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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6618565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928151

RESUMO

In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of Excoecaria grahamii are not yet documented. To fill this gap, we investigated the pharmacological effect of Excoecaria grahamii on the contraction of the rat isolated uterine horns. The isolated segments were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of Excoecaria grahamii leaves and pharmacological drugs. The results showed that Excoecaria grahamii aqueous extract decreased the amplitude and frequency by concentration-related manner. IC50 values were 2.4 and 2.6, respectively, for amplitude and frequency. Our study revealed that the extract did not act through histamine H2-receptors or the nitric oxide pathway. It also inhibited uterine contractions induced by oxytocin and potassium chloride (KCl). These data suggest that Excoecaria grahamii active compound can be used for calming uterine contractions. The action of Excoecaria grahamii showed that it can be useful to fight against diseases which caused uterotonic effects. It can be useful to prevent preterm birth and pains caused by menstruations but further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism action.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Ranitidina/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672019

RESUMO

Putrajeevak (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.; synonym Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus) seeds have been used since ancient times in the treatment of infertility in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. In this study, the oil component of Putrajeevak seeds (PJSO) was extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) method using liquid CO2 and the constituents were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionized detectorand high-performance thin-layer chromatography. PJSO contained trace amounts of ß-sitosterol with oleic and linoleic acids as the major fatty acid constituents. Male and female zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and fish that produced less than 20 viable embryos were selected for the study. SCFE oil extracts from the P. roxburghii seeds were used in this study to reverse fertility impairment. The mutant fish were fed with PJSO for a period of 14 days and the rates of fertility, conception, and fecundity were determined with wild-type healthy fish as a breeding partner. Treatment with PJSO increased the ovarian follicle count as well as the number of mature eggs, while reducing the number of ovarian cysts. Sperm count as well as sperm motility were greatly enhanced in the ENU-mutagenized male zebrafish when treated with PJSO. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effectiveness of P. roxburghii seed oil in reversing impaired fertility in both male and female zebrafish models.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pelve/patologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sitosteroides/análise , Sitosteroides/química , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
3.
Int Endod J ; 54(7): 1142-1154, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641170

RESUMO

AIM: To identify odontogenesis-promoting compounds and examine the molecular mechanism underlying enhanced odontoblast differentiation and tooth formation. METHODOLOGY: Five different nymphaeols, nymphaeol B (NB), isonymphaeol B (INB), nymphaeol A (NA), 3'-geranyl-naringenin (GN) and nymphaeol C (NC) were isolated from the fruit of Macaranga tanarius. The cytotoxic effect of nymphaeols on human DPSCs was observed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effect of nymphaeols on odontoblast differentiation was analysed with Alizarin Red S staining and odontoblast marker expression was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The molecular mechanism was investigated with Western blot analysis. In order to examine the effect of INB on dentine formation in the developing tooth germ, INB-soaked beads were placed under the tooth bud explants in the collagen gel; thereafter, the tooth bud explant-bead complexes were implanted into the sub-renal capsules for 3 weeks. Tooth root formation was analysed using micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Data are presented as mean ± standard error (SEM) values of three independent experiments, and results are compared using a two-tailed Student's t-test. The data were considered to have statistical significance when the P-value was less than 0.05. RESULTS: Three of the compounds, NB, INB, and GN, did not exert a cytotoxic effect on human DPSCs. However, INB was most effective in promoting the deposition of calcium minerals in vitro (P < 0.001) and induced the expression of odontogenic marker genes (P < 0.05). Moreover, this compound strongly induced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase B (AKT) (P < 0.05). The inhibition of p38 MAP, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and AKT substantially suppressed the INB-induced odontoblast differentiation (P < 0.001). In addition, isonymphaeol B significantly induced the formation of dentine and elongation of the tooth root in vivo (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prenylflavonoids, including INB, exerted stimulatory effects on odontoblast differentiation and tooth root and dentine formation via the MAP kinase and AKT signalling pathways. These results suggest that nymphaeols could stimulate the repair processes for dentine defects or injuries.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Odontoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Transdução de Sinais , Raiz Dentária , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572445

RESUMO

Anomalocalyx uleanus (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Ducke (Euphorbiaceae) is a singular species in the genus and is restricted and exclusive to the Brazilian Amazon. A phytochemical study of A. uleanus leaves was performed, yielding the isolation of five major compounds: catechin/epicatechin, afzelin, quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and astilbin. The phytochemical compositions of the methanolic extracts of leaves, roots, bark, and stem bark were determined using a dereplication approach. Forty-six compounds were annotated from the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data, while four lipids were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, fifty compounds were detected, and they belonged to the primary metabolism and several classes of natural products such as flavonoids, flavonoids O-glycosides, flavonoids C-glycosides, biflavonoids, procyanidin, triterpene, triterpenes esterified with phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid derivatives, flavonolignans, coumarins, quinic acid derivatives, and benzoic acid derivatives. This is the first report on the phytochemical data of the genus Anomalocalyx, and the results of this study will contribute to the chemosystematic knowledge of the Euphorbiaceae family and justify the need for investigation of the pharmacological potential of the species A. uleanus.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Food Chem ; 340: 127942, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890859

RESUMO

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil (SI) is appreciated for its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate SI changes during French fries deep-frying at 170 °C or 180 °C up to 119 and 50 min, respectively; commercial soybean oil (SO) was tested as control. SI had high α-linolenic acid (53.8%), linoleic acid (33.4%) and total tocopherols (2540.1 mg/kg). During frying tocopherol content, oil stability and antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH) decreased following zero-order kinetics; γ-tocopherol showed the strongest decrease. Notwithstanding the high SI unsaturation and the commercial antioxidant (TBHQ) in SO, SI showed slightly higher or similar hydrolysis (free fatty acids and diacylglycerols), similar primary (K232, oxidized-triacylglycerols) and lower secondary (K268, triacylglycerol oligopolymers) oxidation. Because of the high tocopherol content, SI showed lower degradation than SO. Thus, SI is suitable for short-term deep-frying; additionally, it may enhance the nutritional value and the flavour of fried foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Euphorbiaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Oxirredução
6.
Food Chem ; 337: 127771, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777564

RESUMO

Faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) is an emerging Brazilian plant, with seeds rich in edible oil. This study investigates physicochemical properties, chemical composition, thermal and oxidative stability, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of faveleira seed oil. It was observed that the oil has low acidity, value of peroxide, chlorophyll, carotenoids, ß-carotene and high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to presenting thermal and oxidative stability and high total phenolic content, with vanillin, eugenol and quercetin were predominating. The oil showed no toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and presented antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These findings provide relevant and appropriate conditions for processing of faveleira seed oil as functional food.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Carotenoides/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/análise , Euphorbiaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113424, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010404

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is a life-threatening health problem worldwide and treatment remains a major challenge. Natural products from medicinal plants are credible sources for better anti-malarial drugs. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed at assessing the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of the hydroethanolic extract of Bridelia atroviridis bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phytochemical characterization of Bridelia atroviridis extract was carried out by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The cytotoxicity test on Vero cells was carried out using the resazurin-based assay while the in vitro antiplasmodial activity was determined on Plasmodium falciparum (Dd2 strain, chloroquine resistant) using the SYBR green I-based fluorescence assay. The in vivo assay was performed on Plasmodium berghei-infected rats daily treated for 5 days with distilled water (10 mL/kg) for malaria control, 25 mg/kg of chloroquine sulfate for positive control and 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of B. atroviridis extract for the three test groups. Parasitaemia was daily monitored using 10% giemsa-staining thin blood smears. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed, blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analysis while organs were removed for biochemical and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: The HPLC-MS analysis data of B. atroviridis revealed the presence of bridelionoside D, isomyricitrin, corilagin, myricetin and 5 others compounds not yet identified. Bridelia atroviridis exhibited good in vitro antiplasmodial activity with the IC50 evaluated at 8.08 µg/mL and low cytotoxicity with the median cytotoxic concentration (CC50) higher than 100 µg/mL. B. atroviridis extract significantly reduced the parasitemia (p < 0.05) with an effective dose-50 (ED-50) of 89 mg/kg. B. atroviridis also prevented anemia, leukocytosis and liver and kidneys impairment by decrease of transaminases, ALP, creatinine, uric acid, and triglycerides concentrations. As well, B. atroviridis extract decreased some pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6) levels and significantly improved the anti-inflammatory status (P < 0.01) of infected animals marked by a decrease of IL-10 concentration. These results were further confirmed by the improved of antioxidant status and the quasi-normal microarchitecture of the liver, kidneys and spleen in test groups. Overall, the hydroethanolic bark extract of Bridelia atroviridis demonstrated antimalarial property and justified its use in traditional medicine to manage malaria disease.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Células Vero
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750082

RESUMO

Drug resistant Salmonella species and shortcomings related to current drugs stress the urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents to control salmonellosis. This study investigated the antisalmonellal and antioxidant potentials of methanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola and Alchornea cordifolia as potential sources of drugs to control Salmonella species and to reduce related oxidative stress. The antisalmonellal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution, membrane destabilization and time-kill kinetic assays. While, the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays were used for the determination of the antioxidant activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 125 to 1000 µg/mL, with the methanolic root extract of G. kola being the most active. The time kill kinetic assay revealed a concentration-dependent bacteriostatic activity for promising extracts. Potent extracts from G. kola showed the ability to destabilize S. typhi outer membrane, with the methanolic root extract presenting the highest activity; two-fold higher than those of polymyxin B tested as reference. In addition, this methanolic root extract of G. kola also provoked nucleotide leakage in a concentration-dependent manner. From the antioxidant assays, the hydro-ethanolic extract from the stem bark of A. cordifolia presented significant activities comparable to that of Vitamin C. The methanolic root extract of G. kola also presented appreciable antioxidant activities, though less than that of A. cordifolia. Overall, the phytochemical screening of active extracts revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. These results provide evidence of the antibacterial potential of G. kola and offer great perspectives in a possible standardisation of an antisalmonellal phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Garcinia kola/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Camarões , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 331: 127338, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569970

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of roasting on the formation of furan in nuts was investigated. Nut samples were roasted at 150-200 °C for 5-25 min. As the roasting temperature and roasting time increased, the levels of furan in the nuts increased up to 348 ng/g. The concentration of furan was 2.76-224, 0.71-69.0, 1.46-348, 2.68-87.0, and 3.70-94.4 ng/g in almonds, peanuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, and sacha inchi, respectively. In kinetics analysis, the chemical reaction responsible for the production of furan in nuts followed the zero-order kinetic model, with reaction constants of 3.26 × 10-9 to 16.5 × 10-9mol/L.h at 200 °C. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 125.0, 93.6, 86.5, 62.0, and 70.1 kJ/mol for almonds, peanuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, and sacha inchi, respectively. These results can be used to predict or to calculate furan formation in roasted nuts.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Furanos/química , Nozes/química , Anacardium/química , Arachis/química , Corylus/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Cinética , Prunus dulcis/química
10.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 437-448, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281560

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic operating conditions, i.e., ultrasonic mode, amplitude, total ultrasonic duration time, and emulsifier system in producing an optimum oil-in-water of sacha inchi oil nanoemulsions (SIO-NEs). Physicochemical characteristics (including average droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and viscosity) were the evaluated response variables. Smaller droplet size was obtained from SIO-NEs prepared by ultrasonic pulse application (15s ON and 10s OFF) with an ultrasonic amplitude level of 60%. In contrast, excess energy produced by ultrasonication amplitudes of more than 60% resulted in larger average droplet size and PDI. A decrease in the absolute value of zeta potential and a lower viscosity of SIO-NEs were also observed in conjunction with the high amplitude level of the ultrasonication process. An ultrasonication duration time of longer than 10 minutes did not significantly reduce the droplet size. Five emulsifier systems were evaluated in this study, including Pluronic®L-31, Brij®C-10, Tween®80, Tween®80/Pluronic®L-31, and Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31. The results revealed that the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture produced the smallest droplet size (148 nm) with the lowest PDI (0.210), viscosity (3.35 cPs), and zeta potential (-31.09 mV). The concentration of the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture, used as an emulsifier of SIO-NEs, varied from 1.5% to 9%. Based on the present findings, the most suitable concentration of mixed emulsifier used was deemed as 3% (w/v). The selected SIO-NEs were stored under room temperature to determine their droplet size stability, with the constant slightly increasing within 90 days of storage.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Emulsões , Euphorbiaceae/química , Nanopartículas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343717

RESUMO

The Amazon region is rich in genetic resources such as oilseeds which have potentially important local commercial exploitation. Despite its high concentration of bioactive compounds, cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karst.) oil is poorly investigated and explored. Thus, this study focuses on the physicochemical characterization (moisture, density, and saponification, iodine, and acidity values), fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay) of cacay oil, coconut oil and a coconut/cacay oil blend, also known as cacay butter. The antibacterial activity of cacay oil was additionally evaluated. Our study demonstrated that cacay oil presents a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (58.3%) with an emphasis on linoleic acid and a lower acidity value (2.67 ± 0.01 cg I2/g) than butter and coconut oil, indicating a low concentration of free fatty acids. In contrast, cacay butter and coconut oil presented higher saturated fatty acid percentages (69.1% and 78.4%, respectively) and higher saponification values (242.78 and 252.22 mg KOH/g, respectively). The samples showed low moisture and relative density between 912 and 916 kg/m3. The hydrophilic fraction of cacay oil was highlighted in the quantification of TPC (326.27 ± 6.79 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant capacity in vitro by DPPH radical scavenging assay (156.57 ± 2.25 µmol TE/g). Cacay oil inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (44.99 ± 7.68%), Enterococcus faecalis (27.76 ± 0.00%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.81 ± 3.75%). At long last, this is the first study reporting the physicochemical characterization and bioactive properties of cacay butter. Coconut oil and cacay butter showed great oxidative stability potential due to higher contents of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, cacay oil presents as an alternative source of raw materials for cosmetic and biotechnology industries due to its high concentration of PUFA and for being a rich source of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 573-585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158209

RESUMO

Introduction: A comparative study of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. seed extract and developed silver nanoparticles (PJSNPs) for improving bioavailability that enhance their anti-cancer activity against HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), PANC-1 (pancreatic carcinoma), MDA-MB 231 (breast carcinoma) cell lines was performed. Materials and Methods: The green synthesis of PJSNPs (Putranjiva silver nanoparticles) was performed using PJ (Putranjiva) extract, and characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was accomplished through UV-Vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results: The results revealed that PJSNPs are homogeneous, spherical in shape, ~8±2 nm in size, and negatively charged with a zeta potential of about -26.71 mV. The cytotoxicity pattern observed was AgNO3 > PJSNPs > PJ extract. The morphological changes of the cells were observed by flow cytometry and also by the DNA ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis, which indicated that the process of cell death occurred via the apoptosis mechanism and PJSNPs were exerting late-stage apoptosis in all the tested cell lines. The small size and negative value of zeta potential could be the factors responsible for greater bioavailability and thus increased uptake by the tumor cells. Conclusion: The MTT assay and morphological changes observed by various methods indicate that the novel PJSNPs are a better anticancer agent than PJ extract. All the above properties make biologically synthesized PJSNPs an important target in the field of anti-cancer drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Euphorbiaceae/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Prata/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
13.
Planta ; 251(4): 80, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185506

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The underutilized, oleaginous crop Plukenetia volubilis L. has a remarkable lipid composition and a large potential for further domestication, alleviation of malnutrition, and integration into sustainable food production systems. Current global challenges include climate change, increasing population size, lack of food security, malnutrition, and degradation of arable lands. In this context, a reformation of our food production systems is imperative. Underutilized crops, or orphan crops, can provide valuable traits for this purpose, e.g., climate change resilience, nutritional benefits, cultivability on marginal lands, and improvement of income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae)-sacha inchi-is a 'lost crop' of the Incas native to the Amazon basin. Its oleaginous seeds are large, with a high content of ω-3, and -6 fatty acids (ca. 50.5, and 34.1%, of the lipid fraction, respectively), protein, and antioxidants. Culinarily, the seeds are nut-like and the crop has been associated with humans since Incan times. Research has particularly been undertaken in seed biochemistry, and to some extent in phylogeny, genetics, and cultivation ecology, but attention has been unevenly distributed, causing knowledge gaps in areas such as ethnobotany, allergenicity, and sustainable cultivation practices. Recently, seed size evolution and molecular drivers of the fatty acid synthesis and composition have been studied, however, further research into the lipid biosynthesis is desirable. Targeted breeding has not been undertaken but might be especially relevant for yield, sensory qualities, and cultivation with low environmental impact. Similarly, studies of integration into sustainable management systems are of highest importance. Here, present knowledge on P. volubilis is reviewed and a general framework for conducting research on underutilized crops with the aim of integration into sustainable food production systems is presented.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carboidratos/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Paladar
14.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112233, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911267

RESUMO

Eight previously undescribed and 15 known components, including six neolignans, two monolignan, three sesquineolignans, three dineolignans, eight phenylpropanoids, and one steroid were identified from the seed testa of Vernicia fordii. Their structures were established based on the comprehensive analysis of NMR and ECD data. The anti-neuroinflammatory effects of the isolates were evaluated through nitrite assays in LPS-induced BV2 cells. As a result, isodiverniciasin A, diverniciasin B, diverniciasin C, isoprincepin, princepin, 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol, (+)-7-epi-sesamin-dicatechol, isoamericanin A, americanin B, 7S, 8R-americanin D, 4-hydroxyl cinnamic aldehyde, 3-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl cinnamic aldehyde and 24R-6ß-hydroxy-24- ethylcholest-4-en-3-one exhibited significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production and isoprincepin, princepin, americanin B, and 4-hydroxyl cinnamic aldehyde suppressed the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in over-activated microglia. The results suggested that bioactive ingredients from the seed testa of V. fordii can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/antagonistas & inibidores , Nitritos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104432, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759030

RESUMO

Seven new lignans, cleistonkinins A- E (1-5), cleistonkisides A and B (6-7) were isolated from the fruits of Cleistanthus tonkinensis (Euphorbiaceae), together with five known aryltetralin lignans, cleisindoside B (8), cleistantoxin (9), cleisindoside D (10), neocleistantoxin (11) and polygamain (12). Their structures were established from spectral analysis, including mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR. The absolute configurations of 4-7 were determined by analysis of their experimental CD spectra and comparison with calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compounds 2 and 6 had selective inhibition with moderate cytotoxicity against Pan C1 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Cleistantoxin (9) was significantly active against A549, HeLa, Hep3B, Pan C1 and MCF7 cell lines while it was less cytotoxic against HeLa cells. Neocleistantoxin (11) exhibited remarkable inhibition toward A549, HeLa, MCF7 and Pan C1. This is the first report for cytotoxicity of 9 and 11 against A549, Hep3B and Pan C1 cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Frutas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Vietnã
16.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112217, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812109

RESUMO

Twelve ent-abietane and two ent-pimarane diterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Croton mubango Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 2ß-Hydroxy-ent-abieta-7,13-dien-3-one, 15-hydroxy-ent-abieta-7,13-dien-3-one, 13α,15-dihydroxy-ent-abieta-8(14)-en-3-one, 2ß,9,13-trihydroxy-ent-abieta-7-en-3-one, 2ß,7ß-dihydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-3-one, 15-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-3-one and ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-3-one and the ent-forms of the previously reported normal series diterpenoids, ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-3-one, 7ß-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-3-one, 3α-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-triene, 15-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-triene and 6ß-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8,11,13-triene are reported here for the first time. Structures were established using HRESIMS, FTIR, NMR, DP4+ probability calculations and by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-3-one, showed antiproliferative activity against melanoma (MALME-3M), renal (UO-31) and ovarian cancer cell lines (IGROV1) at a concentration of 10-5 M in the NCI 60 screen.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786408

RESUMO

Clutia lanceolata Forssk. (C. lanceolata) is a medicinal plant native to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of C. lanceolata yielded twenty-one coumarins including methylthio and methylsulfinyl-coumarins. Thirteen of these compounds are reported here for the first time, named as cluteolin A to M. The remaining eight compounds are known but have not been associated previously with C. lanceolata. The structures of the undescribed compounds were elucidated from their 2D NMR and MS spectra. Single crystal X-ray analyses confirmed the structures of eleven compounds. As, in Saudi Arabian tradition, C. lanceolata has been reported to have anti-diabetic and anti-fungal properties, the coumarins were examined for their biological activity. Seven compounds strongly enhanced the glucose-triggered release of insulin by murine pancreatic islets, with two compounds showing more than two-fold enhancement of insulin secretion, compared with the standard drug glimepiride.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Enxofre/farmacologia , Animais , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita , Enxofre/química , Enxofre/isolamento & purificação
18.
Food Chem ; 307: 125568, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630021

RESUMO

Sacha inchi oil is derived from the seeds of Plukenetia volubilis L. and has great nutritional value due to its high contents of active polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (PUTAGs). In this study, we developed a methodology combined Paternò-Büchi reaction nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PB-nanoESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify CC locations and isomers of PUTAGs in sacha inchi oil. Benzophenone was used as the PB reagent, and the optimized solvent composition (methanol:chloroform = 9:1) allowed for PUTAGs and their PB products to be detected with higher intensities. In addition, we made efforts to interpret the MS2 spectra for identification lipid species. A series of C57-PUTAGs and C59-PUTAGs were detected and identified via high-resolution PB-nanoESI-MS, and the predominant PUTAGs were TAG 18:1(Δ9)_18:3(Δ9,12,15)_18:3(Δ9,12,15) and TAG 18:2(Δ9,12)_18:2(Δ9,12)_18:3 (Δ9,12,15), which demonstrated that the PB-nanoESI-MS approach in this study provides help in promoting the development of structural determination of triacylglycerols in food chemistry.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Triglicerídeos/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112320, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639485

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Capixinguí, stands out due to its widespread use in traditional medicine to treat wounds, syphilis, hemorrhoids, eye diseases and as a purgative. AIM OF THE STUDY: To characterize clerodanes diterpenes from C. floribundus and to evaluate the effects of the fraction and diterpenes (1-5) on inhibition of nitrite production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hydroethanolic root extract of C. floribundus was fractionated on a solid phase extraction column to obtain the fraction named Fr80%. From this, five compounds were obtained and characterized. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopies. Additionally, compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitrite production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264 macrophage cell. RESULTS: Five clerodane diterpenoids were characterized, and the absolute stereochemistry of 1 was established as 3R,4R,5R,8R,9R,10S,12S. The IC50 values obtained through inhibition of nitrite production were 28.52 ±â€¯2.21 µM (1), 40.26 ±â€¯2.79 µM (2), 25.47 ±â€¯2.16 µM (3), 35.78 ±â€¯2.93 µM (4) and 40.58 ±â€¯4.78 µM (5). In the tested concentrations, the samples presented low toxicity in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Four new diterpenes were characterized from C. floribundus, these being croflorins A-D (1-4) and a known halimane (5). These compounds exhibited inhibitory effect on nitrite production.


Assuntos
Croton/química , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Nitritos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dicroísmo Circular/métodos , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(14): 2001-2006, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721084

RESUMO

Two new alkaloids, fluevirines E (1) and F (2), along with six known Securinega alkaloids, were isolated from the methanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Flueggea virosa. The structures and absolute configurations of the new compounds were elucidated by means of MS, NMR, and ECD analyses. Compound 1 is a new dimeric indole alkaloid while 2 is a new securinega-type alkaloid. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the isolated alkaloids against several human cancer cell lines and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Euphorbiaceae/química , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise Espectral
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