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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129159, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643009

RESUMO

The microbial community in seriously contaminated environment were not well known. This research investigated the community reassemblies in microcosms made of two distinct mangrove sediments amended with high levels of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). After eight months of contamination, the transformation of HBCDs yielded various lower brominated products and resulted in acidification (pH ~2). Therefore, the degraders and dehalogenase homologous genes involved in transformation of HBCDs only presented in low abundance to avoid further deterioration of the habitats. Moreover, in these deteriorated habitats, 1344 bacterial, 969 archaeal, 599 eukaryotic (excluded fungi), 187 fungal OTUs, and 10 viral genera, were reduced compared with controls. Specifically, in two groups of microcosms, Zetaproteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Euryarchaeota, and Ascomycota, were positively responding taxa to HBCDs. Caloneis (Bacillariophyta) and Ascomycota turned to the dominant eukaryotic and fungal taxa. Most of predominant taxa were related to the contamination of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Microbial communities were reassembled in divergent and sediment-dependent manner. The long-term contamination of HBCDs leaded to the change of relations between many taxa, included some of the environmental viruses and their known hosts. This research highlight the importance of monitoring the ecological effects around plants producing or processing halogenated compounds.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Vírus , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eucariotos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise
2.
J Bacteriol ; 204(6): e0014122, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652670

RESUMO

We propose a standardized framework to classify target species based on their protein domains, which can be utilized in different contexts, like eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this study, by applying the framework to the bacterial kingdom as an implementation example and comparing the results with the current taxonomy standards at the phylum level, we came to the conclusion that the sequence of domains rather than the content of domains in a protein and the presence of one domain rather than the number of occurrences of one domain play more important roles in deciding bacterial phenotypes as well as matching the current taxonomy. In addition, the comparison also helps us to better focus on the species that conflict with the current phylum category, as well as to further investigate their phenotypic or genotypic differences. IMPORTANCE A 3-step framework was designed which can be applied to clustering species based on their protein domains, and different candidate models are proposed in each step for better adaptation of various scenarios. We show its implementation for the bacterial kingdom as an example, which helps us to find the most appropriate model combination that will best reflect the relationship between domains and phenotypes in this context. In addition, identifying species that are distant in the results but should be closely related phylogenetically can help us to focus on the mismatch for better understanding of their key phenotypic or genotypic differences.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Eucariotos , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 549, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668117

RESUMO

Over millions of years, eukaryotes evolved from unicellular to multicellular organisms with increasingly complex genomes and sophisticated gene expression networks. Consequently, chromatin regulators evolved to support this increased complexity. The ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers of the SWI/SNF family are multiprotein complexes that modulate nucleosome positioning and appear under different configurations, which perform distinct functions. While the composition, architecture, and activity of these subclasses are well understood in a limited number of fungal and animal model organisms, the lack of comprehensive information in other eukaryotic organisms precludes the identification of a reliable evolutionary model of SWI/SNF complexes. Here, we performed a systematic analysis using 36 species from animal, fungal, and plant lineages to assess the conservation of known SWI/SNF subunits across eukaryotes. We identified evolutionary relationships that allowed us to propose the composition of a hypothetical ancestral SWI/SNF complex in the last eukaryotic common ancestor. This last common ancestor appears to have undergone several rounds of lineage-specific subunit gains and losses, shaping the current conformation of the known subclasses in animals and fungi. In addition, our results unravel a plant SWI/SNF complex, reminiscent of the animal BAF subclass, which incorporates a set of plant-specific subunits of still unknown function.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(6)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642316

RESUMO

Two main theories have been put forward to explain the origin of mitochondria in eukaryotes: phagotrophic engulfment (undigested food) and microbial symbiosis (physiological interactions). The two theories generate mutually exclusive predictions about the order in which mitochondria and phagocytosis arose. To discriminate the alternatives, we have employed ancestral state reconstructions (ASR) for phagocytosis as a trait, phagotrophy as a feeding habit, the presence of mitochondria, the presence of plastids, and the multinucleated organization across major eukaryotic lineages. To mitigate the bias introduced by assuming a particular eukaryotic phylogeny, we reconstructed the appearance of these traits across 1789 different rooted gene trees, each having species from opisthokonts, mycetozoa, hacrobia, excavate, archeplastida, and Stramenopiles, Alveolates and Rhizaria. The trees reflect conflicting relationships and different positions of the root. We employed a novel phylogenomic test that summarizes ASR across trees which reconstructs a last eukaryotic common ancestor that possessed mitochondria, was multinucleated, lacked plastids, and was non-phagotrophic as well as non-phagocytic. This indicates that both phagocytosis and phagotrophy arose subsequent to the origin of mitochondria, consistent with findings from comparative physiology. Furthermore, our ASRs uncovered multiple origins of phagocytosis and of phagotrophy across eukaryotes, indicating that, like wings in animals, these traits are useful but neither ancestral nor homologous across groups. The data indicate that mitochondria preceded the origin of phagocytosis, such that phagocytosis cannot have been the mechanism by which mitochondria were acquired.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Células Eucarióticas/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose/genética
5.
Biol Direct ; 17(1): 13, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of spliceosomal introns has been widely studied among various eukaryotic groups. Researchers nearly reached the consensuses on the pattern and the mechanisms of intron losses and gains across eukaryotes. However, according to previous studies that analyzed a few genes or genomes, Nematoda seems to be an eccentric group. RESULTS: Taking advantage of the recent accumulation of sequenced genomes, we extensively analyzed the intron losses and gains using 104 nematode genomes across all the five Clades of the phylum. Nematodes have a wide range of intron density, from less than one to more than nine per kbp coding sequence. The rates of intron losses and gains exhibit significant heterogeneity both across different nematode lineages and across different evolutionary stages of the same lineage. The frequency of intron losses far exceeds that of intron gains. Five pieces of evidence supporting the model of cDNA-mediated intron loss have been observed in ten Caenorhabditis species, the dominance of the precise intron losses, frequent loss of adjacent introns, high-level expression of the intron-lost genes, preferential losses of short introns, and the preferential losses of introns close to 3'-ends of genes. Like studies in most eukaryotic groups, we cannot find the source sequences for the limited number of intron gains detected in the Caenorhabditis genomes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that nematodes are a typical eukaryotic group rather than an outlier in intron evolution.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Eucariotos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Íntrons , Nematoides/genética , Filogenia , Spliceossomos/genética
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 451, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insertion sequences (ISs) are mobile repeat sequences and most of them can copy themselves to new host genome locations, leading to genome plasticity and gene regulation in prokaryotes. In this study, we present functional and evolutionary relationships between IS and neighboring genes in a large-scale comparative genomic analysis. RESULTS: IS families were located in all prokaryotic phyla, with preferential occurrence of IS3, IS4, IS481, and IS5 families in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes as well as in eukaryote host-associated organisms and autotrophic opportunistic pathogens. We defined the concept of the IS-Gene couple (IG), which allowed to highlight the functional and regulatory impacts of an IS on the closest gene. Genes involved in transcriptional regulation and transport activities were found overrepresented in IG. In particular, major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters, ATP-binding proteins and transposases raised as favorite neighboring gene functions of IS hotspots. Then, evolutionary conserved IS-Gene sets across taxonomic lineages enabled the classification of IS-gene couples into phylum, class-to-genus, and species syntenic IS-Gene couples. The IS5, IS21, IS4, IS607, IS91, ISL3 and IS200 families displayed two to four times more ISs in the phylum and/or class-to-genus syntenic IGs compared to other IS families. This indicates that those families were probably inserted earlier than others and then subjected to horizontal transfer, transposition and deletion events over time. In phylum syntenic IG category, Betaproteobacteria, Crenarchaeota, Calditrichae, Planctomycetes, Acidithiobacillia and Cyanobacteria phyla act as IS reservoirs for other phyla, and neighboring gene functions are mostly related to transcriptional regulators. Comparison of IS occurrences with predicted regulatory motifs led to ~ 26.5% of motif-containing ISs with 2 motifs per IS in average. These results, concomitantly with short IS-Gene distances, suggest that those ISs would interfere with the expression of neighboring genes and thus form strong candidates for an adaptive pairing. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our large-scale study provide new insights into the IS genetic context and strongly suggest their regulatory roles.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Transposases/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2200198119, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704763

RESUMO

Benthic foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that inhabit sediments of aquatic environments. Several foraminifera of the order Rotaliida are known to store and use nitrate for denitrification, a unique energy metabolism among eukaryotes. The rotaliid Globobulimina spp. has been shown to encode an incomplete denitrification pathway of bacterial origin. However, the prevalence of denitrification genes in foraminifera remains unknown, and the missing denitrification pathway components are elusive. Analyzing transcriptomes and metagenomes of 10 foraminiferal species from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone, we show that denitrification genes are highly conserved in foraminifera. We infer the last common ancestor of denitrifying foraminifera, which enables us to predict the ability to denitrify for additional foraminiferal species. Additionally, an examination of the foraminiferal microbiota reveals evidence for a stable interaction with Desulfobacteraceae, which harbor genes that complement the foraminiferal denitrification pathway. Our results provide evidence that foraminiferal denitrification is complemented by the foraminifera-associated microbiome. The interaction of foraminifera with their resident bacteria is at the basis of foraminiferal adaptation to anaerobic environments that manifested in ecological success in oxygen depleted habitats.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Foraminíferos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Desnitrificação/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Foraminíferos/genética , Foraminíferos/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 311, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710557

RESUMO

During the last decades, metagenomics has highlighted the diversity of microorganisms from environmental or host-associated samples. Most metagenomics public repositories use annotation pipelines tailored for prokaryotes regardless of the taxonomic origin of contigs. Consequently, eukaryotic contigs with intrinsically different gene features, are not optimally annotated. Using a bioinformatics pipeline, we have filtered 7.9 billion contigs from 6,872 soil metagenomes in the JGI's IMG/M database to identify eukaryotic contigs. We have re-annotated genes using eukaryote-tailored methods, yielding 8 million eukaryotic proteins and over 300,000 orphan proteins lacking homology in public databases. Comparing the gene predictions we made with initial JGI ones on the same contigs, we confirmed our pipeline improves eukaryotic proteins completeness and contiguity in soil metagenomes. The improved quality of eukaryotic proteins combined with a more comprehensive assignment method yielded more reliable taxonomic annotation. This dataset of eukaryotic soil proteins with improved completeness, quality and taxonomic annotation reliability is of interest for any scientist aiming at studying the composition, biological functions and gene flux in soil communities involving eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Metagenoma , Microbiologia do Solo , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Metagenômica
9.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 132, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteogenomics aims to identify variant or unknown proteins in bottom-up proteomics, by searching transcriptome- or genome-derived custom protein databases. However, empirical observations reveal that these large proteogenomic databases produce lower-sensitivity peptide identifications. Various strategies have been proposed to avoid this, including the generation of reduced transcriptome-informed protein databases, which only contain proteins whose transcripts are detected in the sample-matched transcriptome. These were found to increase peptide identification sensitivity. Here, we present a detailed evaluation of this approach. RESULTS: We establish that the increased sensitivity in peptide identification is in fact a statistical artifact, directly resulting from the limited capability of target-decoy competition to accurately model incorrect target matches when using excessively small databases. As anti-conservative false discovery rates (FDRs) are likely to hamper the robustness of the resulting biological conclusions, we advocate for alternative FDR control methods that are less sensitive to database size. Nevertheless, reduced transcriptome-informed databases are useful, as they reduce the ambiguity of protein identifications, yielding fewer shared peptides. Furthermore, searching the reference database and subsequently filtering proteins whose transcripts are not expressed reduces protein identification ambiguity to a similar extent, but is more transparent and reproducible. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, using transcriptome information is an interesting strategy that has not been promoted for the right reasons. While the increase in peptide identifications from searching reduced transcriptome-informed databases is an artifact caused by the use of an FDR control method unsuitable to excessively small databases, transcriptome information can reduce the ambiguity of protein identifications.


Assuntos
Proteogenômica , Proteômica , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Eucariotos , Peptídeos , Proteínas , Proteogenômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Transcriptoma
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2529: 3-40, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733008

RESUMO

Dynamic posttranslational modifications to canonical histones that constitute the nucleosome (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) control all aspects of enzymatic transactions with DNA. Histone methylation has been studied heavily for the past 20 years, and our mechanistic understanding of the control and function of individual methylation events on specific histone arginine and lysine residues has been greatly improved over the past decade, driven by excellent new tools and methods. Here, we will summarize what is known about the distribution and some of the functions of protein methyltransferases from all major eukaryotic supergroups. The main conclusion is that protein, and specifically histone, methylation is an ancient process. Many taxa in all supergroups have lost some subfamilies of both protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT) and the heavily studied SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMT). Over time, novel subfamilies, especially of SET domain proteins, arose. We use the interactions between H3K27 and H3K36 methylation as one example for the complex circuitry of histone modifications that make up the "histone code," and we discuss one recent example (Paramecium Ezl1) for how extant enzymes that may resemble more ancient SET domain KMTs are able to modify two lysine residues that have divergent functions in plants, fungi, and animals. Complexity of SET domain KMT function in the well-studied plant and animal lineages arose not only by gene duplication but also acquisition of novel DNA- and histone-binding domains in certain subfamilies.


Assuntos
Histonas , Proteínas Metiltransferases , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
11.
Elife ; 112022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659869

RESUMO

Animal development is mediated by a surprisingly small set of canonical signaling pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, Notch, and Hippo pathways. Although once thought to be present only in animals, recent genome sequencing has revealed components of these pathways in the closest unicellular relatives of animals. These findings raise questions about the ancestral functions of these developmental pathways and their potential role in the emergence of animal multicellularity. Here, we provide the first functional characterization of any of these developmental pathways in unicellular organisms by developing techniques for genetic manipulation in Capsaspora owczarzaki, a close unicellular relative of animals that displays aggregative multicellularity. We then use these tools to characterize the Capsaspora ortholog of the Hippo signaling nuclear effector YAP/TAZ/Yorkie (coYki), a key regulator of tissue size in animals. In contrast to what might be expected based on studies in animals, we show that coYki is dispensable for cell proliferation but regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and the three-dimensional (3D) shape of multicellular structures. We further demonstrate that the cytoskeletal abnormalities of individual coYki mutant cells underlie the abnormal 3D shape of coYki mutant aggregates. Taken together, these findings implicate an ancestral role for the Hippo pathway in cytoskeletal dynamics and multicellular morphogenesis predating the origin of animal multicellularity, which was co-opted during evolution to regulate cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Edição de Genes , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Morfogênese
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3398, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697693

RESUMO

The ESCRT machinery, comprising of multiple proteins and subcomplexes, is crucial for membrane remodelling in eukaryotic cells, in processes that include ubiquitin-mediated multivesicular body formation, membrane repair, cytokinetic abscission, and virus exit from host cells. This ESCRT system appears to have simpler, ancient origins, since many archaeal species possess homologues of ESCRT-III and Vps4, the components that execute the final membrane scission reaction, where they have been shown to play roles in cytokinesis, extracellular vesicle formation and viral egress. Remarkably, metagenome assemblies of Asgard archaea, the closest known living relatives of eukaryotes, were recently shown to encode homologues of the entire cascade involved in ubiquitin-mediated membrane remodelling, including ubiquitin itself, components of the ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II subcomplexes, and ESCRT-III and Vps4. Here, we explore the phylogeny, structure, and biochemistry of Asgard homologues of the ESCRT machinery and the associated ubiquitylation system. We provide evidence for the ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II subcomplexes being involved in ubiquitin-directed recruitment of ESCRT-III, as it is in eukaryotes. Taken together, our analyses suggest a pre-eukaryotic origin for the ubiquitin-coupled ESCRT system and a likely path of ESCRT evolution via a series of gene duplication and diversification events.


Assuntos
Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte , Eucariotos , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/genética
13.
Microbes Environ ; 37(2)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691910

RESUMO

Persistent RNA viruses, which have been suggested to form symbiotic relationships with their hosts, have been reported to occur in eukaryotes, such as plants, fungi, and algae. Based on empirical findings, these viruses may also be present in commercially cultivated macroalgae. Accordingly, the present study aimed to screen red macroalgae (family Bangiaceae conchocelis and Neopyropia yezoensis thallus) and processed nori sheets (N. yezoensis) for persistent RNA viruses using fragmented and primer-ligated dsRNA sequencing (FLDS) and targeted reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). A Totiviridae-related virus was detected in the conchocelis of Neoporphyra haitanensis, which is widely cultivated in China, while two Mitoviridae-related viruses were found in several conchocelis samples and all N. yezoensis-derived samples (thallus and nori sheets). Mitoviridae-related viruses in N. yezoensis are widespread among cultivated species and not expected to inhibit host growth. Mitoviridae-related viruses were also detected in several phylogenetically distant species in the family Bangiaceae, which suggests that these viruses persisted and coexist in the family Bangiaceae over a long period of time. The present study is the first to report persistent RNA viruses in nori sheets and their raw materials.


Assuntos
Porphyra , Vírus de RNA , Alga Marinha , Eucariotos/genética , Plantas/genética , Porphyra/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(6): 739-740, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650284

Assuntos
Eucariotos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682602

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) form complex interactions with RNA to regulate the cell's activities including cell development and disease resistance. RNA-binding proteome (RBPome) aims to profile and characterize the RNAs and proteins that interact with each other to carry out biological functions. Generally, RNA-centric and protein-centric ribonomic approaches have been successfully developed to profile RBPome in different organisms including plants and animals. Further, more and more novel methods that were firstly devised and applied in mammalians have shown great potential to unravel RBPome in plants such as RNA-interactome capture (RIC) and orthogonal organic phase separation (OOPS). Despise the development of various robust and state-of-the-art ribonomics techniques, genome-wide RBP identifications and characterizations in plants are relatively fewer than those in other eukaryotes, indicating that ribonomics techniques have great opportunities in unraveling and characterizing the RNA-protein interactions in plant species. Here, we review all the available approaches for analyzing RBPs in living organisms. Additionally, we summarize the transcriptome-wide approaches to characterize both the coding and non-coding RBPs in plants and the promising use of RBPome for booming agriculture.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , RNA , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682820

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the power houses of eukaryote cells. These endosymbiotic organelles of prokaryote origin are considered as semi-autonomous since they have retained a genome and fully functional gene expression mechanisms. These pathways are particularly interesting because they combine features inherited from the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria with characteristics that appeared during eukaryote evolution. RNA biology is thus particularly diverse in mitochondria. It involves an unexpectedly vast array of factors, some of which being universal to all mitochondria and others being specific from specific eukaryote clades. Among them, ribonucleases are particularly prominent. They play pivotal functions such as the maturation of transcript ends, RNA degradation and surveillance functions that are required to attain the pool of mature RNAs required to synthesize essential mitochondrial proteins such as respiratory chain proteins. Beyond these functions, mitochondrial ribonucleases are also involved in the maintenance and replication of mitochondrial DNA, and even possibly in the biogenesis of mitochondrial ribosomes. The diversity of mitochondrial RNases is reviewed here, showing for instance how in some cases a bacterial-type enzyme was kept in some eukaryotes, while in other clades, eukaryote specific enzymes were recruited for the same function.


Assuntos
Ribonucleases , Transcriptoma , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleases/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10089, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710829

RESUMO

Tropical coastal lagoons are important ecosystems that support high levels of biodiversity and provide several goods and services. Monitoring of benthic biodiversity and detection of harmful or invasive species is crucial, particularly in relation to seasonal and spatial variation of environmental conditions. In this study, eDNA metabarcoding was used in two tropical coastal lagoons, Chacahua (CH) and Corralero (C) (Southern Mexican Pacific), to describe the benthic biodiversity and its spatial-temporal dynamics. The distribution of benthic diversity within the lagoons showed a very particular pattern evidencing a transition from freshwater to seawater. Although the two lagoon systems are similar in terms of the species composition of metazoans and microeukaryotes, our findings indicate that they are different in taxa richness and structure, resulting in regional partitioning of the diversity with salinity as the driving factor of community composition in CH. Harmful, invasive, non-indigenous species, bioindicators and species of commercial importance were detected, demonstrating the reach of this technique for biodiversity monitoring along with the continued efforts of building species reference libraries.


Assuntos
Eucariotos , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Eucariotos/genética , Água do Mar
18.
Mol Cell ; 82(12): 2350-2350.e1, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714589

RESUMO

Chromosomes in higher eukaryotes are folded at different length scales into loop extrusion domains, spatial compartments, and chromosome territories and exhibit interactions with nuclear structures such as the lamina. Microscopic methods can probe this structure by measuring positions of chromosomes in the nuclear space in individual cells, while sequencing-based contact capture approaches can report the frequency of contacts of different regions within these structural layers. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Cromossomos , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos/genética , Eucariotos/genética
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 71: 128839, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654302

RESUMO

We chose two types of mid-sized Arg-rich peptides (Rev-pep and Tat-pep) as ligands and used their aptamers to construct efficient eukaryotic ON-riboswitches (ligand-dependently upregulating riboswitches). Due to the aptamers' high affinities, the best Rev-pep-responsive and Tat-pep-responsive riboswitches obtained showed much higher switching efficiencies at low ligand concentrations than small ligand-responsive ON-riboswitches in the same mechanism. In addition, despite the high sequence similarity of Rev-pep and Tat-pep, the two best riboswitches were almost insensitive to each other's peptide ligand. Considering the high responsiveness and specificity along with the versatility of the expression platform used and the applicability of Arg-rich peptides, this orthogonal pair of riboswitches would be widely useful eukaryotic gene regulators or biosensors.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Riboswitch , Eucariotos/genética , Ligantes , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Peptídeos
20.
PLoS Genet ; 18(6): e1010227, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666732

RESUMO

Wolbachia are the most common obligate, intracellular bacteria in animals. They exist worldwide in arthropod and nematode hosts in which they commonly act as reproductive parasites or mutualists, respectively. Bacteriophage WO, the largest of Wolbachia's mobile elements, includes reproductive parasitism genes, serves as a hotspot for genetic divergence and genomic rearrangement of the bacterial chromosome, and uniquely encodes a Eukaryotic Association Module with eukaryotic-like genes and an ensemble of putative host interaction genes. Despite WO's relevance to genome evolution, selfish genetics, and symbiotic applications, relatively little is known about its origin, host range, diversification, and taxonomic classification. Here we analyze the most comprehensive set of 150 Wolbachia and phage WO assemblies to provide a framework for discretely organizing and naming integrated phage WO genomes. We demonstrate that WO is principally in arthropod Wolbachia with relatives in diverse endosymbionts and metagenomes, organized into four variants related by gene synteny, often oriented opposite the putative origin of replication in the Wolbachia chromosome, and the large serine recombinase is an ideal typing tool to distinguish the four variants. We identify a novel, putative lytic cassette and WO's association with a conserved eleven gene island, termed Undecim Cluster, that is enriched with virulence-like genes. Finally, we evaluate WO-like Islands in the Wolbachia genome and discuss a new model in which Octomom, a notable WO-like Island, arose from a split with WO. Together, these findings establish the first comprehensive Linnaean taxonomic classification of endosymbiont phages, including non-Wolbachia phages from aquatic environments, that includes a new family and two new genera to capture the collective relatedness of these viruses.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Bacteriófagos , Wolbachia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/genética , Eucariotos , Genômica , Simbiose/genética , Wolbachia/genética
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