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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 796, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assesses how tuberculosis (TB) screening is perceived by immigrants in Norway. Screening is mandatory for people arriving from high incidence countries. To attend screening, immigrants have to contact the health system after receiving an invitation by letter. The proportion of non-attenders is not known, and there are no sanctions for not attending. Generally, only persons who test positive receive test results. The study explores users' experiences, attitudes and motivations for attending or not attending TB screening, and perceived barriers and enablers. METHODS: We conducted six focus group discussions and three individual interviews with 34 people from 16 countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data was coded following a general inductive approach: All transcribed text data was closely read through, salient themes were identified and categories were created and labelled. The data was read through several times and the category system was subsequently revised. RESULTS: Most appreciated the opportunity to be tested for a severe disease and were generally positive towards the healthcare system. At the same time, many were uncomfortable with screening, particularly due to the fear and stigma attached to TB. All experienced practical problems related to language, information, and accessing facilities. Having to ask others for help made them feel dependent and vulnerable. Positive and negative attitudes simultaneously created ambivalence. Many wanted "structuring measures" like sanctions to help attendance. Many said that not receiving results left them feeling anxious. CONCLUSIONS: In order to adapt the system and improve trust and patient uptake, all aspects of the screening should be taken into account. Ambivalence towards screening probably has a negative impact on screening uptake and should be sought reduced. A combination of ambivalence and a wish for "structuring measures" leads the authors to conclude that mandatory screening is a reasonable measure. However, since mandatory screening negatively impacts patient autonomy, and because of fear, stigma and practical problems, the health system should empower users by improving communication and access to services. In addition, it is recommended that negative test results are also communicated to the users.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , África/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Noruega , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(6): 518-527, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood conduct problems are a costly public health problem and are five times more common in socially disadvantaged groups than they are in advantaged groups. Untreated, conduct problems have a poor prognosis, with increasing gaps between socioeconomic groups, and high rates of subsequent criminality. Incredible Years is a high quality parenting programme for reducing conduct problems and is widely disseminated in Europe. Many trials have shown Incredible Years to be effective but the potential effects of parenting interventions on social inequality are unknown. Some behavioural interventions (eg, smoking cessation programmes), although beneficial overall, can widen inequality gaps. Because single trials and aggregate-level meta-analyses are ill equipped for examining differential intervention (moderator) effects, we pooled individual-level trial data to assess the effects of Incredible Years on social equity. METHODS: We did a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis by searching CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, Medline, and PsycINFO, for studies published from inception to March 15, 2019. We also searched the Incredible Years website library and consulted with experts, including the European Incredible Years mentors' network. We included data from all completed randomised trials of the Incredible Years parenting intervention in Europe that included children aged 1-12 years, including unpublished trials, without restriction on publication year or outcome measures. We included prevention (selective or universal) and treatment or indicated prevention trials (for children diagnosed or above the clinical cutoff for conduct problems). We excluded trials or conditions within trials that were not randomised, included additional non-parenting material (eg, child-focused interventions), or were abbreviated, non-standard versions of the usual Incredible Years intervention of 12-14 weekly sessions. We requested individual participant data from the study authors. The primary outcome was child conduct problems, assessed using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Intensity (ECBI-I) scale. Moderators were analysed using multilevel modelling with multiple imputation. FINDINGS: Of 15 European trials of Incredible Years parenting programmes (n=1696 children), individual participant data were unavailable for one trial and one trial did not assess the primary outcome. Children were aged 2-10 years (median 5·1), 492 (30%) of 1651 children were from an ethnic minority and 931 (58%) of 1614 were from low-income families. Families who received the Incredible Years intervention reported an overall reduction in child conduct problems (13·5 points on the ECBI-I scale, 95% CI 10·9-16·1). There were no differential effects by family disadvantage (indicated by poverty, lone parenthood, teenage parenthood, household joblessness, or low education), or ethnic minority status. INTERPRETATION: We found no evidence for differential effects by social disadvantage, suggesting that Incredible Years is unlikely to widen socioeconomic inequalities in conduct problems. Furthermore, the programme might be an important tool for reducing social disparities and improving poor long-term outcomes in disadvantaged families because follow-up studies indicate that benefits persist. Clinicians and commissioners can be reassured that the programme is similarly effective for families from different backgrounds. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Poder Familiar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6045-6050, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837314

RESUMO

A large literature documents how intergenerational mobility-the degree to which (dis)advantage is passed on from parents to children-varies across and within countries. Less is known about the origin or persistence of such differences. We show that US areas populated by descendants to European immigrants have similar levels of income equality and mobility as the countries their forebears came from: highest in areas dominated by descendants to Scandinavian and German immigrants, lower in places with French or Italian heritage, and lower still in areas with British roots. Similar variation in mobility is found for the black population and when analyzing causal place effects, suggesting that mobility differences arise at the community level and extend beyond descendants of European immigrant groups. Our findings indicate that the geography of US opportunity may have deeper historical roots than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Mobilidade Social , Economia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Geografia , Humanos , Renda , Mobilidade Social/economia , Mobilidade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817862

RESUMO

Objective: To compare prevalence rates of alcohol, nicotine, and other drug use and major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, persistent depression, bipolar I disorder, agoraphobia, social and specific phobias, and antisocial, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorders) between US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites and between early entry versus later-entry foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Methods: Data were derived from face-to-face interviews in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (N = 36,309). Results: US-born Mexican Americans and US-born non-Hispanic whites were at greater risk (P < .05) of alcohol, nicotine, and any drug use and their associated disorders and other DSM-5 psychiatric disorders relative to their foreign-born counterparts. US-born non-Hispanic whites were more likely (P < .05) to use substances and develop many psychiatric disorders relative to US-born Mexican Americans. Foreign-born Mexican Americans < 18 years old at immigration were at greater risk of drug use, drug use disorders, and nicotine use disorder compared with foreign-born Mexican Americans ≥ 18 years old at immigration. Foreign-born non-Hispanic whites < 18 years old at immigration were more likely to use substances and to develop many psychiatric disorders relative to foreign-born non-Hispanic whites ≥ 18 years old at immigration. Conclusions: Taken together, the findings of this study support the healthy immigrant hypothesis and adverse role of acculturation for US-born and foreign-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Further research is warranted on immigration status and age at arrival into the United States and those processes underlying differential exposure to substances and development of psychiatric conditions. An understanding of these processes can be invaluable to clinicians in guiding culturally sensitive and informed prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etnologia , Transtorno Bipolar/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Personalidade/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tabagismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Public Health ; 64(3): 377-386, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examine whether the relationships between country of origin or reason for migration and mortality differ between men and women. METHODS: We apply hazard regression models on high-quality Swedish register data with nationwide coverage. RESULTS: Relative to their Swedish counterparts, migrants from Nordic and East European (EU) countries and former Yugoslavia have higher mortality. This excess mortality among migrants relative to Swedes is more pronounced in men than in women. Migrants from Western and Southern European countries; Iran, Iraq, and Turkey; Central and South America; and Asia, have lower mortality than Swedes, and the size of the mortality reduction is similar in both sexes. The predictive effects of the reason for migration for mortality are also similar in migrant men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides little support for the hypothesis of a double survival advantage among immigrant women in Sweden. However, it does show that the excess mortality in migrants from Nordic and EU countries and former Yugoslavia relative to the Swedish-born population is more pronounced in men than in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Suécia/etnologia
6.
Nature ; 557(7705): 369-374, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743675

RESUMO

For thousands of years the Eurasian steppes have been a centre of human migrations and cultural change. Here we sequence the genomes of 137 ancient humans (about 1× average coverage), covering a period of 4,000 years, to understand the population history of the Eurasian steppes after the Bronze Age migrations. We find that the genetics of the Scythian groups that dominated the Eurasian steppes throughout the Iron Age were highly structured, with diverse origins comprising Late Bronze Age herders, European farmers and southern Siberian hunter-gatherers. Later, Scythians admixed with the eastern steppe nomads who formed the Xiongnu confederations, and moved westward in about the second or third century BC, forming the Hun traditions in the fourth-fifth century AD, and carrying with them plague that was basal to the Justinian plague. These nomads were further admixed with East Asian groups during several short-term khanates in the Medieval period. These historical events transformed the Eurasian steppes from being inhabited by Indo-European speakers of largely West Eurasian ancestry to the mostly Turkic-speaking groups of the present day, who are primarily of East Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Ásia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Fazendeiros/história , História Antiga , Migração Humana/história , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196764, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. METHODS: Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. RESULTS: Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. IMPACT: The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary care that can meet the needs of complex patients. Also, primary and acute care services may need to pay more attention to Indigenous Australian women who may not obviously need it (i.e. those without comorbidity).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etnologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0193893, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma and prostate cancer may share risk factors. This study examined the association between serum PSA levels, which is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and variants in some melanoma-associated pigmentary genes. METHODS: We studied participants, all aged 70+ years, in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project who had no history of prostatitis or received treatment for prostate disease (n = 1033). We genotyped variants in MC1R (rs1805007, rs1805008), ASIP (rs4911414, rs1015362), SLC45A2 (rs28777, rs16891982), IRF4 (rs12203592), TYRP1 (rs1408799), TYR (rs1126809, rs1042602), SLC24A2 (rs12896399), and OCA2 (rs7495174). Generalised linear dominant models with Poisson distribution, log link functions and robust variance estimators estimated adjusted percentage differences (%PSA) in mean serum PSA levels (ng/mL) between variant and wildtype (0%PSA = reference) genotypes, adjusting for age, body mass index, serum 25OHD levels and birth regions (Australia or New Zealand (ANZ), Europe or elsewhere). RESULTS: Serum PSA levels were strongly associated with advancing age and birth regions: mean PSA levels were lower in Europe-born (-29.7%) and elsewhere-born (-11.7%) men than ANZ-born men (reference). Lower %PSA was observed in men with variants in SLC45A2: rs28777 (-19.6;95%CI: -33.5, -2.7), rs16891982 (-17.3;95%CI:-30.4,-1.7) than in wildtype men (reference). There were significant interactions between birth regions and PSA levels in men with variants in MC1R (rs1805007; p-interaction = 0.0001) and ASIP (rs4911414; p-interaction = 0.007). For these genes %PSA was greater in ANZ-born men and lower in Europe- and elsewhere-born men with the variant than it was in wildtype men. In a post hoc analysis, serum testosterone levels were increased in men with MC1R rs1805007 and serum dihydrotestosterone in men with ASIP rs1015362. CONCLUSION: Men with SNPs in SLC45A2, who have less sun sensitive skin, have lower PSA levels. Men with SNPs in MC1R and ASIP, who have more sun sensitive skin, and were born in ANZ, have higher PSA levels. Androgens may modify these apparent associations of pigmentary genes and sun exposure with PSA levels. IMPACT: PSA levels and possibly prostate cancer risk may vary with sun sensitivity and sun exposure, the effects of which might be modified by androgen levels.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Genes Neoplásicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Nova Zelândia , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Valores de Referência , Testosterona/sangue
9.
Nature ; 555(7698): 652-656, 2018 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562232

RESUMO

Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA. Here we use hypochlorite treatment of as little as 9 mg of bone or tooth powder to generate between 1- and 2.7-fold genomic coverage of five Neanderthals who lived around 39,000 to 47,000 years ago (that is, late Neanderthals), thereby doubling the number of Neanderthals for which genome sequences are available. Genetic similarity among late Neanderthals is well predicted by their geographical location, and comparison to the genome of an older Neanderthal from the Caucasus indicates that a population turnover is likely to have occurred, either in the Caucasus or throughout Europe, towards the end of Neanderthal history. We find that the bulk of Neanderthal gene flow into early modern humans originated from one or more source populations that diverged from the Neanderthals that were studied here at least 70,000 years ago, but after they split from a previously sequenced Neanderthal from Siberia around 150,000 years ago. Although four of the Neanderthals studied here post-date the putative arrival of early modern humans into Europe, we do not detect any recent gene flow from early modern humans in their ancestry.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Homem de Neandertal/classificação , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Filogenia , África/etnologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos , DNA Antigo/análise , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Masculino , Sibéria/etnologia , Dente
10.
Int J Cardiol ; 259: 227-233, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports from many countries have shown birthplace-associated disparities in the incidence and mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aims of the study were to identify and compare short- and long-term post-AMI mortality according to birthplace. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of Israeli AMI patients from a tertiary medical center in Southern Israel throughout 2002-2012. DATA SOURCE: the hospital's computerized systems. Patients were classified according to the country of birth (Israel, Southern Europe/Balkans, Northern Africa, Eastern/Central Europe, India/Pakistan, Middle-East, Yemen, and Ethiopia). STUDY OUTCOMES: in-hospital and up to 10-years post-discharge all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The study included 11,143 patients, age 67.4 ±â€¯13.9 and 67.5% men. Israeli-born patients were significantly younger, with lower rate of diabetes mellitus and hypertension but significantly higher rate of obesity, smoking, history of coronary artery disease and male sex compared with immigrants. The rate of STEMI and administration of percutaneous coronary revascularization was higher, yet extent of coronary findings and severe left ventricular dysfunction was lower in Israeli-born patients. In-hospital as well as post-discharge 1-and 10-year mortality rates were approximately 65% lower in Israeli-born patients compared with immigrants. Following adjustment for potential confounders the inequalities in post-discharge mortality attenuated (Yemen OR = 2.3 [95%CI: 1.4-3.6], Southern Europe/Balkans 1.75 [1.2-2.5], Northern Africa 1.5 [1.3-1.8], Eastern/Central Europe 1.4 [1.2-1.7] and India/Pakistan 1.4 [1.1-1.9], for 10-years mortality, p < 0.05 for each) and those for in-hospital mortality disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Immigrants are at increased risk for post-discharge, yet not in-hospital mortality following AMI. Appropriate targeted preventive programs are required for these groups of patients.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , África do Norte/etnologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Mortalidade/etnologia , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(2): 214-229, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288582

RESUMO

Population substructure can lead to confounding in tests for genetic association, and failure to adjust properly can result in spurious findings. Here we address this issue of confounding by considering the impact of global ancestry (average ancestry across the genome) and local ancestry (ancestry at a specific chromosomal location) on regression parameters and relative power in ancestry-adjusted and -unadjusted models. We examine theoretical expectations under different scenarios for population substructure; applying different regression models, verifying and generalizing using simulations, and exploring the findings in real-world admixed populations. We show that admixture does not lead to confounding when the trait locus is tested directly in a single admixed population. However, if there is more complex population structure or a marker locus in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the trait locus is tested, both global and local ancestry can be confounders. Additionally, we show the genotype parameters of adjusted and unadjusted models all provide tests for LD between the marker and trait locus, but in different contexts. The local ancestry adjusted model tests for LD in the ancestral populations, while tests using the unadjusted and the global ancestry adjusted models depend on LD in the admixed population(s), which may be enriched due to different ancestral allele frequencies. Practically, this implies that global-ancestry adjustment should be used for screening, but local-ancestry adjustment may better inform fine mapping and provide better effect estimates at trait loci.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genética Populacional , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Regressão , África Ocidental/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Florida , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , México/etnologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
J Craniofac Surg ; 29(1): 204-208, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049140

RESUMO

Metopism, the persistence of the metopic suture in adulthood, is a clinically significant radiographic finding. In addition to masquerading as a fracture of the frontal bone, a persistent metopic suture may be associated with other clinically significant anatomical variations including frontal sinus abnormalities. Several geographically and craniofacially distinct populations have yet to be assessed for the prevalence of metopism. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of metopic sutures in adult crania of diverse populations among which scant research exists. A total of 505 adult crania were examined for the presence of a metopic suture. A total of 13 (2.57%) demonstrated metopism. Among subpopulations, metopism was present in 8.06% (5:62) of European crania, 15.38% (2:13) of East Asian crania, 2.20% (2:91) of Egyptian crania, and 2.86% (1:35) of Bengali crania. Metopism was also found in 1 Chilean, Roman, and Tchuktchi cranium, respectively. Metopism was not seen in crania from individuals of African (non-Egyptian) descent (0:62), Peruvians (0:144), Malayans (0:23), or Mexicans (0:23). Among sexes, metopism was present in 3.77% (8:212) of females and 1.79% (5:279) of males. The prevalence of metopism differs between populations and sexes. The results of this study provide anthropological, developmental, and clinical insight with regard to metopism.


Assuntos
Suturas Cranianas/anormalidades , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etnologia , Osso Frontal/anormalidades , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Chile/etnologia , Egito/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnologia , Peru/etnologia , Prevalência
15.
BMJ Open ; 7(12): e016819, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to prospectively examine potential differences in the risk of first cardiovascular disease (CVD) events between South Asians and Europeans living in Norway and New Zealand, and to investigate whether traditional risk factors could explain any differences. METHODS: We included participants (30-74 years) without prior CVD in a Norwegian (n=16 606) and a New Zealand (n=129 449) cohort. Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factor information was linked with hospital registry data and cause of death registries to identify subsequent CVD events. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate the relationship between risk factors and subsequent CVD for South Asians and Europeans, and to calculate age-adjusted HRs for CVD in South Asians versus Europeans in the two cohorts separately. We sequentially added the major CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, diabetes and smoking) to study their explanatory role in observed ethnic CVD risk differences. RESULTS: South Asians had higher total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and more diabetes at baseline than Europeans, but lower blood pressure and smoking levels. South Asians had increased age-adjusted risk of CVD compared with Europeans (87%-92% higher in the Norwegian cohort and 42%-75% higher in the New Zealand cohort) and remained with significantly increased risk after adjusting for all major CVD risk factors. Adjusted HRs for South Asians versus Europeans in the Norwegian cohort were 1.57 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.07) in men and 1.76 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.82) in women. Corresponding figures for the New Zealand cohort were 1.64 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.88) in men and 1.39 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.73) in women. CONCLUSION: Differences in TC/HDL ratio and diabetes appear to explain some of the excess risk of CVD in South Asians compared with Europeans. Preventing dyslipidaemia and diabetes in South Asians may therefore help reduce their excess risk of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/etnologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(14): 6248-6256, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228253

RESUMO

Purpose: The Zinc Finger Protein 469 (ZNF469) gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for keratoconus due to the association of an upstream polymorphism (rs9938149) with the disease in two independent studies, and the role of the gene in the autosomal recessive disease Brittle Cornea Syndrome. Coding variants in ZNF469 have been assessed for association with keratoconus in several small studies, with conflicting results. We assessed rare, potentially pathogenic variants in ZNF469 for enrichment in keratoconus patients in a cohort larger than all previous studies combined. Methods: ZNF469 was sequenced in 385 Australian keratoconus patients of European descent, 346 population controls, and 230 ethnically matched screened controls by either whole exome sequencing or targeted gene sequencing. The frequency of rare and very rare potentially pathogenic variants was compared between cases and controls using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests and further explored using a gene based test (Sequence Kernel Association Test [SKAT]), weighting on the rarity of variants. Results: A total of 49 rare, including 33 very rare, potentially pathogenic variants were identified across all groups. No enrichment of rare or very rare potentially pathogenic variants in ZNF469 was observed in our cases compared to the control groups following analysis using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. This finding was further supported by the SKAT results, which found no significant difference in the frequency of variants predicted to be damaging between cases and either control group (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Rare variants in ZNF469 do not contribute to keratoconus susceptibility and do not account for the association at rs9938149.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Ceratocone/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Ceratocone/etnologia , Ceratocone/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco
17.
Salud Publica Mex ; 59(5): 540-547, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if variants in the genes CYP1A1 (T3801C and A4889G), CYP1B1 (G119T), GSTM1 (indel) and GSTT1 (indel) are associated with breast cancer (BC) among Mexican women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 952 incident cases with histologically confirmed BC were matched by age (± 5 years) and zone of residence with 998 healthy population controls. Genetic variants in genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1 and GSTT1were genotyped by allelic discrimination and multiplex PCR. In a subsample of women, 105 markers for ancestry were determined. RESULTS: An increased BC risk, independent of other BC risk factors, was observed among carriers of CYP1B1 G119T genotype (T/T vs. G/G: OR=1.9; 95%CI 1.4-2.5). CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of genetic susceptibility for BC conferred by CYP1B1 G119T variant among Mexican women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Mutação INDEL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 22(1): 56, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the performed study was to investigate personal and environmental factors as predictors of thermal sensation perceived by a population of students in a university setting. METHODS: The study consisted of two samples, a winter sample (154 students: 44.2% males and 55.8% females, aged 19-30 years) and a spring sample (147 students: 52.4% males and 47.6% females, aged 19-30 years), randomly selected from the same population of students. The method was an observational inquiry (case study) with a standardized questionnaire (11 items, 3 items for thermal sensation assessing through 3 scales with 3, 5 and 7 steps, alpha Cronbach's index 0.854) applied and establishing 3 microclimate factors (air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity), with calculation of normal effective temperature. The survey was performed over four successive days, during two seasons (winter-February and spring-May). RESULTS: The performed study demonstrated a tendency of students to perceive the comfortably cold more frequently than comfortably warm throughout the 4 days of the survey during the winter, except Monday. Thermal sensation of discomfort was more frequently perceived as warm than cold throughout the spring time of the survey and winter, except Tuesday. Predictors of thermal sensation perceived by students in the amphitheatre were as follows: nationality (-2loglikelihood change or chi square = 42.12, Sig. 0.000), relative humidity (chi square = 10.65, Sig. 0.005) and gender during the winter, and wind velocity (change in -2loglikelihood = 11.96, Sig. 0.001) and nationality during the spring. CONCLUSIONS: Certain personal and environmental factors were suggested as predictors for thermal sensation perceived by a population of students in a study setting.


Assuntos
Microclima , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Sensação Térmica , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Temperatura Baixa , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Percepção , Romênia , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nature ; 551(7682): 619-622, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143817

RESUMO

How wealth is distributed among households provides insight into the fundamental characters of societies and the opportunities they afford for social mobility. However, economic inequality has been hard to study in ancient societies for which we do not have written records, which adds to the challenge of placing current wealth disparities into a long-term perspective. Although various archaeological proxies for wealth, such as burial goods or exotic or expensive-to-manufacture goods in household assemblages, have been proposed, the first is not clearly connected with households, and the second is confounded by abandonment mode and other factors. As a result, numerous questions remain concerning the growth of wealth disparities, including their connection to the development of domesticated plants and animals and to increases in sociopolitical scale. Here we show that wealth disparities generally increased with the domestication of plants and animals and with increased sociopolitical scale, using Gini coefficients computed over the single consistent proxy of house-size distributions. However, unexpected differences in the responses of societies to these factors in North America and Mesoamerica, and in Eurasia, became evident after the end of the Neolithic period. We argue that the generally higher wealth disparities identified in post-Neolithic Eurasia were initially due to the greater availability of large mammals that could be domesticated, because they allowed more profitable agricultural extensification, and also eventually led to the development of a mounted warrior elite able to expand polities (political units that cohere via identity, ability to mobilize resources, or governance) to sizes that were not possible in North America and Mesoamerica before the arrival of Europeans. We anticipate that this analysis will stimulate other work to enlarge this sample to include societies in South America, Africa, South Asia and Oceania that were under-sampled or not included in this study.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , América Central , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/história , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Características da Família/história , História Antiga , América do Norte , Política
20.
Nature ; 551(7678): 92-94, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059683

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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