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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111521, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311525

RESUMO

Euphorbiae pekinensis Radix (EP) is effective in treating various diseases, but it's toxicity is a major obstacle in use in clinical. Although EP was processed with vinegar to reduce it's toxicity, the detailed mechanism of toxicity in EP have not been clearly delineated. This study investigate the toxicity attenuation-mechanism of Euphorbiae pekinensis after being processed with vinegar (VEP) and the toxic mechanism of four compounds from EP on zebrafish embryos. The contents of four compounds decreased obviously in VEP. Correspondingly, slower development on embryos can be seen as some symptoms like reduction of heart rate, liver area and gastrointestinal peristalsis after exposed to the compounds. Some obvious pathological signals such as pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were observed. Furthermore, the compounds could increase the contents of MDA and GSH-PX and induce oxidative damage by inhibiting the activity of SOD. Also, four compounds could provoke apoptosis by up-regulating the expression level of p53, MDM2, Bax, Bcl-2 and activating the activity of caspase-3, caspase-9. In conclusion, the four compounds play an important role in the toxicity attenuation effects of VEP, which may be related to the apoptosis induction and oxidative damage. This would contribute to the clinical application and further toxicity-reduction mechanism research.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/toxicidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Euphorbia/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/embriologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Coração/embriologia , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114095, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819505

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. (Euphorbiaceae) is a perennial herb distributed in grassland, hill slopes or gravel hillside, with average altitude of 100-600 m. The whole grass of E. fischeriana is toxic with roots used as folk medicine to treat Zhushui, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, cough, as well as external applications such as cure of scabies and tuberculosis of lymph nodes. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This systematic review aims to provide a detailed and in-depth summary about the reported advances in traditional uses, clinical applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of E. fischeriana, so as to offer fresh ideas and broader vision and insights for subsequent studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various scientific data bases such as CNKI, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, SciFinder Scholar and Web of Science were searched to collect information about E. fischeriana. Other relevant literatures were searched in 'Flora of China Editorial Committee', ancient books, Ph.D and Masters' Dissertation to get more data of E. fischeriana. RESULTS: A total of 241 chemical constituents have been identified from the roots of E. fischeriana, including diterpenoids, triterpenoids, meroterpenoids, acetophenones, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, phenolic acids, tannins, etc. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-leukemia activities. Moreover, different investigations about clinical uses and toxicology of E. fischeriana indicated that attention should be paid to its usage and dosage. CONCLUSION: The researches of E. fischeriana are excellent, but gap still remains. As a poisonous traditional Chinese medicine, there are not enough studies on the toxicity of E. fischeriana. In addition, scholars' research on the pharmacological mechanism of E. fischeriana focuses more on the anti-tumor activity, which can be broadened in the future. Presumably, chemical constituents and biological activities of diterpenoids and trace meroterpenoids in E. fischeriana deserve further research in-depth in the future, in order to provide low toxicity and high efficiency lead compounds. Meanwhile, further studies on other medicinal aspects may lay a foundation for the comprehensive development and utilization of E. fischeriana.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
3.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(14): 1423-1425, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469623

RESUMO

A 55-year-old man, without evident sexual risk, presented with symptoms of a urethritis and balanitis. This followed directly from exposure to organic residue from a domestic plant, the Euphorbia or Garden Spurge, found on his fingers after gardening. A review of relevant medical literature reveals little putative association between exposure to this plant and genital symptomatology. However, historical sources are presented suggesting the effect may previously have been well recognised.


Assuntos
Vesícula/etiologia , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Uretrite/diagnóstico , Administração Tópica , Clotrimazol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(4): 552-560, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Euphorbia species have historically been used as medicinal plants to treat different ailments. However, some species have been reported to exhibit various degrees of toxicity. It becomes critical to distinguish toxic species from those that are non-toxic, for a particular application. The aim of the study was to determine the method for fingerprinting the chemical constituents of the selected toxic and non-toxic Euphorbia species to identify markers of toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hexane, DCM, methanol, ethyl acetate and water plant extracts of Euphorbia ammak, clavarioides, caerulescens, polygona and trigona were investigated for their cytotoxic activities towards the mammalian Vero cell line using MTT cell viability test assay. The presence of secondary metabolites and proteins were assessed in the plant extracts. Moreover, the study used chromatographic methods to fingerprint the plant extracts to identify toxicity markers. RESULTS: The DCM extract of E. ammak exhibited the highest cell growth inhibition at all concentrations tested. The non-polar extracts of E. clavarioides exhibited the highest cell growth inhibition activity with hexane extract reaching IC50 at 1 µg mL-1. The DCM extract of E. caerulescens reached IC50 at a concentration of 10 µg mL-1, while other extracts didn't show any activity. The hexane and DCM extracts of E. polygona exhibited the highest cell growth inhibition activity, reaching IC50 at a concentration of 10 µg mL-1. All 4 extracts of E. trigona didn't show cell growth inhibition. All Euphorbia species showed the presence of secondary metabolites. The biuret and xanthoprotein methods indicated that there were no proteins detected in all 5 Euphorbia species. TLC profiles of toxic extracts revealed additional bands which were absent in non-toxic species. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the TLC method developed in this study can be used as a quick screen method to possibly distinguish toxic from non-toxic species, as well as in identifying the studied species.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Euphorbia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Euphorbia/classificação , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Solventes/química , Células Vero
5.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652602

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho have long been used to treat edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui (EK) has seriously restricted its clinical application. Although EK was processed with vinegar to reduce its toxicity, the detailed mechanisms of attenuation in toxicity of EK stir-fried with vinegar (VEK) have not been well delineated. Diterpenoids are the main toxic ingredients of EK, and changes in these after processing may be the underlying mechanism of toxicity attenuation of VEK. 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3-O-EZ) is one of the diterpenoids derived from EK, and the content of 3-O-EZ was significantly reduced after processing. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of toxicity reduction of VEK based on the change of 3-O-EZ after processing with vinegar. Based on the chemical structure of 3-O-EZ and the method of processing with vinegar, simulation experiments were carried out to confirm the presence of the product both in EK and VEK and to enrich the product. Then, the difference of peak area of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate in EK and VEK were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, the toxicity effect of 3-O-EZ and its hydrolysate, as well as the underlying mechanism, on zebrafish embryos were investigated. The findings showed that the diterpenoids (3-O-EZ) in EK can convert into less toxic ingenol in VEK after processing with vinegar; meanwhile, the content of ingenol in VEK was higher than that of EK. More interestingly, the ingenol exhibited less toxicity (acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and organic toxicity) than that of 3-O-EZ, and 3-O-EZ could increase malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduce glutathione (GSH) content; cause embryo oxidative damage by inhibition of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and induce inflammation and apoptosis by elevation of IL-2 and IL-8 contents and activation of the caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. Thus, this study contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of attenuation in toxicity of VEK, and provides the possibility of safe and rational use of EK in clinics.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Euphorbia/química , Glutationa/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(12): 2516-2521, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950069

RESUMO

To investigate the toxicity changes of Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Radix (EER) before and after vinegar processing, toxic diterpenoids were concentrated with chloroform as extraction solvent from EER. Then the residue was extracted for non-chloroform extract with 95% ethanol and water after extraction with chloroform. The chloroform extraction of vinegar processed EER was prepared with the same method. The mice received the drug by oral administration. Moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon tissue, aquaporin AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 protein expression levels were assayed as the indexes to investigate the toxicity variation of chloroform fraction, non-chloroform fraction, as well as intestinal tract toxicity before and after vinegar processing of EER. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could significantly increase the moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon, and decrease AQP1 protein expression level, increase AQP3 and AQP4 protein expression levels in the colon. The intestinal toxicity of the chloroform extract was significantly higher than that of non-chloroform extract. The moisture content in mice feces, duodenum and colon was significantly decreased, and the AQPs protein expression tended to be normal in the colon after vinegar processing. The results showed that the chloroform fraction extracted from EER could lead to diarrhea, intestinal edema, and the intestinal toxicity action was associated with interfering AQPs protein expression and promoting intestinal fluid transport disorder in mice. Vinegar-processing could reduce intestinal toxicity of EER, so vinegar processing was considered to be the scientific processing method of EER.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Animais , Aquaporina 1 , Aquaporina 3 , Aquaporina 4 , Colo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 155: 169-176, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631077

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang have been traditionally used for edema in China. However, the severe toxicity caused by Euphorbia kansui has seriously restricted its clinical application. Therefore, in order to study the material basis of the toxicity attenuation effect of processing with vinegar, a rapid, sensitive, validated and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine twelve compounds in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui before and after fry-baked with vinegar simultaneously. Meanwhile, the study of their toxic effect on zebrafish was conducted. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters BEH C18 UPLC column. 0.3% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min and a temperature at 30 °C. The analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using positive electrospray ionization (ESI). Furthermore, the toxic research results indicated that the toxicity of Euphorbia kansui was decreased after vinegar-processed, which might because of the increase in the content of 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol and the decrease in the contents of the remaining terpenoids in ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia kansui fry-baked with vinegar. This study demonstrated that the method used is a powerful approach to determine the content of twelve compounds that responsible for the toxic effect of Euphorbia kansui at the same instant. And provided the experimental evidence for the rationale behind the reduction of toxicity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Ácido Acético/química , Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(18): 3516-3522, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218936

RESUMO

The 24 h normal developing zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and the compounds of respective fractions were analyzed by UFLC-Q-TOF-MS simultaneously. Nine concentration groups with respective concentration and a blank control group were designed for each fraction to investigate their effect on survival rates of zebrafish embryos 96 h after drug administration, and calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of different fractions to zebrafish embryos. The results showed that all of the fractions had acute toxicity to zebrafish embryos except VEKD, and the order was as follows: VEKB, VEKC, VEKA and VEKD. According to the results of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS, the chemical ingredients contained in VEKB and VEKC were mainly composed of ingenane-type and japhane-type diterpenoids, respectively. It could be speculated that japhane-type diterpenoids might be the active compounds with lower toxicity associated with the results of toxicity study, providing some references for the further research on effective material basis of Kansui stir-baked with vinegar according to the principle of "drastic medicine, no death risks".


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Animais , Diterpenos/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2291-2297, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822182

RESUMO

The embryos of model organism zebrafish were used to evaluate the acute toxicity of the extracts of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and vinegar-processing Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix, and the total terpene content of each extract was determined by using euphol as the reference standards. Twenty-four h normally developed zebrafish embryos were chosen, and 8 concentrations were adopted for each extract. Then the growth and death of zebrafish embryos were observed at 96 h after administration, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the different samples on zebrafish embryos were calculated. The results showed that all of the extracts (before and after vinegar processing) had acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. The toxicity of vinegar-processing Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix was significantly lower than that of crude Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix. Among different extraction methods, ethanol extract was more poisonous than water extract; in different polarity fractions, the toxicity was in the following order: petroleum ether>dichloromethane>ethyl acetate>n-butyl alcohol and remaining part. Combined with the results of the determination of terpene components, it can be concluded that the terpenoids are the main toxic components of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix, positively correlated with toxicity degree. It indicates that the zebrafish embryo model is appropriate for the toxicity evaluation of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and provides appropriate research methods and theoretical basis for the further study of the toxic components and the mechanism of reducing toxicity.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Ácido Acético , Animais , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
10.
Am J Chin Med ; 44(2): 253-73, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27080940

RESUMO

Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. This paper reviews advances in investigations of the botany, the phytochemistry, the analytical method, the pharmacology and the toxicology of kansui. Nearly 100 compounds have been isolated from kansui and identified, and diterpenes and triterpenes are considered to be the characteristic and bio-active constituents of kansui. They possess multiple pharmacological activities, including diuretic, purgation, and antitumor effects. However, they also have a degree of toxicity, and can cause skin, oral, and gastrointestinal irritation. In this paper, the toxicity-efficacy relationship, attenuation and incompatibility of kansui are further discussed. Several future investigations of kansui are also proposed, all of which would improve the identification of kansui and other toxic herbs, as well as further their utilization.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Catárticos , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diuréticos , Euphorbia/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Conformação Molecular , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
11.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 39(2): 233-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26453021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acute toxic effects of Euphorbia helioscopia in order to assure the safety and usefulness of herbal remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for chemical testing guidelines No. 425 for acute oral toxicity testing were followed in this study. Mice were divided into three groups (n = 5). Group I served as control. Groups II and III were administered methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex orally at dose of 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Then, all the animals were observed for two weeks. Blood sampling was done by cardiac puncture after 14 days from each group for biochemical analysis. Histopathology was performed to find out any microscopic lesion in vital organs. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: LD50 was found greater than 2000 mg/kg. There was decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL levels of latex and leaves with methanol extract-treated animals, with respect to control indicating plant's hypolipidemic effect. On macroscopic examination, no lesions were found on vital organs, such as liver, heart and kidney; and normal architecture was observed on microscopic examination. CONCLUSION: On the basis of results, it was concluded that methanol extract of E. helioscopia leaves and latex were devoid of toxic effects in acute toxicity study.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Medicina Unani , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Látex/química , Látex/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(23): 4603-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27141670

RESUMO

To look for the toxicity fraction of Euphorbia pekinensis and discuss the vinegar processing mechanism. The level of intestinal edema, water content of intestine and stool, IC50 values of IEC-6 were applied to evaluate the toxicity of different fractions. RT-PCR was employed for detecting AQP1, AQP3 mRNA expression. The petroleum ether (PE) fraction and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction could significant cause intestinal edema in mice, increase the water content of duodenum, colon and stool, inhibited the mRNA expression of AQP1 and increased the mRNA level of AQP3 in colon, and the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was more poisonous. After the petroleum ether (PE) fraction was processed with vinegar, the level of intestinal edema, water content of duodenum, colon, stool and inhibition ratio of cells line were reduced. And we compared the composition change after vinegar processing, finding that the conpekinensis.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia/química , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(16): 3249-55, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26790302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the differences in the toxicity of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix on normal and cancerous ascites model rats. METHOD: Normal and cancerous ascites model rats were taken as the research objects and orally administered with different doses of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix for 7 d. Pathological sections were prepared to observe the damages in liver, stomach, intestinal tissues in rats and detect the impacts on serum, liver, stomach and intestinal tissues and the oxidative damage index. RESULT: Compared with the blank group, all of normal administration groups and model groups showed significant damages in liver, stomach and intestinal tissues. Compared with the model groups, all of normal administration groups revealed notable alleviation in damages. Compared with the blank group, the model groups showed significant increases in AST, ALT and MDA in serum and liver (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in GSH in serum and liver, stomach, intestinal tissues (P < 0.01). Compared with the blank group, the results showed significant decreases in ALT, AST in serum and ALT in liver in model low, medium and high dose groups and AST activity in liver tissues in the normal high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); significant decreases in GSH in serum and stomach tissues in normal low, medium and high dose groups and GSH content in liver and intestinal tissues in normal medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); notable rises in MDA in liver tissues in normal low, medium and high dose groups and MDA content in serum and stomach and intestinal tissues in normal medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with model groups, data revealed significant decreases in ALT, AST in serum in model low, medium and high dose groups, AST in liver tissues of model medium and high dose groups and ALT activity in liver in the model high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); significant increases in GSH content in serum and stomach tissues of model low, medium and high dose groups, GSH in liver tissues in model medium and high dose groups and GSH in intestinal tissues in the high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); and notable declines in MDA content in serum in model low, medium and high dose groups, MDA in liver tissues of model medium and high dose groups and MDA in stomach and intestinal tissues the high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: According to the study, vinegar-processed Kansui Radix showed a significant lower toxicity liver, stomach, and intestines of cancerous ascites model rats, which provided a basis for clinical safe application of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix based on symptom-based prescription theory.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Euphorbia/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/química , Animais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Trop Doct ; 45(4): 239-40, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25540165

RESUMO

The milky sap of the Euphorbia plant is highly toxic and causes inflammation to the skin and eyes. Damage to the eye ranges from superficial epithelial defects, keratoconjunctivitis, mild to moderate corneal edema, anterior uveitis, Descemet membrane folds, raised intraocular pressure and rarely corneal opacity in severe untreated cases. Here we report a case of visual restoration by optical penetrating keratoplasty in a patient with severe corneal opacity following exposure to Euphorbia latex.


Assuntos
Opacidade da Córnea/cirurgia , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Látex/toxicidade , Adulto , Opacidade da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(34): 8555-61, 2014 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25088250

RESUMO

Weed infestation has been known to cause considerable reductions in crop yields, thereby hindering sustainable agriculture. Many plants in genus Euphorbia affect neighboring plants and other organisms by releasing chemicals into the environment. In view of the serious threat of weeds to agriculture, the allelochemicals of Euphorbia himalayensis and their allelopathic effects were investigated. The extract of root exudates from rhizosphere soil exhibited allelopathic activities against crops (wheat, rape, and lettuce) and grasses (Poa annua, Festuca rubra, and red clover). Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation from the root extract of E. himalayensis led to the characterization of two ellagic acid derivatives and a jatrophane diterpene, which observably showed phytotoxic activities against lettuce, Festuca arundinacea, and F. rubra. They were further confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to have concentrations of 3.6, 3.8, and 8.99 nmol/g in the rhizospere soil, respectively. Bioassay indicated that the combination of the allelochemicals could be selective plant growth regulator in agriculture.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/química , Feromônios/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Plantas Daninhas/química , Rizosfera , Alelopatia , Bioensaio , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Feromônios/metabolismo , Feromônios/toxicidade , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/toxicidade , Solo/química
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 38(12): 1966-71, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24066593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of the reducing mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by ethyl acetate fractions of Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar in mice. METHOD: Mice with normal ICR were orally administered with ethyl acetate fractions of Kansui Radix and Kansui Radix stir-baked with vinegar. Their blood and liver homogenate were collected to detect the level of AST, ALT, LDH, SOD, activities of Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -Mg(2+) -ATPase, GSH and MDA. Liver tissues were collected for HE staining and morphological observation under light microscope. RESULT: According to the results of pathological sections, compared with the control group, all of Kansui groups showed a significant increase in the hepatic tissues injury (P < 0.01). Compared with Kansui groups, all of vinegar-baked groups showed a significant decrease in the hepatic tissues injury (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, all of Kansui groups showed a significant increase in ALT, AST and LDH (P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in serum and hepatic tissues, and significantly decrease in the activity of SOD (P < 0.001) and the content of GSH. They also showed a significant increase in MDA (P < 0.001) and a significant decrease in the level of Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) -Mg(2+) -ATPase (P < 0.01) in hepatic tissues, with a certain dose-effect relationship. Compared with all of Kansui groups, all of vinegar-baked groups showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST and LDH (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), and a notable increase in SOD (P < 0.001) and GSH in serum and hepatic tissues. They also showed a remarkable decrease in MDA (P < 0.001), and a significant increase in the level of Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase and Ca(2+) - Mg(2+) -ATPase (P < 0.01) in hepatic tissues, with a certain dose-effect relationship. CONCLUSION: Being stir-baked with vinegar can significantly reduce the hepatotoxicity of Kansui Radix. Its mechanism may be related to the reduction of the effect of Kansui Radix on the permeability of hepatic tissues cell membranes and the oxidative injury.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ácido Acético , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Oxirredução
17.
Phytother Res ; 27(11): 1621-8, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23280778

RESUMO

Euphorbia kansui (EK) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); however, it possesses toxic effects. The fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (ZJ) are frequently co-used with EK to reduce EK's toxicity. The present study is to clarify the toxicity of water extract of EK and explore the detox effect of ZJ using (1) H NMR-based metabonomic approach. The water extracts of ZJ, EK and the co-use of EK and ZJ (CEZ) were orally administered to SD rats at designed doses for 1 week, respectively, and one more week observation was further conducted. Histopathological studies of liver samples from all groups showed no negative impacts. In metabonomic analyses of urines, ZJ showed no toxicity, while significant changes of metabolites indicating liver damages, kidney lesions and imbalance of gut microbes were clearly observed during the second week in EK-treated rats. Very meaningfully, CEZ clearly indicated that the toxicities appeared at the first week and became weaker, and furthermore, was recovered during the second week. These results clearly demonstrated the rationality of traditional co-use of EK together with ZJ, and the metabonomic approach should be a promising tool to research the toxicity of TCM.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/toxicidade , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Frutas/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Urina/química , Ziziphus/toxicidade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 13(9): 11247-59, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23109850

RESUMO

The dried roots of Euphorbia kansui (kansui) have been used for centuries in China as a herbal medicine for edema, ascites, and asthma. The 95% ethanol extract showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation against human normal cell lines L-O2 and GES-1. Bioassay-guided separation of the 95% ethanol extract from the roots of E. kansui led to the isolation of 12 diverse terpenoids whose structures were identified by (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS as kansuinine A (1), kansuinine B (2), kansuinine C (3), kansuiphorin C (4), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (5), 3-O-(2'E,4'Edecadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (6), 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-deoxyingenol (7), 3-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (8), 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol (9), kansenone (10), epi-kansenone (11), euphol (12). All these 12 terpernoids were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxicity on L-O2 and GES-1 cell lines. Most ingenane-type diterpenoids and 8-ene-7-one triterpenoids (5-11) exhibited a relatively lower IC(50) value; therefore, these compounds had stronger cytotoxicity against human normal cell lines L-O2 and GES-1 with dose-dependent relationships. These results will be significantly helpful to reveal the mechanism of toxicity of kansui and to effectively guide safer clinical application of this herb.


Assuntos
Euphorbia/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais/toxicidade , Terpenos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 37(6): 796-9, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22715724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the changes of toxicity of Euphorbia pekinensis, E. kansui and E. ebracteolata before and after being prepared by vinegar. METHOD: Small intestinal accentuation of mice and peritoneal macrophage NO release experiments were assessed to investigate the changes of toxicity of the three Chinese Medicines of Euphorbia before and after being prepared. RESULT: E. pekinensis, E. kansui and E. ebracteolata and vinegar can obviously promot small intestinal accentuation and peritoneal macrophage NO release with the intensity of toxicity in the order of E. kansui > E. pekinensis > E. ebracteolata. After being prepared with vinegar, the toxicity of the three medicines decreased obviously compared to crude one. CONCLUSION: E. pekinensis, E. kansui and E. ebracteolata can induce inflammation and accelerate enterokinesis. After being prepared with vinegar, the irritation on Euphorbia decreased obviously.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia/química , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Feminino , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 141(1): 134-42, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22406398

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried root of Kansui (Euphorbia kansui L.) is a commonly used and effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). AIM OF THE STUDY: We combined the urinary metabolites alteration and traditional assays of Kansui-induced rats to discuss the mechanism of toxicity of Kansui. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 7.875g Kansui/kg weight and 15.75g Kansui/kg weight. Urine samples were collected at day -1 (before treatment), and days 7, 14 and 21 for NMR analysis. Plasma and liver and kidney tissues were collected at day 14 for biochemical assays and histopathological examination, respectively. RESULTS: The metabonome of rats treated with Kansui differed markedly from that of the controls. This was confirmed by the histopathology of liver and kidney tissue and clinical biochemistry analysis. The toxicity of Kansui accumulated with dosing time, and persisted even when treatment was stopped. The corresponding biochemical pathways alterations included inhibited TCA cycle, increased anaerobic glycolysis, and perturbed amino acids metabolism. CONCLUSION: The biochemical pathways disorder conjunction with histopathology changes provides new clues to evaluate the toxicity of Kansui from a systematic and holistic view.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Euphorbia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Euphorbia/química , Euphorbia/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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