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1.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 786, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School dropout rates and risky health behavior is common among students in vocational education and training (VET) schools. Students with poor physical and mental health are more likely to drop out, and as such VET schools may be an important setting for health promotion initiatives, not only to support a healthy lifestyle, but also to assure completion of education. A common feature of successful health promotion at VET schools is a high health promotion capacity at the school level. This study aimed to investigate the association between VET school's health promotion capacity and later student dropout rates. Secondary, we explored other school characteristics associated with student dropout rates. METHODS: This prospective study comprised 58 Danish VET schools offering basic programs. Health promotion capacity was assessed using questionnaire data from 2017 from school managers and teachers, and this was combined with register-based data on student dropouts the following year. Health promotion capacity was assessed using six scales, representing six underlying domains, and managers and teachers' ratings of these were compared using t-test. Associations between health promotion capacity and student dropout rates as well as associations between school characteristics and student dropout rates were analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: No associations between VET schools' health promotion capacity and student dropout rates were observed, neither for the schools' overall health promotion capacity or for any of the six underlying domains (p = 0.17-0.84). School managers assessed health promotion capacity significantly higher than teachers overall and within all domains (p < 0.05). Moreover, student dropout rates were significantly lower at schools with a higher proportion of ethnic Danish students, VET-students at higher educational level and schools located in the Western part of Denmark (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: No associations between VET schools' health promotion capacity and student dropout rates were observed. This may be due to a relatively short follow-up time in our study and future research may reveal if VET school health promotion capacity may affect dropout rates over a longer time period. Moreover, more work is needed to further develop instruments for measuring health promotion capacity in a VET school context as well as other contexts.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Vocacional , Adolescente , Dinamarca , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Am J Surg ; 220(3): 519-523, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attrition from general surgery residency is high with a national rate of 20%. We evaluated potential associations between financial considerations and attrition. METHODS: National prospective cohort study of categorical general surgery trainees. RESULTS: Of the 1048 interns who started training in 2007, 681 (65%) had complete survey and follow-up data. In logistic regression, those with higher starting attending salary expectations (>$300K) were more likely to leave training (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.9). Women with a partner who earned more (>$50K/year) were more likely to leave training (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.5). In a subgroup of interns undecided about their future practice setting (academic, community, private practice, industry), those with less debt (≤$100K) were more likely to leave training (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2). CONCLUSIONS: Several financial matters were associated with attrition. Addressing these financial concerns may help decrease attrition in surgical training and improve surgical training.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/economia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/economia , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023319

RESUMO

Despite the importance of acquiring economic competencies at the secondary level and the worldwide popularity of economics in higher education, there is almost no research on the effects of economic competencies on economics student retention. Based on a longitudinal sample of 538 high school students in Switzerland, this study provides the first results on this topic. The longitudinal study took place from 2011 to 2016 and comprised two points of measurement. Economic competencies were measured multidimensionally and comprised knowledge and skills, as well as attitude, value-oriented dispositions, interest and motivation. Different student retention models were adapted and combined to explain student retention in the field of economics. According to these models, students' academic and social integration are key mediators to predict their retention. Based on these theoretical explanations, structural equation modelling was then used to test the long-term effects of high school students' economic competencies at the end of upper-secondary school on their retention in studying in the field of economics. The results show that economic competencies predict economics students' academic integration (as measured by grade point average) but not their social integration. Additionally, the data confirm that academic and social integration are strong mediators for their retention. In addition to economic competencies, students' cognitive abilities, prior schooling (school grades, school profile, and school type) and perceived family support predict student retention in economics. Overall, economic competencies account for a substantial proportion of the variance in student retention. Against this background, the results indicate that fostering high school students' economic competencies plays a crucial role in their study success in the field of economics.


Assuntos
Atitude , Economia , Intenção , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 88, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young adults who were suspended from school during adolescence are more likely than matched non-suspended youth to be arrested, on probation, or not graduate from high school, which are STI risk factors. This study evaluates whether suspension is a marker for STI risk among young adults who avoid subsequent negative effects. METHODS: This study evaluated whether suspension predicts a positive test for chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis in a urine sample using matched sampling in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health), and evaluated potential mediators between suspension and STI status using causal mediation analysis. We used Mahalanobis and exact matched sampling within propensity score calipers to compare 381 youth suspended for the first time in a 1-year period with 980 non-suspended youth. The suspended and non-suspended youth were similar on 67 pre-suspension variables. We evaluated STI outcomes 5 years after suspension. RESULTS: Before matching, suspended youth were more likely to test positive for trichomoniasis and gonorrhea, but not chlamydia, than non-suspended youth. Suspended youth were more likely to test positive for trichomoniasis 5 years after suspension than matched non-suspended youth (OR = 2.87 (1.40, 5.99)). Below-median household income before suspension explained 9% of the suspension-trichomoniasis association (p = 0.02), but criminal justice involvement and educational attainment were not statistically significantly mediators. CONCLUSIONS: School suspension is a marker for STI risk. Punishing adolescents for initial deviance may cause them to associate with riskier sexual networks even if they graduate high school and avoid criminal justice system involvement. Suspension may compound disadvantages for youth from below-median-income families, who have fewer resources for recovering from setbacks.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 304-310, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193323

RESUMO

Introduction and Objectives: Learning performance is related to the individual, pedagogical, institutional and external factors. This study aims to test the factor structure of the Learning Performance Scale and how it relates to school dropout. Methodology: A quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational study. A sociodemographic and academic characterization questionnaire of the students of Higher Education and the Learning Performance Scale of Young, Klemz & Murphy (2003), adapted by Costa (2013), was used as a data collection instrument. The sample consisted of 891 students from Polytechnic Higher Education, with a mean age of 19.68 years (+/- 2.34 years). The female gender is more representative, with 68.2%, being the minimum age 17 years and maximum 40 years. Results and Discussion: The Learning Performance Scale is unifactorial and consists of 6 items. It has been found that the model is well adjusted. The internal consistency obtained by the composite reliability is very good, but there is no convergent validity. Female students had a higher rate of learning performance (Mean=70.87+/-11.71). The majority of students with older age (41.4%) present a low learning performance. Conclusions: The results show that the learning performance is predictive of the intention to drop out of school, which implies considering this variable in the programs that promote the continuation of studies in higher education


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fracasso Acadêmico/tendências , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Psicometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Curva de Aprendizado , Educação Superior , Intenção
8.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(4): 246-248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609822

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to identify the most supportive and restrictive factors contributing to students' ability to persist through nursing program course completion as perceived by 59 nontraditional students enrolled in a nursing associate degree program. The Student Perception Appraisal-Revised tool was used. Results include that encouragement by friends within school is the top supportive factor, while financial status was found to be the most restrictive factor. Students' perceptions of why they are not successful in staying in school may help nurse educators to plan and implement changes for improvement based on changing student needs.


Assuntos
Educação Técnica em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Nurse Educ ; 45(1): 35-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The projected shortfall in the number of RNs supports the need to identify variables impacting nursing student program completion. Studies are lacking as to variables that affect attrition and program completion of readmitted nursing students. PURPOSE: This study examined academic and nonacademic variables that impact attrition and program completion of readmitted associate degree nursing students. METHODS: Survey and record review yielded student characteristics, support for learners, student effort, and student outcome measures that predicted attrition and program completion. RESULTS: Findings suggest that students earning a final grade of B+ or higher in the nursing fundamentals course complete the program. In addition, readmitted nursing students who were 33 years or older had decreased odds of completing the program by 1.44% for each year of age. The study also pointed to nonacademic variables that impacted attrition. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to improve program completion of readmitted nursing students are included.


Assuntos
Educação Técnica em Enfermagem , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(1): 70-80, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We analysed mutually comparable surveys on adolescent attitudes and behaviours from nine sites in seven sub-Saharan African countries, to determine the relationship between school enrolment and adolescent health outcomes. METHODS: Data from the Africa Research, Implementation Science, and Education Network cross-sectional adolescent health surveys were used to examine the associations of current school enrolment, self-reported general health and four major adolescent health domains: (i) sexual and reproductive health; (ii) nutrition and non-communicable diseases; (iii) mental health, violence and injury; and (iv) healthcare utilisation. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate relative risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics. We assessed heterogeneity by gender and study site. RESULTS: Across 7829 adolescents aged 10-19, 70.5% were in school at the time of interview. In-school adolescents were 14.3% more likely (95% CI: 6-22) to report that their life is going well; 51.2% less likely (95% CI: 45-67) to report ever having had sexual intercourse; 32.6% more likely (95% CI: 9-61) to report unmet need for health care; and 30.1% less likely (95% CI: 15-43) to report having visited a traditional healer. School enrolment was not significantly associated with malnutrition, low mood, violence or injury. Substantial heterogeneity was identified between genders for sexual and reproductive health, and in-school adolescents were particularly less likely to report adverse health outcomes in settings with high average school enrolment. CONCLUSIONS: School enrolment is strongly associated with sexual and reproductive health and healthcare utilisation outcomes across nine sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Keeping adolescents in school may improve key health outcomes, something that can be explored through future longitudinal, mixed-methods, and (quasi-)experimental studies.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1317, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionally vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) harms. In western Kenya, where unprotected transactional sex is common, young females face higher rates of school dropout, often due to pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Staying in school has shown to protect girls against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and HIV infection. This study evaluates the impact of menstrual cups and cash transfer interventions on a composite of deleterious outcomes (HIV, HSV-2, and school dropout) when given to secondary schoolgirls in western Kenya, with the aim to inform evidence-based policy to improve girls' health, school equity, and life-chances. METHODS: Single site, 4-arm, cluster randomised controlled superiority trial. Secondary schools are the unit of randomisation, with schoolgirls as the unit of measurement. Schools will be randomised into one of four intervention arms using a 1:1:1:1 ratio and block randomisation: (1) menstrual cup arm; (2) cash transfer arm, (3) cups and cash combined intervention arm, or (4) control arm. National and county agreement, and school level consent will be obtained prior to recruitment of schools, with parent consent and girls' assent obtained for participant enrolment. Participants will be trained on safe use of interventions, with all arms receiving puberty and hygiene education. Annually, the state of latrines, water availability, water treatment, handwashing units and soap in schools will be measured. The primary endpoint is a composite of incident HIV, HSV-2, and all-cause school dropout, after 3 years follow-up. School dropout will be monitored each term via school registers and confirmed through home visits. HIV and HSV-2 incident infections and risk factors will be measured at baseline, mid-line and end-line. Intention to treat analysis will be conducted among all enrolled participants. Focus group discussions will provide contextual information on uptake of interventions. Monitoring for safety will occur throughout. DISCUSSION: If proved safe and effective, the interventions offer a potential contribution toward girls' schooling, health, and equity in low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03051789 , 15th February 2017.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Assistência Pública , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 239: 112542, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539784

RESUMO

In the current article, we examine whether and how reforms in tracking age affect educational inequalities in health among people between the ages of 25-75 years. Particular attention is paid to the health consequences for early school leavers. The study combines data from the European Social Survey (2002-2016) on 21 countries with country-cohort information on education policies. Moreover, a difference-in-difference design is used, which takes advantage of both the cross-national and cross-temporal variability in the implementation of comprehensive schooling reforms. The results reveal statistically significant, but very small effects of de-tracking policies on people's health. That is, comprehensive education leads to slight improvements in health among people who have attained upper secondary or tertiary education, but these improvements are achieved at the expense of the health of those with the lowest levels of education. Our study should encourage future research to further explore the institutional impact of educational systems on the health of individuals.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Nível de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Políticas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 136, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians are under-represented in the health workforce, with large disparities between rates of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in every health profession, including nurses, medical practitioners and all allied health professionals. Yet Indigenous people have long requested to have Indigenous practitioners involved in their health care, with this increasing the likelihood of culturally safe care. To address the shortage of Indigenous health professionals, it is important to not only recruit more Indigenous people into health courses, but also to support them throughout their studies so that they graduate as qualified health professionals. The aim of this systematic literature review was two-fold: to identify the factors affecting the retention of Indigenous students across all tertiary health disciplines, and to identify strategies that support Indigenous students to remain with, and successfully complete, their studies. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were systematically searched between July and September 2018. Articles were screened for inclusion using pre-defined criteria and assessed for quality using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool and the Joanna Briggs Institute Checklist for Text and Opinion. RESULTS: Twenty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion. Key factors reported by students as affecting retention were: family and peer support; competing obligations; academic preparation and prior educational experiences; access to the Indigenous Student Support Centre; financial hardship; and racism and discrimination. The most successful strategies implemented by nursing, health and medical science faculties to improve retention were multi-layered and included: culturally appropriate recruitment and selection processes; comprehensive orientation and pre-entry programs; building a supportive and enabling school culture; appointing Indigenous academics; embedding Indigenous content throughout the curriculum; developing mentoring and tutoring programs; flexible delivery of content; partnerships with the Indigenous Student Support Centre; providing social and financial support; and 'leaving the university door open' for students who leave before graduation to return. CONCLUSIONS: Universities have an important role to play in addressing inequities in the Indigenous health workforce. A suite of measures implemented concurrently to provide support, starting with recruitment and pre-entry preparation programs, then continuing throughout the student's time at university, can enable talented Indigenous people to overcome adversities and graduate as health professionals.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Austrália , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010430, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448111

RESUMO

Background: Secondary education and delayed marriage provide long-term socio-economic and health benefits to adolescent girls. We tested whether a structural and norms-based intervention, which worked with adolescent girls, their families, communities, and secondary schools to address poverty, schooling quality and gender norms, could reduce secondary school drop-out and child marriage among scheduled-caste/scheduled-tribe (SC/ST) adolescent girls in rural settings of southern India. Methods: 80 of 121 villages in Vijayapura and Bagalkote districts, Karnataka State, were randomly selected (control = 40; intervention = 40). All 12-13 year-old SC/ST girls in final year of primary school (standard 7th) were enrolled and followed for 3 years (2014-2017) until the end of secondary school (standard 10th). Primary trial outcomes were proportion of girls who completed secondary school and were married, by trial end-line (15-16 years). Analyses were intention-to-treat and used individual-level girl data. Results: 92.6% (2275/2457) girls at baseline and 72.8% (1788/2457) at end-line were interviewed. At end-line, one-fourth had not completed secondary school (control = 24.9%; intervention = 25.4%), and one in ten reported being married (control = 9.6%; intervention = 10.1%). These were lower than expected based on district-level data available before the trial, with no difference between these, or other schooling or sexual and reproductive outcomes, by trial arm. There was a small but significant increase in secondary school entry (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 3.58, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.36-9.44) and completion (AOR=1.54, 95%CI = 1.02-2.34) in Vijayapura district. The sensitivity and attrition analyses did not impact the overall result indicating that attrition of girls at end-line was random without much bearing on overall result. Conclusions: Samata intervention had no overall impact, however, it added value in one of the two implementation districts- increasing secondary school entry and completion. Lower than expected school drop-out and child marriage rates at end-line reflect strong secular changes, likely due to large-scale government initiatives to keep girls in school and delay marriage. Although government programmes may be sufficient to reach most girls in these settings, a substantial proportion of SC/ST girls remain at-risk of early marriage and school drop-out, and require targeted programming. Addressing multiple forms of clustered disadvantage among hardest to reach will be key to ensuring India "leaves no-one behind" and achieves its gender, health and education Sustainable Development Goal aspirations. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT01996241.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
J Adolesc ; 76: 55-64, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470277

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite inconclusive findings, educational researchers have long considered adequate parenting practices instrumental in preventing high school dropout among adolescents. The present short-term retrospective study focuses on parenting practices during middle adolescence when dropout typically occurs. METHODS: The culturally diverse, high-risk sample of Canadian adolescents (N = 108; Mage = 16.0 years) from low-income neighborhoods included very recent dropouts and matched still-in-school students. A global score reflecting the quality of parenting practices during the period preceding dropout (or comparable period) was derived from adolescents' answers to a well-established structured interview protocol. Transcripts of interviews were also used to identify the potentially disruptive challenges (e.g., parental incarceration) that families faced. RESULTS: Results show a robust relationship between current parenting practices and dropout that was not moderated by challenging family circumstances or immigration history. Descriptive findings indicate that extreme and relatively rare cases of parental neglect were associated with a high dropout risk, but that most dropouts lived in families where communication and supervision, although not entirely absent, were minimal. CONCLUSION: Offering systematic support to parents of middle adolescents could help to prevent dropout in high-risk communities.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Adolescente , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 39: 61-66, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401337

RESUMO

Retention and the academic success of nursing students remains a high priority in Australian and global higher education. This study examines an embedded academic support strategy, provided by Professional Communication Academic Literacy (PCAL) support staff, and undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing student uptake of the support. It reports on the profile of those who sought support, and the relationships between student support, retention and academic performance. A total of 11 290 PCAL consultations were recorded during a 17-month period from January 2016, with these consultations initiated by 2827 individual students. Among the undergraduate nursing students (n = 4472), those who sought PCAL support were over 7 times more likely (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 7.81, 95% CI: 6.18 to 9.86) to continue in the nursing program, taking into consideration age and enrolment category of students. Among students who continued or are continuing in the program, those who did not seek PCAL support had a lower grade point average (GPA) (mean: 3.9) compared to those who sought PCAL support between 1 and 3 times (mean: 4.3), and those who sought PCAL support on more than 3 occasions had the highest GPA (mean: 4.4), suggesting that frequency of consultations influenced academic success and retention.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Alfabetização , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Diversidade Cultural , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e1910005, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441942

RESUMO

Importance: In 2016, an estimated 8% of US children younger than 18 years had experienced the incarceration of a parent, and rates were substantially higher among children from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds and disadvantaged groups. Little is known about whether parental incarceration during childhood is associated with adult psychiatric problems and functional outcomes. Objective: To examine whether parental incarceration is associated with increased levels of psychiatric diagnosis and poor outcomes in health, legal, financial, and social domains in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the community-representative, prospective, longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Children and their parents were interviewed up to 8 times from January 1993 to December 2000 (ages 9-16 years; 6674 observations of 1420 participants) using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which assessed parental incarceration, childhood psychiatric diagnoses, and other adversities. Young adults were followed up at ages 19, 21, 25, and 30 years from January 1999 to December 2015 (4556 observations of 1334 participants) to assess psychiatric diagnoses and functional outcomes indicative of a disrupted transition to adulthood. Data analysis was conducted from June 2018 to June 2019. Results: By age 16 years, 475 participants (weighted percentage, 23.9%) had a parental figure who had been incarcerated, including 259 young men (22.2%) and 216 young women (25.5%). Parental incarceration was associated with higher prevalence of childhood psychiatric diagnoses (eg, any depressive diagnosis: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6; P = .006; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.5; P = .06; and conduct disorder: aOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.3; P = .001). After accounting for childhood psychiatric diagnoses and adversity exposure, parental incarceration remained associated with increased odds of having an adult anxiety disorder (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0; P = .04), having an illicit drug use disorder (aOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 2.6-17.0; P < .001), having a felony charge (aOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.5; P < .001), incarceration (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.4-5.4; P = .003), not completing high school (aOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2-8.8; P < .001), early parenthood (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0; P = .04), and being socially isolated (aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that parental incarceration is associated with a broad range of psychiatric, legal, financial, and social outcomes during young adulthood. Parental incarceration is a common experience that may perpetuate disadvantage from generation to generation.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1637-1667, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312979

RESUMO

School absenteeism and dropout are associated with many different life-course problems. To reduce the risk for these problems it is important to gain insight into risk factors for both school absenteeism and permanent school dropout. Until now, no quantitative overview of these risk factors and their effects was available. Therefore, this study was aimed at synthesizing the available evidence on risk factors for school absenteeism and dropout. In total, 75 studies were included that reported on 781 potential risk factors for school absenteeism and 635 potential risk factors for dropout. The risk factors were classified into 44 risk domains for school absenteeism and 42 risk domains for dropout. The results of a series of three-level meta-analyses yielded a significant mean effect for 28 school absenteeism risk domains and 23 dropout risk domains. For school absenteeism, 12 risk domains were found with large effects, including having a negative attitude towards school, substance abuse, externalizing and internalizing problems of the juvenile, and a low parent-school involvement. For dropout, the risk domains having a history of grade retention, having a low IQ or experiencing learning difficulties, and a low academic achievement showed large effects. The findings of the current study contribute to the fundamental knowledge of the etiology of school absenteeism and dropout which in turn contributes to a better understanding of the problematic development of adolescents. Further, more insight into the strength of effects of risk factors on school absenteeism and dropout is important for the development and improvement of both assessment, prevention and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Evasão Escolar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
20.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(1S): S25-S33, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to identify effective interventions to reduce secondary school dropout rates, increase the quality of learning in secondary schools in developing countries, and estimate the cost and educational impact of a sustained program to implement a selection of these interventions. METHODS: Dropout risk is analyzed by multivariable regression using micro-datasets for 44 developing countries for which Demographic and Health Surveys are available. The analysis of interventions accesses recent meta-analyses of educational interventions in developing countries. We incorporate these results into a model of progression in secondary school-by grade, age, and gender, augmented by learning measures and by a facility to allow interventions to reduce dropout rates and improve learning-to estimate the impact and cost of a package of interventions out to 2030. RESULTS: Poverty, female gender, and rural location are key risk factors for secondary school dropout. In terms of interventions, school proximity for rural students is critical. Better teaching both reduces dropout and improves learning, whereas instruction in the mother tongue improves also improves learning. Systematic implementation of nine interventions in the 44 countries,1 costing US$10.5 per capita per annum, would increase secondary completion rates by about 25% and more than double the index of learning achieved by 2030, with the effects being more pronounced in low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Powerful interventions are available to change the trajectory of schooling in developing countries but the costs are substantial, and a coordinated funding effort will be required.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pobreza , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais
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