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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112172, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L., which is called Kudouzi in China, is a medicinal plant distributed in Western and Central Asia, especially in China, and has been used for decades to treat fever, bacterial infection, heart disease, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on S. alopecuroides, including its botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to this article was systematically collected from the scientific literature databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, published books, PhD and MS dissertations, and other web sources, such as the official website of Flora of China and Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). RESULTS: A total of 128 compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polysaccharides, were isolated from S. alopecuroides. Among these compounds, the effects of alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, were extensively studied and developed into new drugs. S. alopecuroides and its active components had a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and neuroprotective functions, as well as protective properties against pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: As an important traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that S. alopecuroides has prominent bioactivities, especially on gynecological inflammation and hepatitis B, and anticancer activities. These activities provide prospects for novel drug development for cancer and some chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the comprehensive evaluation, quality control, understanding of the multitarget network pharmacology, long-term in vivo toxicity, and clinical efficacy of S. alopecuroides require further detailed research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Agricultura , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112220, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494198

RESUMO

The non-random selection of medicinal plants theory, which predicts taxonomical biases in ethnopharmacopeias, indirectly demonstrates that traditional medicinal systems are rational and based in part on the therapeutic efficacy of plants. This theory suggests that because members of a taxonomical group share similar characteristics, some groups will be over-utilized in pharmacopeias, while other groups bereft of therapeutic potential will be under-utilized medicinally. Empirical evidence fo this theory comes from studies that used data collected at the national level which may lead to the overestimation of medicinal plant list given that some parts of the country (e.g., protected areas) can be unavailable for medicinal plant collection. Similarly, because medicinal plant importance and knowledge can be gender-specific and depends on the degree of exposure of a community, failure to account for gender and community experience can limit our understanding of non-random selection of medicinal plants. In this study, we used the negative binomial model and an examination of studentized residuals to demonstrate that a Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon over-utilized different sets of medicinal plant families depending on the gender of the informants or the experience of the community. We showed that utilizing local data instead of nationwide data reveals new over-utilized families. Seven of the nine most over-utilized medicinal plant families we found were previously reported in different biogeographical regions. The other two families are novel reports. Overall, our study proposes a novel method to uncover the intracultural heterogeneity of traditional knowledge and people non-random selection of medicinal plants at the local level.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Equador , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112217, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520672

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mauritania is a country in which few ethnobotanical studies have been conducted and consequently the ethnomedical data is scarce. Since the geographical region reflects the transition between tropical and Northern Africa, influenced by the Mediterranean floristic region, the traditional knowledge was influenced by several cultures from tropical Africa as well as Arab, Berber and Islamic societies. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper aims to explore and compile the diversity of ethnomedical knowledge in one of the regions of Mauritania and to compare the data with similar studies from surrounding territories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surveys and interviews were carried out in 11 villages of Adrar province in northern Mauritania. Data were collected through open, semi-structured interviews (with individuals and focus groups). A sample of 120 people aged between 20 and 70 years, including 24 herbalists and 28 traditional healers was included. RESULTS: Ethnomedical data for 68 plant species belonging to 27 families were obtained. They are used to treat 50 health conditions grouped in 14 pathological groups. Remedies for digestive system disorders, skin problems and respiratory ailments were among the most frequent indications. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part and remedies generally used as a powder for the various applications and a total of 2'317 use reports were gathered. About 55% of the reported species were not cited previously in the literature focusing on Mauritania and neighbouring countries. Moreover, only 6 species are also cited by Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE). CONCLUSIONS: This work shows a promising perspective for future studies, shedding light on the richness and the risk for conservation of traditional knowledge of herbal medicine in Mauritania.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mauritânia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112152, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421183

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón (Tropaeolaceae). Sim (commonly called Mashua) is an indigenous plant that has medicinal values for various ethnic groups of the regions of the Andes mountain range of South America, which use it for the treatment of diseases venereal, lung and skin; for the healing of internal and external wounds; and as an analgesic for kidney and bladder pain. AIM OF THE REVIEW: We critically summarised the current evidence on the botanic characterisation and distribution, ethnopharmacology, secondary metabolites, pharmacological activities, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and toxicology of T. tuberosum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information on T. tuberosum was gathered from worldwide accepted scientific databases via electronic search (Google scholar, Elsevier, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Scopus, Wiley Online, Mendeley, Scielo and Dialnet electronic databases). Information was also obtained from the literature and books as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Plant names were validated by 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: T. tuberosum has diverse uses in local and popular medicine, specifically for relieving pain and infections in humans. Regarding its biological activities, polar extracts (aqueous, hydroalcoholic) and isolated compounds from the tubers have exhibited a wide range of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Quantitative analysis (e.g., NMR, HPLC, GC-MS) indicated the presence of a set of secondary metabolites, including hydroxybenzoic acids, tannins, flavanols, anthocyanins, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phytosterols, fatty acids and alkamides in the tubers of T. tuberosum. Likewise, glucosinolates have been identified in the seeds and isothiocyanates have been detected in leaves, flowers and seeds. CONCLUSIONS: T. tuberosum has been tested for various biological activities and the extracts (tubers in particular) demonstrated a promising potential as an antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A lack of alignment between the ethno-medicinal uses and existing biological screenings was observed, indicating the need to explore its potential for the treatment against respiratory affections, urinary affections and blood diseases. Likewise, it is necessary to analyse deeply the relationship that exists between the different tuber colours of T. tuberosum and its use for the treatment of certain diseases. Validation of clinical studies of the antibacterial, antioxidant/anti-inflammatory, anti-spermatogenic activities and as inhibitors of benign prostatic hyperplasia is required. Moreover, studies on the toxicity, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics, in addition to clinical trials, are indispensable for assessing the safety and efficacy of the active metabolites or extracts obtained from T. tuberosum. Other areas that need investigation are the development of future applications based on their active metabolites, such as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease). Finally, the work purposes to motivate other research groups to carry out a series of scientific studies that can fill the gaps that exist with respect to Mashua properties, and thus be able to change the focus of T. tuberosum (Mashua) that currently has in the consumer society.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tropaeolum/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tubérculos/química , América do Sul
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112203, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472271

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Combretum racemosum showed activity in previous ethnopharmacological investigations of some Combretum species used in malaria treatment in parts of West Africa. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed at confirming the antimalarial potential of this plant by an activity-guided isolation of its active principles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A crude methanolic leaf extract of Combretum racemosum and fractions thereof obtained by partition with chloroform and n-butanol were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D10) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Repeated chromatographic separations were conducted on the chloroform fraction to isolate bioactive compounds for further tests on antiplasmodial activity. The characterization of the isolated substances was performed by applying NMR- and MS-techniques (ESI-MS, HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). RESULTS: The chloroform fraction (D10: IC50 = 33.8 ±â€¯1.5 µg/mL and W2: IC50 = 27.8 ±â€¯2.9 µg/mL) exhibited better antiplasmodial activity than the n-butanol fraction (D10: IC50 = 78.1 ±â€¯7.3 µg/mL and W2: IC50 = 78 ±â€¯15 µg/mL) as well as the methanolic raw extract (D10: IC50 = 64.2 ±â€¯2.7 µg/mL and W2: IC50 = 65.8 ±â€¯14.9 µg/mL). Thus, the focus of the phytochemical investigation was laid on the chloroform fraction, which led to the identification of four ursane-type (19α-hydroxyasiatic acid (1), 6ß,23-dihydroxytormentic acid (4), madecassic acid (8), nigaichigoside F1 (10)) and four oleanane-type (arjungenin (2), combregenin (5), terminolic acid (7), arjunglucoside I (11)) triterpenes, as well as abscisic acid (9). Compounds 1 and 2, 4 and 5, 7 and 8 as well as 10 and 11 were isolated as isomeric mixtures in fractions CR-A, CR-C, CR-E and CR-H, respectively. All isolated compounds and mixtures exhibited moderate to low activity, with madecassic acid being most active (D10: IC50 = 28 ±â€¯12 µg/mL and W2: IC50 = 17.2 ±â€¯4.3 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: This paper reports for the first time antiplasmodial principles from C. racemosum and thereby gives reason to the traditional use of the plant.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Combretum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , África Ocidental , Animais , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112224, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509779

RESUMO

ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corchorus olitorius is reportedly used in ethno-medicine to arrest threatened miscarriage and other conditions associated with excessive uterine contractions. The plant is also used as a purgative, demulscent and an anti-inflammatory agent. AIM OF THE STUDY: Against the background of ethno-medicinal use, this current work was designed to evaluate the gastrointestinal and uterine smooth muscles relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract (COLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pieces of uterine and gastrointestinal tissues were suspended separately in organ baths containing ideal physiological salt solutions bubbled with air and were tested for responses to standard drugs and COLE, then repeated in the presence of antagonists. Anti-inflammatory study was carried out via the egg albumin-induced paw edema model in rats. RESULTS: The application of COLE to pieces of uterine tissue significantly decreased the amplitudes of contractions in a dose dependent manner such that the highest dose applied (666.67 µg/ml) achieved a 100% inhibitory effect. Oxytocin induced contractions were also significantly inhibited by both salbutamol and COLE. On the isolated rabbit jejunum, the effect of COLE was also inhibitory and like atropine, significantly inhibited acetylcholine induced contractions. In the in vivo study, the extract inhibited charcoal meal movement in test rats when compared with control. Anti-inflammatory effect of COLE was significant and compared favourably with that of aspirin following in vivo trials. CONCLUSIONS: COLE therefore, may be a good tocolytic, anti-diarrheal and anti-inflammatory agent and offers hope of new drug discovery for such uses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Corchorus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tocolíticos/farmacologia , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Aspirina/farmacologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/imunologia , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Gravidez , Coelhos , Ratos , Tocolíticos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112211, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533076

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae) is prized in the Chinese, Tibetan, Nepalese, Bhutanese, Indian and Japanese systems of medicine. Its medicinal properties are well documented in ancient literature such as the Ayurvedic classics, the Old Testament, Ben-Cao- Shi-Yi, and Homer's Iliad. The plant is critically endangered and found in the alpine and sub-alpine regions of the Himalayas. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aims to show the challenges and opportunities of harnessing the untapped pharmaceutical resources of N. jatamansi. Another aim is to explore the possibilities of translating ethnobotanical information into health benefit applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sources of information used in the study are government reports, dissertations, books, research articles and databases like Science-Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and ACS Publications on N. jatamansi. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the study, we have examined and discussed reports on phytochemicals present in the plant, their structure, biological activity, pharmacological properties of extracts derived from plant parts, isolated compounds, and commercially available products from the plant. We have identified and discussed ambiguities and confusions about the plant's nomenclature and geographical distribution, and highlighted various studies that failed to discuss this issue. We analyzed the links between various reports on ethnobotanical information as well as studies on phytochemistry and pharmacologyconfirming the therapeutic properties of N. jatamansi. However, in many of these findings which had used dried samples, there was an uncanny resemblance between the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of N. jatamansi and Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. (another genus from family, Caprifoliaceae). Since both the species share identical vernacular names, a possible reason could be that the samples may not have been of two separate species. Other limitations of different studies were the use of out-dated techniques for phytochemical profiling, absence of toxicology studies using animal models and clinical trials using human subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of various studies revealed a confusion about the botanical nomenclature of the plants and their geographical distributions. Absence of proper markers for identification of correct samples and improperly conducted studies on N. jatamansi were found to be the major hurdles to the use of ethnobotanical information and research findings into applications for human health. Development of markers using molecular, chemical and pharmacognosy based approaches for plant authentication and, in vitro propagation of authenticated material for easy availability of genuine plant material are the possible solutions to the problems identified.


Assuntos
Nardostachys , Fitoterapia , Animais , Ásia , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112253, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562952

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal properties of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are well known since ancient times. Ethnobotanical grape preparations, like the Ayurvedic Darakchasava are used as cardiotonic and for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dried grape products are also applied in Iranian traditional medicine for memory problems, which are linked to the pathology of brain microvessels, a special part of the cardiovascular system. The anti-inflammatory and protective effects of these traditional preparations on the cardiovascular system are related to their bioactive phenolic compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by brain capillaries, is not only involved in inflammatory and other diseases of the central nervous system, but also in many systemic diseases with an inflammatory component. Dietary obesity is a systemic chronic inflammatory condition in which the peripheral and central vascular system is affected. Among the cerebrovascular changes in obesity defective leptin transport across the BBB related to central leptin resistance is observed. Our aim was to study the protective effects of grape phenolic compounds epicatechin (EC), gallic acid (GA) and resveratrol (RSV) and grape-seed proanthocyanidin-rich extract (GSPE) on a cytokine-induced vascular endothelial inflammation model. Using a culture model of the BBB we investigated cytokine-induced endothelial damage and changes in the expression of leptin receptors and leptin transfer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the BBB model, primary cultures of rat brain endothelial cells, glial cells and pericytes were used in co-culture. Cells were treated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 ß (IL-1ß) (10 ng/ml each) to induce damage. Cell toxicity was evaluated by the measurement of impedance. The expression of leptin receptors was assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were detected by fluorescent probes. RESULTS: GSPE (10 µg/ml), EC (10 µM), GA (1 µM) or RSV (10 µM) did not change the viability of brain endothelial cells. The gene expression of the short leptin receptor isoform, Ob-Ra, was up-regulated by GSPE, EC and RSV, while the mRNA levels of Lrp2 and clusterin, clu/ApoJ were not affected. The tested compounds did not change the expression of the long leptin receptor isoform, Ob-Rb. RSV protected against the cytokine-induced increase in albumin permeability of the BBB model. GSPE and EC exerted an antioxidant effect and GSPE increased NO both alone and in the presence of cytokines. The cytokine-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-κB was blocked by GSPE, GA and RSV. Cytokines increased the mRNA expression of Lrp2 which was inhibited by EC. RSV increased Ob-Ra and Clu in the presence of cytokines. Cytokines elevated leptin transfer across the BBB model, which was not modified by GSPE or RSV. CONCLUSION: Our results obtained on cell culture models confirm that natural grape compounds protect vascular endothelial cells against inflammatory damage in accordance with the ethnopharmacological use of grape preparations in cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, grape compounds and GSPE, by exerting a beneficial effect on the BBB, may also be considered in the treatment of obesity after validation in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astrócitos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Etnofarmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Leptina/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Medicina Ayurvédica/métodos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112255, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568819

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper longum, commonly referred as 'Pippali', has found its traditional use in India, Malaysia, Singapore and other South Asian countries as an analgesic, carminative, anti-diarrhoeic, immunostimulant, post childbirth to check postpartum hemorrhage and to treat asthma, insomnia, dementia, epilepsy, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, spleen disorder, puerperal fever, leprosy etc. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review offers essential data focusing on the traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacological profile of Piper longum thereby identifying research gaps and future opportunities for investigation on this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic survey was accomplished as per the PRISMA guidelines. The information was collected from books, and electronic search (PubMed, Science Direct, Lilca and Scielo) during 1967-2019. RESULTS: Many phytochemicals have been identified till date, including alkaloids as its major secondary metabolites (piperine and piperlongumine), essential oil, flavonoids and steroids. These exhibit a wide range of activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-parkinsonian, anti-stress, nootropic, anti-epileptic, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-platelet, anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic action, anti-amebic, anti-fungal, mosquito larvicidal and anti-snake venom. CONCLUSION: Amongst various activities, bioscientific clarification in relation to its ethnopharmacological perspective has been evidenced mainly for anti-amebic, anthelminthic, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic activity. However, despite traditional claims, insufficient scientific validation for the treatment of insomnia, dementia, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, spleen disorder, puerperal fever and leprosy, necessitate future investigations in this direction. It is also essential and critical to generate toxicological data and pharmacokinetics on human subjects so as to confirm its conceivable bio-active components in the body.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Índia , Malásia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Singapura , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112258, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574342

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In northwestern Argentina inhabit several ancient indigenous communities with diverse cultural and historical background. Geographical isolation has contributed to the prevalence of a native plant-based folk medicine; "jarilla" species are medicinal plants widely used in local communities for the treatment of mycosis, respiratory, gastrointestinal and rheumatic disorders. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To assemble the traditional knowledge acquired through years with scientific data concerning to phytochemistry, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of three "jarillas" species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data of three "jarillas", Zuccagnia punctata (Zp), Larrea cuneifolia (Lc), and Larrea divaricata (Ld), were explored by interviewing native people from Indigenous Community of Amaicha del Valle, Tucumán. Phenolic profiles from each infusion were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, and ferrous iron chelating activity. It was also assessed their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase, and hyaluronidase. RESULTS: Ethnobotanical interviews showed that local people use "jarillas" mainly as infusions and baths. It was reported different categories of uses, such as medicinal (10 curative applications), to religious purposes, tinctorial, as construction material and as fuel. From infusions prepared, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 27 compounds from Z. punctata, and 11 from both Larrea sp. The infusions showed an important antioxidant activity through different mechanisms, highlighting Zp and Lc in free radical scavenging capacity and Ld on lipid peroxidation inhibition and iron binding. They were also capable of inhibit xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase enzymes, being Lc the most active one. CONCLUSIONS: This research work provides novel information concerning to several categories of traditional uses of "jarilla" species in a Diaguita-Calchaquí community and focus attention to infusions from a phytochemical and biological approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnobotânica , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Argentina , Banhos , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112226, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574343

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Licorice preparations are used as neuroprotective remedies in Persian ethnomedicine, in order to prevent from disabilities in neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease (PD). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to determine the licorice (root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) effectiveness as an adjunct treatment in the PD management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this double-blinded trial, 128 patients were assessed for eligibility criteria. Seventy-eight patients were ineligible and 11 of them refused from participating. Thirty-nine PD patients (YAHR staging ≤ 3) were divided into two groups by random. The patients received oral licorice or placebo syrups with a dose of 5 cc, twice a day for 6 months. High-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric instruments determined licorice syrup constituents. The patients' situation for Unified Parkinson's rating scale (UPDRS) was assessed every 6 weeks for the duration of six months. In addition, patients' blood pressure, blood glucose, sodium and potassium levels, quality of life and dizziness were determined. RESULTS: Six weeks after intervention, total UPDRS, daily activities and tremor were significantly improved with a considerable effect size. A significant better motor test and rigidity scores were observed 4 months after licorice intake (p > 0.05). No electrolyte abnormality, significant changes in blood pressure or blood glucose levels were observed during the study. Each 5cc of syrup contained 136 mg of licorice extract with 12.14 mg glycyrrhizic acid, and also 136 µg of polyphenols. CONCLUSION: The licorice intake could improve the symptoms in PD patients without serious adverse events.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza/química , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Medicina Arábica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Rigidez Muscular/sangue , Rigidez Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Rigidez Muscular/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Placebos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112259, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577938

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ximenia americana L. is popularly known as yellow plum, brave plum or tallow wood. All the parts of this plant are used in popular medicine. Its reddish and smooth bark are used to treat skin infections, inflammation of the mucous membranes and in the wound healing process. OBJECTIVE: Verification of phytochemical profile, the molecular interaction between flavonoid, (-) epi-catechin and 5-LOX enzyme, by means of in silico study, the genotoxic effect and to investigate the pharmacological action of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of X. americana in pulmonary alterations caused by experimental COPD in Rattus norvegicus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The identification of secondary metabolites was carried out by TLC and HPLC chromatographic methods, molecular anchoring tests were applied to analyze the interaction of flavonoid present in the extract with the enzyme involved in pulmonary inflammation process and the genotoxic effect was assessed by comet assay and micronucleus test. For induction of COPD, male rats were distributed in seven groups. The control group was exposed only to ambient air and six were subjected to passive smoke inhalations for 20 min/day for 60 days. One of the groups exposed to cigarette smoke did not receive treatment. The others were treated by inhalation with beclomethasone dipropionate (400 mcg/kg) and aqueous and lyophilized extracts of X. americana (500 mg/kg) separately or in combination for a period of 15 days. The structural and inflammatory pulmonary alterations were evaluated by histological examination. Additional morphometric analyses were performed, including the alveolar diameter and the thickness of the right ventricle wall. RESULTS: The results showed that the aqueous extract of the bark of X. americana possesses (-) epi -catechin, in silico studies with 5-LOX indicate that the EpiC ligand showed better affinity parameters than the AracA ligand, which is in accordance with the results obtained in vivo studies. Genotoxity was not observed at the dose tested and the extract was able to stagnate the alveolar enlargement caused by the destruction of the interalveolar septa, attenuation of mucus production and decrease the presence of collagen fibers in the bronchi of animals submitted to cigarette smoke. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results proved that the aqueous extract of X. americana presents itself as a new option of therapeutic approach in the treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Olacaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/química , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Caules de Planta/química , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112265, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580941

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hymenaea cangaceira Pinto, Mansano & Azevedo (Fabaceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant widely known as "Jatobá". In folk medicine, it is used to treat infections, respiratory problems, rheumatism, antitumoral, inflammation and pain, however, no activity has been scientifically validated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated chemical composition of essential oil from Hymenaea cangaceira (EOHc), antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities besides protection against DNA damage and hemolysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, and characterized by GC-MS and GC-FID. The evaluation of antimicrobial activity was performed by microdilution method. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed using the radicals DPPH, ABTS, O2- and OH-, and the protection of DNA damage using plasmid pBR322. Different experimental models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive effect (acetic acid and formalin), and evaluate the mechanisms of action involved with pharmacological antagonists (naloxone, atropine and gibenclamide) in mice. The essential oil was evaluated for hemolysis on human erythrocytes. RESULTS: The extraction of EOHc showed a yield of 0.18% on a dry basis, presenting high content of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (79.04%), high antioxidant activity and protect DNA from damage, besides presenting antifungal and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. It was found that the essential oil had no acute toxicity in mice up to 5000 mg/kg oral administration (o.a.), in addition to no hemolysis on human erythrocytes. The reduction of antinociceptive activity was 75%, with the opioid system as the mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: Our results validate the main activities by the traditional use attributed to H. cangaceira for antimicrobial and analgesic activity. In addition, the oil has a potent antioxidant activity, protecting the body against oxidative stress damage, adding new value to an endemic species not known to the industry.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hymenaea/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Etnofarmacologia , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112254, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580942

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Currently various scientific and popular sources provide a wide spectrum of ethnopharmacological information on many plants, yet the sources of that information, as well as the information itself, are often not clear, potentially resulting in the erroneous use of plants among lay people or even in official medicine. Our field studies in seven countries on the Eastern edge of Europe have revealed an unusual increase in the medicinal use of Epilobium angustifolium L., especially in Estonia, where the majority of uses were specifically related to "men's problems". THE AIM OF THE CURRENT WORK IS: to understand the recent and sudden increase in the interest in the use of E. angustifolium in Estonia; to evaluate the extent of documented traditional use of E. angustifolium among sources of knowledge considered traditional; to track different sources describing (or attributed as describing) the benefits of E. angustifolium; and to detect direct and indirect influences of the written sources on the currently documented local uses of E. angustifolium on the Eastern edge of Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study we used a variety of methods: semi-structured interviews with 599 people in 7 countries, historical data analysis and historical ethnopharmacological source analysis. We researched historical and archival sources, and academic and popular literature published on the medicinal use of E. angustifolium in the regions of our field sites as well as internationally, paying close attention to the literature that might have directly or indirectly contributed to the popularity of E. angustifolium at different times in history. RESULTS: Our results show that the sudden and recent popularity in the medical use of E. angustifolium in Estonia has been caused by local popular authors with academic medical backgrounds, relying simultaneously on "western" and Russian sources. While Russian sources have propagated (partially unpublished) results from the 1930s, "western" sources are scientific insights derived from the popularization of other Epilobium species by Austrian herbalist Maria Treben. The information Treben disseminated could have been originated from a previous peak in popularity of E. angustifolium in USA in the second half of the 19th century, caused in turn by misinterpretation of ancient herbals. The traditional uses of E. angustifolium were related to wounds and skin diseases, fever, pain (headache, sore throat, childbirth), and abdominal-related problems (constipation, stomach ache) and intestinal bleeding. Few more uses were based on the similarity principle. The main theme, however, is the fragmentation of use and its lack of consistency apart from wounds and skin diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Historical ethnobotanical investigations could help to avoid creating repeating waves of popularity of plants that have already been tried for certain diseases and later abandoned as not fully effective. There is, of course, a chance that E. angustifolium could also finally be proven to be clinically safe and cost-effective for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, but this has not yet happened despite recent intensive research. Documented traditional use would suggest investigating the dermatological, intestinal anti-hemorrhagic and pain inhibiting properties of this plant, if any.


Assuntos
Epilobium/química , Etnobotânica/história , Etnofarmacologia/história , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana/história , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Europa Oriental , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/história
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112266, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580943

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zygophyllum album is widely used to treat many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and as anti-inflammatory plant. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the potential protective effects of Zygophyllum album roots extract (ZARE) against myocardial damage and fibrosis induced by a chronic exposure to deltamethrin (DLM) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioactive compounds present in ZARE were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. In vivo, DLM (4 mg/kg body weight), ZARE (400 mg/kg body weight) and DLM with ZARE were administered to rats orally for 60 days. Biochemical markers (LDH, ALT, CK, CK-MB and cTn-I) were assessed in the plasma by an auto-analyzer. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) were evaluated by a sandwich ELISA. NF-κB was quantified at mRNA levels by real time PCR. Heart tissue was used to determine cardiac oxidative stress markers (MDA, PC, SOD, CAT, and GPx). Masson's Trichrome (MT) and Sirius Red (SR) stainings were used for explored fibrosis statues. RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis using HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS revealed the presence of twenty six molecules including phenolic compounds and saponins. ZARE significantly improved the heart injury markers (LDH, ALT, CK, CK-MB and cTn-I), lipid peroxidation (MDA), protein oxidation (PC), antioxidant capacity (SOD, CAT, and GPx), and DNA structure, which were altered by DLM exposure. Moreover, ZARE cotreatment reduced the expressions of NF-κB, decreased plasmatic pro-inflammatory cytokines concentration (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6), and suppressed the myocardial collagen deposition, as observed by Sirius Red and Masson's Trichrome staining. CONCLUSION: ZARE ameliorated the severity of DLM-induced myocardial injuries through improving the oxidative status and reducing profibrotic cytokines production. The ZARE actions could be mediated by downregulation of NF-κB mRNA.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Zygophyllum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/isolamento & purificação , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tunísia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112250, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586694

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong is important medicinal plant that is native to the eastern Himalayas and Hengduan mountains in China. It is also distributed in Nepal, north east India, Bhutan and northern Myanmar. Plant parts are traditionally used against different kinds of diseases and various compounds present in different plant parts are also effective against many diseases. Thus, N. scrophulariiflora has a high potential to maintain human health. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Although N. scrophulariiflora is very important and widely studied plant species but there is no comprehensive up-to-date review of published and unpublished literature. So, in the present article we have compiled and critically commented on the botanical characteristics, traditional uses, plant growth and cultivation, micropropagation, conservation status, secondary metabolites, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive literature searches both electronic online databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, ChemSpider, USPTO, Google patents and Espacenet) and library visits in Nepal were carried out to collect the literature on information published prior to April 2019. RESULTS: N. scrophulariiflora was traditionally used for 82 ailments/diseases. There are 124 major phytochemicals extracted from the plant. Several compounds are effective in bioactivity. Pharmacologically, the plant is proved to be anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory in-vivo studies, and antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and nerve growth factor potentiating from in-vitro studies. Renal improvement activities were confirmed from both in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Toxicological tests and a single clinical trial in human beings have supported the notion that the plant is not poisonous but beneficial for curing wide ranges of diseases. CONCLUSION: N. scrophulariiflora is valuable medicinal plant that can serve as promising source of non-harmful and potential medicinal herbal remedies for human beings.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantaginaceae/química , Butão , China , Humanos , Índia , Mianmar , Nepal , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112270, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589965

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Macaca fuscata/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ilhas , Japão , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Testes de Toxicidade , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112278, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589967

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euryops arabicus (Asteraceae) is grown in Arab Peninsula. Its aerial parts possess ethnomedicinal applications against several inflammatory conditions. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euryops arabicus (E. arabicus) organic extract as well as its major polymethoxylated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute toxicity of the total extract of E. ararbicus was evaluated by assessing LD50. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in rats injected with carrageenan in the plantar area. Paw edema volume, histological changes and rats'stair climbing and motility were assessed. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) challenged with carrageenan. Inflammation markers were assessed in cellular lysates and collected media. RESULTS: The extract was found safe and considered unclassified with an oral LD50 > 2000 mg/kg in rats. Pretreatment of rats with a total extract of E. arabicus at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced increase in paw edema volume and histopathological changes. Also, it significantly ameliorated diminution of climbing and motility. Phytochemical studies led to the isolation and identification of five polymethoxylated flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated in carrageenan-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). All compounds exhibited appreciable antioxidant activities. Further, pre-incubation of the cells with the isolated metabolites significantly ameliorated the rise in cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by carrageenan challenge. Further, the compounds inhibited the leakage of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in media collected from stimulated cells. CONCLUSION: E. arabicus exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan model as it ameliorated rat paw edema, histopathological changes and movement dysfunction. in vitro activity of isolated compounds was confirmed in stimulated PBMCs. Thus, the anti-inflammatory activity of E. arabicus can be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-chemotactic properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/imunologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Medicina Arábica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112257, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589968

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrolea zeylanica L. Vahl. (Hydroleaceae) is an aquatic medicinal plant used as leafy vegetable in some parts of India. In south Odisha and Hazaribag district of Jharkhand, India, decoction of leaves is used as household remedy for diabetes. To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined the antidiabetic activity of H. zeylanica to validate its ethnomedicinal claim. PURPOSE: With this aim in mind, we examined the bioactivity of hydroalcohol fraction of leaves of H. zeylanica (HAHZ) in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antidiabetic and free radical scavenging activities of different fractions of H. zeylanica were performed. The most effective bioactive fraction e.g. HAHZ was considered for kinetic studies to understand the mode of inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. To understand the chemical composition, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of HAHZ were performed. To find out the molecular mechanism of action of HAHZ, streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and metabolic changes in diabetic rats were studied. RESULTS: HAHZ demonstrated significantly higher radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities. Kinetic analysis revealed that HAHZ inhibited α-glucosidase competitively, and α-amylase mixed competitively. To understand the chemical composition, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of HAHZ identified 32 compounds and among which R-limonene (0.52%), perillartine (0.41%), N-formyl-L-lysine (1.49%), limonen-6-ol, pivalate (1.43%), lidocaine (1.70%) and gamolenic acid (2.80%) were reported to have antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. HAHZ-400 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.001) improvement in serum markers (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C) and oxidative markers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH) in serum, liver and pancreas at effective dose dependent manner. In histopathological observation, HAHZ-400 mg/kg showed marked improvement in restoring cellular architecture of liver and pancreas. CONCLUSION: In diabetic rats, the improvement in glycemic control mechanism was achieved upon stimulating insulin secretion by R-limonene, perillartine, N-formyl-L-lysine, limonen-6-ol, pivalate, lidocaine and gamolenic acid of HAHZ.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanales/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112274, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589969

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Astrocaryum aculeatum G.Mey. (tucumã) is highly consumed by riverside communities in the Amazonian region. These communities have recently been shown to have increased longevity and reduced prevalence of age-related morbidity. Tucumã, which is locally used in their diet and traditional medicine may contribute to these features. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of A. aculeatum extract against phytohemagglutinin-induced inflammation in cell cultures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays, gene expression of interleukins IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and thiols were employed, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin to mimic inflammation. RESULTS: The extract of A. aculeatum fruit inhibited macrophage proliferation (P < 0.05), arrested the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase (P < 0.001), increased antioxidant defenses (P < 0.01), reduced oxidative stress (P < 0.01), and modulated genes related to the inflammatory response (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that A. aculeatum fruit has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. These beneficial effects of tucumã on cells are also likely to be seen in vivo, thereby suggesting that its extract is a suitable therapeutic adjuvant in the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arecaceae/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etnofarmacologia , Frutas/química , Inflamação/imunologia , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , América do Sul
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