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1.
Toxicon ; 203: 139-146, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653444

RESUMO

The genus Brachycephalus includes small species of aposematic anurans known as microendemic, occurring in the mountains of the Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus ephippium, B. nodoterga and B. pernix have been reported to contain the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin in skin and viscera. The biological conservation of several Brachycephalus species is currently threatened by climate change, deforestation, and the pandemic caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the well-known importance of amphibians' associated bacteria in the defensive role against pathogens, there is still a poor understanding of amphibian microbiome composition. The present study investigated the composition of B. pitanga microbial community and the presence of TTX in the host and in cultures of bacterial isolates, using a combination of metagenomics, bacterial culture isolation, mass spectrometry and metabolomic analyses. Results of culture-dependent and -independent analyses characterized the microbial communities associated with the skin and viscera of B. pitanga. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of TTX in host tissues, while bacterial production of TTX was not observed under the experimental conditions used in this investigation. This is the first report confirming the occurrence of TTX in B. pitanga.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Microbiota , Animais , Anuros , Bactérias , Tetrodotoxina/toxicidade
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641394

RESUMO

Eugenia florida DC. belongs to the Myrtaceae family, which is present in almost all of Brazil. This species is popularly known as pitanga-preta or guamirim and is used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems. In this study, two specimens of Eugenia florida (Efl) were collected in different areas of the same region. Specimen A (EflA) was collected in an area of secondary forest (capoeira), while specimen B (EflB) was collected in a floodplain area. The essential oils (EOs) were extracted from both specimens of Eugenia florida by means of hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile compounds present, and the antioxidant capacity of the EOs was determined by antioxidant capacity (AC-DPPH) and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant (TEAC) assay. For E. florida, limonene (11.98%), spathulenol (10.94%) and α-pinene (5.21%) were identified as the main compounds of the EO extracted from sample A, while sample B comprised selina-3,11-dien-6α-ol (12.03%), eremoligenol (11.0%) and γ-elemene (10.70%). This difference in chemical composition impacted the antioxidant activity of the EOs between the studied samples, especially in sample B of E. florida. This study is the first to report on the antioxidant activity of Eugenia florida DC. essential oils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Eugenia/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072598

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained ß-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), ß-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Picratos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/análise
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190760

RESUMO

The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eugenia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

RESUMO

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Terpenos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Eugenia/genética , Medicina Tradicional , Anti-Infecciosos/química
6.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3680-3691, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900317

RESUMO

Some polyphenols have been reported to modulate the expression of several genes related to lipid metabolism and insulin signaling, ameliorating metabolic disorders. We investigated the potential for the polyphenols of two varieties of grumixama, the purple fruit rich in anthocyanins and the yellow fruit, both also rich in ellagitannins, to attenuate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Mice were fed a high fat and high sucrose diet, supplemented daily with yellow and purple extracts (200 mg per kg of body weight) for eight weeks. Purple grumixama supplementation was found to decrease body weight gain, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia, and reduce hepatic triglyceride accumulation. A decrease in intrahepatic lipids in mice treated with the purple grumixama extract was associated with lipid metabolism modulation by the PPAR signaling pathway. LPL, ApoE, and LDLr were found to be down-regulated, while Acox1 and ApoB were found to be upregulated. Some of these genes were also modulated by the yellow extract. In addition, both extracts decreased oGTT and plasma LPS. The results were associated with the presence of phenolic acids and urolithins. In conclusion, most likely the anthocyanins from the purple grumixama phenolic extract is responsible for reducing obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Eugenia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924791

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and the effects of Amazonian pulp fruits consumption, such as araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata), abiu grande (Pouteria caimito), araticum (Annona crassiflora), biri-biri (Averrhoa bilimbi L.), and yellow mangosteen (Garcinia xanthochymus), on hematologic, metabolic, renal, and hepatic function parameters in Wistar rats (n = 10 rats/group). The pulp of abiu had the highest levels of soluble solids, sugars, and pH. Biri-biri pulp had the highest levels of ascorbic acid and total titratable acidity, and a low pH. The araticum pulp had higher (p ≤ 0.05) ash content, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity than the pulp of other analyzed fruits. No significant increase in hematocrit, nor reduction of blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, and serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (TGP), creatinine, and urea was observed in experimental groups relative to the control group of rats after the consumption of fruits pulp. The intake of abiu and araticum pulps promoted a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in total leukocytes of the experimental groups as compared to the control group and only the intake of araticum significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) triglyceride blood levels in rats (99.50 mg/dL). The regular consumption of biri-biri pulp for 30 days significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (TGO) levels in rats (116.83 U/L) compared to the control group (98.00 U/L). More researches are needed to generate knowledge about these promising Amazonian fruits, supporting the native fruit production, in addition to promoting health in the population and sustainability in the Amazon region.


Assuntos
Annona/metabolismo , Averrhoa/metabolismo , Eugenia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Garcinia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pouteria/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Frutas/química , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909815

RESUMO

Eugenia uniflora, known as the "Brazilian cherry", is an economically important neotropical Myrtaceae in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries due the production of essential oils with antioxidant activity. On account of its significant genetic variability, genotype evaluations are needed in order to identify genetic features related to the essential oil production that meet the industry requirements. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of essential oils isolated from the leaves of 36 genotypes of E. uniflora. Essential oil samples were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A variation of 0.22% to 1.68% in the essential oil yield was observed, in which 78 compounds, namely oxygenated sesquiterpenes, were identified. According to the cluster analysis of the major compounds, six groups were revealed. The observed diversity demonstrates the genetic variability of the species. Also, the antioxidant activity was affected by the composition of the essential oils, ranging from 176.66 to 867.57 µM TEAC.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Óleos Voláteis , Antioxidantes , Brasil , Eugenia/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2100054, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915032

RESUMO

Eugenia copacabanensis and Myrciaria tenella are present in restingas of the Atlantic Forest, but little information is available about their chemical and biological potential. In this context, the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions from the leaves of methanolic extract were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC-DAD and the antioxidant potential was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays and using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Dereplication allowed the identification of 68 compounds, 42 and 41 of which, respectively, are first reported here for E. copacabanensis and M. tenella. In vivo results revealed that the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed expressive antioxidant protection in the BY4741 and Δgsh1 strains, with greater impact on glutathione-deficient cells. With a high diversity of phenolic compounds, these polar fractions of E. copacabanensis and M. tenella leaves are potential protectors against intracellular oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antifúngicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Food Res Int ; 142: 110182, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773658

RESUMO

This review combined scientific data regarding the use of genus Eugenia plants for the management of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease mainly characterized by hyperglycaemia, which can lead to serious health complications. Scientists have been seeking therapeutic compounds in plants, reporting the species of the genus Eugenia as a potential source of phytochemicals with antidiabetic properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have proved that the bioactive compounds in the genus Eugenia can positively affect the biomarkers of diabetes. We discussed the phytochemical profile of the genus Eugenia and its mechanism of action on diabetes, which could modulate carbohydrate metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion, inhibit carbohydrases and reduce oxidative stress, suppressing the formation of advanced glycation end-products and protecting/regenerating pancreatic ß-cells. Therefore, plants of the genus Eugenia showed therapeutic potential to be used in the treatment of diabetes and its comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Eugenia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos
11.
Food Res Int ; 142: 110209, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773684

RESUMO

Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC) is an ellagitannin-containing Myrtaceae fruit from Cerrado biome. This fruit seems to be a promising candidate for an adjuvant in glucose regulation in healthy subjects. However, it is not known whether cagaita juice would have the same effect on dysglycemic subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the effect of cagaita fruit juice on postprandial glycemia in dysglycemic subjects with MetS, and whether cagaita ellagitannins could be metabolized to urolithins. To evaluate glycemic effects, two different meals were consumed by volunteers (n = 12) with a 1-week interval among them. The first one consisted of white bread (50 g) plus water (300 mL) as a control; the second one, white bread (50 g) plus clarified cagaita juice (300 mL). Bioavailability was assessed in 24 h urine, after the consumption of a single amount of 300 mL of cagaita juice by healthy (n = 16) and MetS subjects (n = 7). The results showed that dysglycemic subjects with MetS presented a 53% reduction of incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose, 38% reduction of insulin, 78% reduction of GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide), and 58% reduction of C-peptide (p < 0.05), after the consumption of cagaita juice along with bread, in comparison to control water. However, both GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and glucagon were not affected by cagaita juice ingestion. Concerning bioavailability, it was observed, for the first time, the metabolization of cagaita ellagitannins to urolithins by healthy and dysglycemic individuals with MetS, with a prevalence of metabotype B in both groups (44% and 42%, respectively), followed by metabotype A (37% and 29%, respectively), and metabotype 0 (19% and 29%, respectively).


Assuntos
Eugenia , Síndrome Metabólica , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111508, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756157

RESUMO

The parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the main cause of the sleeping sickness threatening millions of populations in many African countries. The parasitic infection is currently managed by some synthetic medications, most of them suffer limited activity spectrum and/or serious adverse effects. Some studies have pointed out the promising therapeutic potential of the plant extracts rich in polyphenols to curb down parasitic infections caused by T. brucei and other trypanosomes. In this work, the main components dominating Eugenia uniflora and Syzygium samarangense plant extracts were virtually screened, through docking, as inhibitors of seven T. brucei enzymes validated as potential drug targets. The in vitro and in vivo anti-T. brucei activities of the extracts in two treatment doses were evaluated. Moreover, the extract effects on the packed cell volume level, liver, and kidney functions were assessed. Five compounds showed strong docking and minimal binding energy to five target enzymes simultaneously and three other compounds were able to bind strongly to at least four of the target enzymes. These compounds represent lead hits to develop novel trypanocidal agents of natural origin. Both extracts showed moderate in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. Infected animal groups treated over 5 days with the studied extracts showed an appreciable in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity and ameliorated in a dose dependent manner the anaemia, liver, and kidney damages induced by the infection. In conclusion, Eugenia uniflora and Syzygium samarangense could serve as appealing sources to treat trypanosomes infections.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Eugenia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/química , Tripanossomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomíase/patologia
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 339: 109429, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713644

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the most Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in the world, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Treatment of leishmaniasis by chemotherapy remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects, and drug resistance. The search for new therapeutic agents from natural sources has been a constant for the treatment of diseases such as leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff. essential oil (EpEO) and its major constituent γ-elemene on promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, its cytotoxicity, and possible mechanisms of action. EpEO was more active (IC50 6.43 ± 0.18 µg/mL) against promastigotes than γ-elemene [9.82 ± 0.15 µg/mL (48.05 ± 0.73 µM)] and the reference drug miltefosine [IC50 17.25 ± 0.26 µg/mL (42.32 ± 0.64 µM)]. EpEO and γ-elemene exhibited low cytotoxicity against J774.A1 macrophages, with CC50 225.8 ± 3.57 µg/mL and 213.21 ± 3.3 µg/mL (1043 ± 16.15 µM), respectively. Additionally, EpEO and γ-elemene present direct activity against the parasite, decreasing plasma membrane integrity. EpEO and γ-elemene also proved to be even more active against intracellular amastigotes of the parasite [IC50 4.59 ± 0.07 µg/mL and 8.06 ± 0.12 µg/mL (39.44 ± 0.59 µM)], respectively), presenting indirect effects through macrophage activity modulation. Anti-amastigote activity was associated with increased TNF-α, IL-12, NO, and ROS levels. In conclusion, our results suggest EpEO and γ-elemene as promising candidates for new drug development against leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/farmacologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145080, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736256

RESUMO

Eugenia uniflora L. is an important fruit tree native to tropical South America that adapts to different habitats, thanks to its metabolic diversity and ability to adjust the leaf antioxidant metabolism. We hypothesized that this metabolic diversity would also enable E. uniflora to avoid oxidative damage and tolerate the enhanced ozone (O3) concentrations that have been registered in the (sub)tropics. We investigated whether carbohydrates, polyphenols and antioxidants are altered and markers of oxidative damage (ROS accumulation, alterations in leaf gas exchange, growth and biomass production) are detected in plants exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient air and twice elevated ozone level in a O3-FACE system for 75 days). Phytotoxic O3 dose above a threshold of 0 nmol m-2 s-1 (POD0) and accumulated exposure above 40 ppb (AOT40) were 3.6 mmol m-2 and 14.898 ppb h at ambient, and 4.7 mmol m-2 and 43.881 ppb h at elevated O3. Twenty-seven primary metabolites and 16 phenolic compounds were detected in the leaves. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis that tropical broadleaf trees are relatively O3 tolerant, we concluded that E. uniflora plants are sensitive to elevated O3 concentrations. Experimental POD0 values were lower than the critical levels for visible foliar O3, because of low stomatal conductance. In spite of this low stomatal O3 uptake, we found classic O3 injury, e.g. reduction in carbohydrates and fatty acids concentrations; non-significant changes in the polyphenol profile; inefficient antioxidant responses; increased contents of ROS and indicators of lipid peroxidation; reductions in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, root/shoot ratio and height growth. However, we also found some compensation mechanisms, e.g. increased leaf concentration of polyols for protecting the membranes, and increased leaf number for compensating the decline of photosynthetic rate. These results help filling the knowledge gap about tropical tree responses to O3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Eugenia , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , América do Sul , Árvores
15.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572682

RESUMO

The sesquiterpenes selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one were isolated from the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora L. leaves. The structures were elucidated using spectrometric methods (UV, GC-MS, NMR, and specific optical rotation). The relationship between antioxidant activity, as determined by DPPH assay, and the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using tumor cells, namely lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and human hepatoma carcinoma cells (HepG2), as well as a model of normal human lung fibroblast cells (IMR90). Both compounds did not show prominent free-radical scavenging activity according to DPPH assay, and did not inhibit lipid peroxidation in Wistar rat brain homogenate. The isolated compounds showed pro-oxidative effects and cytotoxicity in relation to the IMR90 cell line.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(17): 21334-21346, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411283

RESUMO

The herbicide glyphosate can cause severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms. Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is very important for in situ environmental biomonitoring due to its wide distribution in the Atlantic Forest biome. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the response of E. uniflora leaves to glyphosate. Eight-month-old plants were exposed to an aerial application of the herbicide at concentrations of 0, 144, 432, 864, and 1440 g a. e. ha-1 (grams of acid equivalent per hectare). Evaluations were performed on the 12th day after the glyphosate application (DAA). An accumulation of shikimic acid in the leaves of E. uniflora was observed. Glyphosate altered the photosynthetic parameters of the treated plants, with a drastic decrease in the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and pigment content. There was an increase in Ci/Ca, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte extravasation levels. Glyphosate also promoted ultrastructural, anatomical and visible damage to the E. uniflora leaves. Our findings indicate that glyphosate is phytotoxic to the native species E. uniflora at the tested doses. The presence of visible damage suggests that E. uniflora has remarkable potential as a bioindicator of glyphosate in the environment, making it a possible species for future biomonitoring projects.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Hepatite C Crônica , Herbicidas , Antivirais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta
17.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109904, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509473

RESUMO

Eugenia stipitata is a fruit native to the Brazilian Amazonian region, belonging to the Myrtaceae family whose chemical composition has been little evidenced. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of two fractions of this fruit. It was observed that the edible fraction had a higher content of minerals such as K, Ca and Mg (827.66 ± 14.51; 107.16 ± 1.54; and 75.65 ± 1.28 mg 100 g-1 dw, respectively), sucrose (38.01 ± 2.94 mg g-1 dw), fructose (17.58 ± 0.80 mg g-1 dw), and maltotetraose (1.63 ± 0.09 mg g-1 dw). In this same fraction, about 30 volatile compounds were found, mainly biciclo(3.2.1)octan-3-one, 6 (2-hydroxyethyl)-, endo-; butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, hexyl ester and p-ocimene. In turn, the seed had the highest number of compounds identified by ESI-LTQ-MS/MS (including vanillic acid, gallic acid hexoside, catechin hexoside, luteolin hexoside, among others), higher content of phenolics (142.43 ± 0.82 mg GAE g-1 dw), flavonoids (43.73 ± 0.23 mg CE g-1 dw), and antioxidant capacity (139.59 ± 2.47; 447.94 ± 2.70; and 100.07 ± 10.50 µM TE g-1 dw for DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC, respectively). These results suggest that Eugenia stipitata has excellent nutritional value and great functional potential, and may contribute to a greater commercial exploitation of this fruit, not only in food, but also in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Brasil , Frutas , Nutrientes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Can J Vet Res ; 85(1): 18-26, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390649

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheic newborn calves, as well as the resistance profile of this microorganism against antimicrobials routinely used in veterinary therapy. The antimicrobial profile of Eugenia uniflora against E. coli clinical isolates was also analyzed. Specimens from the recto-anal junction mucosa were investigated by using chromogenic medium and identification of E. coli was done using microbiological methods (Gram staining, indole test, methyl red test, Voges-Proskauer test, citrate test, urease test, and hydrogen sulfide test). The stx1 and stx2 genes corresponding to the STEC pathotype were evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis. The susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary therapeutic practice and the antimicrobial effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora L. leaves against E. coli clinical isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion and microdilution methods. Shiga toxin-positive E. coli was identified in 45% of diarrheic newborn calves (stx1 = 23.2%, stx2 = 4.0%, stx1 + stx2 = 18.2%). The frequency of stx-positive E. coli in the bacterial population was equal to 17.0% (168/990 clinical isolates): 97 (9.8%) stx1-positive E. coli, 12 (1.2%) stx2-positive E. coli, and 59 (6.0%) stx1 + stx2-positive E. coli isolates. All stx-positive E. coli analyzed showed resistance to multiple drugs, that is, from 4 to 10 antimicrobials per clinical isolate (streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol). Effective management measures should be implemented, including clinical and laboratory monitoring, in order to promote animal and worker health and welfare, prevent and control the spread of diseases, and ensure effective treatment of infectious diseases. The E. uniflora L. leaves showed inhibition of microbial growth based on the diameter of halos, ranging from 7.9 to 8.0 mm and 9.9 to 10.1 mm for concentrations of 50 and 150 mg/mL, respectively. This plant displayed bacteriostatic action and a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 mg/mL for all clinical isolates. Its clinical or synergistic effects with antimicrobial agents must be determined from clinical and preclinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(22): 4870-4875, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174171

RESUMO

We investigated the role of triterpene barbinervic acid from Eugenia punicifolia dichloromethane extract in vasopressor responses. Renal arteries were cannulated and perfused with Krebs-Hepes solution. Changes in aorta isometric tension were recorded and transferred to a data acquisition system. Cumulative curves were constructed based on the maximum effect of agonists. Barbinervic acid reduced the renal tonus induced by NA in a NO-dependent manner (IC50 = 30 µM). Triterpene (70 µM) also induced rapid and transient relaxation in aorta that had been precontracted with K+ (53.2 ± 0.05%) or phenylephrine (36.7 ± 0.05%). In silico data revealed two possible active sites for interactions between barbinervic acid and NO synthase. Barbinervic acid showed a vasodilator effect and could potentially be used as a template for developing new molecules for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Triterpenos , Simulação por Computador , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Triterpenos/farmacologia
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(22): 4876-4880, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174188

RESUMO

Parasitoses are very common throughout the world, generating serious consequences for public health. Leishmaniosis and giardiasis are examples of fairly recurrent, but neglected diseases. Several higher plants have demonstrated promising activity against the parasites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from the leaves and stems of two Brazilian plants: Eugenia mattosii and Marlierea eugeniopsoides (Myrtaceae) against Leishmania and Giardia. XTT and the fluorimetric method were used to for this evaluation, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that chloroform fractions of E. matosii and pinostrobin presented the most pronounced antiparasitic activity, with the CLF-stems being the most effective against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis. Pinostrobin also presented activity against G. lamblia. Therefore, E. mattosii stems and pinostrobin may be considered possible targets for the continuity of studies against other parasites.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Eugenia , Leishmania , Myrtaceae , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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