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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115714, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113678

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. is a traditionally used, well-recognized medicinal plant of the family Gentianaceae with significant therapeutic potential. It has been traditionally used to cure various ailments such as fever, vomiting, jaundice, digestive disorders, heart diseases, diabetes, malaria, scorpion bite, and skin diseases. AIM OF REVIEW: The present review emphasized the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, chemical profiling, and structural identification of isolated compounds by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. This review demonstrates the possibility of advanced ethnopharmacological research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature on S. chirayita was obtained from bibliographic databases like Web of Science, PubMed, Science-Direct, American Chemical Society (ACS), Google Scholar, and SciFinder. The compiled review is covered up until March 2022. RESULTS: Approximately, 123 specialized metabolites including xanthones, seco-iridoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids have been isolated and characterized from S. chirayita. The extract and isolated compounds exhibited a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antimalarial, and antibacterial offering scientific evidence for traditional claims of this medicinal plant. In addition, various analytical methods using HPTLC, UPLC, HPLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS have also been documented to determine the phytochemicals of S. chirayita. CONCLUSION: The current article provides information on traditional usage, phytochemistry, chemical profiling, structure elucidation, pharmacological efficacy, toxicity, and future prospects of S. chirayita. This plant has long been traditionally used in a variety of ways by indigenous people. Numerous phytoconstituents and several pharmacological activities have been reported in S. chirayita. However, there are still some scientific gaps such as identification of bioactive compounds, structure-activity relationship and mechanistic action of isolated bioactive compounds, development of effective analytical methods for comprehensive quality control, and safety profiles that need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Plantas Medicinais , Swertia , Xantonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Humanos , Iridoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Terpenos
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115745, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162548

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan is an endemic tree to South America and different parts of it are used by the population for the treatment of various diseases, as well as in indigenous rituals. This species has high pharmacological potential but may present toxic potential due to the presence of psychotropic compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To review published studies with the species A. colubrina regarding ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects, as well as discuss perspectives for new research and protection of this species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed by accessing published articles on databases such as: PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, Taylor and Francis online, Springer Link, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ACS Publications, Chemspider and Google Scholar. The keywords used were: "Anadenanthera colubrina" or "Mimosa colubrina" or "Piptadenia colubrina" or "Piptadenia macrocarpa" or "Piptadenia grata" or "Anadenanthera macrocarpa" and "medicinal plants" or "pharmacological" or "phytochemicals" or "traditional use" or "toxicological" or "ethnobotanical" or "pre-clinical trial" or "clinical". Articles found by database searches and search engines were screened at four stages: (i) title screening, (ii) locality screening, (iii) abstract screening, and (iv) full text. Other articles found through supplementary searches were screened in the full text whenever available. Each article was assessed by three reviewers at the title and abstract screening stages, except for those found in Portuguese databases that were assessed by the native reviewer. RESULTS: This robust tree has been popularly useful for agroeconomic, medicinal and as a hallucinogen in religious rituals. According to the published studies, the main parts of the plant are the bark and seeds that are mostly used for respiratory conditions and as entheogens, respectively. It is a rich traditional herbal medicine with many pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiarrheal, wound healing, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antioxidant, antiaddictive, insecticide and allelopathic that were described in in vitro and in vivo assays, and approximately 56 compounds were identified, suggesting a therapeutic potential for this species. Although most relate to medicinal uses, these are preliminaries and do not show the mechanism of action. The phytochemical assays showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Some of the compounds are anadanthoflavone, which is exclusive to this species, and no pharmacological or toxicological studies have yet demonstrated this compound. Another important compound is bufotenine which was isolated from seeds and is related to hallucinogenic and antiviral activity. The extracts made from leaves, bark, gum, and fruits appear to be safe, according to both in vivo and in vitro toxicology testing, which all shown low toxicity. Due to the presence of bufotenine in the seeds, it can be toxic, however, it was not found in toxicological assays with the seed extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, part of the studies confirms the popular use of A. colubrina, however, more assays with isolated compounds and with the different extracts are necessary to corroborate other uses and the mechanism of action of their pharmacological effects needs to discuss in more detail. Therefore, the present review would be identified the gaps and suggests further studies oriented to validate the popular use. Thus, it must be noted that the use of this species must be controlled in order to minimize the environmental impact, as most of the pharmacological potential was shown with the bark and seeds. Due to its wide use in folk medicine, it is part of the Brazilian medicinal species with priority for conservation.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Colubrina , Fabaceae , Alucinógenos , Inseticidas , Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos , Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antidiarreicos , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Brasil , Bufotenina , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115755, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181985

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The prevalence of kidney disease has increased rapidly in recent years and has emerged as one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Natural products have been suggested as valuable nephroprotective agents due to their multi-target and synergistic effects on modulating important proteins involved in kidney injury. There is a large number of plant species that have been used traditionally for kidney-related conditions in Mesoamerican medicine by different cultural groups that could provide a valuable source of nephroprotective therapeutic candidates and could lead to potential drug discovery. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an overview of the currently known efficacy of plant species used traditionally in Mesoamerica by Mayan groups to treat kidney-related conditions and to analyze the phytochemical, pharmacological, molecular, toxicological, and clinical evidence to contribute to public health efforts and for directing future research. METHODS: Primary sources of plant use reports for traditional kidney-related disorders in Mesoamerica were searched systematically from library catalogs, theses, and scientific databases (PubMed, Google Scholar; and Science Direct), and were filtered according to usage frequency in Mayan groups and plant endemism. The database of traditional plants was further analyzed based on associations with published reports of the phytochemical, pharmacological, molecular, toxicological, and clinical evidence. RESULTS: The most reported kidney-related conditions used traditionally in Mayan medicine involve reducing renal damage (a cultural interpretation that considers an inflammatory or infectious condition), cleaning or purifying the blood and kidney, reducing kidney pain, and eliminating kidney stones. A total of 208 plants used for kidney-related problems by 10 Mayan groups were found, representing 143 native species, where only 42 have reported pharmacological activity against kidney damage, mainly approached by in vitro and in vivo models of chemical- or drug-induced nephrotoxicity, diabetes nephropathy, and renal injury produced by hypertension. Nephroprotective effects are mainly mediated by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory response, fibrosis mechanisms, and apoptosis in the kidney. The most common nephroprotective compounds associated with traditional Mayan medicine were flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenolic acids. The most widely studied traditional plants in terms of pharmacological evidence, bioactive compounds, and mechanisms of action, are Annona muricata L., Carica papaya L., Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Lantana camara L., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Tagetes erecta L., and Zea mays L. Most of the plant species with reported pharmacological activity against kidney damage were considered safe in toxicological studies. CONCLUSION: Available pharmacological reports suggest that several herbs used in traditional Mayan medicine for renal-associated diseases may have nephroprotective effects and consistent pharmacological evidence, nephroprotective compounds, and mechanisms of action in different models of kidney injury. However, more research is required to fully understand the potential of traditional Mayan medicine in drug discovery given the limited ethnobotanical studies and data available for most species with regards to identification on bioactive components, pharmacological mechanisms, and the scarce number of clinical studies.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Medicina Tradicional , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim , Substâncias Protetoras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115778, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202165

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several medicinal plants, including the endemic herb Cirsum ehrenbergii (Asteraceae), have been documented in manuscripts, medical and botanical books written in Mexico since the XVI century until the present. This unique circumstance is a real window in the time that allows to investigate historical and contemporary ethnopharmacological knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the persistence, disappearance, and transformation of ethnomedicinal knowledge of C. ehrenbergii along time. Also, to investigate the chemistry and pharmacology of this species in relation to its historical and present day main ethnomedical applications related to Central Nervous System and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough review was performed of written sources of medicinal plants from XVI and onwards. For the pharmacological studies, the organic extracts were tested in mice models to assess its antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties. The active extracts were studied chemically. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H, 13C NMR, or characterized by GC-MS. RESULTS: Cirsum ehrenbergii was illustrated for the first time (1552) in the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Booklet of Medicinal Plants of the Indians) and named in the Nahuatl native language as huitzquilitl (edible thistle). It was there recommended as nigris sanguinis remedium (remedy for black blood), and for the treatment of illnesses with an inflammatory component. Nigris sanguinis was well known in the European medicine of that time and currently it has been interpreted as "depression". At the present time, peasants and native population in Mexico mainly name C. ehrenbergii in Spanish as cardo Santo (holy thistle). Its original Nahuatl name has been almost forgotten. However, these communities use this species, among other maladies, to heal "nervios" (anxiety and/or depression) and for anti-inflammatory purposes. These ailments and treatments resemble those recorded in the Libellus and in several medicinal plant books along centuries. The ethanol extract of C. ehrenbergii roots showed antidepressant-like activity in mice administered at 300 mg/kg, as indicated by the forced swim test (FST). The glycosylated flavonoid linarin was identified as antidepressant principle and was active at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg in the FST. Regarding to anti-inflammatory activity, the most active was the methylene chloride extract of the aerial parts, which contains taraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol, ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol. CONCLUSIONS: Cirsium ehrenbergii extracts possess antidepressant-like (roots, EtOH) and anti-inflammatory (aerial parts, CH2Cl2) properties, containing active compounds. Our results sustain historical and present day ethnomedical applications of this species documented along five centuries.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Cirsium , Plantas Medicinais , Camundongos , Animais , Centaurea benedicta , México , Medicina Tradicional/história , Etnofarmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115789, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208822

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF) is one of the usual Chinese herbs that has long been used with high therapeutic and condition value. LLF is used for the treatment of dizziness and tinnitus, soreness and weakness of the waist and knees, premature greying of the hair, the darkness of the eyes, internal heat and thirst, bone steam and hot flashes and other symptoms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review reviews botany, traditional uses, processing, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacology, toxicity and pharmacokinetics to better understand its therapeutic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature on LLF was obtained from Google Scholar and Baidu Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WAN FANG DATA and libraries. Some local books, official websites, PhD or MS's dissertations were also included. Phytochemical constituents' structures were drawn by ChemDraw software. RESULTS: So far, Multiple chemical components were isolated and identified from LLF, mainly including terpenoids and flavonoids. Modern studies have shown that LLF extracts and compounds have a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antitumor, liver protection, blood glucose, lipid-lowering, immune regulation, and other aspects. CONCLUSIONS: LLF occupies an important position in the traditional medical system. It is cost-effective and is a significant plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medical use of this plant and its chemical composition, pharmacological activity, quality control, toxicity and pharmacokinetics.


Assuntos
Botânica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ligustrum , Ligustrum/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115819, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228891

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crataegus pinnatifida belongs to the Rosaceae family and extensively distribute in North China, Europe, and North America. Its usage was first described in "Xinxiu Ben Cao." The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge or Crataegus pinnatifida var. major N. E. Br., also known as "Shanzha," is a famous medicine and food homology herb with a long history of medicinal usage in China. C. pinnatifida has the functions for digestive promotion, cardiovascular protection, and lipid reduction. It was traditionally used to treat indigestion, cardiodynia, thoracalgia, hernia, postpartum blood stagnation, and hemafecia. In recent years, C. pinnatifida has attracted worldwide attention as an important medicinal and economical crop due to its multiple and excellent health-promoting effects on cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, endocrine systems, and morbigenous microorganisms of the human body due to its medicinal and nutritional values. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the geographical distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical components, pharmacological actions, clinical settings, and toxicities of C. pinnatifida. Moreover, the connection between the claimed biological activities and the traditional usage, along with the future perspectives for ongoing research on this plant, were also critically summarized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the published literature on C. pinnatifida using a variety of scientific databases, including Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wiley, Springer, Taylor & Francis, ACS Publications, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, The Plant List Database, and other literature sources (Ph.D. and MSc dissertations) from 2012 to 2022. RESULTS: In the last decade, over 250 phytochemical compounds containing lignans, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and their glycosides, as well as other compounds, have been isolated and characterized from different parts, including the fruit, leaves, and seeds of C. pinnatifida. Among these compounds, flavonoids and triterpenoids were major bioactive components of C. pinnatifida. They exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions with low toxicity in vitro and in vivo, such as cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-diabetes, anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-osteoporosis, anti-aging, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotection and other actions. CONCLUSION: A long history of traditional uses and abundant pharmacochemical and pharmacological investigations have demonstrated that C. pinnatifida is an important medicine and food homology herb, which displays outstanding therapeutic potential, especially in the digestive system and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the current studies on the active ingredients or crude extracts of C. pinnatifida and the possible mechanism of action are unclear. More evidence-based scientific studies are required to verify the traditional uses of C. pinnatifida. Furthermore, more efforts must be paid to selecting index components for quality control research and toxicity and safety studies of C. pinnatifida.


Assuntos
Crataegus , Triterpenos , Humanos , Crataegus/química , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115697, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087846

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Borneol (BO) represents a global trade-driven spreading of ethnic medicine traceable to the classical age, and won its name specific to its original habitat "Borneo". BO shows broad spectral pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, inducing resuscitation, and widely applied in the protection and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, used singly or mostly in compound formulae. AIM OF THE STUDY: Three stereoscopic configuration forms of BO, l-borneol (LB), d-borneol (DB), and dl-borneol (synthetic, SB), are formulated in broad spectral application, yet their diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties caused by configurations, and accurate assay and quality assessment are often overlooked. A systematic review and analysis of lumped studies and applications is necessary to clarify the relationship between configuration and its original plant, analysis method, activity and side effect BO in order to guarantee the efficacy and safety during their application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The public databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure were referenced to summarize a comprehensive research and application data of BO published up to date. RESULTS: This review includes following sections: History and current status, Stereochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Quality assessment. In the section of history, the changes of the plant origins of the two isomeric forms of natural BO were described respectively, and the methods for synthetic racemate SB were also included. The section of stereochemistry deals with the stereoscopic structures, physical/chemical property, optical rotation of the three forms of BO, as well as the main related substances like isoborneol, obtained in SB via chemical transformation of camphor and turpentine oil. In the section of Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics of different forms of BO were discussed. BO is usually used as an "adjuvant", by enhancing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and intervene the ADME/T pathways of the other ingredients in the same formulation. In the section of quality assessment, the analytical methods, including chromatography, especially GC, and spectroscopy were addressed on the chiral separation of the coexisting enantiomers. CONCLUSIONS: This overview systematically summarized three forms of BO in terms of history, stereochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and quality assessment, which, hopefully, can provide valuable information and strategy for more reasonable application and development of the globally reputed ethnic medicine borneol with characteristics in stereochemistry.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos , Cânfora , Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Canfanos , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Terebintina
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115695, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108894

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Veronicastrum Heist. ex Fabr. (Plantaginaceae) is a multifunctional plant in China and other parts of the continent. It has traditionally been used in the treatment of ascites, edema, blood stasis, pain relief, chronic nephritis injury, fever, cough, headache, arthritis, dysentery, rheumatism, pleural effusion, liver damage, and other disorders. Although research has confirmed that the genus Veronicastrum contain many active compounds, no review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry or pharmacology has been conducted to date. AIM: This review aims to systematically evaluate the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Veronicastrum, discuss its medicinal potential, modern scientific research, and the relationship between them, and put forward some suggestions to promote further development and utilization of Veronicastrum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological data related to the genus Veronicastrum from 1955 to date was compiled by surveying the ethnomedicinal books and published papers, and searching the online databases including Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Science Direct, Web of Science and World Flora Online. RESULTS: Species of the genus Veronicastrum are widely used in folkloric medicine and some of their uses have been confirmed in modern pharmacological activities. A total of 89 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Veronicastrum, including flavonoids, carbohydrates, iridoids, terpenoids, phytosterols, phenolic acids, and other constituents. Among the compounds isolated, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids are responsible for the biological activities of this genus with significant pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. The extracts and compounds isolated from this genus have been reported to contain a wide range of pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, gastro protective, and antimicrobial activity. CONCLUSION: The genus Veronicastrum is not only a great herbal remedy, but also has numerous bioactive chemicals with potential for new drug discovery. In the literature, phytochemical investigations have been undertaken on five species. Detailed scientific research is still needed to fully understand this genus. Furthermore, its bioactive chemicals' structure-activity connection, in vivo activity, and mechanism of action ought to be investigated further.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fitosteróis , Plantaginaceae , Antioxidantes , Carboidratos , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Iridoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Terpenos
9.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364163

RESUMO

Plants are a promising source of bioactive compounds that can be used to tackle many emerging diseases both infectious and non-infectious. Among different plants, Acacia is a very large genus and exhibits a diverse array of bioactive agents with remarkable pharmacological properties against different diseases. Acacia, a herb found all over the world, contains approximately more than 1200 species of the Fabaceae family. In the present review, we have collected detailed information on biochemical as well as pharmacological properties. The data were retrieved using different databases, such as Elsevier, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Scopus, and an extensive literature survey was carried out. Studies have shown that Acacia possesses several secondary metabolites, including amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, seed oils, cyclitols, fluoroacetate, gums, non-protein amino acids, diterpenes, fatty acids, terpenes, hydrolyzable tannins, and condensed tannins. These compounds exhibit a wide range of pharmaceutical applications such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral, liver protective effects, and so on. Thus, the literature shows the tremendous phytochemical impact of the genus Acacia in medicine. Overall, we recommend that more research should be conducted on the medicinal value and isolation and purification of the effective therapeutic agents from Acacia species for the treatment of various ailments.


Assuntos
Acacia , Medicina Tradicional , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
10.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364351

RESUMO

The archipelagic country of Indonesia is inhabited by 300 ethnic groups, including the indigenous people of Tengger. Based on the reported list of medicinal plants used by the Tengger community, we have reviewed each of them for their phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Out of a total of 41 medicinal plants used by the Tengerrese people, 33 species were studied for their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. More than 554 phytochemicals with diverse molecular structures belonging to different chemical classes including flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and volatiles were identified from these studied 34 medicinal plants. Many of these medicinal plants and their compounds have been tested for various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound healing, headache, antimalarial and hypertension. Five popularly used medicinal plants by the healers were Garcinia mangostana, Apium graveolens, Cayratia clematidea, Drymocallis arguta and Elaeocarpus longifolius. Only A. graviolens were previously studied, with the outcomes supporting the pharmacological claims to treat hypertension. Few unexplored medicinal plants are Physalis lagascae, Piper amplum, Rosa tomentosa and Tagetes tenuifolia, and they present great potential for biodiscovery and drug lead identification.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Indonésia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Etnofarmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fitoterapia
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(11): e202200725, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222471

RESUMO

Artabotrys is a genus of small trees in the family Annonaceae. This genus contained over 100 perennial medicinal plants available in the old world tropics. Artabotrys plants have a lengthy history of use in medicine for malaria, diarrhea, backache, and scrofula treatments, as well as some of which were used as tea-like beverages. About 90 reports were reviewed from inception to now, in which the decoctions of about 9 species were used in traditional folk medicines. With 234 isolated compounds, Artabotrys metabolites can be classified as alkaloids, terpenoids, sterols, flavonoids, polyoxygenated cyclohexenes, fatty acids, acetogenins, etc. Significantly, alkaloidal aporphines were separated and identified as the main isolates. Artabotrys plants are also rich in the essential oils. Especially, A. hexapetalus exerted a great role in perfumery industry. Artabotrys constituents possessed various pharmacological values, such as antioxidative, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and mosquito repellency, but cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities are the most striking features. In conclusion, Artabotrys plant extracts and their metabolites are of great socio-economic importance, thereby more and more phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are expected.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fitoterapia
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9354555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246399

RESUMO

C. camphora is a renowned traditional Unani medicinal herb and belongs to the family Lauraceae. It has therapeutic applications in various ailments and prophylactic properties to prevent flu-like epidemic symptoms and COVID-19. This comprehensive appraisal is to familiarize the reader with the traditional, broad applications of camphor both in Unani and modern medicine and its effects on bioactive molecules. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Research Gate were searched for bioactive molecules, and preclinical/clinical research and including 59 research and review papers up to 2022 were retrieved. Additionally, 21 classical Unani and English herbal pharmacopeia books with ethnomedicinal properties and therapeutic applications were explored. Oxidative stress significantly impacts aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. The polyphenolic bioactive compounds such as linalool, borneol, and nerolidol of C. camphora have antioxidant activity and have the potential to remove free radicals. Its other major bioactive molecules are camphor, cineole, limelol, safrole, limonene, alpha-pinene, and cineole with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anxiolytic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, and many other pharmacological properties have been established in vitro or in vivo preclinical research. Natural bioactive molecules and their mechanisms of action and applications in diseases have been highlighted, with future prospects, gaps, and priorities that need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , COVID-19 , Cinnamomum camphora , Analgésicos , Antibacterianos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cânfora , Etnofarmacologia , Eucaliptol , Hipolipemiantes , Limoneno , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Safrol
13.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296532

RESUMO

Studies have shown that approximately two-thirds of the plant species in the world have some medicinal value. Artocarpus lakoocha is a synonym for Artocarpus lacucha and is a plant that can be found in Indonesia. This medicinal plant has been used to treat many diseases. (1) Objective: This article discusses the scientific investigations carried out on A. lacucha, namely the plant's chemical content, pharmacological activity, and active compounds. (2) Methods: The design of this study was based on an article that was a review of previous research. A search for relevant publications over the past ten years (2012-2022) using data from Pubmed, Proquest, Ebsco, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar resulted in the discovery of 369 articles. (3) Results: Fifty relevant articles investigate A. lacucha's substances and their applications in the health field. The presence of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds has been reported, which is evidence that A. lacucha possesses antidiarrheal, immunostimulant, anticholesterol, and hepatoprotective agents. (4) Conclusions: Mobe (A. lacucha) is a plant native to North Sumatra, Indonesia. This plant is efficacious as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antinociceptive, schistosomicidal, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cytotoxic, antiglycation, and anticholesterol, and can also be used for anti-aging and wound healing. In addition to its various benefits, it turns out that this plant also has many active compounds that are useful to the health sector, especially the pharmaceutical field.


Assuntos
Artocarpus , Artocarpus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Analgésicos , Antibacterianos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia
14.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296606

RESUMO

Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a small tree known for its fruit flavor that is cultivated almost around the globe in tropical areas. Its fruit is amazingly rich in antioxidants, vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fiber. In different parts of the world, this plant holds a special place with respect to fruit and nutritional items. Pharmacological research has shown that this plant has more potential than just a fruit source; it also has beneficial effects against a variety of chronic diseases due to its rich nutritional and phytochemical profile. The primary goal of this document is to provide an updated overview of Psidium guajava L. and its bioactive secondary metabolites, as well as their availability for further study, with a focus on the health benefits and potential industrial applications. There have been several studies conducted on Psidium guajava L. in relation to its use in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its clinical efficacy and applications are still debatable. Therefore, in this review a detailed study with respect to phytochemistry of the plant through modern instruments such as GC and LC-MS has been discussed. The biological activities of secondary metabolites isolated from this plant have been extensively discussed. In order to perform long-term clinical trials to learn more about their effectiveness as drugs and applications for various health benefits, a structure activity relationship has been established. Based on the literature, it is concluded that this plant has a wide variety of biopharmaceutical applications. As a whole, this article calls for long-term clinical trials to obtain a greater understanding of how it can be used to treat different diseases.


Assuntos
Psidium , Psidium/química , Antioxidantes/química , Etnofarmacologia , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234943

RESUMO

Polygonum capitatum, known as "Tou Hua Liao" (Chinese name), is a crucial source of Hmong medicinal plants that has benefited human health for a long time. This folk-medicinal plant is widely distributed in the south-west of China for the treatment of various urologic disorders including urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, and urinary calculus. The purpose of this paper was to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of the traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical applications of this flora. Up until the end of 2022, at least 91 compounds had been reported from P. capitatum, mainly covering the classes of flavonoids, lignanoids, phenols and other components. The compounds and extracts isolated from P. capitatum exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, analgesic, hypothermic, diuretic and other pharmacological effects. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses were also covered. Furthermore, the possible development trends and perspectives for future research on this medicinal plant were also discussed.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Polygonum , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Fenóis , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polygonum/química
16.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234947

RESUMO

In this paper, the confusion of the sources of medicinal materials was briefly expounded, and the differences among the varieties were pointed out. At the same time, the chemical components and pharmacological properties of Elsholtzia ciliata (Thunb.) Hyland (E. ciliata) were reviewed. The structures of 352 compounds that have been identified are listed. These mainly include flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and other chemical components. They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiviral, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antiarrhythmic, antitumor, antiacetylcholinesterase, and immunoregulator activities. At present, there are many researches using essential oil and alcohol extract, and the researches on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and other pharmacological activities are relatively mature. This paper aims to summarize the existing research, update the research progress regarding the phytochemicals and pharmacology of E. ciliate, and to provide convenience for subsequent research.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Lamiaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Analgésicos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Hipoglicemiantes , Lamiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terpenos
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235088

RESUMO

Uncaria gambir Roxb. is a plant from Southeast Asia and is widely used as an alternative medicine with various applications. This plant has been widely used in traditional medicine. This paper aims to provide information on U. gambir, a summary of data on phytochemicals and on medical and nonmedical activities. Phytochemical studies reveal biologically active constituents such as flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Various studies have shown that extracts and compounds obtained from U. gambir have medical uses for their antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-helminthic, anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperuricemic, anti-lipid peroxidation, antihyperlipidemic and other properties. In addition, this extract has other uses, such as adsorbent for dyes and metal ions, as well as corrosion inhibition. Thus, U. gambir, which is commonly used in traditional medicine, is a potential plant for many therapeutic applications and prospects for drug development as well as other applications such as adsorbent and corrosion inhibition.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Uncaria , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Corantes , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas , Uncaria/química
18.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 74(11): 1568-1587, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to review and describe the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological activity of various extracts and compounds isolated from Lansium domesticum Corr. from 1967 to 2022 and to study the opportunities that can be developed in the future in the pharmaceutical and pharmacology fields. The related articles, followed by the classification of L. domesticum Corr. according to ethnobotanical, biological and phytochemical properties, were collected from SciFinder, Google Scholar and PubMed. KEY FINDINGS: More than 80 compounds have been isolated and identified from L. domesticum Corr., including terpenoids and their glycosides. Furthermore, the pharmacological activity of the extracts and pure compounds of L. domesticum Corr. tested in vitro and in vivo were mainly confirmed to include antifeedant, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antibacterial, and radical scavenging activity, antimutagenic, and anticancer. SUMMARY: In conclusion, based on this review, all data on the phytochemical and biological activity of L. domesticum Corr. can be used to support scientists in further research aim to determine the reaction mechanism of the extracts or compounds and need to be further validated using in vivo models together with toxicological analysis to establish their maximum tolerated dose.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Meliaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Meliaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia
19.
Phytomedicine ; 106: 154422, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (PG, balloon flower) has medicinal and culinary value. It consists of a variety of chemical components including triterpenoid saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols, polyethylene glycols, volatile oils and mineral components, which have medicinal and edible value. PURPOSE: The ultimate goal of this review is to summarize the phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, safety and uses of PG in local and traditional medicine. METHODS: A comprehensive search of published literature up to March 2022 was conducted using the PubMed, China Knowledge Network and Web of Science databases to identify original research related to PG, its active ingredients and pharmacological activities. RESULTS: Triterpene saponins are the primary bioactive compounds of PG. To date, 76 triterpene saponin compounds have been isolated and identified from PG. In addition, there are other biological components, such as flavonoids, polyacetylene and phenolic acids. These extracts possess antitussive, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antiobesity, antidepressant, and cardiovascular system activities. The mechanisms of expression of these pharmacological effects include inhibition of the expression of proteins such as MDM and p53, inhibition of the activation of enzymes, such as AKT, the secretion of inflammatory factors, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-1ß, and activation of the AMPK pathway. CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the chemical composition, pharmacological activities, molecular mechanism, toxicity and uses of PG in local and traditional medicine over the last 12 years. PG contains a wide range of chemical components, among which triterpene saponins, especially platycoside D (PD), play a strong role in pharmacological activity, representing a natural phytomedicine with low toxicity that has applications in food, animal feed and cosmetics. Therefore, PG has value for exploitation and is an excellent choice for treating various diseases.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos , Óleos Voláteis , Platycodon , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides , Interleucina-2 , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Platycodon/química , Polímero Poliacetilênico , Polietilenoglicóis , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
20.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080154

RESUMO

Radix Asteris (RA), also known as 'Zi Wan', is the dried root and rhizome of Aster tataricus L. f., which has been used to treat cough and asthma in many countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. This article summarizes the available information on RA in ancient Chinese medicine books and modern research literature: its botanical properties, traditional uses, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, toxicity and quality control. Studies have shown that RA extracts contain terpenes, triterpenoid saponins, organic acids, peptides and flavonoids, and have various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, and anti-depression. RA is considered to be a promising medicinal plant based on its traditional use, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. However, there are few studies on its toxicity and the consistency of its components, which indicates the need for further in-depth studies on the toxicity and quality control of RA and its extracts.


Assuntos
Aster , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
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