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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4909, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999291

RESUMO

Effectively activating macrophages against cancer is promising but challenging. In particular, cancer cells express CD47, a 'don't eat me' signal that interacts with signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) on macrophages to prevent phagocytosis. Also, cancer cells secrete stimulating factors, which polarize tumor-associated macrophages from an antitumor M1 phenotype to a tumorigenic M2 phenotype. Here, we report that hybrid cell membrane nanovesicles (known as hNVs) displaying SIRPα variants with significantly increased affinity to CD47 and containing M2-to-M1 repolarization signals can disable both mechanisms. The hNVs block CD47-SIRPα signaling axis while promoting M2-to-M1 repolarization within tumor microenvironment, significantly preventing both local recurrence and distant metastasis in malignant melanoma models. Furthermore, by loading a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, hNVs lead to potent tumor inhibition in a poorly immunogenic triple negative breast cancer model. hNVs are safe, stable, drug loadable, and suitable for genetic editing. These properties, combined with the capabilities inherited from source cells, make hNVs an attractive immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/secundário , Proteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2215-2229, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856140

RESUMO

The B cell surface antigen CD19 is a target for treating B cell malignancies, such as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The BiTE® immuno-oncology platform includes blinatumomab, which is approved for relapsed/refractory B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with minimal residual disease. Blinatumomab is also being evaluated in combination with other agents (tyrosine kinase inhibitors, checkpoint inhibitors, and chemotherapy) in various treatment settings, including frontline protocols. An extended half-life BiTE molecule is also under investigation. Patients receiving blinatumomab may experience cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity; however, these events may be less frequent and severe than in patients receiving other CD19-targeted immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy. We review BiTE technology for treating malignancies that express CD19, analyzing the benefits and limitations of this bispecific T cell engager platform from clinical experience with blinatumomab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Custo-Benefício , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/economia , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Pré-Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Evasão Tumoral
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3946, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770055

RESUMO

Melanomas can switch to a dedifferentiated cell state upon exposure to cytotoxic T cells. However, it is unclear whether such tumor cells pre-exist in patients and whether they can be resensitized to immunotherapy. Here, we chronically expose (patient-derived) melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observe strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population. These fractions are refractory also to T cells recognizing non-differentiation antigens, as well as to BRAF + MEK inhibitors. NGFRhi cells induce the neurotrophic factor BDNF, which contributes to T cell resistance, as does NGFR. In melanoma patients, a tumor-intrinsic NGFR signature predicts anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, and NGFRhi tumor fractions are associated with immune exclusion. Lastly, pharmacologic NGFR inhibition restores tumor sensitivity to T cell attack in vitro and in melanoma xenografts. These findings demonstrate the existence of a stable and pre-existing NGFRhi multitherapy-refractory melanoma subpopulation, which ought to be eliminated to revert intrinsic resistance to immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3806, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732922

RESUMO

Most triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients fail to respond to T cell-mediated immunotherapies. Unfortunately, the molecular determinants are still poorly understood. Breast cancer is the disease genetically linked to a deficiency in autophagy. Here, we show that autophagy defects in TNBC cells inhibit T cell-mediated tumour killing in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we identify Tenascin-C as a candidate for autophagy deficiency-mediated immunosuppression, in which Tenascin-C is Lys63-ubiquitinated by Skp2, particularly at Lys942 and Lys1882, thus promoting its recognition by p62 and leading to its selective autophagic degradation. High Tenascin-C expression is associated with poor prognosis and inversely correlated with LC3B expression and CD8+ T cells in TNBC patients. More importantly, inhibition of Tenascin-C in autophagy-impaired TNBC cells sensitizes T cell-mediated tumour killing and improves antitumour effects of single anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy. Our results provide a potential strategy for targeting TNBC with the combination of Tenascin-C blockade and immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Tenascina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Evasão Tumoral/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3800, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733040

RESUMO

Frameshift insertion/deletions (fs-indels) are an infrequent but highly immunogenic mutation subtype. Although fs-indels are degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, we hypothesise that some fs-indels escape degradation and elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Using allele-specific expression analysis, expressed fs-indels are enriched in genomic positions predicted to escape NMD, and associated with higher protein expression, consistent with degradation escape (NMD-escape). Across four independent melanoma cohorts, NMD-escape mutations are significantly associated with clinical-benefit to checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy (Pmeta = 0.0039). NMD-escape mutations are additionally found to associate with clinical-benefit in the low-TMB setting. Furthermore, in an adoptive cell therapy treated melanoma cohort, NMD-escape mutation count is the most significant biomarker associated with clinical-benefit. Analysis of functional T cell reactivity screens from personalized vaccine studies shows direct evidence of fs-indel derived neoantigens eliciting immune response, particularly those with highly elongated neo open reading frames. NMD-escape fs-indels represent an attractive target for biomarker optimisation and immunotherapy design.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Transferência Adotiva , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T/transplante , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Mol Immunol ; 125: 95-103, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659598

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are classified into polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs and monocytic (M)-MDSCs. The predominant subtype of MDSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still elusive. The spleen is the largest immune organ in the body and is the origin of many cells. It is still unknown whether the spleen is the origin of MDSCs. In this study, we investigated the expression, origin and mobilization of the predominant MDSC subtype in H22 orthotopic hepatoma mice. Compared with M-MDSCs, PMN-MDSCs were increased and dominant in the spleen, peripheral blood and tumor tissues. Splenectomy could decrease the percentages of PMN-MDSCs in the peripheral blood and tumor tissues, increase the frequencies of NK cells in the peripheral blood and CD3+CD4+T, CD3+CD8+T, NK and NKT cells in the tumor tissues, reduce the tumor weight and the amounts of ascites, and prolong survival time in hepatoma mice. The levels of chemokine (CC motif) ligand 9 (CCL9) and chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) were elevated in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing (TB) mice, and their receptors CCR1 and CCR2 were expressed on spleen PMN-MDSCs. Migration assay showed that CCL2 and CCL9 could attract spleen PMN-MDSCs in vitro. These results indicate that PMN-MDSCs were increased and dominant in orthotopic H22 hepatoma mice, the spleen contributed to the increase of PMN-MDSCs, and PMN-MDSCs could be mobilized from the spleen to the peripheral blood by CCL9 and CCL2, thus facilitated tumor growth.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2169-2178, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648166

RESUMO

T-cell receptor (TCR)- and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based adoptive cell transfer (ACT) has shown promising results in hematological malignancies, but remains immature in solid cancers. The challenges associated with identification of tumor-specific targets, the heterogenic antigen expression, limited T-cell trafficking to tumor sites and the hostile tumor microenvironment (TME), are all factors contributing to the limited efficacy of ACT therapies against solid tumors. Epigenetic priming of tumor cells and the microenvironment may be a way of overcoming these obstacles and improving the clinical efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapies in the future. Here, we review the current literature and suggest combining epigenetic modulators and ACT strategies as a way of augmenting the efficacy of TCR- and CAR-engineered T cells against solid tumors.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada/métodos , Epigênese Genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias , Linfócitos T/transplante , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645661

RESUMO

The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are increasing. The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV-2, leading to subsequent pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with chronic inflammatory changes, e.g., inflammatory factors repeatedly continuously stimulating and attacking the alveolar epithelial cells. Meanwhile, 2019-nCoV-2 can activate PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways, which can play the double roles as both anti-inflammatory and carcinogenic factors. Moreover, hypoxemia may be developed, resulting in the up-regulation of HIF-1 α expression, which can be involved in the occurrence, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. Additionally, the immune system in 2019-nCoV-2 infected cases can be suppressed to cause tumor immune evasion. Therefore, we speculate that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of secondary lung cancer.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Lesão Pulmonar/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Evasão Tumoral
11.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(4): e12917, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557659

RESUMO

Ovarian Cancer (OC) is currently difficult to cure, mainly due to its late detection and the advanced state of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, conventional treatments such as debulking surgery and combination chemotherapy are rarely able to control progression of the tumour, and relapses are frequent. Alternative therapies are currently being evaluated, including immunotherapy and advanced T cell-based therapy. In the present review, we will focus on a description of those Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) that have been validated in the laboratory or are being tested in the clinic. Numerous target antigens have been defined due to the identification of OC biomarkers, and many are being used as CAR targets. We provide an exhaustive list of these constructs and their current status. Despite being innovative and efficient, the OC-specific CARs face a barrier to their clinical efficacy: the tumour microenvironment (TME). Indeed, effector cells expressing CARs have been shown to be severely inhibited, rendering the CAR T cells useless once at the tumour site. Herein, we give a thorough description of the highly immunosuppressive OC TME and present recent studies and innovations that have enabled CAR T cells to counteract this negative environment and to destroy tumours.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia
12.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(2): 320-326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474519

RESUMO

Context: Increasing evidence has indicated an association between immune cell infiltration in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and clinical outcomes. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 22 tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) on the prognosis of patients with LUAD. Settings and Design: This was a case-control study. Materials and Methods: The CIBERSORT algorithm calculated the proportion of cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. Cox regression analysis evaluated the effect of TIICs on the prognosis of LUAD. The immune risk score model was constructed based on a statistical correlation. Multivariate cox regression analysis investigated independent factors. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Certain immune cells had differential infiltration between normal tissues and LUAD. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that four immune cell types were statistically correlated with LUAD-related survival risk, and an immune risk scoring model was constructed. The results indicated that patients in the high-risk group were associated with poor outcomes. In addition, the multivariate cox analysis revealed that the immune risk scoring model was an independent factor for LUAD prognosis prediction. Ultimately, a nomogram was established to comprehensively predict the survival of LUAD patients. Conclusions: TIICs played an essential role in the prognosis of LUAD. Furthermore, the immune risk score was a poor predictive factor of LUAD, and the established model was reliable in predicting the prognosis of LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Evasão Tumoral/genética
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188384, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531324

RESUMO

Cancer regression often fails after systemic immune activation, especially for solid tumors due to their local immunosuppressive microenvironments. Among these, the pancreatic cancer microenvironment is unique and an important reason for resistance to anti-cancer treatments that include immunotherapy. In this review, the three main "BAD" characteristics that create and maintain this immunosuppressive microenvironment are discussed for effector T cells: Barriers to overcome, Attraction problems, and their Disabilities. These inhibit both effector T-cell activation and infiltration, reducing immunotherapy effectiveness. Combination approaches for killing the "BAD" aim to normalize the tumor microenvironment and are recommended to enhance anti-cancer immune-system efficacy in pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188387, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579889

RESUMO

Late detection, compromised immune system, and chemotherapy resistance underlie the poor patient prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients, making it the 3rd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Cooperation between the tumor cells and the immune system leads to the immune escape and eventual establishment of the tumor. For more than 20 years, sincere efforts have been made to intercept the tumor-immune crosstalk and identify the probable therapeutic targets for breaking self-tolerance toward tumor antigens. However, the success of these studies depends on detailed examination and understanding of tumor-immune cell interactions, not only in the primary tumor but also at distant systemic niches. Innate and adaptive arms of the immune system sculpt tumor immunogenicity, where they not only aid in providing an amenable environment for their survival but also act as a driver for tumor relapse at primary or distant organ sites. This review article highlights the key events associated with tumor-immune communication and associated immunosuppression at both local and systemic microenvironments in PDAC. Furthermore, we discuss the approaches and benefits of targeting both local and systemic immunosuppression for PDAC patients. The present articles integrate data from clinical and genetic mouse model studies to provide a widespread consensus on the role of local and systemic immunosuppression in undermining the anti-tumor immune responses against PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Pâncreas/imunologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia , Baço/cirurgia , Esplenectomia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/transplante , Transplante Autólogo/métodos
15.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2291-2303, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504247

RESUMO

Target expression heterogeneity and the presence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment can hamper severely the efficiency of immunotherapeutic approaches. We have analyzed the potential to encounter and overcome such conditions by a combinatory two-target approach involving a bispecific antibody retargeting T cells to tumor cells and tumor-directed antibody-fusion proteins with costimulatory members of the B7 and TNF superfamily. Targeting the tumor-associated antigens EpCAM and EGFR with the bispecific antibody and costimulatory fusion proteins, respectively, we analyzed the impact of target expression and the influence of the immunosuppressive factors IDO, IL-10, TGF-ß, PD-1 and CTLA-4 on the targeting-mediated stimulation of T cells. Here, suboptimal activity of the bispecific antibody at diverse EpCAM expression levels could be effectively enhanced by targeting-mediated costimulation by B7.1, 4-1BBL and OX40L in a broad range of EGFR expression levels. Furthermore, the benefit of combined costimulation by B7.1/4-1BBL and 4-1BBL/OX40L was demonstrated. In addition, the expression of immunosuppressive factors was shown in all co-culture settings, where blocking of prominent factors led to synergistic effects with combined costimulation. Thus, targeting-mediated costimulation showed general promise for a broad application covering diverse target expression levels, with the option for further selective enhancement by the identification and blockade of main immunosuppressive factors of the particular tumor environment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2275-2289, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504248

RESUMO

Due to its high ability to disseminate, ovarian cancer remains one of the largest threats to women's health, worldwide. Evidence showed that the immune cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment are crucial in mediating metastasis. Therefore, it is necessary to understand which types of immune cells are involved in metastasis, and to determine the mechanisms by which they influence the process. By immunohistochemistry, we found that higher concentrations of intratumoral CD8+ T cells were found to be correlated with an advanced grade and stage of ovarian cancer. Additionally, the infiltration of stromal CD8+ T cells was also significantly higher in tissues with advanced stages and metastatic tumors. A positive correlation between the infiltration of FoxP3+ Treg cells and histological grade was also observed, regardless of location. PD-L1 expression in metastatic tumors was also higher than that in paired primary ovarian tumors. Transwell migration and invasion assays revealed the increased migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780CP and ES2) and ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells following co-culturing with CD8+ T cells. Enhanced expression of MMP-9, uPA, VEGF, bFGF, IL-8, IL-10, and PD-L1 by cancer cells following co-culturing with CD8+ T cells were also detected by qPCR, ELISA or flow cytometry. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the infiltrated T cells could promote the development of ovarian cancer, and provide another mechanism of immune evasion mediated by T cells.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2319-2331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507967

RESUMO

Preclinical assessment of novel therapies to fight cancer requires models that reflect the human physiology and immune response. Here, we established an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed organotypic human melanoma-in-skin (Mel-RhS) model to investigate cellular and molecular features of tumor formation over a period of 6 weeks. Tumor nests developed over time at the epidermal-dermal junction and spread towards the dermis, in places disrupting the basement membrane. This coincided with secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by melanoma cells. These features resemble the initial stages of invasive melanoma. Interestingly, while the SK-MEL-28 cell line did not secrete detectable levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in traditional two-dimensional monolayers, it did express IL-10 in the 3D Mel-RhS, as did the surrounding keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This cellular cross-talk-induced secretion of IL-10 in the Mel-RhS indicated the generation of an immune suppressive microenvironment. Culture supernatants from Mel-RhS interfered with monocyte-to-dendritic-cell differentiation, leading to the development of M2-like macrophages, which was in part prevented by antibody-mediated IL-10 blockade. Indeed, high-dimensional single-cell analysis revealed a shift within the monocyte population away from a CD163+PD-L1+ M2-like phenotype upon IL-10 blockade. Thus, the 3D configuration of the Mel-RhS model revealed a role for IL-10 in immune escape through misdirected myeloid differentiation, which would have been missed in classical monolayer cultures.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Pele , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2333-2343, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514618

RESUMO

Patients with pediatric cancers such as neuroblastoma (NB) are often unresponsive to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. One major factor in pediatric tumor resistance to immunotherapy is considered to be the low mutation rate of pediatric tumors. Another factor may be the overexpression of additional inhibitory pathways. While analyzing the RNA-sequencing database TARGET, we found that human NB tumors overexpress immune checkpoint molecule CD200. To determine its significance and impact on tumor immune microenvironment, we analyzed 49 cases of previously untreated, surgically removed NB tumors using immunohistochemistry and multi-color flow cytometry (FACS). We found that CD200 is overexpressed in more than 90% of NB tumors. In the tumor microenvironment of NB, CD200 is mainly overexpressed in CD45- NB tumor cells, while its cognate receptor (CD200R) is mainly expressed in HLA-DR+CD14+ myeloid cells and CD11c+ dendritic cells. Low-level expression of CD200R is also observed in tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In NB tumors with higher CD200 expression (CD200high), we observed lower numbers of HLA-DR+CD14+ myeloid cells and less tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, we found that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced less IFN-γ and/or TNF-α in CD200high NB tumors. Thus, CD200-CD200R pathway appears to downregulate anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment of NB tumors, and blockade of this pathway may be beneficial for NB patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Receptores de Orexina/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2357-2369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518979

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are both key immunosuppressive cells that contribute to tumor growth. Metabolism and immunity of tumors depend on the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the intracellular metabolism of MDSCs and TAMs during tumor growth remains unclear. Here, we characterized CD11b+ cells isolated from a tumor-bearing mouse model to compare intratumoral TAMs and intrasplenic MDSCs. Intratumoral CD11b+ cells and intrasplenic CD11b+ cells were isolated from tumor-bearing mice at early and late stages (14 and 28 days post-cell transplantation, respectively). The cell number of intrasplenic CD11b+ significantly increased with tumor growth. These cells included neutrophils holding segmented leukocytes or monocytes with an oval nucleus and Gr-1hi IL-4Rαhi cells without immunosuppressive function against CD8 T cells. Thus, these cells were classified as MDSC-like cells (MDSC-LCs). Intratumoral CD11b+ cells included macrophages with a round nucleus and were F4/80hi Gr-1lo IL-4Rαhi cells. Early stage intratumoral CD11b+ cells inhibited CD8 T cells via TNFα. Thus, this cell population was classified as TAMs. Metabolomic analyses of intratumoral TAMs and MDSC-LCs during tumor growth were conducted. Metabolic profiles of intratumoral TAMs showed larger changes in various metabolic pathways, e.g., glycolysis, TCA cycle, and glutamic acid pathways, during tumor growth compared with MDSL-LCs. Our findings demonstrated that intratumoral TAMs showed an immunosuppressive capacity from the early tumor stage and underwent intracellular metabolism changes during tumor growth. These results clarify the intracellular metabolism of TAMs during tumor growth and contribute to our understanding of tumor immunity.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia
20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(11): 2371-2380, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524362

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells, a predominant innate lymphocyte subset, mediates eradicating malignant cells. Purinergic signaling by ectonucleotidase CD39 can suppress T-cell response in caner. However, the role of CD39 in NK cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterized CD39 expression on NK cells and its clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Peripheral blood and tissue samples were collected from 36 ESCC patients. We observed that the proportion of NK cells significantly decreased but CD39 was obviously up-regulated on NK cells from cancerous tissues compared to paired peripheral blood in ESCC patients. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating NK cells with high CD39 expression exhibited a phenotype of functional impairment. In vitro, conditioned media of ESCC cell lines could induce CD39 expression on peripheral NK cells from healthy donors. IL-6 was identified as the major cytokine produced by ESCC cell lines and also elevated in both tumor tissues and blood serum from ESCC patients. Recombinant IL-6 significantly induced surface CD39 expression in human NK cells, while IL-6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab prevented this effect. Finally, tumor-infiltrating CD39+ NK cells were correlated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Thus, tumor-derived IL-6 might impair NK cell functions through induction of CD39 expression. CD39+ NK cells may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for ESCC patients.


Assuntos
Apirase/imunologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Apirase/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Prognóstico , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
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