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14.
Nurs Open ; 11(7): e2210, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958174

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate nursing/midwifery students, Clinical Mentors, Link Teachers and Head Nurses experiences within "Dedicated Education Unit" model in 6 European clinical placements and analyse the necessary elements for a powerful clinical learning environment. DESIGN: A multi-country, phenomenological, qualitative study. METHODS: Focus group interviews were performed to identify the personal and organizational factors of importance for students and nurses/midwives. RESULTS: Data analysis produced 4 main themes (1) Clinical placement organization, (2) students' clinical knowledge and skill acquisition, (3) students, and nurses/midwives' experiences within the DEU model and (4) factors for creating an effective learning environment. CONCLUSIONS: A close educational-service collaboration, a realistic clinical placement planning, a focus on student learning process and an investment in professionals' education and development among others, are elements to set up a powerful clinical learning environment. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROFESSION: It is considered advisable and urgent to improve the working conditions of nurses/midwives and the learning environments of students as a strategy to alleviate the global shortage of nurses and respond to the increasingly demanding health needs of the population. IMPACT: Due to the close relationship between students' learning and features of the clinical environment nurse educators seek innovative models which allow students to manage patient care and their transition to professional practice. To implement new learning strategies, identifying students, nurses and midwives perceptions and suggestions is a powerful information to evaluate implementation process and outcomes. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Our findings could help academic and clinical managers to meet the human and organizational requirements to create a successful learning environment in every student placement.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Tocologia/educação , Feminino , Competência Clínica/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Adulto , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Enfermeiros Obstétricos/educação , Enfermeiros Obstétricos/psicologia
15.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305634, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959187

RESUMO

In this study, we examine the association between Big Five personality traits and cigar or cigarette smoking in a sample of 9,918 older adults across 11 European countries derived from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset. We find significant associations between several traits and smoking groups. Smoking was associated with lower scores on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness and higher Extraversion scores. In addition, cigar smokers exhibit lower Neuroticism and higher Openness compared to both cigarette smokers and non-smokers. These findings suggest that both personality traits are antecedents of smoking behavior, offering implications for targeted public health interventions and social policies aimed at combating the global tobacco epidemic.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
Pharmeur Bio Sci Notes ; 2024: 90-105, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967620

RESUMO

Human immunoglobulin products are used for the treatment of a number of diseases, such as primary or secondary immunodeficiencies and autoimmune conditions due to the complete absence of antibodies or the production of defective immunoglobulins. Quality control of human immunoglobulin products is essential to ensure therapeutic functionality and safety. This includes testing for Fc function and anticomplementary activity (ACA), as well as verification of appropriate molecular size distribution using size-exclusion chromatography as prescribed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs 0338, 0918, 2788 and 1928. To this end, specific biological reference preparations (BRPs) must be used. Stocks of the Ph. Eur. Human immunoglobulin (molecular size) BRP were running low and therefore a collaborative study was run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), under the aegis of the Biological Standardisation Programme, to calibrate replacement batches. Eighteen laboratories, including manufacturers and Official Medicines Control Laboratories, took part in the study. Three batches of candidate BRPs were assessed and compared to Ph. Eur. Human immunoglobulin (molecular size) BRP 3 to ensure continuity. Based on the study results, the candidate BRPs were adopted by the Ph. Eur. Commission as Ph. Eur. Human immunoglobulin (molecular size) BRP batch 4, 5 and 6.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas , Controle de Qualidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Padrões de Referência , Cromatografia em Gel/normas , Peso Molecular , Europa (Continente)
17.
Blood Cancer J ; 14(1): 106, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969655

RESUMO

Autologous(auto-) and allogeneic(allo-) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are key treatments for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although their roles are challenged by CAR-T-cells and other immunotherapies. We examined the transplantation trends and outcomes for DLBCL patients undergoing auto-/allo-HSCT between 1990 and 2021 reported to EBMT. Over this period, 41,148 patients underwent auto-HSCT, peaking at 1911 cases in 2016, while allo-HSCT saw a maximum of 294 cases in 2018. The recent decline in transplants corresponds to increased CAR-T treatments (1117 cases in 2021). Median age for auto-HSCT rose from 42 (1990-1994) to 58 years (2015-2021), with peripheral blood becoming the primary stem cell source post-1994. Allo-HSCT median age increased from 36 (1990-1994) to 54 (2015-2021) years, with mobilized blood as the primary source post-1998 and reduced intensity conditioning post-2000. Unrelated and mismatched allo-HSCT accounted for 50% and 19% of allo-HSCT in 2015-2021. Three-year overall survival (OS) after auto-HSCT improved from 56% (1990-1994) to 70% (2015-2021), p < 0.001, with a decrease in relapse incidence (RI) from 49% to 38%, while non-relapse mortality (NRM) remained unchanged (4%). After allo-HSCT, 3-year-OS increased from 33% (1990-1999) to 46% (2015-2021) (p < 0.001); 3-year RI remained at 39% and 1-year-NRM decreased to 19% (p < 0.001). Our data reflect advancements over 32 years and >40,000 transplants, providing insights for evaluating emerging DLBCL therapies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo , Transplante Autólogo
18.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306752, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968285

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the causal relationship between 486 human serum metabolites and the active tuberculosis (ATB) in European population. METHODS: In this study, the causal relationship between human serum metabolites and the ATB was analyzed by integrating the genome-wide association study (GWAS). The 486 human serum metabolites were used as the exposure variable, three different ATB GWAS databases in the European population were set as outcome variables, and single nucleotide polymorphisms were used as instrumental variables for Mendelian Randomization. The inverse variance weighting was estimated causality, the MR-Egger intercept to estimate horizontal pleiotropy, and the combined effects of metabolites were also considered in the meta-analysis. Furthermore, the web-based MetaboAnalyst 6.0 was engaged for enrichment pathway analysis, while R (version 4.3.2) software and Review Manager 5.3 were employed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 21, 17, and 19 metabolites strongly associated with ATB were found in the three databases after preliminary screening (P < 0.05). The intersecting metabolites across these databases included tryptophan, betaine, 1-linoleoylglycerol (1-monolinolein) (1-LG), 1-eicosatrienoylglycerophosphocholine, and oleoylcarnitine. Among them, betaine (I2 = 24%, P = 0.27) and 1-LG (I2 = 0%, P = 0.62) showed the lowest heterogeneity among the different ATB databases. In addition, the metabolic pathways of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis (P = 0.0068), methionine metabolism (P = 0.0089), betaine metabolism (P = 0.0205) and oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids (P = 0.0309) were also associated with ATB. CONCLUSION: Betaine and 1-LG may be biomarkers or auxiliary diagnostic tools for ATB. They may provide new guidance for medical practice in the early diagnosis and surveillance of ATB. In addition, by interfering with phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis, methionine metabolism, betaine metabolism, oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids, and other pathways, it is helpful to develop new anti-tuberculosis drugs and explore the virulence or pathogenesis of ATB at a deeper level, providing an effective reference for future studies.


Assuntos
Betaína , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose , Humanos , Betaína/sangue , Betaína/metabolismo , Tuberculose/genética , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , População Branca/genética , Metabolômica/métodos
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(7): e6121, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and dementia is still unclear, particularly regarding depression as a potential risk factor preceding dementia. Therefore, we aimed to verify if the presence of depression at baseline may increase the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment during 15 years of follow-up in the SHARE (Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe) study. METHODS: Depressive symptoms were defined using the EURO-D, with a score ≥4 indicative of depression. Incident dementia was ascertained using self-reported data and caregivers' information, cognitive impairment using objective cognitive tests. Cox regression analysis, adjusted for 10 baseline confounders, was run and hazard ratios (HRs), with their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated. RESULTS: In total 22,789 participants were included in the present analysis (mean age 64.2 years) and were predominantly female. The prevalence of depression at baseline was 24.9%. Over 15 years of follow-up, the onset of dementia occurred a median 2 years earlier in people with depression compared to those without. Depression at the baseline significantly increased the risk of dementia in the overall sample (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.54-1.95) and the risk of cognitive impairment (HR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25). For dementia, the association was stronger in people less than 60 years (HR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.42-3.02) than in participants aged ≥80 years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.14-1.91). A similar trend was observed for cognitive impairment. Among the single items of the EURO-D, loss of concentration was the strongest individual variable predicting the onset of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Depression increased the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment, particularly in younger adults, whereas loss of concentration was the strongest individual predicting variable of dementia. These findings demonstrate the need for early detection of depression for preventing future cognitive worsening.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Longitudinais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(7): e489-e505, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world is becoming increasingly urbanised. As cities around the world continue to grow, it is important for urban planners and policy makers to understand how different urban configuration patterns affect the environment and human health. However, previous studies have provided mixed findings. We aimed to identify European urban configuration types, on the basis of the local climate zones categories and street design variables from Open Street Map, and evaluate their association with motorised traffic flows, surface urban heat island (SUHI) intensities, tropospheric NO2, CO2 per person emissions, and age-standardised mortality. METHODS: We considered 946 European cities from 31 countries for the analysis defined in the 2018 Urban Audit database, of which 919 European cities were analysed. Data were collected at a 250 m × 250 m grid cell resolution. We divided all cities into five concentric rings based on the Burgess concentric urban planning model and calculated the mean values of all variables for each ring. First, to identify distinct urban configuration types, we applied the Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection for Dimension Reduction method, followed by the k-means clustering algorithm. Next, statistical differences in exposures (including SUHI) and mortality between the resulting urban configuration types were evaluated using a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post-hoc Dunn's test. FINDINGS: We identified four distinct urban configuration types characterising European cities: compact high density (n=246), open low-rise medium density (n=245), open low-rise low density (n=261), and green low density (n=167). Compact high density cities were a small size, had high population densities, and a low availability of natural areas. In contrast, green low density cities were a large size, had low population densities, and a high availability of natural areas and cycleways. The open low-rise medium and low density cities were a small to medium size with medium to low population densities and low to moderate availability of green areas. Motorised traffic flows and NO2 exposure were significantly higher in compact high density and open low-rise medium density cities when compared with green low density and open low-rise low density cities. Additionally, green low density cities had a significantly lower SUHI effect compared with all other urban configuration types. Per person CO2 emissions were significantly lower in compact high density cities compared with green low density cities. Lastly, green low density cities had significantly lower mortality rates when compared with all other urban configuration types. INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that, although the compact city model is more sustainable, European compact cities still face challenges related to poor environmental quality and health. Our results have notable implications for urban and transport planning policies in Europe and contribute to the ongoing discussion on which city models can bring the greatest benefits for the environment, climate, and health. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, State Research Agency, Generalitat de Catalunya, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red Epidemiología y Salud Pública, and Urban Burden of Disease Estimation for Policy Making as a Horizon Europe project.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Dióxido de Carbono , Cidades , Mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Planejamento de Cidades , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Urbanização
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