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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 490, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global climate oscillation, as a selection dynamic, is an ecologically important element resulting in global biodiversity. During the glacial geological periods, most organisms suffered detrimental selection pressures (such as food shortage and habitat loss) and went through population declines. However, during the mild interglacial periods, many species re-flourished. These temporal dynamics of effective population sizes (Ne) provide essential information for understanding and predicting evolutionary outcomes during historical and ongoing global climate changes. RESULTS: Using high-quality genome assemblies and corresponding sequencing data, we applied the Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) method to quantify Ne changes of twelve representative teleost species from approximately 10 million years ago (mya) to 10 thousand years ago (kya). These results revealed multiple rounds of population contraction and expansion in most of the examined teleost species during the Neogene and the Quaternary periods. We observed that 83% (10/12) of the examined teleosts had experienced a drastic decline in Ne before the last glacial period (LGP, 110-12 kya), slightly earlier than the reported pattern of Ne changes in 38 avian species. In comparison with the peaks, almost all of the examined teleosts maintained long-term lower Ne values during the last few million years. This is consistent with increasingly dramatic glaciation during this period. CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of the historical Ne changes in teleosts. Results presented here could lead to the development of appropriate strategies to protect species in light of ongoing global climate changes.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205463

RESUMO

Violacein is a naturally occurring purple pigment, widely used in cosmetics and has potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. Violacein can be produced from tryptophan, consequently sufficient tryptophan biosynthesis is the key to violacein production. However, the complicated biosynthetic pathways and regulatory mechanisms often make the tryptophan overproduction challenging in Escherichia coli. In this study, we used the adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) strategy to improve violacein production using galactose as a carbon source. During the ALE, a tryptophan-responsive biosensor was employed to provide selection pressure to enrich tryptophan-producing cells. From the biosensor-assisted ALE, we obtained an evolved population of cells capable of effectively catabolizing galactose to tryptophan and subsequently used the population to obtain the best violacein producer. In addition, whole-genome sequencing of the evolved strain identified point mutations beneficial to the overproduction. Overall, we demonstrated that the biosensor-assisted ALE strategy could be used to rapidly and selectively evolve the producers to yield high violacein production.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Galactose/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Triptofano/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 333, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. (bay bean) is an extremophile halophyte that is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. Seawater and drought tolerance in this species may be facilitated by aquaporins (AQPs), channel proteins that transport water and small molecules across cell membranes and thereby maintain cellular water homeostasis in the face of abiotic stress. In C. rosea, AQP diversity, protein features, and their biological functions are still largely unknown. RESULTS: We describe the action of AQPs in C. rosea using evolutionary analyses coupled with promoter and expression analyses. A total of 37 AQPs were identified in the C. rosea genome and classified into five subgroups: 11 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, 10 tonoplast intrinsic proteins, 11 Nod26-like intrinsic proteins, 4 small and basic intrinsic proteins, and 1 X-intrinsic protein. Analysis of RNA-Seq data and targeted qPCR revealed organ-specific expression of aquaporin genes and the involvement of some AQP members in adaptation of C. rosea to extreme coral reef environments. We also analyzed C. rosea sequences for phylogeny reconstruction, protein modeling, cellular localizations, and promoter analysis. Furthermore, one of PIP1 gene, CrPIP1;5, was identified as functional using a yeast expression system and transgenic overexpression in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that AQPs play an important role in C. rosea responses to saline-alkaline soils and drought stress. These findings not only increase our understanding of the role AQPs play in mediating C. rosea adaptation to extreme environments, but also improve our knowledge of plant aquaporin evolution more generally.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Canavalia/genética , Secas , Solo/química , Adaptação Fisiológica , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Aquaporinas/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Canavalia/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Ecossistema , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA-Seq , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
4.
Science ; 373(6550): 56-60, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210877

RESUMO

Human activities are changing our environment. Along with climate change and a widespread loss of biodiversity, plastic pollution now plays a predominant role in altering ecosystems globally. Here, we review the occurrence of plastic ingestion by wildlife through evolutionary and ecological lenses and address the fundamental question of why living organisms ingest plastic. We unify evolutionary, ecological, and cognitive approaches under the evolutionary trap theory and identify three main factors that may drive plastic ingestion: (i) the availability of plastics in the environment, (ii) an individual's acceptance threshold, and (iii) the overlap of cues given by natural foods and plastics.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ingestão de Alimentos , Plásticos/metabolismo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Água do Mar
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199407

RESUMO

The dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is known for its special role in teeth. Several techniques were applied for the investigation of the DEJ in human sound molar teeth. The electron (EPMA) and proton (PIXE) microprobes gave consistent indications about the variability of elemental concentrations on this boundary. The locally increased and oscillating concentrations of Mg and Na were observed in the junction, in the layer adhering to the enamel and covering roughly half of the DEJ width. The chemical results were compared with the optical profiles of the junction. Our chemical and optical results were next compared with the micromechanical results (hardness, elastic modulus, friction coefficient) available in the world literature. A strong correlation of both result sets was proven, which testifies to the self-affinity of the junction structures for different locations and even for different kinds of teeth and techniques applied for studies. Energetic changes in tooth strictly connected with crystallographic transformations were calculated, and the minimum energetic status was discovered for DEJ zone. Modeling of both walls of the DEJ from optical data was demonstrated. Comparing the DEJ in human teeth with the same structure found in dinosaur, shark, and alligator teeth evidences the universality of dentin enamel junction in animal world. The paper makes a contribution to better understanding the joining of the different hard tissues.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Esmalte Dentário/química , Dentina/química , Dente/química , Jacarés e Crocodilos/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Dentina/enzimologia , Dinossauros/genética , Módulo de Elasticidade , Dureza , Humanos , Dente Molar/química , Tubarões/genética , Dente/ultraestrutura
6.
Elife ; 102021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225840

RESUMO

Ornithischians, one of the three major groups of dinosaurs, developed a unique mechanism to ensure airflow in the lungs.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dinossauros , Animais
7.
Am J Bot ; 108(6): 993-1005, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196392

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plants can mitigate the fitness costs associated with pollen consumption by floral visitors by optimizing pollen release rates. In buzz-pollinated plants, bees apply vibrations to remove pollen from anthers with small pores. These poricidal anthers potentially function as mechanism staggering pollen release, but this has rarely been tested across plant species differing in anther morphology. METHODS: In Solanum Section Androceras, three pairs of buzz-pollinated species have undergone independent evolutionary shifts between large- and small-flowers, which are accompanied by replicate changes in anther morphology. We used these shifts in anther morphology to characterize the association between anther morphology and pollen dispensing schedules. We applied simulated bee-like vibrations to anthers to elicit pollen release, and compared pollen dispensing schedules across anther morphologies. We also investigated how vibration velocity affects pollen release. RESULTS: Replicate transitions in Solanum anther morphology are associated with consistent changes in pollen dispensing schedules. We found that small-flowered taxa release their pollen at higher rates than their large-flowered counterparts. Higher vibration velocities resulted in quicker pollen dispensing and more total pollen released. Finally, both the pollen dispensing rate and the amount of pollen released in the first vibration were negatively related to anther wall area, but we did not observe any association between pore size and pollen dispensing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first empirical demonstration that the pollen dispensing properties of poricidal anthers depend on both floral characteristics and bee vibration properties. Morphological modification of anthers could thus provide a mechanism to exploit different pollination environments.


Assuntos
Polinização , Solanum , Animais , Abelhas , Evolução Biológica , Flores , Pólen
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198606

RESUMO

The number of raspberry plants dying from a sudden outbreak of gray mold, verticillium wilt, anthracnosis, and phytophthora infection has increased in recent times, leading to crop failure. The plants suffer tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Botrytis-Verticillium-Colletotrichum-Phytophthora disease complex. A sizeable number of fungal isolates were acquired from the root and rhizosphere samples of wild raspberries from different locations. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that a core consortium of 11 isolates of selected Trichoderma spp. was the most essential element for reducing in phytopathogen expansion. For this purpose, isolates were characterized by the efficiency of their antagonistic properties against Botrytis, Verticillium, Colletotrichum and Phytophthora isolates and with hydrolytic properties accelerating the decomposition of organic matter in the soil and thus making nutrients available to plants. Prebiotic additive supplementation with a mixture of adonitol, arabitol, erythritol, mannitol, sorbitol, and adenosine was proven in a laboratory experiment to be efficient in stimulating the growth of Trichoderma isolates. Through an in vivo pathosystem experiment, different raspberry naturalization-protection strategies (root inoculations and watering with native Trichoderma isolates, applied separately or simultaneously) were tested under controlled phytotron conditions. The experimental application of phytopathogens attenuated raspberry plant and soil properties, while Trichoderma consortium incorporation exhibited a certain trend of improving these features in terms of a short-term response, depending on the pathosystem and naturalization strategy. What is more, a laboratory-scale development of a biopreparation for the naturalization of the raspberry rhizosphere based on the Trichoderma consortium was proposed in the context of two application scenarios. The first was a ready-to-use formulation to be introduced while planting (pellets, gel). The second was a variant to be applied with naturalizing watering (soluble powder).


Assuntos
Prebióticos , Rizosfera , Rubus/química , Trichoderma/química , Evolução Biológica , Microbiologia do Solo , Trichoderma/enzimologia , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4222, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244514

RESUMO

The evolutionary transition towards multicellular life often involves growth in groups of undifferentiated cells followed by differentiation into soma and germ-like cells. Theory predicts that germ soma differentiation is facilitated by a convex trade-off between survival and reproduction. However, this has never been tested and these transitions remain poorly understood at the ecological and genetic level. Here, we study the evolution of cell groups in ten isogenic lines of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with prolonged exposure to a rotifer predator. We confirm that growth in cell groups is heritable and characterized by a convex trade-off curve between reproduction and survival. Identical mutations evolve in all cell group isolates; these are linked to survival and reducing associated cell costs. Overall, we show that just 500 generations of predator selection were sufficient to lead to a convex trade-off and incorporate evolved changes into the prey genome.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Rotíferos/fisiologia
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20191468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287459

RESUMO

The use of behavioral data is quite common in studies of chordate animals and some groups of arthropods; however, these data are usually used in ecological and conservation studies. Their use remains uncommon in phylogenetic reconstructions, especially for non-model groups in behavioral studies. This study aims to evaluate the methodological use of behavioral (feeding process) data with EthoKit Logger in the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Cnidaria, a group in the so-called 'lower' Metazoa. The results indicate considerable cohesion with reconstructions based on molecular data available in previous studies. We therefore suggest that the use of behavioral characters can possible be a useful secondary tool or a proof test for molecular evolutionary reconstructions.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Invertebrados/genética , Filogenia
12.
Biol Lett ; 17(7): 20210168, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256583

RESUMO

The ability of palaeontologists to correctly diagnose and classify new fossil species from incomplete morphological data is fundamental to our understanding of evolution. Different parts of the vertebrate skeleton have different likelihoods of fossil preservation and varying amounts of taxonomic information, which could bias our interpretations of fossil material. Substantial previous research has focused on the diversity and macroevolution of non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Theropods provide a rich dataset for analysis of the interactions between taxonomic diagnosability and fossil preservation. We use specimen data and formal taxonomic diagnoses to create a new metric, the Likelihood of Diagnosis, which quantifies the diagnostic likelihood of fossil species in relation to bone preservation potential. We use this to assess whether a taxonomic identification bias impacts the non-avian theropod fossil record. We find that the patterns of differential species abundance and clade diversity are not a consequence of their relative diagnosability. Although there are other factors that bias the theropod fossil record that are not investigated here, our results suggest that patterns of relative abundance and diversity for theropods might be more representative of Mesozoic ecology than often considered.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Filogenia , Esqueleto
13.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 502-513, 2021 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254744

RESUMO

Persistent uplift means the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate genome evolution and adaptation within highland environments. However, how paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events influence the genome and population of endemic fish species remains unclear. Glyptosternon maculatum is an ancient endemic fish found on the QTP and the only critically endangered species in the Sisoridae family. Here, we found that major transposons in the G. maculatum genome showed episodic bursts, consistent with contemporaneous geological and climatic events during the QTP formation. Notably, histone genes showed significant expansion in the G. maculatum genome, which may be mediated by long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) repetitive element duplications. Population analysis showed that ancestral G. maculatum populations experienced two significant depressions 2.6 million years ago (Mya) and 10 000 years ago, exhibiting excellent synchronization with Quaternary glaciation and the Younger Dryas, respectively. Thus, we propose that paleogeography and paleoclimate were dominating driving forces for population dynamics in endemic fish on the QTP. Tectonic movements and temperature fluctuation likely destroyed the habitat and disrupted the drainage connectivity among populations. These factors may have caused severe bottlenecks and limited migration among ancestral G. maculatum populations, resulting in the low genetic diversity and endangered status of the species today.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Peixes/genética , Genoma , Animais , Clima , Tibet
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009147, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237054

RESUMO

The unprecedented pace of the sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 virus genomes provides us with unique information about the genetic changes in a single pathogen during ongoing pandemic. By the analysis of close to 200,000 genomes we show that the patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 virus mutations along its genome are closely correlated with the structural and functional features of the encoded proteins. Requirements of foldability of proteins' 3D structures and the conservation of their key functional regions, such as protein-protein interaction interfaces, are the dominant factors driving evolutionary selection in protein-coding genes. At the same time, avoidance of the host immunity leads to the abundance of mutations in other regions, resulting in high variability of the missense mutation rate along the genome. "Unexplained" peaks and valleys in the mutation rate provide hints on function for yet uncharacterized genomic regions and specific protein structural and functional features they code for. Some of these observations have immediate practical implications for the selection of target regions for PCR-based COVID-19 tests and for evaluating the risk of mutations in epitopes targeted by specific antibodies and vaccine design strategies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Genes Virais , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Proteínas Virais/fisiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4306, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262034

RESUMO

We lack a thorough understanding of the origin and maintenance of standing genetic variation that enables rapid evolutionary responses of natural populations. Whole genome sequencing of a resurrected Daphnia population shows that standing genetic variation in over 500 genes follows an evolutionary trajectory that parallels the pronounced and rapid adaptive evolution of multiple traits in response to predator-driven natural selection and its subsequent relaxation. Genetic variation carried by only five founding individuals from the regional genotype pool is shown to suffice at enabling the observed evolution. Our results provide insight on how natural populations can acquire the genomic variation, through colonization by a few regional genotypes, that fuels rapid evolution in response to strong selection pressures. While these evolutionary responses in our study population involved hundreds of genes, we observed no evidence of genetic erosion.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Daphnia/fisiologia , Efeito Fundador , Variação Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Daphnia/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Genoma/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
16.
Science ; 373(6551): 226-231, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244416

RESUMO

Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large evolutionary radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate sugar responses across species with diverse diets, uncover critical sites underlying carbohydrate detection, and identify the molecular basis of sensory convergence between songbirds and nectar-specialist hummingbirds. This early shift shaped the sensory biology of an entire radiation, emphasizing the role of contingency and providing an example of the genetic basis of convergence in avian evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Néctar de Plantas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória , Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Carboidratos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Multimerização Proteica , Sacarose
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659071, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234774

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged betacoronavirus and the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic. Antibodies recognizing the viral spike protein are instrumental in natural and vaccine-induced immune responses to the pathogen and in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Unlike conventional immunoglobulins, the variable lymphocyte receptor antibodies of jawless vertebrates are structurally distinct, indicating that they may recognize different epitopes. Here we report the isolation of monoclonal variable lymphocyte receptor antibodies from immunized sea lamprey larvae that recognize the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 but not of other coronaviruses. We further demonstrate that these monoclonal variable lymphocyte receptor antibodies can efficiently neutralize the virus and form the basis of a rapid, single step SARS-CoV-2 detection system. This study provides evidence for monoclonal variable lymphocyte receptor antibodies as unique biomedical research and potential clinical diagnostic reagents targeting SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Petromyzon/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Evolução Biológica , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Humanos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200775

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small-grain cereals, demonstrates remarkably variable levels of aggressiveness in its host, producing different infection dynamics and contrasted symptom severity. While the secreted proteins, including effectors, are thought to be one of the essential components of aggressiveness, our knowledge of the intra-species genomic diversity of F. graminearum is still limited. In this work, we sequenced eight European F. graminearum strains of contrasting aggressiveness to characterize their respective genome structure, their gene content and to delineate their specificities. By combining the available sequences of 12 other F. graminearum strains, we outlined a reference pangenome that expands the repertoire of the known genes in the reference PH-1 genome by 32%, including nearly 21,000 non-redundant sequences and gathering a common base of 9250 conserved core-genes. More than 1000 genes with high non-synonymous mutation rates may be under diverse selection, especially regarding the trichothecene biosynthesis gene cluster. About 900 secreted protein clusters (SPCs) have been described. Mostly localized in the fast sub-genome of F. graminearum supposed to evolve rapidly to promote adaptation and rapid responses to the host's infection, these SPCs gather a range of putative proteinaceous effectors systematically found in the core secretome, with the chloroplast and the plant nucleus as the main predicted targets in the host cell. This work describes new knowledge on the intra-species diversity in F. graminearum and emphasizes putative determinants of aggressiveness, providing a wealth of new candidate genes potentially involved in the Fusarium head blight disease.


Assuntos
Fusarium/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/microbiologia , Evolução Biológica , Biologia Computacional , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201937

RESUMO

The AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE1 (PBS1) and RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 5 (RPS5) proteins are involved in signal transduction to evoke innate plant immune response. In Arabidopsis, PBS1 is cleaved by the AvrPphB (Pseudomonas phaseolicola Avirulence protein B) protease, activating RPS5 and turning in a hypersensitive response (HR). We searched for PBS1 orthologs to trace their origin and evolution. PBS1 orthologs were found in embryophytes and in other plant taxa but with lower similarity. PBS1 phylogenetic analysis indicates high divergence, suggesting that the decoy function described for Arabidopsis PBS1 might be associated with a small fraction of orthologs. Ancestral reconstruction analysis suggests an elevated diversity in the amino acid sequence within the described motifs. All the orthologs contain the conserved PBS1 kinase subdomains, whereas the cleavage motif is present in several embryophyte orthologs but absent in most other taxa. The putative resistance recognition motifs in PBS1 orthologs are highly diverse. PBS1 cleavage site motif is exposed in some 3D structure predictions, whereas it is not in others, suggesting different modes of regulation and functions in PBS1 orthologs. Our findings suggest that PBS1 originated in the lineage that gave rise to embryophytes, with the angiosperm sequences forming a separate clade from pteridophyte proteins.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202838

RESUMO

Evolution of RNA bacteriophages of the family Leviviridae is governed by the high error rates of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. This fact, together with their large population sizes, leads to the generation of highly heterogeneous populations that adapt rapidly to most changes in the environment. Throughout adaptation, the different mutants that make up a viral population compete with each other in a non-trivial process in which their selective values change over time due to the generation of new mutations. In this work we have characterised the intra-population dynamics of a well-studied levivirus, Qß, when it is propagated at a higher-than-optimal temperature. Our results show that adapting populations experienced rapid changes that involved the ascent of particular genotypes and the loss of some beneficial mutations of early generation. Artificially reconstructed populations, containing a fraction of the diversity present in actual populations, fixed mutations more rapidly, illustrating how population bottlenecks may guide the adaptive pathways. The conclusion is that, when the availability of beneficial mutations under a particular selective condition is elevated, the final outcome of adaptation depends more on the occasional occurrence of population bottlenecks and how mutations combine in genomes than on the selective value of particular mutations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Fagos RNA/fisiologia , Temperatura , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , RNA Viral/genética , Seleção Genética
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