Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.099
Filtrar
1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1452-1459, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281360

RESUMO

To reveal the toxic mechanism of Kansui stir-baked with vinegar(VEK), conducta comparative study on the metabolites of fecal samples of rats before and after being treated with chemical constituents group B and C(VEKB/VEKC) extracted from VEK by metabolomics approach. The fecal samples of each group were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UFLC-Q-TOF-MS). Then the data was processed by principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) to screen and identify biomarkers relating to the toxicity of VEK. Besides, t-test was adopted for univariate statistical analysis, so as to study the changes of these biomarkers in drug groups before and after being treated with VEKB/VEKC and explore the effect of VEKB/VEKC on the metabolism of rat feces. Furthermore, the toxic mechanism of VEKB/VEKC was explored based on the results of the metabolic pathway analysis. The results displayed that compared with control group, the metabolism of fecal samples of VEKB and VEKC treated groups show obvious changes, and the VEKB treated group show more significant changes. A total of 16 potential biomarkers and 5 metabolic pathways relating to the toxicity of VEK were found and identified. And the toxicity of VEK might be associated with the disorder of such metabolic pathways as tryptophan metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, purine metabolism, and degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine. This study provides a scientific basis for the clinical safety application of VEK.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Euphorbia/química , Fezes/química , Metaboloma , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos
2.
Phytochemistry ; 172: 112257, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986448

RESUMO

In this study, fourteen ingenane-type and nine jatrophane-type diterpenoids were isolated from Euphorbia kansui, including seven undescribed compounds. Kansuingenol A-C have the 6,7-vicinal diol moiety, and Kansuijatrophanol A and B possess the 11,12-vicinal diol moiety, both of which are rarely reported. 3,4-(Methylenedioxy) cinnamyl moiety was found for the first time in jatrophane-type diterpenoids, as shown in Kansuijatrophanol C and D. The absolute configurations of seven undescribed compounds have been analyzed and assigned by the modified Mosher's method, Mo2(OAc)4-induced circular dichroism (ICD) method, and CD exciton chirality method. All compounds were screened for their antiproliferative effects against HepG2, MCF-7 and DU145 cell lines. Regarding the HepG2 cells, Kansuijatrophanol C exhibited the most promising inhibition with the IC50 value of 9.47 ± 0.31 µM. Regarding the MCF-7 and DU145 cells, Kansuijatrophanol D exhibited the most promising inhibition with the IC50 values of 6.29 ± 0.18 and 4.19 ± 0.32 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Euphorbia , Linhagem Celular , Estrutura Molecular
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 183-190, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049240

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of traditionally used antibacterial plants (Euphorbia prostrata, Schinus molle, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Lepidium virginicum) in Santa Rosa Range in Guanajuato against major mastitis-causing pathogens. The selected plants were phytochemically screened for alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. Moreover, to achieve the main purpose of the present research, extracts of selected plants were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Clavibacter spp., Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella spp. All these bacterial were isolated from clinical mastitis in dairy cows. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of the aerial part of L. virginicum exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, and it could be potential candidate specie for the development of novel veterinary drugs with low cost and fewer side effects.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia de plantas antibacterianas tradicionalmente usadas (Euphorbia prostrata, Schinus molle, Brickellia veronicaefolia e Lepidium virginicum) na cordilheira Santa Rosa, em Guanajuato, contra os principais patógenos causadores de mastite. As plantas selecionadas foram rastreadas fitoquimicamente quanto a alcalóides, flavonóides, polifenóis, saponinas, antraquinona, glicosídeos cardíacos, esteróides e terpenóides. Além disso, para atingir o objetivo principal da presente pesquisa, extratos de plantas selecionadas foram testados quanto à atividade antibacteriana in vitrocontra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Clavibacter spp., Proteus vulgaris e Salmonella spp. Todas essas bactérias foram isoladas de mastite clínica em vacas leiteiras. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato etanólico da parte aérea de L. virginicum exibia a atividade antimicrobiana mais forte e poderia ser uma espécie potencial candidata ao desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos veterinários com baixo custo e menos efeitos colaterais.


Assuntos
Schinus molle , Lepidium , Euphorbia , Mastite Bovina , Medicina Tradicional , Antibacterianos
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111705, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812087

RESUMO

The procurance of gold nanoparticles in the plant extracts is an excellent way to attain nanomaterials natural and eco-friendly nanomaterials. The Dehydrated roots of Chinese Euphorbia fischeriana flowering plant are called "Lang-Du". In this study, the retrieving of gold nanoparticles from Euphorbia fischeriana root was amalgamated by standard procedure. Fabricated gold nanoparticles were portrayed through the investigations of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-Vis and FTIR results explicated the obtained particles were sphere-shaped and the terpenoids of Euphorbia fischeriana had strong communications with gold surface. The HRTEM and XRD images exposed the produced gold nanoparticles had an extreme composition of crystal arrangement and excellent uniformed size of particles. In our study, the Isoprenaline induced myocardial damage established the elevation in TBARS, LOOH of heart tissues and notable decline in antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH. This biochemical result was additionally proved by histopathological assessment. Remarkably, the pretreatment with EF-AuNps(50 mg/kg b.w) illustrated stabilized levels of serum creatine and cardiotropins in myocardial infarcted animals. And further we understood the essential function of NF-ƙB, TNF-α, IL-6 signaling molecules and its way progression in the development of vascular tenderness.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Química Verde , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1238-1245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize tortilla staling is a major drawback that affects its commercialization and consumption, and so novel methods for retarding staling are continuously being explored. The present study evaluated the effect of adding a canola oil/candelilla wax oleogel (CWO; 0. 2, 4 and 6 g 100 g-1 ) to a basic masa formulation (water, 60 g 100 g-1 ; nixtamalized maize flour, 40 g 100 g-1 ) on the texture, staling and in vitro starch digestibility of maize tortillas made using a hot plate (200 °C). RESULTS: Textural analysis showed that CWO reduced hardness and increased the tensile strength of tortillas. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that the retrogradation of starch chains, quantified in terms of the intensity ratio 1047/1022, was reduced by oleogel incorporation. In vitro starch digestibility tests showed that tortillas containing CWO had lower readily digestible and slowly digestible starch fractions compared to the control tortilla without oleogel. CONCLUSION: The formation of amylose-lipid inclusion complexes and the formation of an oily physical barrier around starch granules were postulated as mechanisms underlying the reduced starch digestibility. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Euphorbia/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Amido/química , Ceras/análise , Zea mays/química , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Amido/metabolismo , Paladar , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 247-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602502

RESUMO

Many researchers proved that plant endophytes manage successful issues to synthesize active chemicals within plant cells. These bioactive compounds might support a range of plant defense mechanism against many pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a total of 22 isolates representing 21 fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera in addition to one variety were isolated and identified for the first time from Euphorbia geniculate plants. The genus Aspergillus was the most common fungus isolated from the studied plant. The fungus Isaria feline was recorded in both leaves and stem, while Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus var. terreus, Emercilla nidulans var. acristata, Macrophomina phaseolina colonized both stem and root. The isolated fungi showed antagonistic activities against six strains of plant pathogenic fungi viz., Eupenicillium brefeldianum, Penicillium echinulatum, Alternaria phragmospora, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticilloid, and Alternaria alternata in dual culture assay. The highest antagonistic activity fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and Fusarium lateritium) and the lowest (Cladosprium herbarum, F. culomrum, and Sporotrichum thermophile) showed twining in their secondary metabolites especially terpens and alkaloids with that of their host E. geniculata. Three concentrations of (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) of these secondary metabolites extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol from the above six endophytic fungal species were tested against three pathogenic fungi isolated from infected tomato plant (E. brefeldianum-EBT-1, P. echinulatum-PET-2, and A. phragmospora-APT-3), whereas these pathogens showed promising sensitivity to these fungal secondary metabolites. In conclusion, this is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from E. geniculata and evaluation of their antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Endófitos/química , Euphorbia/microbiologia , Fungos/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(12): e1900495, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755643

RESUMO

Fifteen diterpenoids (1-15), including three undescribed ones with ent-atisane skeleton, eupnerias G-I (1-3), were obtained from Euphorbia neriifolia. Compounds 1-3 were established through comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited obvious anti-HIV-1 effect, and their EC50 were 6.6±3.2 and 6.4±2.5 µg mL-1 , respectively. Compound 6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2/Adr cells with IC50 at 13.70 and 15.57 µm, respectively. In addition, compound 15 exhibited significant cytotoxicity on HepG2 cell lines (IC50 =0.01 µm), while it did not show any cytotoxicity against HepG2/Adr cell lines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Diterpenos/química , Euphorbia/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbia/metabolismo , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104408, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698058

RESUMO

One new pseudoguaianolide (1), one new megastigmane (6), and one new ent-abietane diterpene (9), together with seven known compounds (2-5, 7, 8, and 10) were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia thymifolia. The structures of the new compounds and their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 6, and 9 were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis, modified Mosher's method and calculated ECD experiment, respectively. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 microglial cells, and pseudoguaianolides (1-5) showed significant activity with IC50 values of 0.41-15.32 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Cicloexanonas , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Nítrico , Norisoprenoides , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiological agent of schistosomiasis mansoni. Molluscicide use is recommended by the WHO for controlling the transmission of this parasite. Euphorbia milii latex has shown promising results as an alternative molluscicide. Thus, a natural molluscicide prototype kit based on freeze-dried E. milii latex was developed and evaluated against Biomphalaria spp. METHODS: E. milii latex was collected, processed, and lyophilized. Two diluents were defined for freeze-dried latex rehydration, and a prototype kit, called MoluSchall, was produced. A stability test was conducted using prototype kits stored at different temperatures, and a toxicity assay was performed using Danio rerio. Additionally, MoluSchall was tested against B. glabrata under semi-natural conditions according to defined conditions in the laboratory. RESULTS: MoluSchall was lethal to three Brazilian snail species while exhibiting low toxicity to D. rerio. Regardless of storage temperature, MoluSchall was stable for 24 months and was effective against B. glabrata under semi-natural conditions, with the same LD100 as observed under laboratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS: MoluSchall is a natural, effective, and inexpensive molluscicide with lower environmental toxicity than existing molluscicides. Its production offers a possible alternative strategy for controlling S. mansoni transmission.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Euphorbia/química , Látex/farmacologia , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Látex/isolamento & purificação , Moluscocidas/isolamento & purificação
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374948

RESUMO

Autophagy is a well-defined catabolic mechanism whereby cytoplasmic materials are engulfed into a structure termed the autophagosome. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone, mediates diverse developmental process and defense responses which induce a variety of metabolites. In plants, little is known about autophagy-mediated responses against MeJA. In this study, we used high-throughput comparative proteomics to identify proteins of latex in the laticifers. The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS proteomics were performed, and 298 proteins among MeJA treated groups and the control group of Euphorbia kansui were identified. It is interesting to note that 29 significant differentially expressed proteins were identified and their associations with autophagy and ROS pathway were verified for several selected proteins as follows: α-L-fucosidase, ß-galactosidase, cysteine proteinase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the selected genes confirmed the fact that MeJA might enhance the expression of some genes related to autophagy. The western blotting and immunofluorescence results of ATG8 and ATG18a which are two important proteins for the formation of autophagosomes also demonstrated that MeJA could promote autophagy at the protein level. Using the electron microscope, we observed an increase in autophagosomes after MeJA treatment. These results indicated that MeJA might promote autophagy in E. kansui laticifers; and it was speculated that MeJA mediated autophagy through two possible ways: the increase of ROS induces ATG8 accumulation and then aotophagosome formation, and MeJA promotes ATG18 accumulation and then autophagosome formation. Taken together, our results provide several novel insights for understanding the mechanism between autophagy and MeJA treatment. However, the specific mechanism remains to be further studied in the future.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Euphorbia/citologia , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Euphorbia/genética , Euphorbia/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 261, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 200 medicinal plants including Euphorbia abyssinica are utilized for treatment of malaria in Ethiopian traditional medical practices. However, the safety, efficacy and quality of these medicinal plants are largely unknown. Pharmacological and toxicological investigations of these plants are among the prioritized issues in every country. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the anti-malarial activity of Euphorbia abyssinica root extract against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. METHODS: The fresh roots of Euphorbia abyssinica were identified and collected. They were dried and extracted by 80% methanol using maceration. Acute toxicity of the extract was done using female Swiss albino mice. Anti-malarial activity of the extract was done by a standard 4-day suppressive test using chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei. Twenty-five male Swiss albino mice were randomly grouped into 5 groups of 5 mice each. Group I was treated with distilled water (10 ml/kg), group II, III, and IV were treated with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of extract, respectively and group V was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg). The level of parasitaemia, survival time, and variation in weight were utilized to determine the anti-malarial activity of the extract. Data was analysed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test. RESULTS: The plant extract did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality at 2000 mg/kg. The 4-day chemosuppressive anti-malarial activities produced by the crude extract were 66.87% (P < 0.001), 84.94% (P < 0.001) and 93.69% (P < 0.001) at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg extract, respectively, compared to distilled water treated group. Mice treated with 400 mg/kg (P < 0.01), and 600 mg/kg extract (P < 0.001) showed significant chemosuppressive anti-malarial activity variations as compared to mice treated with 200 mg/kg extract. Mice treated with 600 mg/kg extract significantly (P < 0.001) lived longer than distilled water treated mice. However, the crude extract did not cause any significant change on body weights of mice. CONCLUSIONS: From this study, it can be concluded that the root of Euphorbia abyssinica showed very good 4-day chemosuppressive anti-malarial activity. The plant might contain biologically active compounds which are relevant for treatment of malaria. Further phytochemical, toxicological and pharmacological investigations are, therefore, required to evaluate its anti-malarial potential.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Malária/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461873

RESUMO

Seven rare e:b-friedo-hopane-type triterpenoids including four new (1-4) and three known (5-7) ones with 5 being first reported as a natural product, together with five other known triterpenoids (8-12), were isolated from the nonpolar fractions of the ethanolic extract of Euphorbia peplus. Structural assignments for these compounds were based on spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemical computation method. The structural variations for the C-21 isopropyl group, including dehydrogenation (1 and 3) and hydroxylation at C-22 (simiarendiol, 2), were the first cases among e:b-friedo-hopane-type triterpenoids. Simiarendiol (2) bearing a 22-OH showed significant cytostatic activity against HeLa and A549 human tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 3.93 ± 0.10 and 7.90 ± 0.31 µM, respectively. The DAPI staining and flow cytometric analysis revealed that simiarendiol (2) effectively induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at the S/G2 phases in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa cells.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Euphorbia/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1160-1170, july/aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048828

RESUMO

In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, glyphosate has not been capable of controlling wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) in soybean fields, thus, suggesting resistanceto this herbicide. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating sensitivity of wild poinsettia biotypes to glyphosate, identifying the occurrence of resistance of wild poinsettia to the herbicide in RS state and determining the resistance factor of wild poinsettia biotypes under suspicion, besides assessing other herbicides as alternative controls. Two greenhouse experiments, which lasted two years, were conducted by a completely randomized design with four replications. Six biotypes (Factor A) and eight doses of glyphosate (Factor B) were used for getting the dose-response curve. Regarding the alternative control, post-emergence herbicides for soybean and corn crops were tested. Control and dry mass of the shoot were analyzed as variables. Resistance factors of resistant biotypes 20.2 and 21.1 were 4.83 and 5.29, respectively, by comparison with the susceptible biotype (11.4). In RS state, there has currently been high selection pressure due to the intensive use of glyphosate against wild poinsettia plants, as the result of the occurrence of biotypes 20.2 and 21.1 which have low levels of resistance to glyphosate and very little control by ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Therefore, an alternative to mitigate the problem is the use of herbicides with different mechanisms of action.


As falhas de controle de leiteira (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) após aplicação de glyphosate em lavouras de soja do Rio Grande do Sul (RS) são frequentes, sugerindo a resistência ao herbicida. Diante disso, os objetivos foram avaliar a sensibilidade de biótipos de leiteira ao herbicida glyphosate, identificar a ocorrência da resistência, determinar o fator de resistência de biótipos de leiteira com suspeita de resistência e avaliar herbicidas alternativos para o seu controle. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições ambos realizados em dois anos. No experimento de curva dose-resposta foram utilizados cinco biótipos (fator A) e oito doses do herbicidaglyphosate (fator B). Para o controle alternativo, foram testados herbicidas em pós emergência das culturas de soja e milho. As variáveis analisadas foram controle e massa seca da parte aérea. O fator de resistência dos biótipos resistentes (20.2 e 21.1) foram 4,83 e 5,29 comparativamente ao biótipo suscetível (11.4) respectivamente. Existe elevada pressão de seleção pelo glyphosate em plantas de leiteira no RS, observando-se a ocorrência de biótipos 20.2 e 21.1 com resistência de nível baixo ao herbicida e com controle reduzido pelos herbicidas inibidores de ALS. Portanto, uma alternativa para atenuar o problema é o uso de herbicidas com diferentes mecanismos de ação


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Plantas Daninhas , Herbicidas , Asclepias
14.
Am J Bot ; 106(7): 1032-1045, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281963

RESUMO

PREMISE: Ring species have long fascinated evolutionary biologists for their potential insights into lineage divergence and speciation across space. Few studies have investigated the potential for convergent or parallel evolution along the diverging fronts of ring species. We investigated a potential case of parallel floral variation in the Caribbean spurge Euphorbia tithymaloides, the only plant system with molecular support as a ring species. The terminal populations of each front, despite being the most divergent, exhibit such similar floral traits that they were originally considered each other's closest relative. METHODS: We evaluated convergence in floral and leaf traits in relation to geography across 95 populations spanning the distribution of E. tithymaloides. We also reanalyzed available genetic data (from previous phylogenetic analyses) in an explicitly spatial framework. RESULTS: Floral morphology appears to have shifted in a convergent fashion along both geographic fronts of E. tithymaloides, resulting in shorter and more compact inflorescences in Antillean populations compared to the typical elongate "slipper-like" cyathia characteristic of the area of origin. Patterns of spatial genetic variation were more consistent with a two-fronted invasion of the Caribbean than with a simpler model of isolation-by-distance. CONCLUSIONS: Floral divergence in E. tithymaloides is consistent with convergent evolution along the two fronts of a ring species. We outline several (not mutually exclusive) mechanisms that could be driving patterns in morphology, including shifts toward generalized pollination with reduced reliance on hummingbirds, shifts in floral structure closely matching available hummingbird bill traits, and shifts toward increased selfing.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Euphorbia/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Variação Genética , Região do Caribe , Euphorbia/genética , América Latina , Filogeografia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
15.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3): 1111-1119, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278728

RESUMO

Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. (Euphorbiaceae) is commonly known as Indian Spurge Tree in English, and "Saj Thor" or "Jhanami booti" in local language. The plant is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases like inflammation, fever, worm infection, asthma, cough, wounds and diabetes. In current study fresh as well as dried aerial parts of the plant and cut sections were examined, both macroscopically and microscopically. The study also deals with fluorescence analysis and phytochemical characteristics and other WHO recommended methods for standardization. WHO guidelines on quality control for medicinal plants materials were used for pharmacognostical evaluation of E. nivulia, phytochemical screening helps in determining the predominant classes of active constituents responsible for the activity. The present work will be helpful in identification of the fresh and dried samples of aerial parts pharmacognostically and anatomically. These studies will serve as a reference for correct identification and may be helpful in checking any type of adulteration. These observations will also help in differentiating this species from closely related species of the same genus and family.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Euphorbia/citologia , Flores/química , Flores/citologia , Flores/fisiologia , Células do Mesofilo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/citologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/citologia , Plantas Medicinais/fisiologia , Pós/química
16.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218994, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291279

RESUMO

Unlike most notodontids, Theroa zethus larvae feed on plants that emit copious latex when damaged. To determine how the larvae overcome this defense, we filmed final instars on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, then simulated their behaviors and tested how the behaviors individually and combined affect latex exudation. Larvae initially scraped the stem, petiole, or midrib with their mandibles, then secreted acid from their ventral eversible gland (VEG) onto the abraded surface. Scraping facilitated acid penetration by disrupting the waxy cuticle. As the acid softened tissues, the larvae used their mandibles to compress the plant repeatedly, thereby rupturing the latex canals. Scraping, acid application, and compression created withered furrows that greatly diminished latex exudation distal to the furrows where the larvae invariably fed. The VEG in notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when attacked, larvae spray acid aimed directly at the assailant. Using HPLC, we documented that the VEG secretion of T. zethus contains 30% formic acid (6.53M) with small amounts of butyric acid (0.05M). When applied to poinsettia petioles, the acids caused a similar reduction in latex outflow as VEG secretion milked from larvae. VEG acid could disrupt latex canals in part by stimulating the normal acid-growth mechanism employed by plants to loosen walls for cell elongation. Histological examination of cross sections in poinsettia midribs confirmed that cell walls within furrows were often highly distorted as expected if VEG acids weaken walls. Theroa zethus is the only notodontid caterpillar known to use mandibular scraping and VEG acid to disable plant defenses. However, we document that mandibular constriction of petioles occurs also in other notodontids including species that feed on hardwood trees. This capability may represent a pre-adaptation that facilitated the host shift in the Theroa lineage onto latex-bearing plants by enabling larvae to deactivate laticifers with minimal latex contact.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Formiatos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Secreções Corporais/química , Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/química , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Euphorbia/parasitologia , Formiatos/química , Formiatos/metabolismo , Látex/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
17.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261927

RESUMO

Euphorbia species were widely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of several diseases. From the aerial parts of Egyptian endemic plant, Euphorbia sanctae-catharinae, three new premyrsinane diterpenoids, namely, euphosantianane E-G (1-3), alongside four known triterpenes, 9,19-cyclolanostane-3ß,24S-diol (4), 25-methoxycycloartane-3ß,24S-diol (5), 25-methylenecycloartan-3ß,24R-diol (6), and 25-methylenecycloartan-3ß,24S-diol (7), were isolated and identified. The chemical structures were proven depending upon spectroscopic analysis, including FTIR, HRFABMS, and 1D/2D-NMR. The chemotaxonomic significance of the isolated compounds, especially diterpenes from E. sanctae-catharinae compared to those documented from different Euphorbia species was also studied via agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). The Egyptian endemic Euphorbia sanctae-catharina was grouped with E. bupleuroides, E. fidjiana, E. fischeriana, E. pithyusa subsp. cupanii, E. prolifera, and E. seguieriana, where myrsinol diterpenoids were the characteristic compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Diterpenos/síntese química , Euphorbia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Egito , Estrutura Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 1979-1988, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350954

RESUMO

Background: Immunomodulatory materials from natural herbs and the characterization of their immune enhancement effects may have tremendous potential as cancer treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the apoptosis-inducing activities of Euphorbia hebecarpa Boiss and Euphorbia petiolata Banks & Sol. plant extracts and their effects on cytokine secretion by lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: We assessed the apoptosis-inducing effect of the plants' hexane extracts on previously determined sensitive cell lines (HeLa for E. hebecarpa and K562 for E. petiolata) by flow cytometry and measurement of caspase 3 activation. The apoptosis-related gene expressions were examined by real-time PCR. The effects of the extracts on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion were examined. Results: Flow cytometry analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of the extracts on tumor cell growth was due to cell apoptosis. The plant extracts at the 100 µg/ml dose induced apoptosis in HeLa (98.5 ± 0.1%) and K562 (57.7 ± 1.9%) cells. The extracts increased caspase 3 activation (≈2-fold>control). Real-time PCR showed Fas and Bax gene upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation, which resulted in an increased Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio. The extracts increased lymphocyte proliferation and increased levels of IFN-γ production in the presence and absence of mitogen (p < 0.05). They significantly increased IL-4 and decreased IL-10 secretion by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. E. hebecarpa also increased IL-17 release. Conclusion: These results have shown that both extracts possess antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis, possibly through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In addition, they induced secretion of different T helper subset related cytokines that are effective in the immune response against cancer.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Euphorbia/química , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbia/classificação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112064, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325614

RESUMO

Seven previously undescribed polycyclic diterpenoids, euphonoids A-G, including four ent-abietanes, two ent-atisanes, and one ent-kaurene, along with 26 known analogues were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. The structures of the undescribed compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, ECD calculations, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Besides, the structure of a previously reported ent-abietane diterpenoid, fischeriabietane A, was revised. All the isolates were screened for the cytotoxicities against five cancer cell lines. Euphonoid A, fischeriabietane A, 11-oxo-ebracteolatanolide B, caudicifolin, jolkinolide B, and methyl-8,11-3-dihydroxy-12-oxo-ent-abietadi-13,15(17)-ene-16-oate showed significant inhibitory activities against human prostate cancer C4-2B and C4-2B/ENZR cell lines, with IC50 values being less than 10 µM. The brief structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these diterpenoids were also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2269-2278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152335

RESUMO

Natural compounds from medicinal plants provide safe and sustainable alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics. In this study, we assessed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis (NH-A) and Euphorbia hirta (NH-B) and compared it with levamisole-HCl. The shoots of NH-A and whole plant of NH-B were used to prepare extracts using 70% methanol which were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays of crude methanolic extracts (CMEs) of NH-A and NH-B on larvae of mixed gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats revealed mortalities of 95.7% (at 100 mg ml-1) and 98.1% (at 50 mgml-1) 24 h postexposure. In vivo assays of NH-A administered orally at doses of 100, 300, 900, and 2700 mg kg-1 bwt revealed dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects in goats experimentally infected with mixed species of GINs. NH-B exhibited similar properties when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 bwt. Both NH-A (900 mg kg-1 bwt) and levamisole (7.5 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved a 100% reduction in fecal egg count per gram (EPG) on day 21 and day 14 respectively posttreatment. NH-B (400 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved 93.1% and 86.1% reduction in fecal EPG 7 and 14 days postexposure respectively compared with 88.2% and 82.3% reduction with levamisole-HCl 7 and 14 days postexposure. Our results show that extracts of both plants can disrupt helminth lifecycles by suppressing the egg-laying capacity in adult worms but also kill their infective larvae. Future studies should aim at establishing synergies or antagonisms between the two plant extracts and further development for control of helminths in goats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Levamisol , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Uganda/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA