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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201538, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873198

RESUMO

We here report the phylogenetic position of barthelonids, small anaerobic flagellates previously examined using light microscopy alone. Barthelona spp. were isolated from geographically distinct regions and we established five laboratory strains. Transcriptomic data generated from one Barthelona strain (PAP020) were used for large-scale, multi-gene phylogenetic (phylogenomic) analyses. Our analyses robustly placed strain PAP020 at the base of the Fornicata clade, indicating that barthelonids represent a deep-branching metamonad clade. Considering the anaerobic/microaerophilic nature of barthelonids and preliminary electron microscopy observations on strain PAP020, we suspected that barthelonids possess functionally and structurally reduced mitochondria (i.e. mitochondrion-related organelles or MROs). The metabolic pathways localized in the MRO of strain PAP020 were predicted based on its transcriptomic data and compared with those in the MROs of fornicates. We here propose that strain PAP020 is incapable of generating ATP in the MRO, as no mitochondrial/MRO enzymes involved in substrate-level phosphorylation were detected. Instead, we detected a putative cytosolic ATP-generating enzyme (acetyl-CoA synthetase), suggesting that strain PAP020 depends on ATP generated in the cytosol. We propose two separate losses of substrate-level phosphorylation from the MRO in the clade containing barthelonids and (other) fornicates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201111, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873205

RESUMO

How genetic variation arises and persists over evolutionary time despite the depleting effects of natural selection remains a long-standing question. Here, we investigate the impacts of two extreme forms of population regulation-at the level of the total, mixed population (hard selection) and at the level of local, spatially distinct patches (soft selection)-on the emergence and fate of diversity under strong divergent selection. We find that while the form of population regulation has little effect on rates of diversification, it can modulate the long-term fate of genetic variation, diversity being more readily maintained under soft selection compared to hard selection. The mechanism responsible for coexistence is negative frequency-dependent selection which, while present initially under both forms of population regulation, persists over the long-term only under soft selection. Importantly, coexistence is robust to continued evolution of niche specialist types under soft selection but not hard selection. These results suggest that soft selection could be a general mechanism for the maintenance of ecological diversity over evolutionary time scales.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Seleção Genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Densidade Demográfica
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200820, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873208

RESUMO

Sequencing technologies have fuelled a rapid rise in descriptions of microbial communities associated with hosts, but what is often harder to ascertain is the evolutionary significance of these symbioses. Here, we review the role of vertical (VT), horizontal (HT), environmental acquisition and mixed modes of transmission (MMT), in the establishment of animal host-microbe associations. We then model four properties of gut microbiota proposed as key to promoting animal host-microbe relationships: modes of transmission, host reproductive mode, host mate choice and host fitness. We found that: (i) MMT led to the highest frequencies of host-microbe associations, and that some environmental acquisition or HT of microbes was required for persistent associations to form unless VT was perfect; (ii) host reproductive mode (sexual versus asexual) and host mate choice (for microbe carriers versus non-carriers) had little impact on the establishment of host-microbe associations; (iii) host mate choice did not itself lead to reproductive isolation, but could reinforce it; and (iv) changes in host fitness due to host-microbe associations had a minimal impact upon the formation of co-associations. When we introduced a second population, into which host-microbe carriers could disperse but in which environmental acquisition did not occur, highly efficient VT was required for host-microbe co-associations to persist. Our study reveals that transmission mode is of key importance in establishing host-microbe associations.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Simbiose
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201016, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873210

RESUMO

Anti-predator defences are typically regarded as relatively static signals that conceal prey or advertise their unprofitability. However, startle displays are complex performances that deter or confuse predators and can include a spectacular array of movements, colours and sounds. Yet, we do not fully understand the mechanisms by which they function, their evolutionary correlates, or the conditions under which they are performed and evolve. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses of startle displays including behavioural data, using praying mantises as a model system. We included 58 species that provide a good representation of mantis diversity and estimated the strength of phylogenetic signal in the presence and complexity of displays. We also tested hypotheses on potential evolutionary correlates, including primary defences and body size. We found that startle displays and morphological traits were phylogenetically conserved, whereas behavioural traits were highly labile. Surprisingly, body size was not correlated with display presence or complexity in phylogenetically controlled analyses. Species-rich clades were more likely to exhibit displays, suggesting that startle displays were probably involved in lineage diversification. We suggest that to further elucidate the conditions under which startle displays evolve, future work should include quantitative descriptions of multiple display components, habitat type, and predator communities. Understanding the evolution of startle displays is critical to our overall understanding of the theory behind predator-prey dynamics.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mantódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Filogenia , Comportamento Predatório
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200962, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873209

RESUMO

Although polyploidy is widespread across the plant Tree of Life, its long-term evolutionary significance is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of polyploidy in explaining the large-scale evolutionary patterns within angiosperms by focusing on a single family exhibiting extensive interspecific variation in chromosome numbers. We inferred ploidy from haploid chromosome numbers for 80% of species in the most comprehensive species-level chronogram for the Brassicaceae. After evaluating a total of 94 phylogenetic models of diversification, we found that ploidy influences diversification rates across the Brassicaceae. We also found that despite diversifying at a similar rate to diploids, polyploids have played a significant role in driving present-day differences in species richness among clades. Overall, in addition to highlighting the complexity in the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy, our results suggest that rare successful polyploids persist while significantly contributing to the long-term evolution of clades. Our findings further indicate that polyploidy has played a major role in driving the long-term evolution of the Brassicaceae and highlight the potential of polyploidy in shaping present-day diversity patterns across the plant Tree of Life.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Diploide , Poliploidia , Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Magnoliopsida , Filogenia , Ploidias
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201655, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900315

RESUMO

The fossil record of 'lesser apes' (i.e. hylobatids = gibbons and siamangs) is virtually non-existent before the latest Miocene of East Asia. However, molecular data strongly and consistently suggest that hylobatids should be present by approximately 20 Ma; thus, there are large temporal, geographical, and morphological gaps between early fossil apes in Africa and the earliest fossil hylobatids in China. Here, we describe a new approximately 12.5-13.8 Ma fossil ape from the Lower Siwaliks of Ramnagar, India, that fills in these long-standing gaps with implications for hylobatid origins. This ape represents the first new hominoid species discovered at Ramnagar in nearly a century, the first new Siwalik ape taxon in more than 30 years, and likely extends the hylobatid fossil record by approximately 5 Myr, providing a minimum age for hylobatid dispersal coeval to that of great apes. The presence of crown hylobatid molar features in the new species indicates an adaptive shift to a more frugivorous diet during the Middle Miocene, consistent with other proposed adaptations to frugivory (e.g. uricase gene silencing) during this time period as well.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Hylobatidae , Animais , Índia , Filogenia , Primatas
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200487, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900316

RESUMO

Cooperation among non-kin is well documented in humans and widespread in non-human animals, but explaining the occurrence of cooperation in the absence of inclusive fitness benefits has proven a significant challenge. Current theoretical explanations converge on a single point: cooperators can prevail when they cluster in social space. However, we know very little about the real-world mechanisms that drive such clustering, particularly in systems where cognitive limitations make it unlikely that mechanisms such as score keeping and reputation are at play. Here, we show that Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) use a 'walk away' strategy, a simple social heuristic by which assortment by cooperativeness can come about among mobile agents. Guppies cooperate during predator inspection and we found that when experiencing defection in this context, individuals prefer to move to a new social environment, despite having no prior information about this new social group. Our results provide evidence in non-human animals that individuals use a simple social partner updating strategy in response to defection, supporting theoretical work applying heuristics to understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the evolution of cooperation among non-kin.


Assuntos
Poecilia/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Heurística
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200941, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900317

RESUMO

Adaptive radiations (ARs) frequently show remarkable repeatability where single lineages undergo multiple independent episodes of AR in distant places and long-separate time points. Genetic variation generated through hybridization between distantly related lineages can promote AR. This mechanism, however, requires rare coincidence in space and time between a hybridization event and opening of ecological opportunity, because hybridization generates large genetic variation only locally and it will persist only for a short period. Hence, hybridization seems unlikely to explain recurrent AR in the same lineage. Contrary to these expectations, our evolutionary computer simulations demonstrate that admixture variation can geographically spread and persist for long periods if the hybrid population becomes separated into isolated sub-lineages. Subsequent secondary hybridization of some of these can reestablish genetic polymorphisms from the ancestral hybridization in places far from the birthplace of the hybrid clade and long after the ancestral hybridization event. Consequently, simulations revealed conditions where exceptional genetic variation, once generated through a rare hybridization event, can facilitate multiple ARs exploiting ecological opportunities available at distant points in time and space.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Reprodução
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200655, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900319

RESUMO

Body mass affects many biological traits, but its impacts on immune defences are fairly unknown. Recent research on mammals found that neutrophil concentrations disproportionately increased (scaled hypermetrically) with body mass, a result not predicted by any existing theory. Although the scaling relationship for mammals might predict how leucocyte concentrations scale with body mass in other vertebrates, vertebrate classes are distinct in many ways that might affect their current and historic interactions with parasites and hence the evolution of their immune systems. Subsequently, here, we asked which existing scaling hypothesis best-predicts relationships between body mass and lymphocyte, eosinophil and heterophil concentrations-the avian functional equivalent of neutrophils-among more than 100 species of birds. We then examined the predictive power of body mass relative to life-history variation, as extensive literature indicates that the timing of key life events has influenced immune system variation among species. Finally, we ask whether avian scaling patterns differ from the patterns we observed in mammals. We found that an intercept-only model best explained lymphocyte and eosinophil concentrations among birds, indicating that the concentrations of these cell types were both independent of body mass. For heterophils, however, body mass explained 31% of the variation in concentrations among species, much more than life-history variation (4%). As with mammalian neutrophils, avian heterophils scaled hypermetrically (b = 0.19 ± 0.05), but more steeply than mammals (approx. 1.5 ×; 0.11 ± 0.03). As such, we discuss why birds might require more broadly protective cells compared to mammals of the same body size. Overall, body mass appears to have strong influences on the architecture of immune systems.


Assuntos
Aves , Tamanho Corporal , Sistema Imunitário , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Traços de História de Vida , Filogenia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20200762, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933447

RESUMO

Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America and Europe, we found that body size was the single best predictor of brain size in bees. However, the analyses also revealed that substantial variation in brain size remained even when adjusting for body size. We consequently asked whether such variation in relative brain size might be explained by adaptive hypotheses. We found that ecologically specialized species with single generations have larger brains-relative to their body size-than generalist or multi-generation species, but we did not find an effect of sociality on relative brain size. Phylogenetic reconstruction further supported the existence of different adaptive optima for relative brain size in lineages differing in feeding specialization and reproductive strategy. Our findings shed new light on the evolution of the insect brain, highlighting the importance of ecological pressures over social factors and suggesting that these pressures are different from those previously found to influence brain evolution in other taxa.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Encéfalo , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Social , Animais , Evolução Biológica
11.
Elife ; 92020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958136

RESUMO

Lizards that live in the Greater Antilles exploit a large range of skeletal variations to adapt to similar habitats, in defiance of the theory of plasticity-led evolution.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Região do Caribe , Ecossistema
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201393, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962540

RESUMO

Frogs and toads (Amphibia: Anura) display diverse ecologies and behaviours, which are often correlated with visual capacity in other vertebrates. Additionally, anurans exhibit a broad range of relative eye sizes, which have not previously been linked to ecological factors in this group. We measured relative investment in eye size and corneal size for 220 species of anurans representing all 55 currently recognized families and tested whether they were correlated with six natural history traits hypothesized to be associated with the evolution of eye size. Anuran eye size was significantly correlated with habitat, with notable decreases in eye investment among fossorial, subfossorial and aquatic species. Relative eye size was also associated with mating habitat and activity pattern. Compared to other vertebrates, anurans have relatively large eyes for their body size, indicating that vision is probably of high importance. Our study reveals the role that ecology and behaviour may have played in the evolution of anuran visual systems and highlights the usefulness of museum specimens, and importance of broad taxonomic sampling, for interpreting macroecological patterns.


Assuntos
Anuros , Tamanho Corporal , Bufonidae , Ecossistema , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução , Visão Ocular
13.
Yi Chuan ; 42(9): 847-857, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952119

RESUMO

Lamprey is one representative of the extant jawless vertebrates, known as "living fossils", with a history of more than 500 million years. The ancient lamprey has attracted the attention of many scholars due to its unique functional characteristics and evolutionary status. In terms of immune system, the lamprey has adaptive immune system and immune molecules different from those of jawed vertebrates. Based on the evolutionary status, lamprey is an important developmental and evolutionary animal model for analyses of evolutionary conservation and derivative characteristics of vertebrates. Lamprey pallium provides an evolutionary blueprint for mammalian cerebral cortex. In disease research, lamprey has provided various results as a pathological model of spinal cord injury and biliary atresia. In this review, the life cycle, immune molecules, developmental evolution and physiological structure of lamprey are presented in details in reference with relevant reports from China and abroad. We believe that in-depth studies of lamprey could promote an effective outcome(s) in the research on genetics of animal development and biomedicine.


Assuntos
Lampreias , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vertebrados
14.
Yi Chuan ; 42(9): 916-925, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952125

RESUMO

Common wheat (T. aestivum L.) is also known as allohexaploid wheat. Its genome is composed of A/B/D sub-genomes from three closely related diploid ancestors. The evolutionary history of common wheat is used as a classic example to illustrate the mechanism of species formation and chromosome number variation in the current genetics class. In recent years, with the rapid development and application of research technologies, there have been many breakthroughs in the study of common wheat, at the cytological, molecular and genomic level. Here, we summarize the latest research achievements on common wheat, and discuss our practice in combining them with the genetics teaching. Our approach is not only a supplement to the current genetics textbooks, but also enables students to realize that genetics is a constantly evolving natural science. We aim to enhance students' interests in learning, as well as their systematic learning abilities on genetics and related scientific research frontiers.


Assuntos
Triticum , Evolução Biológica , Diploide , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Ensino
15.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1214-1224, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901939

RESUMO

PREMISE: While root-order approaches to fine-root classification have shown wide utility among wild plants, they have seen limited use for perennial crop plants. Moreover, inadequate characterization of fine roots across species of domesticated perennial crops has led to a knowledge gap in the understanding of evolutionary and functional patterns associated with different fine-root orders. METHODS: We examined fine-root traits of common horticultural fruit and nut crops: Malus ×domestica, Prunus persica, Vitus vinifera, Prunus dulcis, and Citrus ×clementina. Additional roots were sampled from 33 common perennial horticultural crops, native to tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, to examine variation in 1st- and 2nd-order absorptive roots. RESULTS: First-order roots of grape and 1st- and 2nd-order roots of apple and peach were consistently thin, nonwoody, mycorrhizal, and had high N:C ratios. In contrast, 4th- and 5th-order roots of grape and 5th-order roots of apple and peach were woody, nonmycorrhizal, had low N:C ratios, and were thicker than lower-order roots. Among the 33 horticultural species, diameter of 1st- and 2nd-order roots varied about 15-fold, ranging from 0.04 to 0.60 mm and 0.05 to 0.89 mm respectively. This variation generally was phylogenetically conserved across plant lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our research shows that root-order characterization has considerably more utility than an arbitrary diameter cutoff for identifying roots of different functions in perennial horticultural crops. In addition, much of the variation in root diameter among species can be predicted by evolutionary relationships.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Evolução Biológica , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Science ; 369(6511): 1565-1566, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973019
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4506, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908149

RESUMO

Bacteriophages play critical roles in the biosphere, but their vast genomic diversity has obscured their evolutionary origins, and phylogenetic analyses have traditionally been hindered by their lack of universal phylogenetic marker genes. In this study we mine metagenomic data and identify a clade of Caudovirales that encodes the ß and ß' subunits of multi-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP), a high-resolution phylogenetic marker which enables detailed evolutionary analyses. Our RNAP phylogeny revealed that the Caudovirales RNAP forms a clade distinct from cellular homologs, suggesting an ancient acquisition of this enzyme. Within these multimeric RNAP-encoding Caudovirales (mReC), we find that the similarity of major capsid proteins and terminase large subunits further suggests they form a distinct clade with common evolutionary origin. Our study characterizes a clade of RNAP-encoding Caudovirales and suggests the ancient origin of this enzyme in this group, underscoring the important role of viruses in the early evolution of life on Earth.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Caudovirales/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 409-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918231

RESUMO

The biology of every species has been optimized for life in the environment in which that species evolved. Humans originated in the tropics, and while some natural selection took place in response to behaviors and environments that decreased exposure to ultraviolet light, there has never been a species-wide biological accommodation. Paleolithic nutrition advocates argue that risk of disease is higher because modern diets differ from what was consumed by early humans. Early humans were the naked ape living in the tropics, exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) averaging 115 nmol/L, as compared to today's population averages that are well below 70 nmol/L. Natural selection from an available gene pool cannot compensate fully to an environmental change away from the one within which the species originally evolved. Vitamin D nutrition remains a contentious area. The epidemiological evidence consistently relates lower 25(OH)D to higher disease risk. However, evidence from double-blind clinical trials looking at preventing new disease in healthy volunteers has been disappointing. But such negative trials have been the case for all nutrients except for folic acid which lowers risk of spina bifida. The Paleolithic nutrition model is based on fundamental biological concepts, but it has overlooked the environmental effects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D nutrition. This paper presents evolutionary and Paleolithic aspects of ultraviolet light and vitamin D with the aim to support pertinent research and, ultimately, public policy regarding nutrition and light exposure.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Política Nutricional , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/metabolismo
19.
Nature ; 585(7824): 239-244, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879485

RESUMO

Obligate endosymbiosis, in which distantly related species integrate to form a single replicating individual, represents a major evolutionary transition in individuality1-3. Although such transitions are thought to increase biological complexity1,2,4-6, the evolutionary and developmental steps that lead to integration remain poorly understood. Here we show that obligate endosymbiosis between the bacteria Blochmannia and the hyperdiverse ant tribe Camponotini7-11 originated and also elaborated through radical alterations in embryonic development, as compared to other insects. The Hox genes Abdominal A (abdA) and Ultrabithorax (Ubx)-which, in arthropods, normally function to differentiate abdominal and thoracic segments after they form-were rewired to also regulate germline genes early in development. Consequently, the mRNAs and proteins of these Hox genes are expressed maternally and colocalize at a subcellular level with those of germline genes in the germplasm and three novel locations in the freshly laid egg. Blochmannia bacteria then selectively regulate these mRNAs and proteins to make each of these four locations functionally distinct, creating a system of coordinates in the embryo in which each location performs a different function to integrate Blochmannia into the Camponotini. Finally, we show that the capacity to localize mRNAs and proteins to new locations in the embryo evolved before obligate endosymbiosis and was subsequently co-opted by Blochmannia and Camponotini. This pre-existing molecular capacity converged with a pre-existing ecological mutualism12,13 to facilitate both the horizontal transfer10 and developmental integration of Blochmannia into Camponotini. Therefore, the convergence of pre-existing molecular capacities and ecological interactions-as well as the rewiring of highly conserved gene networks-may be a general feature that facilitates the origin and elaboration of major transitions in individuality.


Assuntos
Formigas/embriologia , Formigas/microbiologia , Bactérias , Evolução Biológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Individualidade , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Formigas/citologia , Formigas/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Genes Homeobox/genética , Herança Materna/genética , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971954

RESUMO

The relationship between parasite virulence and transmission is a pillar of evolutionary theory that has implications for public health. Part of this canon involves the idea that virulence and free-living survival (a key component of transmission) may have different relationships in different host-parasite systems. Most examinations of the evolution of virulence-transmission relationships-Theoretical or empirical in nature-Tend to focus on the evolution of virulence, with transmission being a secondary consideration. Even within transmission studies, the focus on free-living survival is a smaller subset, though recent studies have examined its importance in the ecology of infectious diseases. Few studies have examined the epidemic-scale consequences of variation in survival across different virulence-survival relationships. In this study, we utilize a mathematical model motivated by aspects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) natural history to investigate how evolutionary changes in survival may influence several aspects of disease dynamics at the epidemiological scale. Across virulence-survival relationships (where these traits are either positively or negatively correlated), we found that small changes (5% above and below the nominal value) in survival can have a meaningful effect on certain outbreak features, including R0, and on the size of the infectious peak in the population. These results highlight the importance of properly understanding the mechanistic relationship between virulence and parasite survival, as the evolution of increased survival across different relationships with virulence may have considerably different epidemiological signatures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Virulência
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