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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2863-2872, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231699

RESUMO

This essay proposes a reflection on the social phenomenon that involves communication and construction of facts and narratives around science and the pandemic. We divide the text into four parts. It begins with a rapid overview on the disinformation over health in the context of the global digital integration: in the sequence, we argue about how this phenomenon is characteristic of the post-factual era in which we live, and then critically situate the denial of science in the pandemic context. Finally, the text discusses some propositions on the legal and institutional field commenting on recent advances in the United States and Europe. Our intention is to contribute to an initial reflection that can reposition science in health governance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2253-2270, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231736

RESUMO

This study aimed to review studies of human biomonitoring (HBM) that evaluated exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in adults living close to industrial areas. A systematic review of studies was selected, without initial date limit through to December 2017, from the MEDLINE and BVS databases. Original studies in English, Portuguese or Spanish conducted among the adult population using blood and/or urine as biomarkers were included. The articles were evaluated according to methodological criteria, including studies with comparison groups and/or probabilistic sampling. Of the 28 studies selected, 54% were conducted in Europe, 36% in Asia, 7% in North America and 4% in Africa. Foundries, metal works and steel mills were the most frequently studied. Urine and blood were used in 82% and 50% of studies, respectively. The elements most investigated were Cd, Pb and As. Despite using heterogeneous methodologies, the results revealed higher metal concentrations, especially from As and Hg in general, than in the comparison group. This review highlights the need for more rigorous methodological studies of HBM, stressing the importance of public health vigilance among populations exposed to toxic metals, especially in developing countries.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Adulto , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204689

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has thus far restricted the large movement of people; nonetheless, we cannot exclude the disruptive power of a virus with similar characteristics to COVID-19 affecting both high- and low-income countries, as a factor for future mass migrations. Indeed, the top 15 countries affected by COVID-19 host about 9 million refugees, and it is, therefore, important to investigate and strengthen the readiness of countries' health policies to ensure they are well equipped to deal with potential large influxes of 'epidemic-related refugees and migrants.' Using the Bardach Policy Framework as a tool for analysis, this article investigates the readiness of countries for a potential public health event (mass migration generated by future pandemics), therefore, aiming at a health response forecasting exercise. The article reviews the policies put in place by countries who faced large influxes of migrants between 2011 and 2015 (the policy-prolific years between the Arab Spring migration and the introduction of stringent measures in Europe) and new evidence generated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (including the 'ECDC Guidance on infection prevention and control of COVID-19 in migrant and refugee reception and detention centres in the EU/EEA and the UK' and the 'WHO Lancet priority for dealing with migration and COVID-19') to formulate a policy option able to strengthen national system capacities for responding to influxes of epidemic-related migrants and the management of highly infectious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Migrantes , Europa (Continente) , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205809

RESUMO

(1) Background: to describe the dynamic of the pandemic across 35 European countries over a period of 9 months. (2) Methods: a three-phase time series model was fitted for 35 European countries, predicting deaths based on SARS-CoV-2 incidences. Hierarchical clustering resulted in three clusters of countries. A multiple regression model was developed predicting thresholds for COVID-19 incidences, coupled to death numbers. (3) Results: The model showed strongly connected deaths and incidences during the waves in spring and fall. The corrected case-fatality rates ranged from 2% to 20.7% in the first wave, and from 0.5% to 4.2% in the second wave. If the incidences stay below a threshold, predicted by the regression model (R2=85.0%), COVID-19 related deaths and incidences were not necessarily coupled. The clusters represented different regions in Europe, and the corrected case-fatality rates in each cluster flipped from high to low or vice versa. Severely and less severely affected countries flipped between the first and second wave. (4) Conclusions: COVID-19 incidences and related deaths were uncoupled during the summer but coupled during two waves. Once a country-specific threshold of infections is reached, death numbers will start to rise, allowing health care systems and countries to prepare.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206179

RESUMO

In early March 2020, Italy became the epicenter of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe. A different organization of hospital units was required to take care of patients affected by acute respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of burnout in two sub-intensive care units (SICUs) of the COVID-19 hub center of the Lombardia region in Milan (Italy). All nurses and healthcare assistants working in the SICUs during June 2020 were included in the study. Burnout was assessed via the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred and five (84%) SICU staff participated in the study. The prevalence of high burnout for nurses and healthcare assistants was 61.9% for emotional exhaustion, 47.6% for depersonalization and 34.3% for personal accomplishment. Depersonalization was significantly more frequent in younger nurses (p = 0.009). Nurses were 4.5 times more likely to have burnout than healthcare assistants. Burnout was a common condition among healthcare workers operating in SICUs during the pandemic. Urgent actions are needed, especially for nurses, as well as preventive strategies for future pandemic scenarios.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206293

RESUMO

An international online patient community, Carenity, conducted a patient study in two independent waves among adults affected by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Europe and in the United States of America (USA). The study aimed to assess the real time impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the medical conditions of patients with NCDs, their access to health care, and their adaptation to daily life as well as to describe their sources of information on COVID-19 and their needs for specific information and support. During the pandemic, 50% of the patients reported a worsening of their medical condition, and 17% developed a new disease. Additionally, 26% of the respondents reported an impact of the pandemic on regular/long-term treatment intake. 54% of the patients felt very or completely socially isolated and reported a strong impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their stress level and state of mind, with higher levels observed in the USA compared to Europe. 59% of the respondents wished to have received additional information regarding the risks associated to their medical condition during the pandemic. Television was the most used source of information, whereas physicians were the most trusted one. This study describes the substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on NCD patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Euro Surveill ; 26(26)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212838

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) and other VOCs are spreading in Europe. Micro-neutralisation assays with sera obtained after Comirnaty (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccination in 36 healthcare workers (31 female) demonstrated significant fold change reduction in neutralising titres compared with the original virus: Gamma (P.1) 2.3, Beta (B.1.351) 10.4, Delta 2.1 and 2.6. The reduction of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant was not significant. Despite being lower, remaining neutralisation capacity conferred by Comirnaty against Delta and other VOCs is probably protective.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Vacinação
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 503, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dieback epidemic decimating common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Europe is caused by the invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. In this study we analyzed the genomes of H. fraxineus and H. albidus, its native but, now essentially displaced, non-pathogenic sister species, and compared them with several other members of Helotiales. The focus of the analyses was to identify signals in the genome that may explain the rapid establishment of H. fraxineus and displacement of H. albidus. RESULTS: The genomes of H. fraxineus and H. albidus showed a high level of synteny and identity. The assembly of H. fraxineus is 13 Mb longer than that of H. albidus', most of this difference can be attributed to higher dispersed repeat content (i.e. transposable elements [TEs]) in H. fraxineus. In general, TE families in H. fraxineus showed more signals of repeat-induced point mutations (RIP) than in H. albidus, especially in Long-terminal repeat (LTR)/Copia and LTR/Gypsy elements. Comparing gene family expansions and 1:1 orthologs, relatively few genes show signs of positive selection between species. However, several of those did appeared to be associated with secondary metabolite genes families, including gene families containing two of the genes in the H. fraxineus-specific, hymenosetin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC). CONCLUSION: The genomes of H. fraxineus and H. albidus show a high degree of synteny, and are rich in both TEs and BGCs, but the genomic signatures also indicated that H. albidus may be less well equipped to adapt and maintain its ecological niche in a rapidly changing environment.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Fraxinus , Ascomicetos , Europa (Continente) , Fraxinus/genética , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 673874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222177

RESUMO

Purpose: We analyzed the effects of COVID-19 as well as its accompanying epidemiological control measures on health-related outcomes (physical and mental health) and unmet care needs of both caregivers and care recipients across Europe and Israel by taking into account country differences. Methods: We applied comparisons of adjusted predictions, controlling for a large set of relevant respondent characteristics, to investigate changes in the physical and mental health of caregivers and care recipients due to COVID-19. Furthermore, multilevel regression models were used to analyze the effect of individual and contextual indicators on the probability of reporting difficulties in receiving care. For the analyses, we used data from 26 countries with 51,983 respondents over 50 years based on the eighth wave of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), which had to be suspended in March 2020, and the SHARE Corona Survey fielded from June to August 2020. Results: During the first phase of the pandemic in spring/summer 2020, the frequency of providing personal care to parents increased in almost all European countries, while care to children, in turn, decreased. Parental caregivers who increased the frequency of providing personal care reported significantly more mental health strains, that is, feeling sad/depressed and anxious/nervous more often since the outbreak of the pandemic. With respect to receiving care, about one out of five care recipients had difficulty in obtaining adequate care from outside the household during the pandemic. The perception of unmet care needs was significantly associated with country differences regarding the duration of the stay-at-home orders. In contrast, the number of confirmed deaths did not have a significant effect on perceiving difficulties related to receiving care. Conclusions: Our findings show the extent of the burden to which caregivers and care recipients were exposed with respect to the unintended consequences of COVID-19-related epidemiological control measures. There is a great need within this population for interventions, which effectively reduce the burden as well as the symptoms of anxiety or depression for caregivers as well as care recipients. This should be recognized by (health) policymakers and social organizations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Israel , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(4): 3384-3403, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198391

RESUMO

Lockdown and social distancing, as well as testing and contact tracing, are the main measures assumed by the governments to control and limit the spread of COVID-19 infection. In reason of that, special attention was recently paid by the scientific community to the mathematical modeling of infection spreading by including in classical models the effects of the distribution of contacts between individuals. Among other approaches, the coupling of the classical SIR model with a statistical study of the distribution of social contacts among the population, led some of the present authors to build a Social SIR model, able to accurately follow the effect of the decrease in contacts resulting from the lockdown measures adopted in various European countries in the first phase of the epidemic. The Social SIR has been recently tested and improved through a fruitful collaboration with the Health Protection Agency (ATS) of the province of Pavia (Italy), that made it possible to have at disposal all the relevant data relative to the spreading of COVID-19 infection in the province (half a million of people), starting from February 2020. The statistical analysis of the data was relevant to fit at best the parameters of the mathematical model, and to make short-term predictions of the spreading evolution in order to optimize the response of the local health system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Teóricos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204759

RESUMO

The COVID-19 health emergency has thrown the health systems of most European countries into a deep crisis, forcing them to call off and postpone all interventions deemed not essential or life-saving in order to focus most resources on the treatment of COVID-19 patients. To facilitate women who are experiencing difficulties in terminating their pregnancies in Italy, the Ministry of Health has adapted to the regulations in force in most European countries and issued new guidelines that allow medical abortion up to 63 days, i.e., 9 weeks of gestational age, without mandatory hospitalization. This decision was met with some controversy, based on the assumption that the abortion pill could "incentivize" women to resort to abortion more easily. In fact, statistical data show that in countries that have been using medical abortion for some time, the number of abortions has not increased. The authors expect that even in Italy, as is the case in other European countries, the use of telemedicine is likely to gradually increase as a safe and valuable option in the third phase of the health emergency. The authors argue that there is a need to favor pharmacological abortion by setting up adequately equipped counseling centers, as is the case in other European countries, limiting hospitalization to only a few particularly complex cases.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , COVID-19 , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205027

RESUMO

Air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), is a major environmental risk factor for human health in Europe. Monitoring of air quality takes place using expensive reference stations. Low-cost sensors are a promising addition to this official monitoring network as they add spatial and temporal resolution at low cost. Moreover, low-cost sensors might allow for better characterization of personal exposure to PM2.5. In this study, we use 500 dust (PM2.5) sensors mounted on bicycles to estimate typical PM2.5 levels to which cyclists are exposed in the province of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the year 2020. We use co-located sensors at reference stations to calibrate and validate the mobile sensor data. We estimate that the average exposure to traffic related PM2.5, on top of background concentrations, is approximately 2 µg/m3. Our results suggest that cyclists close to major roads have a small, but consistently higher exposure to PM2.5 compared to routes with less traffic. The results allow for a detailed spatial representation of PM2.5 concentrations and show that choosing a different cycle route might lead to a lower exposure to PM2.5. Finally, we conclude that the use of mobile, low-cost sensors is a promising method to estimate exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205638

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The population is aging and fragility fractures are a research topic of steadily growing importance. Therefore, a systematic bibliometric review was performed to identify the 50 most cited articles in the field of fragility fractures analyzing their qualities and characteristics. Materials and Methods: From the Core Collection database in the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge, the most influential original articles with reference to fragility fractures were identified in February 2021 using a multistep approach. Year of publication, total number of citations, average number of citations per year since year of publication, affiliation of first and senior author, geographic origin of study population, keywords, and level of evidence were of interest. Results: Articles were published in 26 different journals between 1997 and 2020. The number of total citations per article ranged from 12 to 129 citations. In the majority of publications, orthopedic surgeons and traumatologists (66%) accounted for the first authorship, articles mostly originated from Europe (58%) and the keyword mostly used was "hip fracture". In total, 38% of the articles were therapeutic studies level III followed by prognostic studies level I. Only two therapeutic studies with level I could be identified. Conclusions: This bibliometric review shows the growing interest in fragility fractures and raises awareness that more high quality and interdisciplinary studies are needed.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Fraturas Ósseas , Autoria , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205921

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the association between maternal origin and birthplace, and caesarean section (CS) by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and length of residence. METHODS: We linked records from 118,459 primiparous women in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 2013 and 2017 with data from the National Population Register. We categorized pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) into underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9) and overweight/obese (≥25). Multinomial regression analysis estimated crude and adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for emergency and elective CS. RESULTS: Compared to normal weight women from Norway, women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia/Pacific had a decreased risk of elective CS (aRRR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87 and aRRR = 0.56, 0.41-0.77, respectively). Overweight/obese women from Europe/Central Asia had the highest risk of elective CS (aRRR = 1.42, 1.09-1.86). Both normal weight and overweight/obese Sub-Saharan African women had the highest risks of emergency CS (aRRR = 2.61, 2.28-2.99; 2.18, 1.81-2.63, respectively). Compared to women from high-income countries, the risk of elective CS was increasing with a longer length of residence among European/Central Asian women. Newly arrived migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest risk of emergency CS. CONCLUSION: Women from Sub-Saharan Africa had more than two times the risk of emergency CS compared to women originating from Norway, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.


Assuntos
Cesárea , África ao Sul do Saara , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240697

RESUMO

We compared the performance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody testing between 12 European laboratories involved in convalescent plasma trials. Raw titres differed almost 100-fold differences between laboratories when blind-testing 15 plasma samples. Calibration of titres in relation to the reference reagent and standard curve obtained by testing a dilution series reduced the inter-laboratory variability ca 10-fold. The harmonisation of neutralising antibody quantification is a vital step towards determining the protective and therapeutic levels of neutralising antibodies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Imunização Passiva
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282500

RESUMO

An international online patient community, Carenity, conducted a patient study in two independent waves among adults affected by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Europe and in the United States of America (USA). The study aimed to assess the real time impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the medical conditions of patients with NCDs, their access to health care, and their adaptation to daily life as well as to describe their sources of information on COVID-19 and their needs for specific information and support. During the pandemic, 50% of the patients reported a worsening of their medical condition, and 17% developed a new disease. Additionally, 26% of the respondents reported an impact of the pandemic on regular/long-term treatment intake. 54% of the patients felt very or completely socially isolated and reported a strong impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their stress level and state of mind, with higher levels observed in the USA compared to Europe. 59% of the respondents wished to have received additional information regarding the risks associated to their medical condition during the pandemic. Television was the most used source of information, whereas physicians were the most trusted one. This study describes the substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on NCD patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282497

RESUMO

In early March 2020, Italy became the epicenter of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe. A different organization of hospital units was required to take care of patients affected by acute respiratory failure caused by COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of burnout in two sub-intensive care units (SICUs) of the COVID-19 hub center of the Lombardia region in Milan (Italy). All nurses and healthcare assistants working in the SICUs during June 2020 were included in the study. Burnout was assessed via the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred and five (84%) SICU staff participated in the study. The prevalence of high burnout for nurses and healthcare assistants was 61.9% for emotional exhaustion, 47.6% for depersonalization and 34.3% for personal accomplishment. Depersonalization was significantly more frequent in younger nurses (p = 0.009). Nurses were 4.5 times more likely to have burnout than healthcare assistants. Burnout was a common condition among healthcare workers operating in SICUs during the pandemic. Urgent actions are needed, especially for nurses, as well as preventive strategies for future pandemic scenarios.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282496

RESUMO

(1) Background: to describe the dynamic of the pandemic across 35 European countries over a period of 9 months. (2) Methods: a three-phase time series model was fitted for 35 European countries, predicting deaths based on SARS-CoV-2 incidences. Hierarchical clustering resulted in three clusters of countries. A multiple regression model was developed predicting thresholds for COVID-19 incidences, coupled to death numbers. (3) Results: The model showed strongly connected deaths and incidences during the waves in spring and fall. The corrected case-fatality rates ranged from 2% to 20.7% in the first wave, and from 0.5% to 4.2% in the second wave. If the incidences stay below a threshold, predicted by the regression model (R2=85.0%), COVID-19 related deaths and incidences were not necessarily coupled. The clusters represented different regions in Europe, and the corrected case-fatality rates in each cluster flipped from high to low or vice versa. Severely and less severely affected countries flipped between the first and second wave. (4) Conclusions: COVID-19 incidences and related deaths were uncoupled during the summer but coupled during two waves. Once a country-specific threshold of infections is reached, death numbers will start to rise, allowing health care systems and countries to prepare.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282488

RESUMO

It is mainly children and adolescents who are involved in video gaming. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may have further increased their use of video games and, consequently, the risk of gaming disorder (GD) symptoms. However, currently, we do not have exhaustive knowledge of this issue. To fill this gap, the current study aims to analyze video gaming habits in children and adolescents during the lockdown, starting in March 2020 in Italy, the first European country affected by the pandemic. Specifically, we aim to understand how variables related to parents-for instance, knowledge of their offspring's life, the monitoring of their video gaming habits, and parental use of video games-are related to their offspring's time spent on video games and GD symptoms. A web-based survey involving parents (n = 554, 79% mothers, mean age = 45.39) of 554 children and adolescents (73% males, mean age = 11.11) was utilized. The results showed that they were involved in video games, particularly boys and adolescents, with high rates of GD symptoms. The parents also spent a considerable amount of time playing video games. A path model that explained the mechanisms through which parental variables were related to their offspring's time spent on video games and GD symptoms, controlling for gender and age, was verified. Overall, the findings indicate the importance of educating parents to behave effectively with respect to video games and monitor their offspring's video gaming habits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midwives look after women during pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium. In Spain, the first wave of COVID was particularly virulent. There are few studies about the experiences of midwives providing care during the COVID pandemic and very few have been undertaken in the countries of southern Europe such as Spain. This article sets out to take a more in-depth look at the experiences of midwives who were on the frontline of care during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to identify new needs and resilience strategies that can help midwives. METHODS: A qualitative methodology of phenomenological tradition was used, interviewing 10 midwives from primary care, hospital and independent care. RESULTS: After content analysis, three central categories emerged: (a) cascade of emotions; (b) professional occupation and concern for the women; (c) resisting the day-to-day; resilience and resistance strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties, midwives are concerned about the loss of rights and autonomy and about the increased vulnerability of women. Midwives have become aware of the power they have in their actions both in health management and administration, as well as in the care of women, creating strategies to provide dignified care to their users.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tocologia , Atenção à Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
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