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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250931, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360206

RESUMO

The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), an insect pest originating in Australia and which feeds only on Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) plants, has spread to several countries. The populations of this insect commonly reach high populations on Eucalyptus plants since its entry into Brazil, and also indicated an unrecorded behavioral. The objectives of this study were to describe a peculiar adaptation in the feeding habit of G. brimblecombei and to register the new habit. The oviposition and feeding by G. brimblecombei, commonly, on the leaves of Eucalyptus, started to occur, also, on lignified twigs. This suggests a not yet recorded adaptation of this insect to reduce insect × plant intraspecific competition.


O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), um inseto praga originário da Austrália e que se alimenta apenas de plantas de Eucalyptus L'Hér. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), se espalhou por vários países. Esse inseto, geralmente, atinge grandes populações em plantas de Eucalyptus desde sua entrada no Brasil e, também, indicou um comportamento diferente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever uma adaptação peculiar no hábito alimentar de G. brimblecombei e registrar o novo hábito. A oviposição e alimentação por G. brimblecombei, geralmente, nas folhas de Eucalyptus, passaram a ocorrer, também, em ramos lignificados. Isso sugere uma adaptação diferente desse inseto para reduzir a competição intraespecífica inseto × planta.


Assuntos
Animais , Oviposição , Comportamento , Eucalyptus/parasitologia , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0265134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048873

RESUMO

Chloroplast metabolism is very sensitive to environmental fluctuations and is intimately related to plant leaf development. Characterization of the chloroplast proteome dynamics can contribute to a better understanding on plant adaptation to different climate scenarios and leaf development processes. Herein, we carried out a discovery-driven analysis of the Eucalyptus grandis chloroplast proteome during leaf maturation and throughout different seasons of the year. The chloroplast proteome from young leaves differed the most from all assessed samples. Most upregulated proteins identified in mature and young leaves were those related to catabolic-redox signaling and biogenesis processes, respectively. Seasonal dynamics revealed unique proteome features in the fall and spring periods. The most abundant chloroplast protein in humid (wet) seasons (spring and summer) was a small subunit of RuBisCO, while in the dry periods (fall and winter) the proteins that showed the most pronounced accumulation were associated with photo-oxidative damage, Calvin cycle, shikimate pathway, and detoxification. Our investigation of the chloroplast proteome dynamics during leaf development revealed significant alterations in relation to the maturation event. Our findings also suggest that transition seasons induced the most pronounced chloroplast proteome changes over the year. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding on the subcellular mechanisms that lead to plant leaf adaptation and ultimately gives more insights into Eucalyptus grandis phenology.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119946, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087994

RESUMO

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is an emerging cellulosic material that has shown enormous potential in various industrial sectors such as food packaging, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, filler for cement and paper, and others. Yet, there is still the need to improve its processing in order to reach its full potential. Despite research efforts for the production of MFC, the production volumes remain low because the costs of these products are hardly competitive with synthetic polymers. The present study investigates the conversion of bleached Kraft pulp into MFC using three different oxidative treatments: (1) oxidation with sodium periodate followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to enrich the pulp with carboxyl groups; (2) activation of hydrogen peroxide with copper to produce hydroxyl radicals; and (3) use of hydrogen peroxide alone in alkaline medium. Treatments (1) and (2) allowed producing interesting MFC with reduced energy consumption.


Assuntos
Celulose , Eucalyptus , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 955042, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034714

RESUMO

Herbal extracts are promising agents against various parasitic diseases, such as malaria. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative action of Eucalyptus camaldulensis extract (ECE) against hepatic damage caused by Plasmodium chabaudi infection. Mice were allocated into five groups as follows: two groups served as the control non-infected groups that received distilled water and ECE, respectively; subsequent three groups were infected with 106 P. chabaudi parasitized erythrocytes; the last two groups were infected with the parasite and then treated with ECE and chloroquine. On day 8 post-infection, the parasite count increased inside erythrocytes (59.4% parasitemia in the infected group). Parasitemia was successfully reduced to 9.4% upon ECE treatment. Phytochemical screening using GC mass spectrometry revealed that ECE contained 23 phytochemical components. Total phenolics and flavonoids in ECE were 104 ± 2 and 7.1± 3 µg/mL, respectively, with 57.2% antioxidant activity. ECE ameliorated changes in liver histopathology and enzymatic activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, ECE prevented oxidative damage induced by the parasite in the liver, as evidenced by the change in the liver concentrations of glutathione, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and catalase. Moreover, ECE was able to regulate the expression of liver cytokines, interleukins-1ß and 6, as well as IFN-γ mRNA. ECE possesses antiplasmodial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity against liver injury induced by the parasite P. chabaudi.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Malária , Animais , Antioxidantes , Fígado , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Parasitemia , Extratos Vegetais
5.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014359

RESUMO

Eucalyptus globulus is a plant widely used by the world population, including Morocco, in the treatment of several pathologies. The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, dermatoprotective, and antimicrobial effects of essential oil and honey from E. globulus, as well as their combination. Chemical composition was determined by GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three tests, namely, DPPH, reducing power, and the ß-carotene/linoleic acid assay. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in vitro (5-lipoxygenase inhibition) and in vivo (carrageenan-induced paw edema model), while the dermatoprotective activity was tested in vitro (tyrosinase inhibition). Moreover, the antibacterial activity was assessed using agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. The results showed that eucalyptol presents the main compound of the essential oil of E. globulus (90.14%). The mixture of essential oil with honey showed the best antioxidant effects for all the tests used (0.07 < IC50 < 0.19 mg/mL), while the essential oil was the most active against tyrosinase (IC50 = 38.21 ± 0.13 µg/mL) and 5-lipoxygenase (IC50 = 0.88 ± 0.01 µg/mL), which corroborated the in vivo test. Additionally, the essential oil showed the best bactericidal effects against all strains tested, with inhibition diameter values ranging from 12.8 to 21.6 mm. The findings of this work showed that the combination of the essential oil with honey showed important results in terms of biological activity, but the determination of the underlying mechanisms of action remains a major prospect to be determined.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eucalyptus , Mel , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase , Eucalyptus/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 12(9)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920792

RESUMO

Genetic groups have been widely adopted in tree breeding to account for provenance effects within pedigree-derived relationship matrices. However, provenances or genetic groups have not yet been incorporated into single-step genomic BLUP ("HBLUP") analyses of tree populations. To quantify the impact of accounting for population structure in Eucalyptus globulus, we used HBLUP to compare breeding value predictions from models excluding base population effects and models including either fixed genetic groups or the marker-derived proxies, also known as metafounders. Full-sib families from 2 separate breeding populations were evaluated across 13 sites in the "Green Triangle" region of Australia. Gamma matrices (Γ) describing similarities among metafounders reflected the geographic distribution of populations and the origins of 2 land races were identified. Diagonal elements of Γ provided population diversity or allelic covariation estimates between 0.24 and 0.56. Genetic group solutions were strongly correlated with metafounder solutions across models and metafounder effects influenced the genetic solutions of base population parents. The accuracy, stability, dispersion, and bias of model solutions were compared using the linear regression method. Addition of genomic information increased accuracy from 0.41 to 0.47 and stability from 0.68 to 0.71, while increasing bias slightly. Dispersion was within 0.10 of the ideal value (1.0) for all models. Although inclusion of metafounders did not strongly affect accuracy or stability and had mixed effects on bias, we nevertheless recommend the incorporation of metafounders in prediction models to represent the hierarchical genetic population structure of recently domesticated populations.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Eucalyptus/genética , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 68(4): 144-157, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988266

RESUMO

For the purpose of evaluating the local heritage of eastern Numidia, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted on a population located in the province (department) of El-Tarf (North-East of Algeria) on a frequency of use of two plants known in traditional health; Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). After processing data, our results show a female dominance when using these plants on a fairly advanced age group (40 to 60 years old). These plants are used by the people at their fresh state and deem the leaf as the most used part for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Furthermore, steam baths and infusion remain the most widespread preparation methods. Most consumers use these plants to treat influenza, respiratory illnesses as well as diseases of the digestive tract. GC-MS of essential oils extracted from the plants studied disclose a dominance of the alcohols portrayed by the monoterpenes (42.73%), sesquiterpenes (32.6%) and oxides (10.48%) in E. globulus. Data also indicate a high content of oxides (38.11%) monoterpene alcohols (20.43%) and monoterpenes (19.70%) in R.officinalis. Toxicological contact tests were achieved on a store-products pest Ephestia kuehniella. The test results were assessed with E.globulus (LC50=0.013; LC95=0.081 µl/cm2) and R.officinalis (LC50=0.011; LC95=0.059 µl/cm2). The lethal time changes according to the dose used and the tested plant. In E.globulus, we observe (concentration: 0.005 µl/cm2; LT50=56.2 h), (Concentration: 0.01 µl/cm2; LT50=49.53h) and (Concentration: 0.04µl/cm2; LT50=20.93h). Whereas in R.officinalis, we recorded (Concentration: 0.005 µl/cm2; LT50=55.7h), (Concentration: 0.01µl/cm2; LT50=54.99 h) and (Concentration: 0.04µl/cm2; LT50=29.13 h). The bioinsecticide has also been administered by fumigation and underpins toxicity by the reduction of adults longevity in E.kuehniella with R.officinalis (LC50=4.03 µl/l air; LC95=14.73 µl/l air) and E.globulus (LC50=7.76 µl/lair; LC95=21.23 µl/l air). In addition, the tested plants show an outstanding repellent effect as long as E.globulus and  R.officinalis essential oils respectively demonstrate a slightly repellent power at 42.22% (RD50=0.09 µl/cm2 ; RD95=0.24 µl/cm2) and repellent at 60.00% (RD50=0.06 µl/cm2 ; RD95= 0.35 µl/cm2) towards E.kuehniella adults. The plant resources represent a genuine reserve of bioactive molecules, which can create solutions to sustainable development issues. These plants might be the source of new molecules of combat against some pests in order to protect human health and safeguard the environment.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Inseticidas , Mariposas , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus , Adulto , Álcoois , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoterpenos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óxidos , Óleos Vegetais
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 221, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The leaf of Eucalyptus globulus is commonly used in the traditional management of malaria. However, the efficacy of solvent fractions are didn't study yet scientifically. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the antimalarial efficacy of the solvent fractions of the leaf of Eucalyptus globulus in mice against P.berghei. METHODS: The antimalarial activity of the fractions was tested in a 4-day suppressive test, Rane's test, and prophylactic test models within P.berghei infected mice. The results were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Tukey's test in version 20 SPSS. RESULTS: All fractions at all test doses in the three test models suppressed parasitemia (p < 0.001) compared to the negative controls. In addition, the CF and EA at all three test doses and the AF at 400 mg/kg in three antimalarial test models showed 50% and above parasitemia suppression. In compliance with this, all fractions at all test doses in all test models prolonged the mean survival time of the mice greater than 12 days, except the AF at a lower dose. All fractions at 400 mg/kg in the three test models prevented (p < 0.001) loss of body weight and rectal temperature compared to the negative controls. Furthermore, all fractions in all test models and doses prevented packed cell volume reduction (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) compared to the negative controls.. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that CF and EAF had greater antimalarial activity compared to AF. This could be attributed to the presence of few phytochemicals in the AF in contrast to the CF and EAF. Overall, the results of this study further support the in vitro antimalarial activity study and the traditional use of the leaf in the management of malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Eucalyptus , Malária , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta , Plasmodium berghei , Solventes/uso terapêutico
9.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119803, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870531

RESUMO

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a recognised disruptor of biological function and ecological communities. Despite increasing research effort, we know little regarding the effect of ALAN on woody plants, including trees, or its indirect effects on their colonising invertebrates. These effects have the potential to disrupt woodland food webs by decreasing the productivity of invertebrates and their secretions, including honeydew and lerps, with cascading effects on other fauna. Here, we cultivated juvenile river red gums (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for 40 weeks under experimentally manipulated light (ALAN) or naturally dark (control) conditions. To assess direct impacts on tree growth, we took multiple measures of growth at four time periods, and also measured physiological function, biomass and investment in semi-mature trees. To assess experimentally the direct and indirect (tree-mediated) impacts of ALAN on invertebrates, from 19 weeks onwards, we matched and mismatched trees with their original ALAN environments. We colonised trees with a common herbivore of E. camaldulensis, the red gum lerp psyllid (Glycaspis nr. brimblecombei) and then measured the effects of current and historic tree lighting treatment on the psyllid life cycle. Our data revealed direct effects of ALAN on tree morphology: E. camaldulensis trees exposed to ALAN shifted biomass allocation away from roots and into leaves and increased specific leaf area. However, while the intensity of ALAN was sufficient to promote photosynthesis (net carbon gain) at night, this did not translate into variation in tree water status or photosystem adaptation to dim night-time light for ALAN-exposed trees. We found some evidence that ALAN had broad-scale community effects-psyllid nymphs colonising ALAN trees produced more lerps-but we found no other direct or indirect impacts of ALAN on the psyllid life cycle. Our results suggest that trees exposed to ALAN may share morphological responses with trees under dim daylight conditions. Further, ALAN may have significant 'bottom-up' effects on Eucalyptus woodland food webs through both trees and herbivores, which may impact higher trophic levels including woodland birds, mammals and invertebrates.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Florestas , Invertebrados , Luz , Poluição Luminosa , Mamíferos , Árvores
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897444

RESUMO

Today, evaluating ecological wellbeing and ecosystem services is becoming a great concern towards conserving the natural resource base. Healthy functioning ecosystems have fundamental roles for aiding humankind to lead a healthy life and ensure an improved social welfare. Estimating the non-market benefits of ecosystem services can help experts and the public frame policy directions designed for landscape development. The ecosystem of the Eucalyptus hotspot highlands of northwestern Ethiopia, where this study was carried out, provides services that are essential to changes in the life of the society and biodiversity. However, in recent years, the ecosystem is facing a serious threat from intensive monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus. This has resulted in transformation of the cultural landscapes and a loss of biodiversity. The problem in turn calls for designing appropriate ecological improvement programs. Thus, the current study examined the preferences of residents concerning this area and estimated their willingness to pay (WTP) for the proposed ecosystem improvement programs using a Choice Experiment approach. Data were aggregated from 388 residents using a questionnaire survey in January 2020. The survey contained ecological improvement schemes and a hypothetical event by which respondents expressed their willingness to pay a yearly utility fee as a compensation for the improvement programs. Results showed significant differences in resident preferences towards the proposed ecological improvement attributes. The findings also indicated that the socioeconomic backgrounds of residents contributed for the heterogeneity in their WTP for ecological improvement schemes. Accordingly, the marginal willingness to pay of residents was USD 205/person/year for the respective ecological improvement attributes. The findings suggest that policy makers should consider such attribute-based public preferences while planning landscape development and conservation programs. This study can provide vital policy implications and contribute to knowledge as it presents how the non-market valuations of ecosystems help maximize social welfare.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Eucalyptus , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 157030, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777572

RESUMO

Eucalyptus plantations occupy 26 % of Portuguese forested areas. Its flowers constitute important sources for bees and beekeepers take advantage of this and keep their honey bee colonies within or near the plantations for honey production. Nonetheless, these plantations are susceptible to pests, such as the eucalyptus weevil Gonipterus platensis. To control this weevil, some plantations must be treated with pesticides, which might harm non-target organisms. This study aimed to perform a multifactorial assessment of the health status and development of Apis mellifera iberiensis colonies in two similar landscape windows dominated by Eucalyptus globulus plantations - one used as control and the other with insecticide treatment. In each of the two selected areas, an apiary with five hives was installed and monitored before and after a single application of the insecticide acetamiprid (40 g a.i./ha). Colony health and development, resources use, and pesticide residues accumulation were measured. The results showed that the application of acetamiprid in this area did not alter the health status and development of the colonies. This can be explained by the low levels of residues of acetamiprid detected only in pollen and bee bread samples, ~52 fold lower than the sublethal effect threshold. This could be attributed to the low offer of resources during and after the application event and within the application area, with the consequent foraging outside the sprayed area during that period. Since exposure to pesticides in such complex landscapes seems to be dependent on the spatial and temporal distribution of resources, we highlight some key monitoring parameters and tools that are able to provide reliable information on colony development and use of resources. These tools can be easily applied and can provide a better decision-taking of pesticide application in intensive production systems to decrease the risk of exposure for honey bees.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade
12.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(4): 1028-1041, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778984

RESUMO

Coffee (Coffea L.) is one of the main crops produced globally. Its contamination by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome has been economically detrimental for producers. The objective of this work was to extract and characterize the essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn and Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, produce and characterize nanoparticles containing these essential oils and evaluate the in vivo and in vitro antifungal activity of free and nanoencapsulated essential oils. The principal constituent of the essential oil from E. citriodora was citronellal; that from E. grandis was α-pinene; and that from E. camaldulensis was 1,8-cineol. The in vitro antifungal activity against the fungus H. vastatrix was 100% at a concentration of 1000 µl l-1 for all the oils and nanoparticles containing these natural products. The sizes of the nanoparticles produced with the essential oils from E. citriodora, E. camaldulensis and E. grandis were 402·13 nm, 275·33 nm and 328·5 nm, respectively, with surface charges of -11·8 mV, -9·24 mV and - 6·76 mV, respectively. Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that the encapsulation of essential oils occurred in the polymeric matrix of poly(ε-caprolactone). The incorporation of essential oils into biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles increased their efficiency as biofungicides in the fight against coffee rust, decreasing the severity of the disease by up to 90·75% after treatment with the nanoparticles containing the essential oil from E. grandis.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Basidiomycota , Eucaliptol , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais , Poliésteres
13.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807301

RESUMO

Multidimensional gas chromatography is, presently, an established and powerful analytical tool, due to higher resolving power than the classical 1D chromatographic approaches. Applied to multiple areas, it allows to isolate, detect and identify a larger number of compounds present in complex matrices, even in trace amounts. Research was conducted to determine which compounds, emitted by host plants of the eucalyptus weevil, Gonipterus platensis, might mediate host selection behavior. The identification of a pheromone blend of G. platensis is presented, revealing to be more attractive to weevils of both sexes, than the individual compounds. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), MonoTrapTM disks, and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). Combining one dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) chromatographic systems-comprehensive and heart-cut two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC and H/C-MD-GC, respectively) with mass spectrometry (MS) and electroantennographic (EAD) detection, enabled the selection and identification of pertinent semiochemicals which were detected by the insect antennal olfactory system. The behavioral effect of a selected blend of compounds was assessed in a two-arm olfactometer with ten parallel walking chambers, coupled to video tracking and data analysis software. An active blend, composed by cis and trans-verbenol, verbenene, myrtenol and trans-pinocarveol was achieved.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Gorgulhos , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Insetos , Masculino , Feromônios/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Árvores , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807502

RESUMO

Eucalyptus nitens wood samples were subjected to hydrothermal processing to obtain soluble saccharides from the hemicellulosic fraction. The hemicellulose-derived saccharides were employed as substrates for furfural production in biphasic media made up of water, methyl isobutyl ketone, and one acidic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate or 1-(3-sulfopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate). The reactions were carried out in a microwave-heated reactor to assess the effects of the most influential variables. Under selected operational conditions, the molar conversions of the precursors into furfural were within the range of 77-86%. The catalysts conserved their activity after reutilization in five consecutive reaction cycles.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Líquidos Iônicos , Ácidos , Furaldeído , Hidrogênio , Sulfatos , Madeira
15.
J Med Food ; 25(7): 741-750, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834630

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a fibrous interstitial pneumonia that causes damage to the lung tissue and thus alters all respiratory functions. In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus extracts on bleomycin (BLM)-induced (PF). Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. The control group received no treatment, the BLM group received only intratracheally BLM (2 mg/kg), the essential water of Eucalyptus globulus (EWEG) group underwent administration of BLM followed by E. globulus hydrosol (2000 mg/kg), and the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOCG) group received BLM followed by E. globulus essential oil (10 mg/kg). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main compounds of EOEG and EWEG are eucalyptol and spathulenol. Obtained results showed that BLM-induced PF caused a large accumulation of lymphocytes and monocytes in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a high fibrosis score, and an inflammatory index coupled to an oxidative stress state assessed by an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of the activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase. Otherwise, the treatment with EWEG and EOEG reversed the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and the inflammation raised by BLM. E. globulus extracts could improve BLM-induced PF, thus suggesting that the latter could serve as a potential therapeutic approach for PF.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Óleos Voláteis , Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Pulmão , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 186: 64-75, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810688

RESUMO

Eucalypts are the most planted hardwood trees worldwide because of their very rapid growth, exceptional wood quality and adaptability. However, most commercial species and derived hybrids are sensitive to frost, which remains as the largest obstacle to their introduction in warm/temperate climates. As evergreen species, Eucalypts have developed the ability to tolerate frost events based on physiological and molecular responses triggered by previous exposure to cold temperatures, globally named cold acclimation. To characterize the acclimation process in two species with different tolerance to frost, E. grandis (Eg) and E. benthamii (Eb), seedlings were exposed for different times to low temperatures. Frost tolerance was estimated in leaves by an electrolyte leakage assay, and metabolome and morpho-physiological changes studied and correlated to the observed acclimation responses. Eb showed higher basal frost tolerance and an earlier and stronger acclimation response to cold temperatures than in the frost sensitive Eg. Eb was able to modify several morpho-physiological parameters, with a restriction in plant height, leaf area and leaf fresh weight during acclimation. Metabolome characterization allowed us to differentiate species and strengthen our understanding of their acclimation response dynamics. Interestingly, Eb displayed an early phase of sugar accumulation followed by a rise of different metabolites with possible roles as osmolytes and antioxidants, that correlated to frost tolerance and may explain Eb higher capacity to acclimate. This novel approach has helped us to point to the main metabolic processes underlying the cold tolerance acquisition process in two relevant Eucalyptus species.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Congelamento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887387

RESUMO

Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) activate heat shock protein gene expression by binding their promoters in response to heat stress and are considered to be pivotal transcription factors in plants. Eucalyptus is a superior source of fuel and commercial wood. During its growth, high temperature or other abiotic stresses could impact its defense capability and growth. Hsf genes have been cloned and sequenced in many plants, but rarely in Eucalyptus. In this study, we used bioinformatics methods to analyze and identify Eucalyptus&nbsp;Hsf genes, their chromosomal localization and structure. The phylogenetic relationship and conserved domains of their encoded proteins were further analyzed. A total of 36 Hsf genes were identified and authenticated from Eucalyptus, which were scattered across 11 chromosomes. They could be classified into three classes (A, B and C). Additionally, a large number of stress-related cis-regulatory elements were identified in the upstream promoter sequence of HSF, and cis-acting element analysis indicated that the expression of EgHsf may be regulated by plant growth and development, metabolism, hormones and stress responses. The expression profiles of five representative Hsf genes, EgHsf4, EgHsf9, EgHsf13, EgHsf24 and EgHsf32, under salt and temperature stresses were examined by qRT-PCR. The results show that the expression pattern of class B genes (EgHsf4, EgHsf24 and EgHsf32) was more tolerant to abiotic stresses than that of class A genes (EgHsf9 and EgHsf13). However, the expressions of all tested Hsf genes in six tissues were at different levels. Finally, we investigated the network of interplay between genes, and the results suggest that there may be synergistic effects between different Hsf genes in response to abiotic stresses. We conclude that the Hsf gene family played an important role in the growth and developmental processes of Eucalyptus and could be vital for maintaining cell homeostasis against external stresses. This study provides basic information on the members of the Hsf gene family in Eucalyptus and lays the foundation for the functional identification of related genes and the further investigation of their biological functions in plant stress regulation.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Eucalyptus/genética , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262662, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830134

RESUMO

A socio-economic study was conducted in district Mardan of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan to get a comprehensive knowledge of the agroforestry tree species grown on the farmlands, their yield, and carbon stock. For yield and carbon stock estimation, data were collected from 59 sample plots by measuring the diameter, height, volume, and biomass of selected agroforestry tree species through D-tape and Haga altimeter. A total of 59 sample plots were inventoried using 2.5 percent sampling intensity. Each sample plot has an area of 0.5 ha, where each tree with a Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm was inventoried. The calculated amount of volume of each tree species was then converted to biomass by multiplying it by the density of wood and the Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF). Total yield and C stock for the selected agroforestry tree species were 11535.2 metric tons and 2102.2 metric tons, respectively. Populus euroamericana is classified as the main tree with 28% growing stock prior to Morus alba by 21%, while Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix tetrasperma, and Bombax ceiba consist of 15%, 12%, 8%, 6%,7% and 3% growing stock respectively. Among the species found in different sampling plots the yield of Populus euroamericana was found to be 4747.5 metric tons and it was followed by the species Morus alba found at 2027.3 metric tons. Similarly, the volume for Melia azedarach, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dalbergia sissoo, Salix spp, Boombox ceiba, and Acacia nilotica was 1532.2 tons,1503 ton,745.7,203.5ton, 555.4ton and 220.5ton, respectively. The carbon stock for Populus euroamericana was calculated as 777.8 ton/ha, while for Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Melia azedarach, Morus alba, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, Salix species, and Bombax ceiba it was calculated as 312.3ton/ha, 272.1ton/ha, 363ton/ha, 245.1ton/ha, 51.4ton/ha, 27.3ton/ha and 53.2ton/ha, respectively. The questionnaire survey conducted for price dynamics showed that the majority of respondents purchase timber from the market for construction. But they use farm trees with low-quality city construction. They dislike using local timber in the conventional building as timber from farm trees is liable to insect attack. Rs. 50,000-100000, (33.33%) of daily sales was concluded from 50% of the trader while (16.7%) of the traders have their sales between Rs.150,000-200,000. Therefore, it is concluded by the authors that both provincial and federal government should promote agroforestry in Pakistan through different incentives because it has the potential to cope with dilemma of deforestation of natural forests and improve the livelihood of local peoples. It is strongly recommended that special projects just like the Ten Billion Tree Afforestation Project (T-BTTP) should be launched for agroforestry plantation and promotion in the country to sustain the ecological harmony and uplift the socio-economic condition of the peoples of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Árvores , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 216: 710-727, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803411

RESUMO

Lignin is a promising alternative to petrochemical precursors for conversion to industrial-needed products. Organosolv lignins were extracted from different agricultural wastes including sugarcane bagasse (BG) and trash (ST), corncob (CC), eucalyptus wood (EW), pararubber woodchip (PRW), and palm wastes (palm kernel cake (PKC), palm fiber (PF), and palm kernel shell (PKS), representing different groups of lignin origins. Physicochemical characteristics of lignins were analyzed by several principal techniques. Most recovered lignin showed high purity of >90 % with trace sugar contamination, while lower purities were found for lignin from palm wastes. Hardwood lignins (EW and PRW) mainly contained guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units with a minor fraction of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H) with high molecular weight, glass transition temperature, phenolic hydroxy group and low aliphatic hydroxy group. Grass-type lignins (BG, ST, CC) and palm lignins (PKC, PF, and PKS) contained three monolignols of H, G, and S units with lower molecular weights and C5-substituted hydroxy of S unit. Among the grass-type lignins, PKC lignin contained the highest nitrogen and lipophilic components with the lowest molecular weight, thermal stability, and glass transition temperature. This provides insights into properties of organosolv lignin as basis for their further applications in chemical, polymer and material industries.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Saccharum , Celulose/análise , Eucalyptus/química , Lignina/química , Poaceae , Madeira/química
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 360: 127621, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842067

RESUMO

In fact, effectively removing lignin from pulp fibers facilitates the conversion and utilization of cellulose. In this study, the residual lignin in eucalyptus pulp was separated using a high concentration of chlorine dioxide. The effects of chlorine dioxide dosage, temperature, and time on lignin removal were investigated. The optimal conditions are chlorine dioxide dosage 5.0%, reaction temperature 40 °C, and reaction time 30 min. The lignin removal yield is 88.21%. The removal yields of cellulose and hemicellulose are 2.28 and 17.00%, respectively. The treated eucalyptus pulp has higher fiber crystallinity and thermal stability. The carbon content on the fiber surface is significantly reduced. The results show that lignin is removed by efficient oxidation, and the degradation of carbohydrates is inhibited using high concentrations of chlorine dioxide at low temperatures and short reaction times. This provides theoretical support for high value conversion of cellulose.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados , Eucalyptus , Carboidratos , Celulose/metabolismo , Compostos Clorados/metabolismo , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Óxidos
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