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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614836

RESUMO

Human societies exhibit a diversity of social organizations that vary widely in size, structure, and complexity. Today, human sociopolitical complexity ranges from stateless small-scale societies of a few hundred individuals to complex states of millions, most of this diversity evolving only over the last few hundred years. Understanding how sociopolitical complexity evolved over time and space has always been a central focus of the social sciences. Yet despite this long-term interest, a quantitative understanding of how sociopolitical complexity varies across cultures is not well developed. Here we use scaling analysis to examine the statistical structure of a global sample of over a thousand human societies across multiple levels of sociopolitical complexity. First, we show that levels of sociopolitical complexity are self-similar as adjacent levels of jurisdictional hierarchy see a four-fold increase in population size, a two-fold increase in geographic range, and therefore a doubling of population density. Second, we show how this self-similarity leads to the scaling of population size and geographic range. As societies increase in complexity population density is reconfigured in space and quantified by scaling parameters. However, there is considerable overlap in population metrics across all scales suggesting that while more complex societies tend to have larger and denser populations, larger and denser populations are not necessarily more complex.


Assuntos
Modelos Organizacionais , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Civilização , Diversidade Cultural , Etnologia , Governo , Humanos , Liderança , Teoria Social
3.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 81: 101277, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238300

RESUMO

In recent years there have been several attempts to examine Ethnobiology from an evolutionary perspective. I discuss several potential sources of confusion in applying Evolutionary concepts to Ethnobiology. Ethnobiological discussions of evolution have focused more on changes in human populations, or on human impacts upon plants used by humans for a variety of purposes, than on the processes typically emphasized in discussions by biologists studying evolution. There has been little acknowledgment of how the field of biological evolution is changing in the 21st Century. In this article I focus on recent developments in evolutionary thinking that could be effectively integrated into Ethnobiological concepts. These include: 1) The increased importance of individual organisms in understanding both population dynamics and microevolutionary change (i.e. natural selection). This change in focus creates the potential for incorporating understandings from Indigenous people who recognize a different set of dynamics that govern how both plant and animal populations are regulated, leading to new insights into how conservation practices should be enacted; 2) Niche Construction, which is a 21st century concept that argues that organisms shape their own environments and those of other species. This approach creates a new way of looking at how Natural Selection can act upon a wide range of organisms; and finally, 3) Reticulate Evolution, in which different species exchange genetic material as a result of behavioral or physiological interactions with major evolutionary consequences. These concepts relate strongly to fundamental Indigenous conceptions of ecosystem functioning, including the ideas that All Things are Connected and that All Life Forms are Related. I argue that Ethnobiology and Indigenous Knowledge are strongest in dealing with phenomena linked to behavior and ecology, which are fields being neglected by many contemporary molecular approaches to understanding evolution. Attempts to deal with Conservation in a world subject to climate change would be greatly improved by working closely with Indigenous peoples and incorporating concepts from these traditions into practices on a global scale.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Etnologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Plantas
4.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 868-876, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180206

RESUMO

Kasumi-1 has played an important role in an experimental model with t(8;21) translocation, which is a representative example of leukemia cell lines. However, previous studies using Kasumi-1 show discrepancies in the genome profile. The wide use of leukemia cell lines is limited to lines that are well-characterized. The use of additional cell lines extends research to various types of leukemia, and to further explore leukemia pathogenesis, which can be achieved by uncovering the fundamental features of each cell line with accurate data. In this study, ten Kasumi cell lines established in Japan, including five that were previously unknown, have been characterized by SNP microarray and targeted sequencing. SNP genotyping suggested that the genetic ancestry in four of the ten Kasumi cell lines was not classified as Japanese but covered several different east-Asian ethnicities, suggesting that patients in Japan are genetically diverse. TP53 mutations were detected in two cell lines with complex array profiles, indicating chromosomal instability (CIN). A quantitative assessment of tumor genomes at the chromosomal level was newly introduced to reveal total DNA sizes and Scales of Genomic Alterations (SGA) for each cell line. Kasumi-1 and 6 derived from relapsed phases demonstrated high levels of SGA, implying that the level of SGA would reflect on the tumor progression and could serve as an index of CIN. Our results extend the leukemia cellular resources with an additional five cell lines and provide reference genome data with ethnic identities for the ten Kasumi cell lines.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Leucemia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
5.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 31(spe): 249-255, set.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1056230

RESUMO

A Etnopsiquiatria, fundada por Geroges Devereux, surge enquanto possibilidade de refletir o encontro intercultural e seus desdobramentos quanto à compreensão do adoecimento psíquico e à coerência entre terapêuticas e etiologias deste adoecimento. A síntese teórica que levou à criação da disciplina emerge de inflexões baseadas principalmente nos estudos de Freud, Malinowski, Róheim e de contribuições posteriores de Lévi-Strauss e Bastide. Tobie Nathan é responsável pela criação do modelo de intervenção que coloca em prática a aplicação da teoria. Este artigo visa apresentar o histórico dos princípios precursores que levaram Devereux à síntese teórica e à criação da Etnopsiquiatria e expor as considerações da experiência adquirida na aplicação da disciplina pelo modelo proposto por Nathan e multiplicado por outros clínicos. Do postulado da universalidade do psiquismo que se constitui na particularidade da cultura, compreende-se uma relação intrínseca existente entre cultura e psiquismo, em que a cultura utiliza-se dos mesmos elementos, processos e mecanismos de defesa do psiquismo. Adotando o duplo discurso - Psicanálise e Etnologia - a disciplina define-se complementarista. A Etnopsiquiatria surge enquanto possibilidade diante da lacuna que a lógica da psiquiatria ocidental deixou para explicar o adoecimento psíquico e seu modelo de intervenção viabiliza o posicionamento de aprendiz no encontro intercultural.(AU)


The Ethnopsychiatry founded by Geroges Devereux emerged as a possibility to reflectabout the intercultural encounter and its unfolding regarding the understanding of psychological disorders and the coherence between therapeutics and etiologies of this psychopathological states. The theoretical thesis that led to the creation of the discipline arises from inflections based mainly on the studies from Freud's, Malinowski's and Rheheim's theory, along with later contributions by Lévi-Strauss and Bastide. Tobie Nathan is later credited for creating an intervention clinical model and a practice. This article aims to present the history of the precursory principles that led Devereux to the theoretical thesis and the resulting creation of Ethnopsychiatry and also to make considerations about the experience acquired in the application of the model of practice proposed by Nathan and multiplied by other clinicians. From the postulate of the universality of the psychological structure which is particularily constituted by culture, the discipline comprises an intrinsic relation existing between culture and the psychic functioning, in which culture uses the same elements, processes and defense mechanisms as the psyche. Adopting the double discourse method - Psychoanalysis and Ethnology -the discipline defines itself as complementary. Ethnopsychiatry emerges as a possibility to look at the gap that Western psychiatry left to explain psychological disorders, as well as to show how its model of intervention advocates to position the discipline as an apprentice in the intercultural encounter.(AU)


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Cultura , Etnologia
6.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25049, jan.- dez. 2019. Figuras
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048489

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como objetivo clarificar y ordenar el proceso de institucionalización de la Expresión Corporal en España ante la escasez y fragmentación de investigaciones sobre los aspectos históricos que incidieron en las principales situaciones político-educativas y autores que la han configurado. Para ello, en primer lugar se ha realizado un análisis de documentos científicos y legales para profundizar en nuestro objeto de estudio. En segundo lugar, se han utilizado las entrevistas informales realizadas durante una observación etnográfica no participante y 16 entrevistas semiestructuradas. Como conclusión, la Expresión Corporal en España se encuentra condicionada por la situación histórica y por su sistema educativo. Además, se identifican geográficamente la Expresión Corporal del Noreste y la Expresión Corporal del Centro-Suroeste. A su vez, los autores han sido clasificados en dos generaciones que contribuyeron al proceso de creación, institucionalización y consolidación de la disciplina


Este artigo tem como objetivo esclarecer o processo de institucionalização da Expressão Corporal na Espanha perante a escassez e a fragmentação das investigações sobre aspectos históricos que incidam sobre as principais situações políticas educativas e autores que a configuraram. Para isso, em primeiro lugar realizou-se uma análise de documentos científicos e jurídicos que permitem aprofundar o nosso tema de estudo. Em segundo lugar, recorreu-se às entrevistas informais realizadas durante uma observação etnográfica não participante e 16 entrevistas semiestruturadas. Como conclusão, a Expressão Corporal na Espanha encontra- se condicionada pela situação histórica e pelo seu sistema educativo. Além disso, identificam-se geograficamente a Corporação do Noroeste e a Corporação do Centro-Sudoeste. Por seu turno, os autores foram classificados em duas gerações que contribuíram para o processo de criação, institucionalização e consolidação da disciplina


This article explains and organizes the process of institutionalization of Bodily Expression in Spain considering the absence and fragmentation of research on historical aspects that impacted on the main political and educational situations and the authors that shaped it. To that end, scientific and legal documents were examined in order to elaborate on the object of study. Secondly, the study used informal interviews conducted during non-participant ethnographic observation and 16 semi-structured interviews. It found that Bodily Expression in Spain has been influenced by the country's historical context and educational system. Furthermore, it identified a Bodily Expression of the NorthEast and a Body Expression of the Centre and South-West. its authors were classified into two generations that contributed to the process of creation, institutionalization and consolidation of the discipline


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Política Pública , Cinésica , Sociologia , Etnologia
7.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(3): 227-236, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188140

RESUMO

Los estudios que indagan en el funcionamiento psicológico de los inmigrantes ponen de relevancia el impacto negativo de la discriminación sobre el bienestar psicológico. Así también existe consenso respecto de la importancia del trabajo en su ajuste en países receptores; no obstante, escasamente se ha estudiado el efecto de la empleabilidad en su bienestar. Este trabajo indaga en las relaciones entre la discriminación percibida, la empleabilidad y el bienestar psicológico de 100 inmigrantes latinoamericanos asentados en Chile. Se buscó determinar la contribución de la discriminación y la empleabilidad en la explicación del bienestar y establecer la incidencia de la empleabilidad en la relación entre discriminación y bienestar psicológico. La discriminación percibida y la empleabilidad explicaron el 31.5% de la variabilidad del bienestar y la empleabilidad medió la relación entre discriminación y bienestar. Se discute acerca de la empleabilidad como recurso psicosocial en el contexto de la inmigración


Research about immigrants' psychological functioning emphasizes the negative impact of discrimination on psychological well-being. Although there is agreement about the relevance of job access to immigrants' adjustment to host countries, employability's effects on immigrants' well-being have been scarcely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived discrimination, employability, and psychological well-being in a sample of 100 Latin-American immigrants settled in Chile. We aimed to determine the contribution of discrimination and employability on well-being's explanation, and to establish the incidence of employability on the relation between discrimination and well-being. Perceived discrimination and employability explained the 31.5% of well-being's variability, and employability mediated the relation between discrimination and well-being. Employability's role as a psychosocial resource in a migratory context is discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Sociedade Receptora de Migrantes , Estresse Psicológico/classificação , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnologia/métodos , Chile/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , 57354 , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191060

RESUMO

O artigo analisa a participação da zoóloga alemã Emília Snethlage (1868-1929), pesquisadora e depois diretora do Museu Goeldi, em Belém, Brasil, na rede de conhecimento que se estabeleceu no início do século XX na região amazônica, destinada à investigação etnológica e à coleta de artefatos indígenas, e que teve, entre seus mais conhecidos atores, os alemães Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) e Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Ambos são reconhecidos pelo trabalho em prol dos povos indígenas do Brasil e pelo legado científico nos campos da antropologia, arqueologia e linguística. Menos conhecida, Snethlage teve, entretanto, decisiva participação na inserção de Nimuendajú no meio científico. A partir de uma extensa pesquisa em fontes documentais localizadas no Brasil e na Alemanha, demonstra-se que, no primeiro período em que Nimuendajú esteve vinculado ao Museu Goeldi, entre 1913 e 1921, Snethlage viabilizou suas primeiras expedições e publicações científicas, além de articular suas relações com museus e etnólogos alemães, incluindo aquele que viria a ser seu dileto amigo e interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, de maneira a lhe permitir trabalhar também como coletor profissional


The article analyses the participation of the German zoologist Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929), researcher and later director of the Goeldi Museum, in Belém, Brazil, in the network of knowledge that was established in the early 20th century in the Amazonian region, aimed at ethnological research and to the collection of indigenous artifacts, and among its best known actors were Germans Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) and Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Both are recognized for working for the indigenous peoples of Brazil and for the scientific legacy in the fields of anthropology, archaeology and linguistics. Less well-known, Snethlage had, however, decisive participation in the insertion of Nimuendajú in the scientific environment. From an extensive research on documentary sources located in Brazil and Germany, it is shown that in the first period when Nimuendajú was linked to the Goeldi Museum between 1913 and 1921, Snethlage made possible his first expeditions and scientific publications, in addition to articulating his relations with German museums and ethnologists, including the one who would become his beloved friend and interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, in order to allow him to work as a professional collector


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Coleções como Assunto , Etnologia/métodos , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , História do Século XX , Ecossistema Amazônico/história , Brasil , Gestão do Conhecimento , Alemanha
9.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(3): 287-294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515988

RESUMO

Background: It seems that one of the factors affecting the way of nutrition in Poland was the dietary habits of countries that in the late 18th century made partitions, ie. Russia, Prussia and Austria. Therefore, nutrition models in the areas of individual partitions have undergone significant changes. Objective: The aim of the study was to check whether after 85 years after regaining independence there were still differences in the way of feeding indigenous inhabitants of areas previously under Austrian, Prussian and Russian annexation. Material and methods: The data collected during the WOBASZ survey carried out in the years 2003-2005 were used for the analysis. Results: The greatest differences in the way of feeding were found in the area that was previously under the rule of Prussia. The nutrition model was still largely reminiscent of typical German cuisine. There was a large consumption of sausages and spreads, and small vegetables and fruit. Nutrition models in other areas were less characteristic. Conclusions: The way of feeding indigenous people living in areas that were once partitions of Poland is still diverse and similar to the cuisine of the occupying country.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Prússia , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 941-962, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949847

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to illustrate the efficiency of correlation analysis of musical and genetic data for certain common ethnic and ethno-musical roots of mankind. The comparison of the results to archaeogenetic data shows that correlations of recent musical and genetic data may reveal past cultural and migration processes resulting in recent connections. The significance tests verified our hypothesis supposing that propagation of oral musical traditions can be related to early human migration processes is well-founded, because the multidimensional point system determined by the inverse rank vectors of correlating Hg-UCT pairs has a very clear structure. We found that associations of Hgs jointly propagating with associations of UCTs (Unified Contour Type) can be identified as significant complex components in both modern and ancient populations, thus, modern populations can be considered as admixtures of these ancient Hg associations. It also seems obvious to conclude that these ancient Hg associations strewed their musical "parent languages" during their migrations, and the correlating UCTs of these musical parent languages may also be basic components of the recent folk music cultures. Thus, we can draw a hypothetical picture of the main characteristics of ancient musical cultures. Modern and prehistoric populations belonging to a common Hg-UCT association are located to very similar geographical areas, consequently, recent folk music cultures are basically determined by prehistoric migrations. Our study could be considered as an initial step in analysis of the correlations of prehistoric and recent musical and genetic characteristics of human evolution history.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Etnologia , Genética Populacional/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Cultura , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Migração Humana , Humanos , Música , Filogenia
12.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(73): 119-136, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183157

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en desvelar en dos contextos europeos en qué medida se incorporan rasgos etnomotores del deporte en los juegos de los siglos XVI y XVII. Se aplican los fundamentos de praxiología motriz y se realiza un estudio comparado de 117 juegos recogidos en la obra de Brueghel (Bélgica, 1560) y Rodrigo Caro (España, 1626). Se analizan cuatro dimensiones etnomotrices de la lógica interna (13 categorías) y la lógica externa o institucional (8 categorías) del deporte moderno: codificación (presencia o ausencia de reglas); enfrentamiento motor (tipo de interacción motriz); contabilidad (existencia o ausencia de marcador final); materialidad (acondicionamiento del terreno y objetos de juego). Los resultados muestran un patrón de cambio hacia rasgos etnomotores del deporte moderno, con mayor presencia de: exhaustividad de reglas (codificación); duelos simétricos sin agresividad corporal (control del enfrentamiento motor); marcador final (contabilidad); uso de zonas y objetos específicos (materialidad)


The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which the ethnomotor features of sport were incorporated into games of the 16th and 17th centuries within two European contexts. Motor praxeology concepts were applied and a comparative study of 117 games contained in the works of Bruegel (Belgium, 1560) and Rodrigo Caro (Spain, 1626) was conducted. Four ethnomotor dimensions of the internal logic (13 categories) and the external or institutional logic (8 categories) of modern sport were analysed: codification (presence or absence of rules); motor confrontation (type of motor interaction); counting (presence or absence of a final score); and materiality (preparation of playing field and equipment). The results show a pattern of change towards the ethnomotor features of modern sport, with a higher presence of: comprehensive rules (codification); symmetrical matches without bodily aggression (control of motor confrontation); final score (counting); and use of specific areas and objects (materiality)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Esportes/história , Etnologia
13.
Sante Publique ; 30(1 Suppl): 145-156, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health literacy refers to the competences and resources required by individuals to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. This paper describes and analyses the health literacy profiles of type 2 diabetic patients included in a 2-year long self-management education programme. METHODS: Nested in the ERMIES randomized controlled trial conducted in Reunion island, the ERMIES Ethnosocio study explored health literacy by means of two complementary approaches: description of health literacy profiles via the French version of the multidimensional "Health Literacy Questionnaire", and a socio-anthropological perspective based on 40 semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 and then in 2015. RESULTS: The results highlight the existence of 8 constitutive variables in the management of type 2 diabetes in an ordinary context: diet, physical activity, treatment and monitoring of disease (disease management), access to knowledge and skills (health knowledge), relationships with health professionals and social support (expertise, support and social network). They also emphasize the differentiated relationships of individuals to each of these variables, ranging from functional to interactive or critical "levels". DISCUSSION: Considering the development of health literacy with patients and health professionals, and by questioning educational and therapeutic interventions as differentiating processes, this research opens up new perspectives for the approach to social inequalities in health. The combination of social sciences, medical sciences and public health is proving fruitful and potentially operative, provided that the definitions, methods, and strengths and limitations of selected prospects are clearly defined.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Letramento em Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado , Autorrelato , Fatores Sociológicos
14.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 14(1): 71, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accessing folk knowledge from small-scale fishers is an affordable and reliable approach to understand the dynamic and diversity of shark species worldwide, especially of those eventually caught. In this context, ethnotaxonomy (folk identification and classification) may represent an alternative to support sharks fisheries management, especially in data-poor places. This study aimed to investigate fishing and ethnotaxonomy of the main shark species caught by small-scale fisheries from the coastal waters of the Brazilian Northeast. METHODS: Semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with fishers targeting general aspects of fishing activities and specific topics regarding ethnotaxonomy, capture, and commercialization of sharks. For species identification, an ethnobiological systematic perspective was used to analyze the folk nomenclature and classification criteria. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to verify associations between species caught, fishing gear, and harvest period. RESULTS: Fishers mentioned 73 binomial names, 21 main folk species, and eight synonymies. Some species belonging to the same scientific genus are often named and grouped by the same folk name, with no distinction between species by fishers. Sharks are most landed as bycatch and correspond to less than 5% of the total commercial fisheries in the communities, with socioeconomic value for subsistence consumption and local commercialization. Sharks were said to be mainly caught with hand line and surface long line during the rainy season, while gillnet captures were associated to the dry season. At least three of the species most mentioned by fishers are currently classified as vulnerable and endangered worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Even though landed sharks account for a small proportion of the fishing catches, their biological and life history features place sharks among the most vulnerable organisms globally. Such an ethnobiological approach towards shark identification may contribute to generate basic information on species caught, their frequency in the landings, and how different species belonging to the same genus can be landed and sold together. This type of information can generate subsidies to the development of conservation and management plans for these fishing resources, where knowledge is scarce.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnologia , Pesqueiros , Tubarões/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Classificação/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Conhecimento , Clima Tropical
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 211: 198-206, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960171

RESUMO

A common characteristic of patients seen at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is a high number of concurrent comorbidities (i.e. multimorbidity). This study (i) examines the magnitude and patterns of multimorbidity by race/ethnicity and geography; (ii) compares the level of variation explained by these factors in three multimorbidity measures across three large cohorts. We created three national cohorts for Veterans with chronic kidney disease (CKD:n = 2,190,564), traumatic brain injury (TBI:n = 167,954) and diabetes-mellitus (DM:n = 1,263,906). Multimorbidity was measured by Charlson-Deyo, Elixhauser and Walraven-Elixhauser scores. Multimorbidity differences by race/ethnicity and geography were compared using generalized linear models (GLM). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of conditions that are highly associated with race/ethnic groups. Differences in age (CKD,74.5, TBI,49.7, DM, 66.9 years), race (CKD,80.9%, TBI,76.4%, DM, 63.8% NHW) and geography (CKD,64.4%, TBI,70%, DM, 70.9% urban) were observed among the three cohorts. Accounting for these differences, GLM results showed that risk of multimorbidity in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) with CKD were 1.16 times higher in urban areas and 1.10 times higher in rural areas compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHW) with CKD. DM and TBI showed similar results with risk for NHB, 1.05 higher in urban areas and 0.97 lower in rural areas for both diseases. Overall, our results show that (i) multimorbidity risk was higher for NHB in urban areas compared to rural areas in all three cohorts; (ii) multimorbidity risk was higher for Hispanics in urban areas compared to rural areas in the DM and CKD cohorts; and (iii) the highest overall multimorbidity risk of any race group or location exists for Hispanics in insular islands for all three disease cohorts. These findings are consistent among the three multimorbidity measures. In fact, our LCA also showed that a three class LC model based on Elixhauser or Charlson provides good discrimination by type and extent of multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Geográfico , Multimorbidade/tendências , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Etnologia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 25(2): 541-552, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898134

RESUMO

This paper explores the methods used by Julio Tello to address the antiquity of syphilis in ancient Peru, examining his thesis La antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú to understand the logic behind the procedures he used to test his hypothesis. The contention presented here is that despite being a medical thesis, his text can actually be considered an exploration of the origins of syphilis using a truly anthropological method, making Tello a pioneer in the subfield of medical anthropology in the Andes.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica/história , Sífilis/história , Arqueologia/história , Etnologia/história , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Peru
17.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(2): 541-552, abr.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-953878

RESUMO

Abstract This paper explores the methods used by Julio Tello to address the antiquity of syphilis in ancient Peru, examining his thesis La antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú to understand the logic behind the procedures he used to test his hypothesis. The contention presented here is that despite being a medical thesis, his text can actually be considered an exploration of the origins of syphilis using a truly anthropological method, making Tello a pioneer in the subfield of medical anthropology in the Andes.


Resumen Este artículo analiza el método utilizado por Julio Tello en la investigación de la antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú, examinando su tesis La antigüedad de la sífilis en el antiguo Perú, con la finalidad de comprender la lógica detrás de los procedimientos utilizados para evaluar su hipótesis. A pesar de ser una tesis en medicina, el trabajo de Tello puede ser considerado como un trabajo en el cual se utiliza el método antropológico en la evaluación del origen de la sífilis, convirtiéndose Tello en un pionero en el campo de la antropología médica en los Andes.


Assuntos
Humanos , História Antiga , História Medieval , História do Século XX , Sífilis/história , Antropologia Médica/história , Peru , Arqueologia/história , Etnologia/história
18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 13(1): 52, 2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the present difficulties in the conservation of sardines in the North Atlantic, it is important to investigate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen about the biology and ecology of these fish. The ethnoecological data of European pilchard provided by local fishermen can be of importance for the management and conservation of this fishery resource. Thus, the present study recorded the ethnoecological knowledge of S. pilchardus in the traditional fishing community of Peniche, Portugal. METHODS: This study was based on 87 semi-structured interviews conducted randomly from June to September 2016 in Peniche. The interview script contained two main points: Profile of fishermen and LEK on European pilchard. The ethnoecological data of sardines were compared with the scientific literature following an emic-etic approach. Data collected also were also analysed following the union model of the different individual competences and carefully explored to guarantee the objectivity of the study. RESULTS: The profile of the fishermen was investigated and measured. Respondents provided detailed informal data on the taxonomy, habitat, behaviour, migration, development, spawning and fat accumulation season of sardines that showed agreements with the biological data already published on the species. The main uses of sardines by fishermen, as well as beliefs and food taboos have also been mentioned by the local community. CONCLUSIONS: The generated ethnoecological data can be used to improve the management of this fishery resource through an adaptive framework among the actors involved, in addition to providing data that can be tested in further ecological studies. Therefore, this local knowledge may have the capacity to contribute to more effective conservation actions for sardines in Portugal.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Etnologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Portugal
20.
J Health Organ Manag ; 31(1): 82-95, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260413

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to use theories of institutional logics and institutional entrepreneurship to examine how and why macro-, meso-, and micro-level influences inter-relate in the implementation of integrated transitional care out of hospital in the English National Health Service. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an ethnographic case study of a hospital and surrounding services within a large urban centre in England. Specific methods included qualitative interviews with patients/caregivers, health/social care providers, and organizational leaders; observations of hospital transition planning meetings, community "hub" meetings, and other instances of transition planning; reviews of patient records; and analysis of key policy documents. Analysis was iterative and informed by theory on institutional logics and institutional entrepreneurship. Findings Organizational leaders at the meso-level of health and social care promoted a partnership logic of integrated care in response to conflicting institutional ideas found within a key macro-level policy enacted in 2003 (The Community Care (Delayed Discharges) Act). Through institutional entrepreneurship at the micro-level, the partnership logic became manifest in the form of relationship work among health and social care providers; they sought to build strong interpersonal relationships to enact more integrated transitional care. Originality/value This study has three key implications. First, efforts to promote integrated care should strategically include institutional entrepreneurs at the organizational and clinical levels. Second, integrated care initiatives should emphasize relationship-building among health and social care providers. Finally, theoretical development on institutional logics should further examine the role of interpersonal relationships in facilitating the "spread" of logics between macro-, meso-, and micro-level influences on inter-organizational change.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Inglaterra , Etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Política Organizacional , Alta do Paciente
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