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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994986

RESUMO

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Personalidade , Brasil , Saúde Mental , Eugenia
3.
Food Chem ; 295: 630-636, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174805

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of encapsulated oregano and clove essential oils on oil-in-water nanoemulsions against Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The antifungal efficacy of these nanoemulsions and their sensory acceptance were tested in salad dressings. Both essential oils were effective inhibitors against the target yeast, with minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of 1.75 mg/mL. In the in vitro assay done with the nanoemulsions, no yeast growth was observed for any tested essential oil concentration. In the salad dressings, all the formulations were able to reduce Z. bailii growth compared to the control, and only those samples with 1.95 mg/g of essential oil were capable of inhibiting yeast development after 4 inoculation days. The sensory acceptance of the dressing containing the nanoemulsions was similar to the control dressing in appearance, consistency and colour terms. These results evidence the antifungal activity of oregano and clove nanoemulsions against Z. bailii.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/metabolismo , Zygosaccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Água/química
4.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 358-363, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209703

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by SPME-GC and quantify the bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenolic content), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ORAC) and physicochemical characteristics of ocorocillo, cambucá, murici da praia and murici do campo, four native South American fruits. A total of 41 volatile compounds were identified in ocorocillo, of which 17 were terpenes. Cambuca's volatile profile contained aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high levels of fatty acid volatiles and esters, that contribute to their remarkable aroma. Ocorocillo contained high levels of ascorbic acid and total flavonoids, while cambucá presented lower ascorbic acid, flavonoid and phenolic levels. Murici da praia and murici do campo contained high amounts of phenolic compounds and high free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH and ORAC). In addition, this fruit was sweeter and less acid compared to the other assessed fruits. The results suggest that these native fruits constitute a good source of volatile compounds and bioactive compounds, which may aid in their preservation interest and potential use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Malpighiaceae/química , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/análise
5.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e035, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038569

RESUMO

Eugenia dysenterica is a Brazilian tree investigated for its properties and bioactive compounds, which are believed to have both pharmacological and phytochemical therapeutic effects. The leaves of this tree contain tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, and saponins, with reportedly beneficial effects to the human body. Despite these therapeutic applications, its effects have never been tested on oral tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects and the anti-inflammatory and repair properties of the acetone fraction of E. dysenterica on primary culture of human gingival fibroblasts and on the immortalized murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). For this purpose, a metabolic activity assay, a wound healing assay, a nitric oxide assay, and RT-qPCR were performed. The assays revealed a cytoprotective effect of this plant, suggested by the increase in the expression of SOD1 and NRF2. An antioxidant potential effect was observed in the DPPH• assay. However, the fraction of E. dysenterica did not show anti-inflammatory activity. In conclusion, Eugenia dysenterica may promote cytoprotection when associated with chlorhexidine digluconate because of its antioxidant effect. However, additional studies are necessary on other human dental tissues using other parts of the plant in order to develop a possible mouthwash to assist patients with oral disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Células Cultivadas , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Food Chem ; 294: 547-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126498

RESUMO

This study analyzed six uvaia (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess) accessions ('Comum', 'Rugosa', 'Doce de Patos de Minas', 'Pêra', 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Dura') with respect to chemical composition, nutritional value, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. The 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Doce de Patos de Minas' accessions were sweeter (20.18 g 100 g-1 and 18.88 g 100 g-1, respectively), while the 'Rugosa' and 'Pêra' accessions were less acid (0.28 g 100 g-1 and 0.33 g 100 g-1, respectively). Terpenes were the major volatile compounds (46.75%) identified by SPME-GC/MS. The 'Rugosa' accession contained high levels of fibers (43.81 g 100 g-1) and minerals (2235.10  mg 100 g-1). The 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Rugosa' accessions were distinguished by total flavonoids and phenolic compounds. 'Rugosa Doce' and 'Rugosa' may potentially serve as a raw material for food, while 'Doce de Patos de Minas' and 'Pêra' can be used for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries purposes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Eugenia/química , Valor Nutritivo , Eugenia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 162, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea, a global economically important disease burden affecting swine and, especially piglets, is commonly caused by infection with entero-toxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Adherence of ETEC to porcine intestinal epithelial cells following infection, is necessary for its pathogenesis. While antimicrobials are commonly given as therapy or as feed additives for prophylaxis against microbial infections, the concern over increased levels of antimicrobial resistance necessitate the search for safe and effective alternatives in livestock feed. Attention is shifting to natural products including plants as suitable alternatives to antimicrobials. The activity of acetone crude leaf extracts of nine under-explored South African endemic plants from the Myrtaceae family with good antimicrobial activity were tested against pathogenic E. coli of porcine origin using a microplate serial dilution method. Bioautography, also with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet as growth indicator was used to view the number of bioactive compounds in each extract. In vitro toxicity of extracts was determined against Caco-2 cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested on a panel of antimicrobials using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method while the anti-adherence mechanism was evaluated using a Caco-2 cell enterocyte anti-adhesion model. RESULTS: The MIC of the extracts ranged from 0.07-0.14 mg/mL with S. legatii having the best mean MIC (0.05 mg/mL). Bioautography revealed at least two active bands in each plant extract. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values ranged between 0.03-0.66 mg/mL. Eugenia zeyheri least cytotoxic (LC50 = 0.66 mg/ml) while E. natalitia had the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 = 0.03 mg/mL). All the bacteria were completely resistant to doxycycline and colistin sulphate and many of the plant extracts significantly reduced adhesion of E. coli to Caco-2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of the plants had good antibacterial activity as well as a protective role on intestinal epithelial cells against enterotoxigenic E. coli bacterial adhesion. This supports the potential use of these species in limiting infection causes by E. coli. Some of these plants or extracts may be useful as phytogenic feed additives but it has to be investigated by animal feed trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Acetona/química , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058826

RESUMO

Eugenia winzerlingii (Myrtaceae) is an endemic plant from the Yucatan peninsula. Its organic extracts and fractions from leaves have been tested on two phloem-feeding insects, Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae, on two plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica, and phytotoxicity on Lolium perenne and Solanum lycopersicum. Results showed that both the hexane extract and the ethyl acetate extract, as well as the fractions, have strong antifeedant and nematicidal effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methylated active fractions revealed the presence of a mixture of fatty acids. Authentic standards of detected fatty acids and methyl and ethyl derivatives were tested on target organisms. The most active compounds were decanoic, undecanoic, and dodecanoic acids. Methyl and ethyl ester derivatives had lower effects in comparison with free fatty acids. Dose-response experiments showed that undecanoic acid was the most potent compound with EC50 values of 21 and 6 nmol/cm2 for M. persicae and B. tabaci, respectively, and 192 and 64 nmol for M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. In a phytotoxicity assay, medium-chain fatty acids caused a decrease of 38-52% in root length and 50-60% in leaf length of L. perenne, but no effects were observed on S. lycopersicum. This study highlights the importance of the genus Eugenia as a source of bioactive metabolites for plant pest management.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/química , Cromadoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/química , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Controle de Pragas , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20180420, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994767

RESUMO

Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is a tree species widely distributed in South America suffering the effects of the exploitation of natural populations. In this study, we employed low coverage sequencing of the E. uniflora genome for mining of SSR markers. The de novo assembly generated 2,601 contigs with an average length of 1139 bp and spans 3.15 Mb. A total of 76 dimer, 33 trimer and two compound SSR loci were identified. Twelve selected SSR loci were employed to genotype 30 individuals from two natural populations. A total of 73 alleles were detected (mean A= 6.1) were observed, the mean effective number of alleles was Ae = 3.91, mean Ho was 0.23 and mean HE was 0.70). The mean Wright's within population fixation index was FIS = 0.66 and significant deviation of HWE was observed in all loci, except one. The FST between populations equaled 0.27. The levels of genetic diversity and structure estimated with these 12 SSR markers are in accordance with data from genetics studies performed on other tree species of the Pampa biome, presenting moderate to high polymorphism and may be employed in studies of species conservation measures and breeding programs.


Assuntos
Eugenia/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Análise de Variância , Sequência de Bases , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Valores de Referência
10.
Food Chem ; 286: 51-63, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827640

RESUMO

This study presents unpublished data on the chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid content in fruits. Sixty-four fruits consumed in Brazil, most of which were produced domestically, were evaluated based on their levels of 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid. The study investigated 15 fruits that have not been reported in the literature in relation to these compounds, including several native species. The highest concentration of mono-caffeoylquinic acid was observed in strawberry, cherry, bilberry, quince and mulberry, while the dicaffeoylquinic acid was present with highest concentration in kumquat, passion fruit and sweet granadilla. Regarding caffeic acid, the highest content was found in bilberry and yellow pitaya. Considering the sum of the concentrations of these compounds, quince, cherry, bilberry, mulberry and sweet granadilla were exceptional, with concentrations between 200.0 and 569.7 mg kg-1.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Frutas/química , Brasil , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Eugenia/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 268-278, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763697

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae), an Amazonian medicinal plant known as "pedra-ume-caá," is popularly used as a natural remedy for inflammation, wounds, infections, diabetes, fever, and flu. Its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and gastroprotective effects have already been characterized. We evaluated the gastric healing effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of E. punicifolia (HEEP) in male and female Wistar rats against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and ethanol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The healing effect of HEEP on the gastric mucosa of adult male and female Wistar rats was measured after the chronic application of aggressive factors such as NSAIDs or 80% ethanol. Male, and intact and ovariectomized (OVZ) female rats were treated with HEEP for two days (NSAIDs) or one, two, four, and six days (80% ethanol). The stomachs were analyzed macroscopically for ulcerative lesions (mm2), and the healing process was measured using biochemical analysis with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant parameters. RESULTS: Macroscopic evaluation of the gastric mucosa showed that gastric lesions induced by NSAIDs were significantly healed (66%) and pro-inflammatory interleukin 5 cytokine level was decreased after two-day oral treatment with HEEP compared with those in the negative control group (p < 0.05). However, the gastric lesions induced by NSAIDs did not heal in HEEP-treated female rats (p > 0.05). In addition, four-day treatment with HEEP significantly healed the gastric lesions induced by ethanol in male and female rats (63% and 78%, respectively) compared to those of the negative control group (p < 0.05). However, the OVZ group required six days of HEEP treatment to heal gastric ulcers (67% compared to the control group). HEEP exerts the healing effect against ethanol by significantly reducing neutrophil infiltration into the gastric mucosa by decreasing myeloperoxidase activity in male and OVZ rats after four and six days of treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). Four-day treatment with HEEP also increased the level of a non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione in intact females compared to that of the negative control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that HEEP was effective in promoting the healing of gastric ulcers induced by NSAIDs or ethanol. The gastric healing effects of this extract could be affected by female sex hormone interference; in future, comprehensive studies should be performed by considering sex differences.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/toxicidade , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores Sexuais , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 232: 30-38, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543916

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oils and extracts of Eugenia uniflora have been reported as antimicrobial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and cytotoxic. AIM OF THE STUDY: The oils of five specimens (E1 to E5) that occur in the Brazilian Amazon were extracted, analyzed for their chemical composition, and submitted to antioxidant and cytotoxic assays. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oils were hydrodistilled, analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and submitted to PCA and HCA analyses. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging and the ß-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Antiproliferative effects of the oils and curzerene were tested against colon (HCT-116), gastric (AGP-01), and melanoma (SKMEL-19) human cancer cell lines and a normal human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. RESULTS: Oxygenated sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as curzerene, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one epoxide, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, and (E)-caryophyllene were predominant in the oils. PCA and HCA analyses classified the oils samples into four chemotypes. TEAC values of chemotype II (E3 oil, 228.3 ±â€¯19.2 mg TE/mL) and chemotype III (E4 oil, 217.0 ±â€¯23.3 mg TE/mL) displayed significant antioxidant activities. The oils E2 and E4 showed cytotoxic activity against all cell lines tested HCT-116 (IC50 E2:16.26 µg/mL; IC50 E4:9.28 µg/mL), AGP-01, (IC50 E2:12.60 µg/mL; IC50 E4:8.73 µg/mL), SKMEL-19 (IC50 E2:12.20 µg/mL; IC50 E4:15.42 µg/mL), and MRC-5 (IC50 E2:10.27 µg/mL; IC50 E4:14.95 µg/mL). Curzerene showed the more significant activity against melanoma cells (SKMEL-19, IC50:5.17 µM), induced apoptosis at 5.0 µM and 10.0 µM compared to DMSO, exhibiting a decrease in the cell migration at 5.0 µM and 10.0 µM, after 30 h of treatment. CONCLUSION: The curzerene chemotype oil and E. uniflora oils can be indicated as drug candidates for anticancer activity of the lung, colon, stomach, and melanoma, with a real prospect to their subsequent phytotherapeutic development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eugenia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Molecules ; 24(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577426

RESUMO

The use of natural oils in topical pharmaceutical preparations has usually presented safe agents for the improvement of human health. Based on research into the immense potential of wound management and healing, we aimed to validate the use of topical natural products by studying the ability of the essential oil of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves (oEd) to stimulate in vitro skin cell migration. Skin cytotoxicity was evaluated using a fibroblast cell line (L929) by MTT assay. The oil chemical profile was investigated by GC-MS. Moreover, the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) tested. The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay was used to evaluate the angiogenic activity and irritating potential of the oil. The oEd induces skin cell migration in a scratch assay at a concentration of 542.2 µg/mL. α-humulene and ß-caryophyllene, the major compounds of this oil, as determined by GC-MS, may partly explain the migration effect. The inhibition of nitric oxide by oEd and α-humulene suggested an anti-inflammatory effect. The CAM assay showed that treatment with oEd ≤ 292 µg/mL did not cause skin injury, and that it can promote angiogenesis in vivo. Hence, these results indicate the feasibility of the essential oil of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves to developed dermatological products capable of helping the body to repair damaged tissue.


Assuntos
Eugenia/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 604-609, nov. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007366

RESUMO

This study describes the qualitative and quantitative seasonal analysis of the essential oils from an unexplored plant Eugenia brevistyla, native from Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest and Semidecidual Forest. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 28 compounds. The largest fraction corresponds to oxygenated sesquiterpenes in all seasons. The major compound was E-nerolidol in all seasons, being higher in winter (83.14%) and lower in spring (69.6%). The second major compound was byciclogermacrene in the spring and in the summer essential oils. Alloaromadendrene and spathulenol were the second major compounds in autumn and winter, respectively. Sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons showed higher variation along the year (58%) than oxygenated sesquiterpenes (2%). No monoterpenes were found in the analyzed essential oils.


Este estudio describe el análisis estacional cualitativo y cuantitativo del aceite esencial de la planta inexplorada Eugenia brevistyla, nativa de la Selva Tropical Atlántica dey del Bosque Semidecidual de Brasil. El análisis por GC-FID y GC-MS permitió la identificación de 28 compuestos. La fracción más grande corresponde a sesquiterpenos oxigenados en todas las estaciones. El compuesto principal fue E-nerolidol en todas las estaciones, siendo más alto en invierno (83.14%) y más bajo en la primavera (69.6%). El segundo compuesto principal fue biciclogermacreno en los aceites esenciales de la primavera y del verano. El aloaromadendreno y el espatulenol fueron los segundos compuestos principales en otoño e invierno, respectivamente. Los hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos mostraron una mayor variación a lo largo del año (58%) que los sesquiterpenos oxigenados (2%). No se encontraron monoterpenos en los aceites esenciales analizados.


Assuntos
Estações do Ano , Óleos Voláteis/química , Eugenia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Brasil , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos/análise , Ionização de Chama , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 55(2): 138-141, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracts obtained from plants and fruits provide a relatively safe and practical alternative for the conventional medicine of gastrointestinal diseases. The specie Eugenia mattosii, popularly known in Brazil as "cerejinha", belongs to Myrtaceae family. Species of this family present pharmacological properties, and can be used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of Eugenia mattosii fruits. METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by thin layer chromatography and gastroprotective assays were performed using two experimental models: acute ulcer model induced by ethanol/HCl and acute ulcer model induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (indomethacin). Total lesion area (mm2) and relative lesion area (%) were determined. RESULTS: The results of the phytochemical analysis indicated that the bark and pulp and seeds of E. mattosii present phenolic compounds, terpenes and/or steroids. In gastric ulcer model induced by ethanol was evidenced significant reduction of damaged areas for doses of 50 and 250 mg/ kg of seeds methanol extract, while in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, all parts of the fruit presented defense capability of the gastric mucosa by reducing lesions at doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that the specie E. mattosii has bioactive compounds that provide gastroprotective activity, presenting possible therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Feminino , Indometacina , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sementes/química , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
16.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 42(2): 269-282, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000102

RESUMO

The genus Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) comprises plants with reported antioxidant and antidiarrheal capability among other therapeutic potentials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oil; diuretic and hypotensive activities of aqueous extracts from leaves of Eugenia uniflora. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated . The diuretic and hypotensive activities were evaluated in normotensive Wistar rats by measuring blood pressure and urine flow after received four different concentrations of aqueous extracts (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%). Essential oil inhibited the growth of Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans with MIC values lower than 14.41 mg/mL, equal to 57.75 mg/mL for Candida krusei. Among antibacterial effect, essential oil inhibited growth with a MIC equals to 153.93 mg/mL for all strains tested, except for Escherichia coli (MIC equals to 307.96 mg/mL. Aqueous extracts showed powerful reductions of the arterial pressure (34% and 31% lower than the control), after administration of 10% and 25% of aqueous extract, respectively. However, the animals that received the aqueous extract at the 15% and 20% concentrations presented a discrete hypotensive effect (20% and 21% lower than control group, respectively) concomitantly to powerful diuretic effect (280% and 91% higher than control group, respectively). These data confirmed the potential biological effect of this species, and represents an important step toward a depth study on the therapeutic properties of this species


O gênero Eugenia sp. (Myrtaceae) compreende plantas com capacidade antimicrobiana e antioxidante entre outros potenciais terapêuticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial; atividade diurética e hipotensora de extrato aquoso de folhas de Eugenia uniflora. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) e concentração mínima bactericida (MBC) de cepas bacterianas e concentração fungicida mínima (MFC) para fungos. A atividade diurética e hipotensora foi avaliada em ratos Wistar normotensos pela mensuração da pressão sanguínea e fluxo urinário após administração de quatro diferentes concentrações de extrato aquoso (10%, 15%, 20% e 25%). Óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de Candida parapsilosis e Candida albicans com valores de MIC menores que 14,41 mg/mL, igual a 57,75 mg/mL para Candida krusei. A respeito do efeito antimicrobiano, o óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todas as cepas testadas, com MIC igual a 153,93 mg/mL, exceto para Escherichia coli (MIC igual a 307.96 mg/mL). O extrato aquoso mostrou redução importante da pressão arterial (34% e 31% quando comparado ao controle), após administração de 10% e 25% do extrato aquoso, respectivamente. Contudo, os animais que receberam o extrato aquoso na concentração de 15% e 20% apresentaram discreto efeito hipotensor (20% e 21% menor que o grupo controle, respectivamente) concomitantemente ao importante efeito diurético (280% e 91% maior quando comparado ao grupo controle, respectivamente). Esses achados confirmam o potencial efeito biológico dessa espécie, e representa um importante embasamento para estudos relacionados as propriedades terapêuticas da Eugenia uniflora


Assuntos
Humanos , Óleos , Diuréticos , Eugenia , Hiperglicemia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antifúngicos , Anti-Hipertensivos , Brasil , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Antioxidantes
17.
Molecules ; 23(5)2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738503

RESUMO

The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In this study the activity of Thymus vulgaris, Citrus limonum, Pelargonium graveolens, Cinnamomum cassia, Ocimumbasilicum, and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils (EOs) distributed by Pollena Aroma (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Poland) was investigated against a group of 183 clinical isolates of C. albicans and 76 isolates of C. glabrata. All of the oils exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activity toward C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. The highest activity was observed for cinnamon oil, with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values in the range 0.002⁻0.125% (v/v). The MIC values of the rest of the oils were in the range 0.005% (or less) to 2.5% (v/v). In most cases MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration) values were equal to MIC or twice as high. Additionally, we examined the mode of action of selected EOs. The effect on cell wall components could not be clearly proved. Three of the tested EOs (thyme, lemon, and clove) affected cell membranes. At the same time, thyme, cinnamon, and clove oil influenced potassium ion efflux, which was not seen in the case of lemon oil. All of the tested oils demonstrated the ability to inhibit the transition of yeast to mycelium form, but the effect was the lowest in the case of cinnamon oil.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Citrus/química , Eugenia/química , Fungos/patogenicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ocimum basilicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pelargonium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química
18.
Food Chem ; 261: 233-239, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739588

RESUMO

The development of fungal resistance to antifungal drugs has been worsening over the years and as a result research on new antifungal agents derived from plants has intensified. Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga) has been studied for its various biological actions. In this study the chemical composition and antifungal effects of the E. uniflora essential oil (EULEO) were investigated against Candida albicans (CA), Candida krusei (CK) and Candida tropicalis (CT) standard strains. The essential oil obtained through hydro-distillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To determine the IC50 of the oil, the cellular viability curve and the inhibitory effects were measured by means of the oil's association with Fluconazole in a broth microdilution assay with spectrophotometric readings. The Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined by solid medium subculture with the aid of a guide plate while the assays used to verify morphological changes emerging from the action of the fractions were performed in microculture chambers at concentrations based on the microdilution. Two major oil constituents stand out from the chemical analysis: selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (36.37%) and selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one epoxide (27.32%). The concentration that reduced microorganismal growth was ≥8,192 µg/mL while the IC50 varied, this being between 1892.47 and 12491.80 µg/mL (oil), 10.07 - 80.78 µg/mL (fluconazole) and 18.53 - 295.60 µg/mL (fluconazole + oil). The combined activity (fluconazole + oil) resulted in indifference and antagonism. A MFC of the oil in association with fluconazole was recorded at the concentration of 8,192 µg/mL against CA and CK. The oil caused the inhibition of CA and CT morphological transition. In view of the results obtained, additional research is needed to elucidate the activity of the E. uniflora oil over genetic and biochemical processes regarding its effect on Candida spp. virulence.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/patogenicidade , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 84, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study showed phytochemical composition and evaluates the anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of crude extract (CE) and fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves. METHODS: Polyphenols present in crude extract (CE), in aqueous fraction (AqF), and ethyl acetate (EAF) treated fractions from E. uniflora Linn leaves were shown by chromatographic analysis in order to conduct a phytochemical characterization. Antibacterial activity was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined using the agar dilution method. Doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of the CE and fractions were applied for conducting in vivo models (male Swiss mice, 8-10 weeks old). The peritonitis experimental model was induced by carrageenan following of Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), Total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA), IL-1ß and TNF-α levels by spectroscopic UV/VIS analysis. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated based on an abdominal writhing model and hot plate test. The results were statistically evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) detected varying concentrations of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and myricitrin in the CE and fractions obtained from E. uniflora Linn leaves (0.05-0.87%w/w, 0.20-0.32%w/w, and 1.71-6.56%w/w, respectively). In general, the CE had lower MIC values than the fractions, including the lowest MIC against the MRSA strain. The CE and AqF also significantly reduced leukocyte migration and MPO activity (p < 0.05). In addition, AqF significantly reduced IL-1ß and TNF-α levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the CE and fractions exhibited an antioxidant effect (p < 0.05) and peripheral analgesic activity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The CE and fractions from the studied E. uniflora Linn leaves exhibited antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity in the performed assays.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Eugenia/química , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glutationa/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Peritonite/genética , Peritonite/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 102: 132-139, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550636

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory and antibiofilm activities as well as toxicity and chemical profile of Eugenia brasiliensis pulp extract (EBE), were evaluated. EBE chemical profile and phenolic content were determined by LC-MS/MS. EBE was tested for its in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, including TNF-α release, NF-кB activation, neutrophil migration and paw edema. The MIC/MBC and antibiofilm activities were tested against methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. EBE acute toxicity was evaluated in Galleria mellonella and RAW 264.7 macrophage. EBE total phenolic content was 389.88 ±â€¯3.48 mg GAE/g with identified polyphenols. EBE decreased TNF-α release in vivo and in vitro, NF-кB activation, neutrophil influx into peritoneal cavity, and it showed maximal inhibition of paw edema after 2 h. MIC of EBE ranged from 62.5-500 µg/mL while MBC values were >500 µg/mL, with a decrease in L. acidophilus biofilm formation. EBE showed negligible toxicity in larvae and macrophage cells. Our findings open new perspectives concerning EBE application as source of anti-inflammatory and antibiofilm molecules as a functional food, pharmaceutical lead or agribusiness commodity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Eugenia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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