), Cotoneaster bacillaris (12.60%) and Quercus semecarpifolia (11.02%) reported the highest use frequency. On an average 15.13±0.25 PDPs per respondent was noted. Similarly, Picea smithiana (UV=0.088) and Cedrus deodara (UV= 0.079) reported the highest UV when compared to other species. Amongst all the species, maximum UD was revealed for Juglans regia in the tool category (0.91). On the other hand, maximum CI was also recorded for Picea smithiana (CITotal=2.91). With respect to gender, males were found to be more knowledgeable than females (B=6.370, p=0.001). Amongst the four age groups, respondents in group 1 (B=-13.302, p=0.001) and group 2 (B=-5.867, p=0.001) were less knowledgeable in comparison to respondents in the third and fourth age groups. Similarly, education also had a significant negative coefficient (B=-0.275, p=0.037), with educated respondents having lesser knowledge. It was observed that alternates available in the market seem to be limiting the use of PDPs. CONCLUSIONS: Bhangalis still use PDPs that have a crucial role in their lifestyle. However, their use is declining. A multipronged strategy that not only focusses on socio-economic characteristics but also on awareness especially at school levels is desired.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Conhecimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(4): 63-69, Dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1048870

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar las características de las plantas medicinales comercializadas en diferentes mercados de Lima Metropolitana y sus efectos sobre el medio ambiente y la salud pública.Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en mercados populares de Lima. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y observación no participante. Las variables consideradas fueron los nombres comunes, el origen, la forma de venta, la parte comercializada, el uso reportado, la estacionalidad y las especies más demandadas. Se consultó bibliografía especializada para determinar el origen de la especie y la categorización de especies amenazadas de flora silvestre para el estado de amenaza.Resultados: Se registraron 219 especímenes de plantas medicinales; se identificaron 183 que correspondían a 65 familias botánicas, principalmente, Asteraceae (37) y Lamiaceae (17), algunas de ellas en peligro de extinción. Conclusiones: Las plantas provienen, mayormente, de las tierras altas peruanas y se comercializan en forma de "atados". Una misma especie puede ser ofrecida para el tratamiento de varios problemas de salud. La demanda aumenta en invierno ( >85 especies). Las especies que se venden con mayor frecuencia son manzanilla, orégano, cedrón, toronjil, yerbaluisa, hinojo, muña, sábila o aloe, llantén y coca. Del total de especies identificadas, el 10 % está en peligro de extinción.


Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of medicinal plants traded in different popular markets of Lima Metropolitan Area and their effects on the environment and public health. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was carried out in popular markets of Lima. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. The variables to be considered were common names, origin, retailing/wholesaling, part of the plant to be traded, reported use, seasonality and most demanded species. Specialized bibliography was reviewed to determine the origin of the species and their threat categorization for endangered wild flora species. Results: Two hundred ninteeen (219) species of medicinal plants were collected, out of which 183 were taxonomically identified and belonged to 65 botanical families, mostly Asteraceae (37) and Lamiaceae (17), some of them in danger of extinction. Conclusions: The plants mainly come from the Peruvian highlands and are marketed in "bundles". A same species whose demand is increased in winter (> 85 species) may be offered for the treatment of several health problems. The most frequently sold species are chamomile, oregano, cedron, melissa or lemon balm, lemon grass, fennel, muña (Minthostachys mollis), aloe, broadleaf plantain and coca. Out of the total number of species identified, 10 % is endangered.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comercialização de Produtos , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional
14.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 171-181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687972

RESUMO

The aim of the study was a preliminary study of plant samples collected by targeted expeditions of the department of pharmacobotany (Department of Phytochemistry) of the IG Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry for the period 2016-2017. In total, 341 objects from (106 various) plants belonging to 36 families and 93 genus were analyzed. The objects were obtained polar and non-polar fractions; flavonoids and triterpenoids were found in them qualitatively. To characterize used P /CH and TLC analysis in various solvent systems. Flavonoids were isolated from Geranium ibericum and Polygonum carneum, which were identified as quercetin-3-0-ß-D-galactopyranoside-hyperin (G. ibericum), 3 5, 7 ', 3'.4' pentahydroxy-flavone - quercetin (G. ibericum, P. сarneum) and quercetin-3-0-rutinozide - rutin (P. сarneum). G. ibericum and P.carneum flora of Georgia are found and studied for the first time. Representatives of the family Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Helleboraceae, Polygonaceae, Scrophula riaceae deserve a particular interest in the content of triterpenoids.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Etnobotânica , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Polygonaceae , Quercetina
16.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 51, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper aims to record the species used for flavouring and making alcoholic drinks, mainly rakija, on the islands of the Adriatic (Croatia). METHODS: Our data comes from 295 interviews performed on 36 islands, in both the Dalmatian and Kvarner areas of the Adriatic. RESULTS: Altogether, 114 species are used-46% from wild locations only, 15% both wild and cultivated, 38% only cultivated and two species are imported. The most common local alcohol is wine, made without spices, but grape pomace distillate is often flavoured with single or mixed species. The mix is called travarica. The most commonly used species are Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Myrtus communis L., Salvia officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Juglans regia L., Citrus spp., Ficus carica L., Laurus nobilis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Rosa centifolia L., Mentha × piperita L. and M. spicata L. Unfortunately, the widespread phenomenon of distilling Arbutus unedo L. fruits and fermenting Juniperus 'wine' is now extinct. Apart from grapes, the only commonly distilled fruit now is Ficus carica. CONCLUSIONS: It is striking that nearly all the plants are either wild or cultivated locally, which, in addition to the fact that the alcohol is made locally, shows the incredible local culinary self-sufficiency of the area. The number of species used is also very impressive.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Plantas/classificação , Croácia , Etnobotânica
17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 52, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Yesilli district (Mardin) is located in the southeastern of Turkey and hosts different cultures. The objective of this study was to record the traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used by indigenous people in Yesilli, where no ethnobotanical studies have been conducted previously. METHODS: An ethnobotanical study was carried out in Yesilli district in March 2017-March 2019 to document the traditional knowledge of wild edible plants. The data were collected by interviewing 62 informants. Additionally, the data were analysed based on the cultural importance index (CI) and factor informant consensus (FIC) to determine the cultural significance of wild edible plants and knowledge of wild edible plants among the informants. RESULTS: We documented 74 wild edible taxa belonging to 31 families and 57 genera in the present study. The richness of the wild edible taxa was highest for vegetables (46 taxa), followed by medicinal plants (17 taxa) and fruit (14 taxa). The most important families were Asteraceae (ten taxa), Rosaceae (seven taxa) and Fabaceae (six taxa). The most culturally important taxa (based on the CI index) were Ficus carica subsp. carica, Lepidium draba, Anchusa strigosa, Rhus coriaria, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Sinapis alba, Gundelia tournefortii, Notobasis syriaca, Onopordum carduchorum, Malva neglecta, Mentha longifolia, Juglans regia and Urtica dioica. The maximum number of use reports was recorded for vegetables (1011). The factor informant consensus index (Fic) varied between 0.95 and 0.98 for preserved vegetables, beverages and spices and processed fruits have the highest Fic (0.99). We reported for the first time the ethnobotanical usage of 12 taxa as food. We also recorded the use of Allium wendelboanum, an endemic species in the study area. CONCLUSION: The obtained data were compared with data from other wild edible and ethnobotanical studies conducted in Turkey and particularly those conducted in eastern Turkey. Furthermore, the data were compared with data from studies conducted in the bordering countries of Iraq and Armenia. The present study reflects the cultural diversity of the region, and it is necessary to conduct more studies since it is thought that this diversity will contribute to the economy. This study will enable the traditional use of wild plants as food sources to be passed on to future generations.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 50, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study with the aim of documenting the local knowledge and practices of using plants for curing diseases in the Cava de' Tirreni area, Salerno Province, Campania Region, Italy. The present ethnobotanical field study, carried out during 2016-2017, documents the local uses of 119 plant species for medicinal, food and domestic purposes. METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were documented from 70 informants: field data were collected and information on the uses of plants was gathered through semi-structured and structured interviews with persons who still retain traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. Documented data were evaluated using the quantitative ethnobotanical index of use value (UV). RESULTS: Overall, the informants native of the area were interviewed and 277 use-reports have been recorded. The scientific names, local names, plant part used, preparation and administration processes are reported and compared with practices in other Southern Italian regions. In total, 101 species are documented as medicinal, 36 as food or food aromatizer, 29 for domestic and handicraft uses, 10 in veterinary medicine. More or less 64% of all species have more uses and over half of the food plants (23 species) are also used for medicinal purposes. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of the documented species and their uses with ethnobotanical literature of other Italian regions reveals that the traditional plant knowledge in this area shows strong similarities with adjacent Southern Italian areas. Some of the recorded species and administration processes however seem to be unique for the zone.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações de Plantas , Plantas Comestíveis
19.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1129-1134, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1021911

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar as plantas utilizadas com fins terapêuticos por usuários de uma unidade pré-hospitalar pública do município de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, os modos de preparo e uso, e o conhecimento deles sobre às propriedades terapêuticas, mecanismos de ação e indicação das plantas que utilizam. Métodos: Pesquisa descritiva, exploratória e qualitativa, operacionalizada por dez entrevistas semiestruturadas em abril de 2016, cujos dados foram tratados por análise temática. Resultados: Foram citadas 40 plantas, sendo a mais frequente a erva cidreira (Lippia alba), utilizada como calmante. A principal forma de obtenção das plantas é por meio de cultivo próprio; e o chá, preparado por infusão ou decocção, a principal forma de consumo. Foram citados malefícios associados ao uso da arnica (Solidago chilensis). Conclusão: Verificou-se que a maior parte das plantas utilizadas é de procedência regional, cujo conhecimento de uso foi adquirido por mães e avós


Objective: The study's purpose has been to identify the plants used for therapeutic purposes by users of a public pre-hospital unit in the Campos dos Goytacazes city, Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, to identify the methods of preparation and use, and their knowledge about the therapeutic properties, mechanisms of action and indication of the plants they use. Methods: It is a descriptive-exploratory research with a qualitative approach, which was performed through ten semi-structured interviews in April 2016, whose data were processed by thematic analysis. Results: 40 plants were mentioned, the most frequent being the lemongrass (Lippia alba) that was used as a soothing medicine; the main way of obtaining the plants is by means of own cultivation; and the tea, prepared by infusion or decoction, the main form of consumption. Unpleasant effects associated with the use of bush arnica (Solidago chilensis) were mentioned. Conclusion: It was verified that most of the plants used are of regional origin, whose knowledge of use was acquired through their relatives


Objetivo: Identificar las plantas utilizadas con fines terapéuticos por los usuarios de una unidad pública prehospitalaria en la ciudad de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, los métodos de preparación, uso y sus conocimientos sobre las propiedades terapéuticas, mecanismos de acción e indicación de las plantas. Método: Se desarrolló una investigación descriptiva, exploratoria y cualitativa, operada por diez entrevistas semiestructuradas en abril de 2016, cuyos datos fueron tratados por análisis temático. Resultados: Se mencionaron 40 plantas, siendo la más frecuente la hierba de limón (Lippia alba). La forma principal de obtención de las plantas es mediante el cultivo propio; y el té, preparado por infusión o decocción, la forma principal de consumo. Se citaron los efectos de la enfermedad asociados con el uso de arnica (Solidago chilensis). Conclusión: La mayoría de las plantas utilizadas son de origen regional, cuyo conocimiento de uso fue adquirido por familiares


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Terapias Complementares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fitoterapia , Etnobotânica
20.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(3): [85-90], jul - set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026679

RESUMO

Introdução: As plantas medicinais foram os primeiros recursos utilizados pelas antigas civilizações para prevenção e tratamento de doenças e, atualmente, vêm se consolidando como produtos fitoterápicos utilizados para combater várias infecções bacterianas que acometem as populações da Amazônia Brasileira. Objetivo: Avaliar a atividade antibacteriana in vitro de plantas medicinais conhecidas popularmente como urucum (Bixa orellana L.), barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville), jutaí (Hymenaea courbaril) e jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea) sobre as principais bactérias encontradas nos hospitais do município de Macapá, Amapá. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, com extratos testados em cepas bacterianas, envolveu a coleta das plantas, que posteriormente foram trituradas e submetidas a uma solução hidroalcoólica a 70% e percoladas, obtendo-se os extratos e tinturas. Os testes foram realizados por disco-difusão, em que foram impregnados 20 uL de cada extrato e tintura, bem como suas diluições. Subsequentemente, houve verificação da presença de halos de inibição, visualizados nas placas contendo cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia colie Klebsiella pneumoniae. Resultados: Os resultados evidenciaram que somente o extrato da Caesalpinia ferrea mostrou-se eficaz frente a cinco espécies bacterianas, apresentando halos em torno de 7 a 18 milímetros, em suas diferentes diluições; diferentemente dos demais extratos, que não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Conclusão: Esta pesquisa evidenciou que a Caesalpinia ferrea apresenta potencial para ser empregada na síntese de novos fármacos. Entretanto, novos estudos são necessários para verificar sua toxicidade, isolamento e identificação de compostos ativos, contribuindo para novas intervenções terapêuticas em infecções causadas por bactérias hospitalares multirresistentes.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Extratos Vegetais , Etnobotânica , Medicamentos Fitoterápicos , Antibacterianos
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