Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 115.212
Filtrar
1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 921136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909967

RESUMO

The flat oyster Ostrea edulis is an oyster species native to Europe. It has declined to functional extinction in many areas of the NE Atlantic for several decades. Factors explaining this decline include over-exploitation of natural populations and diseases like bonamiosis, regulated across both the EU and the wider world and caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae. To date, very limited sequence data are available for this Haplosporidian species. We present here the first transcriptome of B. ostreae. As this protozoan is not yet culturable, it remains extremely challenging to obtain high-quality -omic data. Thanks to a specific parasite isolation protocol and a dedicated bioinformatic pipeline, we were able to obtain a high-quality transcriptome for an intracellular marine micro-eukaryote, which will be very helpful to better understand its biology and to consider the development of new relevant diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Haplosporídios , Ostrea , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Haplosporídios/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ostrea/genética , Ostrea/parasitologia , Transcriptoma
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 919335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910885

RESUMO

Introduction: Italy has one of the lowest homicide rates in Europe. However, while it is decreasing overall, the proportion of murdered women is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics associated with homicide mortality in Italy, focusing specifically on male and female differences. Methods: Using a longitudinal design, the Italian 2011 General Census population was followed up to 2018. Deaths from homicide were retrieved by a record linkage with the Causes of Death Register. Age-standardized mortality rates, stratified by sex, citizenship, education, and geographic area of residence were calculated. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and homicide mortality was evaluated using quasi-Poisson regression models. Results: Between 2012 and 2018, 1,940 homicides were recorded in Italy: 53% were females over age 55, 10% were immigrant females, 34% were males aged 40-54 years, 76% had a medium-low education level, and 57% lived in the South and Islands. Foreign citizenship increased a female's risk of dying from homicide (adjusted rate ratio (RRadj): 1.85; 95% CI: 1.54-2.23), while no differences between Italian and immigrant males were found. An inverse association between education and mortality was observed for both sexes, stronger for males (RRadj: 3.68; 95% CI: 3.10-4.36, low vs. high) than for females (RRadj: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.17-1.62, low vs. high). Moreover, a male residing in the South or the Islands had almost 2.5 times the risk of dying from homicide than a resident in the North-West. Finally, old age (over 75) increased a female's risk of being murdered, whereas the highest risk for males was observed for those aged 25-54 years. Conclusions: Male and female differences in homicide mortality profiles by age were expected, but the results by residence, citizenship, and education highlight that living in disadvantaged socioeconomic contexts increases the risk of dying from homicide, suggesting the need to implement specific prevention and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 956417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923803

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systematical autoimmune disease, characterized by chronic synovial joint inflammation and hurt. Porphyromonas gingivalis(P. gingivalis) can cause life-threatening inflammatory immune responses in humans when the host pathogenic clearance machinery is disordered. Some epidemiological studies have reported that P. gingivalis exposure would increase the prevalence of RA. However, the results remain inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was done to systematically analyze the relationship between P. gingivalis exposure and the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis. Database including Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE were searched for published epidemiological articles assessed the relationship between P. gingivalis and RA. Obtained studies were screened based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The overall Odds Ratios (ORs) of incorporated articles were pooled by random-effect model with STATA 15.1 software. The literature search returned a total of 2057 studies. After exclusion, 28 articles were included and analyzed. The pooled ORs showed a significant increase in the risk of RA in individuals with P. gingivalis exposure (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.43-2.43). Subgroup analysis revealed that pooled ORs from populations located in Europe (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.46-3.22) and North America (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.23-5.08) were significantly higher than that from population in Asia (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). Substantial heterogeneity was observed but did not significantly influence the overall outcome. In conclusion, our results indicated P. gingivalis exposure was a risk factor in RA. Prompt diagnosis and management decisions on P. gingivalis antimicrobial therapy would prevent rheumatoid arthritis development and progression.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Prevalência
4.
Seizure ; 100: 115-116, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914893

RESUMO

Kikuchi and colleagues must be commended for having investigated the temporal trends in prescribed anti-seizure medicines (ASMs) in Japanese women. [1] Indeed, ASMs' teratogenicity has been by passed for too long: while first reports of valproate teratogenicity having been published in 1982, risk immunization measures were only issued in the mid 2010's in Europe [2]. However, we are afraid that Kikuchi and colleagues' report similarly illustrated how concerns for ASMs' teratogenicity are not adequate in Japan yet.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Epilepsia , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
5.
Ambix ; 69(3): 203-220, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916028

RESUMO

This article introduces a collection of papers on women, gender, and chemistry in eighteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and the United States. After briefly surveying previous research on women and gender in science and outlining the long history of women in chemistry, we present this special issue's main findings concerning several key themes, including the identities and strategies of women engaged in chemical activities and the enabling circumstances and networks that helped these women gain entry into male-dominated institutions and fields of study. We suggest that these overarching themes are equally relevant to the Enlightenment era and the late nineteenth- and early to mid-twentieth-century age of professional science, thus illustrating the benefits of jointly treating cases that might otherwise seem to have little in common.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Médicos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) is a recent invader on the European continent that was introduced to several new places since its first detection in 2008. Compared to other exotic Aedes mosquitoes with public health significance that invaded Europe during the last decades, this species' biology, behavior, and dispersal patterns were poorly investigated to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the species' population relationships and dispersal patterns within Europe, a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI or COX1) gene was sequenced from 130 mosquitoes, collected from five countries where the species has been introduced and/or established. Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing techniques were combined to generate the first complete nuclear and mitochondrial genomic sequences of Ae. koreicus from the European region. The complete genome of Ae. koreicus is 879 Mb. COI haplotype analyses identified five major groups (altogether 31 different haplotypes) and revealed a large-scale dispersal pattern between European Ae. koreicus populations. Continuous admixture of populations from Belgium, Italy, and Hungary was highlighted, additionally, haplotype diversity and clustering indicate a separation of German sequences from other populations, pointing to an independent introduction of Ae. koreicus to Europe. Finally, a genetic expansion signal was identified, suggesting the species might be present in more locations than currently detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of genetic research of invasive mosquitoes to understand general dispersal patterns, reveal main dispersal routes and form the baseline of future mitigation actions. The first complete genomic sequence also provides a significant leap in the general understanding of this species, opening the possibility for future genome-related studies, such as the detection of 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphism' markers. Considering its public health importance, it is crucial to further investigate the species' population genetic dynamic, including a larger sampling and additional genomic markers.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/genética , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13307, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922639

RESUMO

We address the challenge, due to sparse observational records, of investigating long-term changes in the storm surge climate globally. We use two centennial and three satellite-era daily storm surge time series from the Global Storm Surge Reconstructions (GSSR) database and assess trends in the magnitude and frequency of extreme storm surge events at 320 tide gauges across the globe from 1930, 1950, and 1980 to present. Before calculating trends, we perform change point analysis to identify and remove data where inhomogeneities in atmospheric reanalysis products could lead to spurious trends in the storm surge data. Even after removing unreliable data, the database still extends existing storm surge records by several decades for most of the tide gauges. Storm surges derived from the centennial 20CR and ERA-20C atmospheric reanalyses show consistently significant positive trends along the southern North Sea and the Kattegat Bay regions during the periods from 1930 and 1950 onwards and negative trends since 1980 period. When comparing all five storm surge reconstructions and observations for the overlapping 1980-2010 period we find overall good agreement, but distinct differences along some coastlines, such as the Bay of Biscay and Australia. We also assess changes in the frequency of extreme surges and find that the number of annual exceedances above the 95th percentile has increased since 1930 and 1950 in several regions such as Western Europe, Kattegat Bay, and the US East Coast.


Assuntos
Clima , Austrália , Europa (Continente) , Mar do Norte
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 170-177, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925624

RESUMO

The globalisation of trade is opening the way to the spread of species in new regions where they may cause negative impacts. Invasive mosquito species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are raising concern for their capacity to transmit several arboviruses of public health and veterinary importance. Currently available integrated vector management measures do not achieve satisfactory results when deployed against these urban mosquitoes. Moreover, insecticides are losing their effectiveness owing to the resistance developed by the target species. Policies regulating the use of insecticides are progressively restricting their market availability and this trend is expected to continue. Genetic control methods, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT), based on the use of irradiation to sterilise male mosquitoes, are showing good efficacy in pilot trials at local scales in some Aedes albopictus-colonised urban areas in Europe, without any negative effects. The main limitation is the cost, which may be significantly reduced through the introduction of automation in the mass rearing and drone technology in the field release. These technological advancements require substantial investments at a scale that can only be achieved with centralised production and extensive distribution, which in turn may be granted only if the authorisation frameworks, including the regulation of international transportation and aerial release in an urban setting, are clarified and matured.


La mondialisation des échanges ouvre une voie d'accès à la propagation d'espèces exotiques dans de nouvelles régions, avec parfois des effets négatifs. Les moustiques appartenant à des espèces envahissantes comme Aedes aegypti et Aedes albopictus suscitent à cet égard une certaine inquiétude en raison de leur capacité à transmettre plusieurs arbovirus importants pour la santé publique et vétérinaire. Les mesures disponibles de gestion intégrée des vecteurs ne donnent pas de résultats satisfaisants contre ces moustiques, à l'habitat principalement urbain. En outre, les insecticides perdent en efficacité à mesure que les espèces cibles acquièrent une résistance. La réglementation actuelle sur l'utilisation des insecticides vise à restreindre graduellement la disponibilité de ces produits sur le marché, tendance qui devrait se poursuivre. Les méthodes de contrôle génétique telles que la technique de l'insecte stérile (TIS), qui repose sur l'utilisation de moustiques mâles rendus stériles par irradiation, ont présenté une efficacité satisfaisante lors d'essais pilotes effectués à l'échelle locale dans certaines zones urbaines d'Europe colonisées par Aedes albopictus, sans induire d'effets indésirables. La principale limitation de cette méthode est son coüt, mais celui-ci peut être significativement réduit en automatisant les procédures d'élevage de masse et en utilisant des drones pour les lâchers sur le terrain. Ces avancées technologiques nécessitent d'importants investissements à très grande échelle, qui ne sont réalisables qu'en centralisant la production et en élargissant la distribution ; à son tour, cette perspective ne peut être garantie qu'à travers une clarification et rationalisation des cadres réglementaires régissant les autorisations nécessaires, en particulier concernant les transports internationaux et les lâchers aériens au-dessus des zones urbaines.


La mundialización del comercio está abriendo las puertas a la diseminación de especies en nuevas regiones, donde su presencia puede tener efectos negativos. Hay especies invasoras de mosquito, como Aedes aegypti o Aedes albopictus, que suscitan inquietud por su capacidad de transmitir varios arbovirus de importancia para la salud pública y veterinaria. Las medidas de lucha integrada contra vectores que existen actualmente no ofrecen resultados satisfactorios contra estos mosquitos urbanos. Además, los insecticidas están perdiendo eficacia debido a las resistencias adquiridas por las especies destinatarias. Las políticas que regulan el uso de insecticidas están restringiendo progresivamente su disponibilidad comercial, tendencia que presumiblemente va a perdurar. La aplicación experimental a escala local de métodos de control genético como la técnica del insecto estéril (sterile insect technique, SIT), basada en el uso de radiación para esterilizar a mosquitos macho, está resultando eficaz en ciertas zonas urbanas de Europa colonizadas por Aedes albopictus, sin que se observe ningún efecto negativo. La principal limitación es el costo, que cabe reducir sustancialmente introduciendo la automatización en la cría masiva y empleando drones para las sueltas sobre el terreno. Estos avances tecnológicos exigen inversiones cuantiosas, de tal magnitud que solo son factibles si se plantea una producción centralizada y una distribución a gran escala, procesos que a su vez solo serán aprobados si previamente se aclaran y perfeccionan los regímenes de autorización, incluida la regulación del transporte internacional y de la suelta aérea en medios urbanos.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 41(1): 29-65, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925637

RESUMO

There are significant numbers of transboundary shipments of live insects for pollination, pest management, industrial processes, research and other uses, but data collection and analysis have proved difficult. The World Organisation for Animal Health and Collectif TIS (Technique de l'Insecte Stérile), a French think tank, carried out a stakeholder survey to understand the nature of the live insect trade and potential challenges to safety and efficiency. Target respondents had experience in the areas of biocontrol, sterile insect technique, entomological research and regulatory affairs. Although the survey was sent globally, the responses were unintentionally biased towards Europe, where interest is high, since this region is developing a comprehensive framework to promote the use of beneficial insects to replace pesticides. The survey also explored respondents' knowledge of several international agreements on the movement and risk management of beneficial or invasive insects. Knowledge of the various regulations was generally poor, and respondents highlighted a perceived lack of clarity regarding live insect shipments in the existing international regulations and guidelines. Almost two-thirds of participants reported reluctance by carriers to accept live insects for shipment, and three-quarters described occasional to systematic delays that resulted in a reduction of quality or viability. Some respondents reported that they instead hand-carry live insects, mostly in small quantities. Participants described being directly involved in trade covering 70 species of live insects and ticks transported among 37 countries, with volumes ranging from fewer than ten insects to over a million per shipment. Of these, 30% were potential vectors of pathogens to humans or animals, 42% were potential plant pest species (including some used for biocontrol), and 17% were classical biocontrol agents. The results of this survey begin to define the current scope, scale and issues for those involved in shipping live insects and ticks across political boundaries. The survey's aim is to persuade regulatory bodies and shipping operators to facilitate safety, efficiency and consistency in this underdeveloped sector.


Les insectes vivants font l'objet d'un nombre important d'expéditions transfrontalières à des fins de pollinisation, de gestion des nuisibles, d'utilisation dans des processus industriels et de recherche, parmi d'autres emplois ; or, la collecte et l'analyse de données sur le sujet se sont révélées difficiles. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale et le Collectif TIS (Technique de l'insecte stérile), groupe de réflexion français, ont mené une enquête auprès de parties prenantes afin de comprendre la nature du commerce international d'insectes vivants ainsi que les éventuels problèmes de sécurité et d'efficacité qui lui sont associés. Les répondants sont des acteurs expérimentés dans les domaines du contrôle biologique, de la technique de l'insecte stérile, de la recherche entomologique et des questions réglementaires. Si le questionnaire a été distribué dans toutes les régions du monde, les réponses ont toutefois présenté un biais involontaire privilégiant l'Europe, région où l'intérêt pour cette question est élevé compte tenu du cadre réglementaire qui y est actuellement mis en place pour promouvoir l'utilisation des insectes utiles en replacement des pesticides. L'enquête visait également à déterminer le niveau de connaissance des répondants sur les divers accords internationaux relatifs aux mouvements d'insectes utiles ou envahissants, ainsi que sur la gestion des risques en la matière. Il en ressort que les diverses réglementations sont généralement méconnues, les répondants mettant en avant leur perception d'un manque de clarté des réglementations et directives internationales applicables aux expéditions d'insectes vivants. Près des deux tiers des participants ont fait état des réticences des transporteurs à accepter des cargaisons d'insectes vivants et les trois quarts d'entre eux ont rapporté des retards occasionnels ou systématiques se traduisant par une perte de qualité ou de viabilité. Certains répondants ont déclaré qu'ils préféraient transporter eux-mêmes les insectes vivants, la plupart du temps en petites quantités. Les répondants ont décrit leur participation directe dans des échanges couvrant au total 70 espèces de tiques et d'insectes vivants transportés dans 37 pays, avec des volumes allant de moins de dix insectes à plus d'un million d'insectes par cargaison. Parmi les espèces transportées, 30 % étaient potentiellement vectrices d'agents pathogènes pour les humains ou les animaux, 42 % étaient des nuisibles potentiels pour les végétaux (y compris certaines espèces utilisées à des fins de lutte biologique) et 17 % étaient des agents classiques de la lutte biologique. Les résultats de cette enquête permettent d'esquisser la portée et l'échelle des expéditions transfrontalières d'insectes vivants et de tiques, ainsi que la teneur des problèmes rencontrés par ceux qui y prennent part. L'objectif de l'enquête est de convaincre les organismes chargés de la réglementation ainsi que les transporteurs internationaux de la nécessité d'apporter de meilleures conditions de sécurité et d'efficacité à ce secteur sous-développé et d'en assurer la cohérence.


Pese al importante número de envíos transfronterizos de insectos vivos que se realizan con fines de polinización, gestión de plagas, procesos industriales, investigación u otros usos, hasta ahora ha resultado difícil reunir y analizar datos al respecto. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal y el grupo de reflexión francés Collectif TIS (Technique de l'Insecte Stérile) hicieron una encuesta entre las partes interesadas con el fin de conocer mejor las características del comercio de insectos vivos y los factores que pueden amenazar su seguridad y eficacia. La encuesta iba dirigida a personas con experiencia en materia de control biológico, uso de la técnica del insecto estéril, investigaciones entomológicas o aspectos reglamentarios. Aunque la encuesta fue distribuida por todo el mundo, las respuestas presentaban un involuntario sesgo «europeo¼ debido al gran interés que el tema suscita en Europa, donde se está elaborando un marco reglamentario para promover el uso de insectos beneficiosos en sustitución de los plaguicidas. La encuesta indagaba asimismo en el grado de conocimiento que tenían los participantes de varios acuerdos internacionales relativos al desplazamiento de insectos beneficiosos o invasores y a la gestión de los riesgos conexos. En términos generales, los encuestados conocían poco las diversas reglamentaciones y destacaban lo que a su juicio era falta de claridad de las vigentes normativas y directrices internacionales por lo que respecta a los cargamentos de insectos vivos. Casi dos tercios de los participantes afirmaron que los transportistas eran reacios a aceptar cargamentos de insectos vivos y tres cuartas partes refirieron demoras ocasionales o sistemáticas que mermaban la calidad o viabilidad de las remesas. Algunos dijeron haber optado a cambio por el transporte manual de insectos vivos, casi siempre en pequeñas cantidades. Los encuestados afirmaron tomar parte directamente en un comercio que mueve 70 especies de insectos o ácaros vivos por 37 países, en cantidades que van desde menos de diez insectos a más de un millón de ejemplares por envío. De esas especies, un 30% correspondía a posibles vectores de patógenos humanos o animales, un 42% a posibles plagas vegetales (algunas de ellas utilizadas con fines de control biológico) y un 17% a agentes clásicos de control biológico. Los resultados permiten empezar a acotar el alcance, la escala y la naturaleza de los problemas a que se enfrentan quienes intervienen en el envío transfronterizo de insectos y ácaros vivos. La encuesta tiene por objetivo convencer a organismos de reglamentación y transportistas de que procuren fomentar la seguridad, eficiencia y coherencia de este infradesarrollado sector.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271823, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925974

RESUMO

The recent return of Atlantic bluefin tuna to northern Europe following the recovery of the east Atlantic stock has sparked substantial public and scientific interest. This is particularly true for recreational anglers in Denmark, who often consider Atlantic bluefin tuna to be the catch of a lifetime. This attitude has previously sustained a substantial recreational fishery for bluefin tuna with annual tournaments in Denmark, which peaked in the 1950s before the subsequent collapse of the stock during the 1960s. Several scientific tagging programs have recruited recreational anglers in recent years to help catch and release tagged bluefin tuna. The anglers' investment of time and money in the scientific tagging projects indicate that the recreational fishery could recover in the future. However, the economic aspects of a potential future recreational bluefin tuna fishery remain unknown. We surveyed anglers participating in a scientific catch and release bluefin tuna fishery in Denmark across three years (2018-2020) and calculated the total annual expenditures associated with the activities. Additionally, we estimated the magnitude of the negative impact (i.e., incidental mortalities) on the bluefin tuna stock. Our results show that total annual expenditures by the recreational anglers approached 1,439,540€, totaling 4,318,620€ between 2018 and 2020. We found that recreational bluefin tuna anglers had mean annual expenditures directly related to the bluefin tuna fishing between 7,047€ and 2,176€ with an associated mortality impact on the stock of less than 1 tonne annually. By comparing the mortality impact to the expenditures, we estimate that each dead Atlantic bluefin tuna during the three study years generated 398,163€ in mean annual expenditures, equivalent to approximately 1636€ kg-1. Our study demonstrates significant economic expenditures among recreational anglers who target Atlantic bluefin tuna. This provides a clear example of how a recovery of marine natural capital and related ecosystem services can support development in the blue economy.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Atum , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Gastos em Saúde
12.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 32(4): 499-512, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918394

RESUMO

Exposure models are essential in almost all relevant contexts for exposure science. To address the numerous challenges and gaps that exist, exposure modelling is one of the priority areas of the European Exposure Science Strategy developed by the European Chapter of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES Europe). A strategy was developed for the priority area of exposure modelling in Europe with four strategic objectives. These objectives are (1) improvement of models and tools, (2) development of new methodologies and support for understudied fields, (3) improvement of model use and (4) regulatory needs for modelling. In a bottom-up approach, exposure modellers from different European countries and institutions who are active in the fields of occupational, population and environmental exposure science pooled their expertise under the umbrella of the ISES Europe Working Group on exposure models. This working group assessed the state-of-the-art of exposure modelling in Europe by developing an inventory of exposure models used in Europe and reviewing the existing literature on pitfalls for exposure modelling, in order to identify crucial modelling-related strategy elements. Decisive actions were defined for ISES Europe stakeholders, including collecting available models and accompanying information in a living document curated and published by ISES Europe, as well as a long-term goal of developing a best-practices handbook. Alongside these actions, recommendations were developed and addressed to stakeholders outside of ISES Europe. Four strategic objectives were identified with an associated action plan and roadmap for the implementation of the European Exposure Science Strategy for exposure modelling. This strategic plan will foster a common understanding of modelling-related methodology, terminology and future research in Europe, and have a broader impact on strategic considerations globally.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271290, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921275

RESUMO

This study provides a macro-level societal and health system focused analysis of child vaccination rates in 30 European countries, exploring the effect of context on coverage. The importance of demography and health system attributes on health care delivery are recognized in other fields, but generally overlooked in vaccination. The analysis is based on correlating systematic data built up by the Models of Child Health Appraised (MOCHA) Project with data from international sources, so as to exploit a one-off opportunity to set the analysis within an overall integrated study of primary care services for children, and the learning opportunities of the 'natural European laboratory'. The descriptive analysis shows an overall persistent variation of coverage across vaccines with no specific vaccination having a low rate in all the EU and EEA countries. However, contrasting with this, variation between total uptake per vaccine across Europe suggests that the challenge of low rates is related to country contexts of either policy, delivery, or public perceptions. Econometric analysis aiming to explore whether some population, policy and/or health system characteristics may influence vaccination uptake provides important results-GDP per capita and the level of the population's higher education engagement are positively linked with higher vaccination coverage, whereas mandatory vaccination policy is related to lower uptake rates. The health system characteristics that have a significant positive effect are a cohesive management structure; a high nurse/doctor ratio; and use of practical care delivery reinforcements such as the home-based record and the presence of child components of e-health strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272549, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the active ageing model based on the Health, Lifelong Learning, Participation and Security pillars, this research has a twofold objective: i) to classify older adults according to active ageing profiles, taking into account the four pillars, and ii) to ascertain the relationship between the profiles and personal and contextual factors, as well as well-being and quality of life in old age. METHODS: A study sample of 5,566 Spanish older adults who participated in wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was included. Data were analysed in different steps applying several statistical analyses (Principal Component, Cluster, Discriminant, Multiple Correspondence and bivariate analysis with Pearson chi-square and ANOVA). RESULTS: Five older adult profiles were obtained (I: with moderate activity; II: quasi-dependents; III: with active ageing-limiting conditions; IV: with diverse and balanced activity; V: with excellent active ageing conditions). The first three profiles were characterised by subjects with a high average age, low educational level, who were retired or housewives, and who perceived a moderate level of loneliness, satisfaction with the social network and quality of life, as well as having a larger family network, but living in small households or alone. In contrast, the latter two profiles showed better personal and contextual conditions, well-being and quality of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The multidimensional approach to active ageing followed in this article has revealed the presence of several older adult profiles, which are confined to groups with better or worse active ageing conditions. In this context, if ageing is a process that reflects the previous way of life, intervention priorities will have to consider actions that promote better conditions during the life cycle.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Espanha
15.
Science ; 377(6606): 559, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926045

RESUMO

The opening line of a recent Financial Times article put it best: "Relations between the UK and EU badly need a reset." Although the article was mostly about geopolitics, the disconnect also applies to science and the current uncertainty about whether the UK will remain an associated partner in European Union (EU) research programs such as Horizon Europe. In the post-Brexit era, and with a new UK Prime Minister to be named shortly, the UK and EU should be considering how best to maximize the potential of the numerous brilliant scientists, technicians, academics, and clinicians working in the universities and research institutes of all European countries, including the UK.


Assuntos
Médicos , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Humanos , Reino Unido
16.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 194, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is unfinished reform in primary care in Russia and other former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The traditional 'Semashko' multi-specialty polyclinic model has been retained, while its major characteristics are increasingly questioned. The search for a new model is on a health policy agenda. It is relevant for many other countries. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we explore the strengths and weaknesses of the multi-specialty polyclinic model currently found in Russia and other FSU countries, as well as the features of the emerging multi-disciplinary and large-scale primary care models internationally. The comparison of the two is a major research question. Health policy implications are discussed. METHODS: We use data from two physicians' surveys and recent literature to identify the characteristics of multi-specialty polyclinics, indicators of their performance and the evaluation in the specific country context. The review of the literature is used to describe new primary care models internationally. RESULTS: The Semashko polyclinic model has lost some of its original strengths due to the excessive specialization of service delivery. We demonstrate the strengths of extended practices in Western countries and conclude that FSU countries should "leapfrog" the phase of developing solo practices and build a multi-disciplinary model similar to the extended practices model in Europe. The latter may act as a 'golden mean' between the administrative dominance of the polyclinic model and the limited capacity of solo practices. The new model requires a separation of primary care and outpatient specialty care, with the transformation of polyclinics into centers of outpatient diagnostic and specialty services that become part of hospital services while working closely with primary care. CONCLUSION: The comprehensiveness of care in a big setting and potential economies of scale, which are major strengths of the polyclinic model, should be retained in the provision of specialty care rather than primary care. Internationally, there are lessons about the risks associated with models based on narrow specialization in caring for patients who increasingly have multiple conditions.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , U.R.S.S.
17.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928348

RESUMO

Discrepancies in donation and transplantation by sex and gender have previously been reported. However, whether such differences are invariably the inevitable, unintended outcome of a legitimate process has yet to be determined. The European Committee on Organ Transplantation of the Council of Europe (CD-P-TO) is the committee that actively promotes the development of ethical, quality and safety standards in the field of transplantation in Europe. Whilst the ultimate objective is to shed light on the processes underlying potential gender inequities in transplantation, our initial goal was to represent the distribution by sex among organ donors and recipients in the CD-P-TO Member States and observer countries. Our survey confirms previous evidence that, in most countries, men represent the prevalent source of deceased donors (63.3% in 64 countries: 60.7% and 71.9% for donation after brain and circulatory death, respectively). In contrast, women represent the leading source of organs recovered from living kidney and liver donors (61.1% and 51.2% in 55 and 32 countries, respectively). Across countries, most recovered organs are transplanted into men (65% in 57 countries). These observations may be explained, at least in part, by the higher burden of certain diseases in men, childbearing related immune sensitization in women, and donor-recipient size mismatch. Future research should establish whether gender-related socially-constructed roles and socioeconomic status may play a detrimental role reducing the access of women to transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos
18.
Euro Surveill ; 27(31)2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929429

RESUMO

Following the report of an excess in paediatric cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology by the United Kingdom (UK) on 5 April 2022, 427 cases were reported from 20 countries in the World Health Organization European Region to the European Surveillance System TESSy from 1 January 2022 to 16 June 2022. Here, we analysed demographic, epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data available in TESSy. Of the reported cases, 77.3% were 5 years or younger and 53.5% had a positive test for adenovirus, 10.4% had a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and 10.3% were coinfected with both pathogens. Cases with adenovirus infections were significantly more likely to be admitted to intensive care or high-dependency units (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.18-3.74) and transplanted (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.19-9.55) than cases with a negative test result for adenovirus, but this was no longer observed when looking at this association separately between the UK and other countries. Aetiological studies are needed to ascertain if adenovirus plays a role in this possible emergence of hepatitis cases in children and, if confirmed, the mechanisms that could be involved.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hepatite A , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care ; 16(3): 110-116, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929557

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 2 years, the COVID-19 pandemic has had short-term and long-term effects on the delivery of cancer care. Some European countries faced an unprecedented widespread crisis during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, only being able afterwards to gradually recover, thanks to the improvement in preventive measures, changes in public health and reactive processes in cancer care and a better understanding of the ongoing heath emergency. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and COVID-19 specific treatments, the growing testing and tracking capability to limit virus diffusion, and research efforts to better define areas of action have all greatly limited the negative impact of the health emergency on routine cancer care.The need to protect those more vulnerable and to ensure continuity of care for oncology patients has been balanced across the pandemic, with the aim to guarantee an optimal standard of care. SUMMARY: This article aims to provide an overview on the evolving scenario of cancer care throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, focusing on the particular features that characterized the pandemic course as well as the main differences that were observed across it.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11368, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790759

RESUMO

Occupational enrichment emerges as a promising strategy for improving the welfare of farmed animals. This form of enrichment aims to stimulate cognitive abilities of animals by providing them with more opportunities to interact with and control their environment. Predictability of salient daily events, and in particular predictability of feeding, is currently one of the most studied occupational enrichment strategies and can take several forms. In fish, while temporal predictability of feeding has been widely investigated, signalled predictability (based on a signal, such as light or sound) has received little attention. Depending on the type of predictability used and the ecology of the species, the effects on fish welfare often differ. The present study aimed to determine which feeding predictability would be most appropriate for rainbow trout, the main continental farmed fish in Europe, and what the consequences might be for their welfare. We tested four feeding predictability conditions: temporal (based on time of day), signalled (based on bubble diffusion), temporal + signalled (based on time and bubble diffusion), and unpredictable (random feeding times). Behavioural and zootechnical outcomes recorded were swimming activity, aggressive behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps, emotional reactivity, and growth. Our results showed that rainbow trout can predict daily feedings relying on time and/or bubbles as predictors as early as two weeks of conditioning, as evidenced by their increased swimming activity before feeding or during feed omission tests, which allowed to reinforce their conditioned response. Temporal predictability alone resulted in an increase in pre-feeding aggressive behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps, suggesting that the use of time as the sole predictor of feedings in husbandry practices may be detrimental to fish welfare. Signalled predictability with bubbles alone resulted in fewer pre-feeding agonistic behaviours, burst of accelerations, and jumps than in the temporal predictability condition. The combination of temporal and signalled predictability elicited the highest conditioned response and the level of pre-feeding aggression behaviours, burst of accelerations and jumps tended to be lower than for temporal predictability alone. Interestingly, fish swimming activity during bubble diffusion also revealed that bubbles were highly attractive regardless of the condition. Rainbow trout growth and emotional reactivity were not affected by the predictability condition. We conclude, therefore, that the use of bubbles as a feeding predictor could represent an interesting approach to improve rainbow trout welfare in farms, by acting as both an occupational and physical enrichment.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Agressão , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...