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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684833

RESUMO

Cassia obtusifolia L., of the Leguminosae family, is used as a diuretic, laxative, tonic, purgative, and natural remedy for treating headache, dizziness, constipation, tophobia, and lacrimation and for improving eyesight. It is commonly used in tea in Korea. Various anthraquinone derivatives make up its main chemical constituents: emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, obtusifolin, obtusin, au rantio-obtusin, chryso-obtusin, alaternin, questin, aloe-emodin, gluco-aurantio-obtusin, gluco-obtusifolin, naphthopyrone glycosides, toralactone-9-ß-gentiobioside, toralactone gentiobioside, and cassiaside. C. obtusifolia L. possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties (e.g., antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties) and may be used to treat Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. In addition, C. obtusifolia L. contributes to histamine release and antiplatelet aggregation. This review summarizes the botanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological features of C. obtusifolia and its therapeutic uses.


Assuntos
Cassia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641500

RESUMO

The discovery of new pharmaceutical identities, particularly anti-infective agents, represents an urgent need due to the increase in immunocompromised patients and the ineffectiveness/toxicity of the drugs currently used. The scientific community has recognized in the last decades the importance of the plant kingdom as a huge source of novel molecules which could act against different type of infections or illness. However, the great diversity of plant species makes it difficult to select them with probabilities of success, adding to the fact that existing information is difficult to find, it is atomized or disordered. Persicaria and Polygonum constitute two of the main representatives of the Polygonaceae family, which have been extensively used in traditional medicine worldwide. Important and structurally diverse bioactive compounds have been isolated from these genera of wild plants; among them, sesquiterpenes and flavonoids should be remarked. In this article, we firstly mention all the species reported with pharmacological use and their geographical distribution. Moreover, a number of tables which summarize an update detailing the type of natural product (extract or isolated compound), applied doses, displayed bioassays and the results obtained for the main bioactivities of these genera cited in the literature during the past 40 years. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anticancer, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-diabetic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, gastroprotective and neuropharmacological activities were explored and reviewed in this work, concluding that both genera could be the source for upcoming molecules to treat different human diseases.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonaceae/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polygonum/química
3.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153770, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syringa microphylla Diels is a plant in the family Syringa Linn. For hundreds of years, its flowers and leaves have been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of cough, inflammation, colds, sore throat, acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, early liver cirrhosis, fatty liver, and oesophageal cancer. PURPOSE: For the first time, we have comprehensively reviewed information on Syringa microphylla Diels that is not included in the Pharmacopoeia, clarified the pharmacological mechanisms of Syringa microphylla Diels and its active ingredients from a molecular biology perspective, compiled in vivo and in vitro animal experimental data and clinical data, and summarized the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of Syringa microphylla Diels. The progress in toxicology research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new drugs from Syringa microphylla Diels, a natural source of compounds that are potentially beneficial to human health. METHODS: The PubMed, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, SciFinder Scholar and Thomson Reuters databases were utilized to conduct a comprehensive search of published literature as of July 2021 to find original literature related to Syringa microphylla Diels and its active ingredients. RESULTS: To date, 72 compounds have been isolated and identified from Syringa microphylla Diels, and oleuropein, verbascoside, isoacteoside, echinacoside, forsythoside B, and eleutheroside B are the main active components. These compounds have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, and their safety and effectiveness have been demonstrated in long-term traditional applications. Molecular pharmacology experiments have indicated that the active ingredients of Syringa microphylla Diels exert their pharmacological effects in various ways, primarily by reducing oxidative stress damage via Nrf2/ARE pathway regulation, regulating inflammatory factors and inducing apoptosis through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive review of Syringa microphylla Diels provides new insights into the correlations among molecular mechanisms, the importance of toxicology and pharmacokinetics, and potential ways to address the limitations of current research. As Syringa microphylla Diels is a natural low-toxicity botanical medicine, it is worthy of development and utilization and is an excellent choice for treating various diseases.


Assuntos
Syringa , Animais , Antioxidantes , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4154381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337009

RESUMO

The present study is aimed at investigating the variation of phenolics (bound and free), minerals, and antioxidant potentials of the wild edible fruits (fresh and dry) native from Far North Region of Cameroon. The results showed significant (p < 0.01) differences among fruits and species for all parameters. Bound phenolic content (mgGAE/100 g) of dry fruits (DF) ranged from 95.58 to 407.72; however, the contents were varied from 28.97 to 306.04 in fresh fruits (FF). Free phenolic content varied from 46.43 to 344.73 in DF and fold from 119.54 to 315.79 for those FF. Flavonoids (4.27-256.87 mg QE/100 g), tannins (3.24-63.42 mg CE/100 g), and anthocyanin content (8.65-168.10 mg C3GE/100 g) in fruits varied also significantly in respect with DF and FF. The mineral content analysis indicates that the wild fruits are rich in valuable macro- and trace elements. For antioxidant activities, except high 2.2-diphenyl-1-picyhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity obtained with free phenolics, the bound phenolics of FF and DF had significantly high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzylthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity. Furthermore, free and bound phenolic content was highly and positively correlated with ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP activities confirmed by the principal component analysis (F1×F2: 60.17%). The present study revealed that the wild edible fruits of twenty-three species investigated are important sources of bioactive compounds, natural antioxidants, and nutraceutical potential to prevent/to treat chronic diseases which could be benefits for the consumers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Camarões , Etnofarmacologia , Geografia , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Taninos/análise
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361790

RESUMO

Cancer occurrence is rapidly increasing all over the world, including in developing countries. The current trend in cancer management requires the use of herbal remedies since the majority of anticancer drugs are known to be costly, with unwanted side effects. In the Eastern Cape province, the use of medicinal plants for cancer management has been climbing steadily over the past two decades due to their cultural belief, low cost, efficacy, and safety claims. With the aim of identifying some potential anticancer plants for probable drug development, this study was undertaken to review plants reported by ethnobotanical surveys in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa for the traditional management of cancer. Information regarding plants used for cancer management in the Eastern Cape province was obtained from multidisciplinary databases and ethnobotanical books. About 24 plant species belonging to twenty families have been reported to be used for the traditional management of cancer in the Eastern Cape province. Among the anticancer plant species, only 16 species have been explored scientifically for their anticancer activities. This review authenticated the use of anticancer plant species in the Eastern Cape province and, therefore, identified several promising unexplored species for further scientific evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Etnobotânica/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112865, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314905

RESUMO

The present article is a systematic and constructive review of the traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and formulation aspects of Glycosmis species. The genus Glycosmis comprise 51 accepted species broadly distributed in Australia, China, India, and South-East Asia. Traditionally, Glycosmis species are used in folk medicines to treat cancer, anaemia, rheumatism, fever, cough, liver-related problems, skin ailments, intestinal worm infections, wounds, and facial inflammation. This review aims to provide readers with the latest information highlighting chemical constituents isolated from the Glycosmis species, plant parts utilized for their isolation and their pharmacological activities. So far, 307 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from different species of the genus Glycosmis; among these constituents, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics, and sulphur-containing amides are the major bioactive compounds. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the crude extracts and compounds isolated from this genus exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, larvicidal, insecticidal, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antiviral, antidiarrheal, and anxiolytic. The carbazole and acridone alkaloids from this genus have shown potential anticancer activity in various in vitro and in vivo studies. Rare scaffolds like dimeric carbazoles, dimeric acridone alkaloids, flavanocoumarins and sulphur-containing amides from this genus need further exploration for their potential bioactivity. This article also briefs about the toxicological screening and discusses various polyherbal and nano formulation aspects of Glycosmis species. Most of the pharmacological studies reported from this genus were carried out in vitro. An in-depth in vivo and toxicology evaluation of the crude extracts and isolated specialized compounds is required to explore the full therapeutic potential of this genus.


Assuntos
Rutaceae , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299082

RESUMO

The Mimosa genus belongs to the Fabaceae family of legumes and consists of about 400 species distributed all over the world. The growth forms of plants belonging to the Mimosa genus range from herbs to trees. Several species of this genus play important roles in folk medicine. In this review, we aimed to present the current knowledge of the ethnogeographical distribution, ethnotraditional uses, nutritional values, pharmaceutical potential, and toxicity of the genus Mimosa to facilitate the exploitation of its therapeutic potential for the treatment of human ailments. The present paper consists of a systematic overview of the scientific literature relating to the genus Mimosa published between 1931 and 2020, which was achieved by consulting various databases (Science Direct, Francis and Taylor, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, Web of Science, SciFinder, Wiley, Springer, Google, The Plant Database). More than 160 research articles were included in this review regarding the Mimosa genus. Mimosa species are nutritionally very important and several species are used as feed for different varieties of chickens. Studies regarding their biological potential have shown that species of the Mimosa genus have promising pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, wound-healing, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, antiepileptic, neuropharmacological, toxicological, antiallergic, antihyperurisemic, larvicidal, antiparasitic, molluscicidal, antimutagenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, antispasmolytic, antiviral, and antivenom activities. The findings regarding the genus Mimosa suggest that this genus could be the future of the medicinal industry for the treatment of various diseases, although in the future more research should be carried out to explore its ethnopharmacological, toxicological, and nutritional attributes.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Mimosa/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3455-3458, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272755

RESUMO

There has been high interest in the use of traditional medicines for COVID-19 from early in the course of the pandemic. Significant advances in the science of ethnopharmacology have helped to introduce chemical entities identified from natural sources into modern medicine. However, the wider integration of natural products into the modern drug discovery process will require enhanced collaboration amongst the pharmaceutical industry, academic research units, regulatory bodies, ethics review committees and local, regional, continental and international organizations. Revisiting this topic holds promise of benefit for both the current and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207006

RESUMO

The Lamiaceae is undoubtedly an important plant family, having a rich history of use that spans the globe with many species being used in folk medicine and modern industries alike. Their ability to produce aromatic volatile oils has made them valuable sources of materials in the cosmetic, culinary, and pharmaceutical industries. A thorough account of the taxonomic diversity, chemistry and ethnobotany is lacking for southern African Lamiaceae, which feature some of the region's most notable medicinal and edible plant species. We provide a comprehensive insight into the Lamiaceae flora of southern Africa, comprising 297 species in 42 genera, 105 of which are endemic to the subcontinent. We further explore the medicinal and traditional uses, where all genera with documented uses are covered for the region. A broad review of the chemistry of southern African Lamiaceae is presented, noting that only 101 species (34%) have been investigated chemically (either their volatile oils or phytochemical characterization of secondary metabolites), thus presenting many and varied opportunities for further studies. The main aim of our study was therefore to present an up-to-date account of the botany, chemistry and traditional uses of the family in southern Africa, and to identify obvious knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Etnobotânica/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química
10.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ethnobotanical expedition was conducted to document the traditional ethnobotanical (TEB) uses of wild flora of Dawarian and Ratti Gali villages of District Neelam, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) Pakistan. District Neelam has rich plant diversity and is hub of many endemic plant species while the study areas are not yet explored. The research area: Dawarian and Rati Gali (DRG) area is mountaineous terrain and villages are located on far and farther distances. DRG area has rich biocultural and plant diversity comprising of different ethnic groups of Kashmir state. The current research was aimed to explore and document traditional medicines (TEMs) and other domestic and commercial uses of wild plants. This study will assist to evaluate conservation and commercial worth of wild flora which can be potential candidate for drug discovery through ethnopharmacological analysis. METHODS: The current quantitative ethnobotanical research was carried out in 2018 by interviewing 150 indigenous informants (90 male and 60 female) of DRG area using questionnaire applying structured and semi structured interview methodology. Data analysis was analyzed by using quantitative ethnobotanical statistical tools such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF), Spearman's rank correlation (SRC) and data matrix ranking (DMR). RESULTS: The indigenous people of DRG area use wild plants in their daily life to cope life necessities i.e. food, vegetables, fodder, fuel, shelter, timber and herbal medicines. TEMs are primarily used to cure different infirmities like diabetics, asthma, dysentery, constipation, cold, fever, joint pain, wound healing, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, epilepsy, kidney infections and many types of skin diseases. Current study revealed the data of 103 wild plants species belonging to 46 plant families from selected areas of District Neelum, AJK. Results depicted that Asteraceae ranked 1st (12 plants spp). Among plant parts used leaf ranked 1st (18%), followed by seed (17%) and root (13%). While prevalent form recipe mode was decoction (20%), followed by powder (17%) and extract (14%) and fodder was highest (37%) EB use-form fodder, followed by food (32%) and fuel (17%). Quantitative ethnobotanical analysis (QEA) was carried to find the reliability and novelty of the study. Five plant species including Berberis lyceum (FL = 97.78%), Isodon rugosus (FL = 95.71%), Saussurea lappa (FL = 94.74%), Aconitum heterophyllum (FL = 92.71%) and Taxus baccata (91.58%) had shown high fidelity level which confirmed that these plants have high medicinal worth in study area. The highest value (0.94) of ICF was for diseases group "tuberculosis and leucorrhea", followed by stomachache and flatulence (0.93), diabetics and blood pressure (0.92) and asthma and chest infections (0.88). For other uses fuel with ICF (0.83) ranked first and second was hedging and thatching (ICF = 0.82) where people use plants or their parts for construction. Spearman's rank correlation (SRC) test indicated that number of TEB uses increases if number of species is increased. Jaccard index (JI) analysis depicted that 56.31% plants are being used as TEMs which are first time explored from the study area. While 26.21% plants are being used in different TEB uses which are different from past cited literature. These novel findings of research indicate that wild flora of the study area has great potential for novel drug discovery and provision of materialist services for the indigenous communities. CONCLUSION: The present research revealed that TEMs uses of 58 plants are novel being first time reported from the study area (DRG) of District Neelam of AJK. The results showed that plants like Acer cappadocicum, Ajuga bracteosa and Swertia paniculata are used to cure diabetes, Viscum album, Viola canescens, Taxus baccata are used for cure of cancer, Isodon rugosus, Polygala chinensis are used in TEMs for treating cardiovascular disorders and Anaphalis triplinervis is used for epilepsy. Berberis lyceum, Ajuga bracteosa, Aconitum heterophyllum, Bistorta amplexicaule, Saussurea lapa and Jurinea dolomiaea are severely threatened and there is urgent need to do conservation measures for available of valuable MPs to the indigenous communities for life necessities and for future research. The current study will also be useful addition in ethnobotanical database, preservation of traditional culture and drug discovery and drug development through future ethnopharmacological research.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Adulto , Gerenciamento de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 5961-5979, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254374

RESUMO

Plant-derived molecules have enduring usefulness in treating diseases, and herbal drugs have emerged as a vital component of global therapeutic demand. Angelica archangelica L. (A. archangelica), commonly known as garden angelica, is an aromatic food plant used in culinary procedures as a flavoring agent. In the traditional medicine system, it is regarded as an "Angel plant" due to its miraculous curative power. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the plant's taxonomic profile, ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. Various in vivo and in vitro experiments have validated that the plant possesses broad pharmacological potential. The biological activities attributed to the plant include anti-anxiety activity, anti-convulsant activity, cognition enhancer, antiviral activity, cholinesterase inhibitory potential, antiinflammatory activity, gastroprotective activity, and radioprotective activity. The beneficial effects of the plant are credited to its bioactive components, that is, coumarins and volatile oils. The review summarizes the pharmacological activities of crude extract and its bioactive fractions and has also explored their target-oriented effects. This review will be of value in undertaking further investigations on the plant with regard to exploring mechanism-based pharmacological approaches on A. archangelica.


Assuntos
Angelica archangelica , Angelica , Etnofarmacologia , Jardins , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
J Nat Med ; 75(4): 762-783, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255289

RESUMO

Traditional herbal medicines, which have been used in the matured traditional medical systems as well as those have been used in ethnic medical systems, are invaluable resources of drug seeds. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey may provide useful information of these herbal medicines, which are valuable for searching new bioactive molecules. From this viewpoint, we have been performing the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological field studies in Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, and Mongolia. Phytochemical studies on traditional herbal medicines were performed based on the information obtained by our ethnobotanical survey. Herbal medicines used in Uzbekistan and Bangladesh were also investigated on the basis of the ethnopharmacological information obtained from collaborative researchers in the respective regions. Some studies were carried out for searching active substance(s) based on bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Over 150 new molecules were isolated in these studies, and their various biological activities were also demonstrated. This review summarizes the results of phytochemical studies of those traditional herbal medicines as well as biological activities of the isolated molecules.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , China , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia
13.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201193

RESUMO

Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the first time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phyto metabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ásia , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205154

RESUMO

The genus Curculigo, as a folk herbal medicine, has been used for many years in China, treating impotence, limb limpness, and arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints. The last systematic review of the genus Curculigo was written in 2013, scientifically categorizing the phytochemistry and biological activities. Hitherto, the original compounds and their pharmacological activities were presented as the development of this genus, but there is not an updated review. To conclude the progression of the genus Curculigo, we collected the new literature published from 2013 to 2021 in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar databases, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The novel chlorophenolic glucosides, curculigine, phenolic glycosides, orcinosides and polysaccharides were isolated from Curculigo. The new analyzing methods were established to control the quality of Curculigo as a herbal medicine. In addition, the pharmacological effects of Curculigo focused on anti-diabetes, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, osteoporosis, antioxidation, etc. The antitumor and neuroprotective activities were newly explored in recent years. The application of herbal medicine was gradually developed in scientific methods. The medicinal value of the genus Curculigo needs to further investigate its pharmacological mechanisms. This new review offers more insights into the exploitation of the pharmacological value of the genus Curculigo.


Assuntos
Curculigo/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Etnofarmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209371

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum species (Syn. Fagara species) of the Rutaceae family are widely used in many countries as food and in trado-medicinal practice due to their wide geographical distribution and medicinal properties. Peer reviewed journal articles and ethnobotanical records that reported the traditional knowledge, phytoconstituents, biological activities and toxicological profiles of Z. species with a focus on metabolic and neuronal health were reviewed. It was observed that many of the plant species are used as food ingredients and in treating inflammation, pain, hypertension and brain diseases. Over 500 compounds have been isolated from Z. species, and the biological activities of both the plant extracts and their phytoconstituents, including their mechanisms of action, are discussed. The phytochemicals responsible for the biological activities of some of the species are yet to be identified. Similarly, biological activities of some isolated compounds remain unknown. Taken together, the Z. species extracts and compounds possess promising biological activities and should be further explored as potential sources of new nutraceuticals and drugs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Zanthoxylum/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Zanthoxylum/classificação
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066562

RESUMO

The Stevia genus (Asteraceae) comprises around 230 species, distributed from the southern United States to the South American Andean region. Stevia rebaudiana, a Paraguayan herb that produces an intensely sweet diterpene glycoside called stevioside, is the most relevant member of this genus. Apart from S. rebaudiana, many other species belonging to the Stevia genus are considered medicinal and have been popularly used to treat different ailments. The members from this genus produce sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, longipinanes, and flavonoids as the main types of phytochemicals. Many pharmacological activities have been described for Stevia extracts and isolated compounds, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities being the most frequently mentioned. This review aims to present an update of the Stevia genus covering ethnobotanical aspects and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of the extracts and isolated compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Glucosídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Stevia/química , Edulcorantes/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
17.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 5103-5124, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957012

RESUMO

Natural products and their derivatives are known to be useful for treating numerous diseases since ancient times. Because of their high therapeutic potentials, the use of different medicinal plants is possible to treat varied inflammation-mediated chronic diseases. Among natural products, phytosteroids have emerged as promising compounds mostly because they have diverse pharmacological activities. Currently, available medications exert numerous systemic toxicities, including hypertension, immune suppression, osteoporosis, and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, further research on phytosteroids to subside these complications is of significant importance. In this study, the information on phytosteroids, their types, and actions against inflammation, and allergic complications was collected by a systematic survey of literature on several scientific search engines. The literature review suggested that phytosteroids exhibit antiinflammatory action via different modes through transrepression or selective COX-2 enzymes. Also, in silico ADMET analysis was carried out on available phytosteroids to uncover their pharmacokinetic properties. Our analysis has shown that eight compounds: withaferin A, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, guggulsterone, diosgenin, sarsasapogenin, physalin A, and dioscin, -isolated from medicinal plants show similar pharmacokinetic properties as compared to dexamethasone, commercially available glucocorticoid. These phytosteroids could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, systematic research is required to explore potent phytosteroids with lesser side effects, which might substitute the current medications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Produtos Biológicos , Fitosteróis , Plantas Medicinais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
18.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 4632-4659, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987899

RESUMO

Prized medicinal spice true nutmeg is obtained from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Rest species of the family Myristicaceae are known as wild nutmegs. Nutmegs and wild nutmegs are a rich reservoir of bioactive molecules and used in traditional medicines of Europe, Asia, Africa, America against madness, convulsion, cancer, skin infection, malaria, diarrhea, rheumatism, asthma, cough, cold, as stimulant, tonics, and psychotomimetic agents. Nutmegs are cultivated around the tropics for high-value commercial spice, used in global cuisine. A thorough literature survey of peer-reviewed publications, scientific online databases, authentic webpages, and regulatory guidelines found major phytochemicals namely, terpenes, fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, alkanes, lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, and indole alkaloids. Scientific names, synonyms were verified with www.theplantlist.org. Pharmacological evaluation of extracts and isolated biomarkers showed cholinesterase inhibitory, anxiolytic, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal activities, and toxicity through in-vitro, in-vivo studies. Human clinical trials were very few. Most of the pharmacological studies were not conducted as per current guidelines of natural products to ensure repeatability, safety, and translational use in human therapeutics. Rigorous pharmacological evaluation and randomized double-blind clinical trials are recommended to analyze the efficacy and therapeutic potential of nutmeg and wild nutmegs in anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, autism, schizophrenia, stroke, cancer, and others.


Assuntos
Myristica , Myristicaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Myristica/química , Myristica/toxicidade , Myristicaceae/química , Myristicaceae/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 276: 114166, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940086

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Ribes Linn., which belongs to the Grossulariaceae family, contains 160 species distributed mainly in temperate and cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are 59 species in southwest, northwest and northeast China. Some species of Ribes have been used as traditional and local medicines for the treatment of glaucoma, cardiovascular disease, stomachache, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and other ailments. However, the data provided in recent years have not been collated and compared. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to summarize the current status of ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, clinical applications, and pharmacokinetics of the genus Ribes to better understand the therapeutic potential of the genus Ribes in the future and hope to provide a relatively novel perspective for further clinical application on the genus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature on Ribes was collected through a series of scientific search engines including Elsevier, ACS, Springer, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Wiley, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and books. RESULTS: Ribes species have been used for detoxification, glaucoma, cardiovascular disease, stomachache, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and other ailments. These plants mainly contain phenolic glycosides, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, polysaccharides, etc. Most traditional uses are related to biological activity and have been confirmed by modern research. Pharmacological studies in vitro and in vivo revealed that the extracts and pure compounds possessed significant hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and antiviral activity, eyesight protection and other effects. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical applications described in this article explained that the Ribes species has numerous activities, and these findings will promote further action in the area of mechanism research. However, very few preclinical and clinical studies have focused on the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of crude extracts and pure compounds from the genus Ribes. Moreover, several clinical evidence to support the health benefits of Ribes plants. The development of new medicines based on Ribes species as ingredients may be restricted. The pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety of Ribes species need to be verified by systematic and comprehensive preclinical studies and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Grossulariaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , China , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(5): 321-338, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941338

RESUMO

Cephalotaxus is the only genus of Cephalotaxaceae family, and its natural resources are declining due to habitat fragmentation, excessive exploitation and destruction. In many areas of China, folk herbal doctors traditionally use Cephalotaxus plants to treat innominate swollen poison, many of which are cancer. Not only among Han people, but also among minority ethnic groups, Cephalotaxus is used to treat various diseases, e.g., cough, internal bleeding and cancer in Miao medicine, bruises, rheumatism and pain in Yao medicine, and ascariasis, hookworm disease, scrofula in She medicine, etc. Medicinal values of some Cephalotaxus species and compounds are acknowledged officially. However, there is a lack of comprehensive review summarizing the ethnomedicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus, relevant medicinal phytometabolites and their bioactivities. The research progresses in ethnopharmacology, chemodiversity, and bioactivities of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants are reviewed and commented here. Knowledge gaps are pinpointed and future research directions are suggested. Classic medicinal books, folk medicine books, herbal manuals and ethnomedicinal publications were reviewed for the genus Cephalotaxus (Sanjianshan in Chinese). The relevant data about ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology were collected as comprehensively as possible from online databases including Scopus, NCBI PubMed, Bing Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). "Cephalotaxus", and the respective species name were used as keywords in database search. The obtained articles of the past six decades were collated and analyzed. Four Cephalotaxus species are listed in the official medicinal book in China. They are used as ethnomedicines by many ethnic groups such as Miao, Yao, Dong, She and Han. Inspirations are obtained from traditional applications, and Cephalotaxus phytometabolites are developed into anticancer reagents. Cephalotaxine-type alkaloids, homoerythrina-type alkaloids and homoharringtonine (HHT) are abundant in Cephalotaxus, e.g., C. lanceolata, C. fortunei var. alpina, C. griffithii, and C. hainanensis, etc. New methods of alkaloid analysis and purification are continuously developed and applied. Diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenolics, and other components are also identified and isolated in various Cephalotaxus species. Alkaloids such as HHT, terpenoids and other compounds have anticancer activities against multiple types of human cancer. Cephalotaxus extracts and compounds showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, immunomodulatory activity, antimicrobial activity and nematotoxicity, antihyperglycemic effect, and bone effect, etc. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of Cephalotaxus are increasing. We should continue to collect and sort out folk medicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus and associated organisms, so as to obtain new enlightenment to translate traditional tips into great therapeutic drugs. Transcriptomics, genomics, metabolomics and proteomics studies can contribute massive information for bioactivity and phytochemistry of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants. We should continue to strengthen the application of state-of-the-art technologies in more Cephalotaxus species and for more useful compounds and pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Cephalotaxus , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Cephalotaxus/química , China , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
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