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1.
Front Public Health ; 8: 581746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313037

RESUMO

Purpose: We examined factors associated with health literacy among elders with and without suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at outpatient departments of nine hospitals and health centers 14 February-2 March 2020. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess patient characteristics, health literacy, clinical information, health-related behaviors, and depression. A sample of 928 participants aged 60-85 years were analyzed. Results: The proportion of people with S-COVID-19-S and depression were 48.3 and 13.4%, respectively. The determinants of health literacy in groups with and without S-COVID-19-S were age, gender, education, ability to pay for medication, and social status. In people with S-COVID-19-S, one-score increment of health literacy was associated with 8% higher healthy eating likelihood (odds ratio, OR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 1.04, 1.13; p < 0.001), 4% higher physical activity likelihood (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.01, 1.08, p = 0.023), and 9% lower depression likelihood (OR, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.87, 0.94; p < 0.001). These associations were not found in people without S-COVID-19-S. Conclusions: The older people with higher health literacy were less likely to have depression and had healthier behaviors in the group with S-COVD-19-S. Potential health literacy interventions are suggested to promote healthy behaviors and improve mental health outcomes to lessen the pandemic's damage in this age group.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
2.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8375096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354578

RESUMO

Recently, the novel coronavirus epidemic occurred in China and spread worldwide to become a global pandemic. COVID-19 is a fatal viral infection causing death, particularly in aged individuals, due to impaired immunity. To date, no intervention is available to prevent COVID-19 and its manifestations. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits, and it assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Therefore, this review is aimed at exploring the role of physical exercise training in the face of COVID-19 in older adults and elderly individuals. From this point of view, this review suggests that physical exercise training plays a key role in promoting immune system regulation, delaying immunity dysfunction, reducing circulatory inflammation markers, and preventing sarcopenia and thus could prevent the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection and reduce the complications of recommended self-isolation in older adults and elderly individuals. Additionally, immunity biomarkers were optimistically demonstrated in older adults following physical exercise training, thereby reducing mortality and morbidity rates. Finally, in accordance with recommendations to stay home and perform self-isolation to prevent the spread of COVID-19, all populations are strongly recommended to practice regular home exercise training at home to promote immune system functioning.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Carência Psicossocial , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
3.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020514, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312507

RESUMO

Background: Physical activity (PA) is known to be a protective lifestyle factor against several non-communicable diseases while its impact on infectious diseases, including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not as clear. Methods: We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify associations between both objectively and subjectively measured PA collected prospectively and COVID-19 related outcomes (overall COVID-19, inpatient COVID-19, outpatient COVID-19, and COVID-19 death) in the UK Biobank cohort. Subsequently, we tested causality by using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses. Results: In the multivariable model, the increased acceleration vector magnitude PA (AMPA) is associated with a decreased probability of overall and outpatient COVID-19 with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.80 (0.69, 0.93) and 0.74 (0.58, 0.95), respectively. No association is found between self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and COVID-19 related outcomes. No association is found by MR analyses. Conclusions: Our results indicate a protective effect of objectively measured PA and COVID-19 outcomes (outpatient COVID-19 and overall COVID-19) independent of age, sex, measures of obesity, and smoking status. Although the MR analyses do not support a causal association, that may be due to limited power. We conclude that policies to encourage and facilitate exercise at a population level during the pandemic should be considered.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13049-13055, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review was conducted to systematically analyze the effects of aerobic exercise on immunological biomarkers to provide safe aerobic exercise recommendations and specifications for patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted through MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and SciELO databases. The search included the following keywords "immune system", "immune cell", or "immune function"; "aerobic training", "aerobic exercise", or "physical activity"; "human" or "adult"; and "cytokine", "killer cell", "T cell", "interleukin", "lymphocyte", "leukocyte" or "adhesion molecule". RESULTS: Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this search. The most used exercise prescriptions included walking, cycling, or running. The duration of exercise ranged from 18 to 60 min with an intensity of 55% to 80% of VO2max or 60%-80% of maximum heart rate. The frequency range was 1 to 3 times/week. The mainly increased immunological biomarkers included leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, IL-6, CD16-56, CD16, CD4, CD3, CD8, and CD19. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 should follow a regular program of aerobic exercise for 20-60 min. This program should be in the form of cycling or walking with an intensity of 55%-80% VO2max or 60%-80% of maximum heart rate. This program should be repeated 2-3 sessions/week. These previous parameters could safely enhance immune functions without producing any exhaustion.


Assuntos
/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ciclismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida , Caminhada
5.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(208): 143-145, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to the mandatory use of a mask, and the authorization to do outdoor sports in Catalonia, we aimed to assess the physiological impact of the hypercapnia hypoxia generated by the masks during aerobic sports practice. METHODS: Eight subjects (2 women, 6 men) were assessed at baseline with and without a mask, and immediately after a 21-flex test performed following the Ruffier protocol with a mask. Measures of HR (heart rate), concentration of O2 and CO2 inside the mask and SatO2 were assessed. The test was carried out in ambient air in squares in the city of Barcelona. RESULTS: A decrease in O2 was recorded, and when comparing the, baseline 20.9%, baseline mask 18.3%, post-exercise 17.8% (p < 0.001). An increase in CO2 in the three preconditions (464, 14162, 17000ppm; p < 0.001). Basal saturation O2 was 97.6±1.5% and post exercise 92.1±4.12% (p 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The use of masks in athletes causes hypoxic and hypercapnic breathing as evidenced by increased effort during exercise. The use of masks during a short exercise with an intensity around 6-8 METS, decreases O2 by 3.7% and increases the CO2 concentration by 20%


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Máscaras , Esportes/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/tendências , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Análise de Variância
6.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 132, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by hair loss. Individuals diagnosed with it often describe feelings of trauma and social rejection due to cosmetic repercussions and are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress. Physical activity (PA) participation has been associated with better mental health outcomes in diverse populations. A preliminary study of individuals with AA indicated that severe hair loss is associated with symptomatic depression, anxiety and stress, which negatively impacted PA participation. While strategies to increase PA participation in the general population have been established, little is known about PA participation in people with AA. This study aimed to understand barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA to inform the development of evidence-based interventions. METHODS: The study used a grounded theory (GT) methodology, relying on an iterative and simultaneous process of data collection, coding, theory development, and data comparisons to explore the perceived barriers and enablers to PA. Data were collected through a focus group (8 participants [33.38 ± 10.81 years]) and individual telephone interviews (8 participants [33.89 ± 11.87 years]). The study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Interview data were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed. Recruitment continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. RESULTS: The constructivist grounded theory method used has assisted to develop an explanatory model which is used to explain the themes for barriers and enablers to PA participation. The four phases in the explanatory model are as follows (1) onset of AA; (2) reaction towards the condition; (3) adjustment; and (4) acceptance. CONCLUSION: The findings highlighted perceived barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA. Future interventions could consider addressing these barriers specifically to maximise effectiveness and to improve mental health status based on the phases of the explanatory model.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Teoria Fundamentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Alopecia em Áreas/complicações , Ansiedade/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520977637, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of home-based exercise and physical activity on cardiac functional performance in patients after acute myocardial infarction (MI) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled patients that received treatment of acute ST-segment elevation MI between and were followed-up 6 months later. The patients were divided into physically active and inactive groups based on their levels of home exercise after hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study: 32 were physically active and 46 were physically inactive. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. At the 6-month visit, left ventricular ejection fraction and six-minute walking test (6MWT) were significantly improved while the proportion of patients with a New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional III classification was decreased in the active patients, whereas these parameters were not significantly changed in the inactive patients. In addition, the 6MWT was greater while the proportion of patients with an NYHA III classification was lower in the active group than the inactive group at the 6-month visit. CONCLUSION: Maintaining physical activity at home was associated with improved cardiac functional performance in patients after acute MI during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , /epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a single bout of exercise can improve cognitive control. However, many studies only include assessments after exercise. It is unclear whether exercise changes as a result, or in anticipation, of exercise. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in cognitive control due to moderate aerobic exercise, and anticipation of such exercise. METHODS: Thirty-one young healthy adults (mean age 22 years; 55% women) completed three conditions (randomized order): 1) exercise (participants anticipated and completed exercise); 2) anticipation (participants anticipated exercise but completed rest); and 3) rest (participants anticipated and completed rest). Cognitive control was assessed with a modified Flanker task at three timepoints: (1) early (20 min pre-intervention, pre-reveal in anticipation session); (2) pre-intervention (after reveal); and (3) post-intervention. An accuracy-weighted response time (RTLISAS) was the primary outcome, analyzed with a linear mixed effects modeling approach. RESULTS: There was an interaction between condition and time (p = 0.003) and between session and time (p = 0.015). RTLISAS was better post-exercise than post-rest and post-deception, but was similar across conditions at other timepoints. RTLISAS improved across time in session 1 and session 2, but did not improve over time in session 3. There were also main effects of condition (p = 0.024), session (p = 0.005), time (p<0.001), and congruency (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive control improved after moderate aerobic exercise, but not in anticipation of exercise. Improvements on a Flanker task were also observed across sessions and time, indicative of a learning effect that should be considered in study design and analyses.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Cognição , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143009

RESUMO

PLAN-A is a cluster randomised controlled trial of a peer-led physical activity intervention which uses peer supporters to increase the physical activity of 13-14-year-old girls in the UK. This paper uses latent class analysis to identify classes in the whole study population and investigate how those selected as peer supporters in PLAN-A were drawn from different social groups. We identified five classes of girls, based on psychosocial variables (self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, motivation, physical activity values among friends and peer support for physical activity (PA) and physical activity behaviour variables (average minutes of weekday MVPA, sedentary time and screen viewing). Peer supporters were similar to the whole study population in terms of overall demographics, but were drawn unequally from the five classes. In addition, there was considerable variation in the distribution of peer supporters between schools. The selection of peer supporters is an integral component of peer-led interventions and should be explored and linked to underlying theory to understand the characteristics of those recruited. However, demographic representativeness is not necessarily the aim, and simple reporting of overall demographic comparisons may mask important differences within subgroups.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Reino Unido
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143064

RESUMO

Given the cultural emphasis on academic achievement and environmental constraints to physical activity (PA), active video games (AVGs) may be used to decrease sedentary behavior and increase PA of Hong Kong children. This study explored the potential of a school-based AVG intervention on sedentary time, PA, body composition, and psychosocial factors among children. Eighty-seven children (intervention n = 30) were recruited from one primary school. Classes in Grades 4-6 were allocated to either the intervention group or the control group in a 2:1 ratio. The eight-week intervention involved children playing AVGs in an after-school class twice a week. Participants in the control group continued with their usual activities. Outcome included the change of participants in sedentary time, PA, percentage body fat, body mass index (BMI), and psychosocial variables (enjoyment, self-efficacy and social support), from baseline to eight weeks. No significant group differences were observed in sedentary time (-33.9 min/day, 95% CI -70.8 to 4.8; p = 0.07). The intervention group significantly increased total PA (53.7 counts/min, 95% CI 8.6 to 104.2; p = 0.04) compared with those in the control condition. No differences were found in body composition and psychosocial variables. However, significant treatment effects were found on BMI z score among boys (-0.1, 95% CI -0.2 to 0; p = 0.04). An eight-week school-based AVG intervention delivered during after-school hours was effective in increasing activity levels among Hong Kong children. The treatment effects of AVGs on sedentary behavior and body composition need to be further demonstrated in a more robust study, especially in boys.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Jogos de Vídeo , Acelerometria , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aptidão Física , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature focusing on the association between sedentary behaviours and physical activity has provided equivocal results and has been dominated by TV viewing as the indicator of sedentary behaviour. There is a need for more studies exploring the association between contemporary screen activities and physical activity among youth. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 742 adolescents was conducted in 2016. Data were collected at school through an online questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to explore the association between different screen-based sedentary behaviours and participation in physical activity. RESULTS: The results showed that those with lower (vs higher) time spent on TV/movie streaming and electronic game playing both on weekdays and weekend days had significantly higher odds of participating in physical activity. There were no significant associations between socializing/surfing online both on weekdays and weekend days and physical activity in adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: TV/movie streaming and electronic game playing during both weekdays and weekend days were significantly inversely related with participating in physical activity. Initiatives aimed at reducing screen-based sedentary activities might result in favourable effects on physical activity levels among adolescents.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo , Jogos de Vídeo
12.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(4): 517-522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is constantly increasing among adolescents since the last few decades becoming an alarming situation worldwide. The objective of this study was to know the determinants of eating habits and physical activities among school-going female adolescents of public sectors schools of Rawalpindi Pakistan. METHODS: A cross sectional study with mixed method with both quantitative and qualitative approach was conducted on three public sector schools of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Sample size of 384 female students of grade 5-10 were interviewed on reliable and validated tool after taking their consent and ethically approval. Moreover, four focus group discussion (FGD) with 30-45 minutes spent on each were conducted by inviting 6-8 participants in each group. Qualitative findings were triangulated with quantitative results. Study was ethically approved from the institutional review board of Health Services Academy Islamabad Pakistan. RESULTS: Females schools' students were included in this study were 384 with mean (SD) age 11.9±1 year. Majority (38%) were of class 7th and their mothers (42%) were educated. Mostly (42%) students were obese (53%) eat the vegetables rarely in their diet. Above half (59%) were those students who eat deep fried potato chips daily. There was a significance difference were seen among normal and obese female students regarding the dietary habits in different class of enrolment (<0.001), mother's education (0.04), intake of sweat confectionary (0.01), intake of meat (0.00), junk food (0.00), use of energy drink (0.03), use of milk (0.02), physical activity (0.00) and play games (0.00). However, intake of vegetables (0.23) and mother's education (0.081) were found insignificant in this study. Majority (88.5%) of students were also playing games in their daily activity. Below half (44%) respondents used to involve in physical activity. Qualitative findings triangulate with quantitative findings and themes were generated like; awareness on healthy diet, eating junk food, dislikes vegetables in diet and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Study concluded the factors including student's age, mother's education, intake of junk food, physical activity and play games are associated with obesity among the female students of government school in urban area of the country.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Obesidade Pediátrica , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ageing population in most low-and middle-income countries is accompanied by an increased risk of non-communicable diseases culminating in a poor quality of life (QOL). However, the factors accelerating this poor QOL have not been fully examined in Nepal. Therefore, this study examined the factors associated with the QOL of older adults residing in the rural setting of Nepal. METHODS: Data from a previous cross-sectional study conducted among older adults between January and April 2018 in in rural Nepal was used in this study. The analytical sample included 794 older adults aged ≥60 years, selected by a multi-stage cluster sampling approach. QOL was measured using the Older People's Quality of Life tool; dichotomized as poor and good QOL. Other measures used included age, gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, physical activity, and chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and depression. The factors associated with QOL were examined using mixed-effects logistic regression. RESULTS: Seven in ten respondents (70.4%) reported a poor QOL. At the bivariate level, increasing age, unemployment, intake of alcohol, lack of physical activity as well as osteoarthritis, COPD and depression were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of a good QOL. The adjusted model showed that older age (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90), the Christian religion (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.20-0.70), and of an Indigenous (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.14-0.47), Dalit (AOR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.10-0.56), and Madheshi (AOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14-0.60) ethnic background were associated with lower odds of good QOL. However, higher income of >NRs 10,000 (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.43-3.99), daily physical activity (AOR: 3.33; 95% CI: 2.55-4.34), and the absence of osteoarthritis (AOR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.09-3.49) and depression (AOR: 3.34; 95% CI: 2.14-5.22) were associated with higher odds of good QOL. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study reinforce the need of improving QOL of older adults through implementing programs aimed at addressing the identified biosocial and disease conditions that catalyse poor QOL in this older population residing in rural parts of Nepal.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmes using motivational interviewing show potential in facilitating lifestyle change, however this has not been well established and explored in individuals at risk of, yet without symptomatic pre-existent cardiovascular disease. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in supporting modifiable risk factor change in individuals at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis with results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-related databases were searched for randomised controlled trials from 1980 to March 2020. Criteria for inclusion included; preventive programmes, motivational interviewing principles, modification of cardiovascular risk factors in adults of both genders, different ethnicities and employment status, and having at least 1 or more modifiable cardiovascular risk factor/s. Two reviewers independently extracted data and conducted a quality appraisal of eligible studies using an adapted Cochrane framework. The Cochrane framework supports to systematically identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets the pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a specific question. FINDINGS: A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. While completeness of intervention reporting was found to be adequate, the application of motivational interviewing was found to be insufficiently reported across all studies (mean overall reporting rate; 68%, 26% respectively). No statistical difference between groups in smoking status and physical activity was reported. A random effects analysis from 4 studies was conducted, this determined a synthesized estimate for standardised mean difference in weight of -2.00kg (95% CI -3.31 to -0.69 kg; p = 0.003), with high statistical heterogeneity. Pooled results from 4 studies determined a mean difference in LDL-c of -0.14mmol/l (5.414mg/dl), which was non-significant. The characteristics of interventions more likely to be effective were identified as: use of a blended approach delivered by a nurse expert in motivational interviewing from an outpatient-clinic. The application of affirmation, compassion and evocation, use of open questions, summarising, listening, supporting and raising ambivalence, combining education and barrier change identification with goal setting are also important intervention characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: While motivational interviewing may support individuals to modify their cardiovascular risk through lifestyle change, the effectiveness of this approach remains uncertain. The strengths and limitations of motivational interviewing need to be further explored through robust studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Colesterol/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify seasonal variation in physical activity that different physical activity measurement tools can capture in children with congenital heart disease. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective cohort study at BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. Daily step counts of children aged 9-16 years with moderate-to-severe CHD were assessed continuously for 1-year via a commercial activity tracker (Fitbit Charge 2™). Physical activity levels were also assessed conventionally at one time-point via accelerometers (ActiGraph) and physical activity questionnaires. RESULTS: 156 children (mean age 12.7±2.4 years; 42% female) participated in the study. Fitbit data (n = 96) over a 1-year period clearly illustrated seasonal peaks (late spring and autumn) and dips (winter and summer school holidays) in physical activity levels, with group mean values being below 12,000 steps per day throughout the year. According to conventional accelerometry data (n = 142), 26% met guidelines, which tended to differ according to season of measurement (spring: 39%, summer: 11%, fall: 20%, winter: 39%; p-value = 0.053). Questionnaire data (n = 134) identified that the most widely reported activities were walking (81%) and running (78%) with walking being the highest in summer and fall and running in winter and spring. Furthermore, regardless of overall activity levels the children exhibit similar seasonal variation. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that physical activity level changes across seasons in children with CHD. It is important to be aware of these fluctuations when assessing and interpreting physical activity levels. Season specific counselling for physical activity may be beneficial in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Clima , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166289

RESUMO

Hamstring injuries remain the most common injury type across many professional sports. Despite a variety of intervention strategies, its incidence in soccer players playing in the UEFA Champions League has increased by 4% per year over the last decade. Test batteries trying to identify potential risk factors have produced inconclusive results. The purpose of the current study was to prospectively record hamstring injuries, to investigate the incidence and characteristics of the injuries, and to identify possible risk factors in elite male soccer players, playing in the Kosovo national premier league. A total of 143 soccer players from 11 teams in Kosovo were recruited. To identify possible prevalent musculoskeletal or medical conditions a widespread health and fitness assessment was performed including isokinetic strength testing, Nordic hamstring strength test, functional tests, and a comprehensive anamnesis surveying previous hamstring injuries. On average 27.9% of the players sustained at least one hamstring injury with three players suffering bilateral strains with the re-injury rate being 23%. Injured players were significantly older and heavier and had a higher body mass index compared to non-injured ones (p < 0.05). There was a lower passing rate in the Nordic hamstring strength test and a higher injury incidence among the previously injured players compared to non-injured ones (p < 0.05). Except for hamstring/quadriceps ratio and relative torque at 60°/sec (p < 0.05) for dominant and non-dominant leg, there were no other significant differences in isokinetic strength regardless of the angular velocity. No differences were observed for functional tests between cohorts. Regression analysis revealed that age, Nordic hamstring strength test, previous injury history, and isokinetic concentric torque at 240°/sec could determine hamstring injuries by 25.9%, with no other significant predicting risk factors. The battery of laboratory and field-based tests performed during preseason to determine performance related skills showed limited diagnostic conclusiveness, making it difficult to detect players at risk for future hamstring injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/patologia , Músculos Isquiossurais/patologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Kosovo , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Torque , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170862

RESUMO

Public health scholarship has increasingly called for the use of system science approaches to understand complex problems, including the use of participatory engagement to inform the modeling process. Some system science traditions, specifically system dynamics modeling, have an established participatory practice tradition. Yet, there remains limited guidance on engagement strategies using other modeling approaches like agent-based models. Our objective is to describe how we engaged adolescent youth in co-building an agent-based model about physical activity. Specifically, we aim to describe how we communicated technical aspects of agent-based models, the participatory activities we developed, and the resulting visual diagrams that were produced. We implemented six sessions with nine adolescent participants. To make technical aspects more accessible, we used an analogy that linked core components of agent-based models to elements of storytelling. We also implemented novel, facilitated activities that engaged youth in the development, annotation, and review of graphs over time, geographical maps, and state charts. The process was well-received by the participants and helped inform the basic structure of an agent-based model. The resulting visual diagrams created space for deeper discussion among participants about patterns of daily activity, important places for physical activity, and interactions between social and built environments. This work lays a foundation to develop and refine engagement strategies, especially for translating qualitative insights into quantitative model specifications such as 'decision rules'.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública/métodos , Análise de Sistemas
18.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1211-1216, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of curfews during the COVID-19 pandemic, on the physical activity in patients of heart failure implanted withcardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center study of heart failure patients inserted with remote monitoring (RM)-capable CIED. We analyzed the transmitted data of physical activity and fluid volume status of all patients, before, and during the lockdown periods between February and April 2020. The clinical status of the patients was also evaluated.  Results: Device data from 429 patients implanted with CIED capable of RM were initially evaluated. Patients with an implantable loop recorder, Brugada or Long QT syndromes, and patients with incomplete transmissions were excluded. Eighty-two patients with heart failure were included. The median age was 65 years (58-72), and 53 (64.6%) subjects were men. There was a 27.1% decline in physical activity, and the median physical activity of patients significantly declined from 2.4 to 1.8 hours/day (p=0.000010).  Conclusion: Data obtained by remotely monitored CIED in heart failure patients suggests a significant decline in physical activity during the country lockdown due to the pandemic. Awareness of the future potential hazards in this group of patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemetria/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Quarentena/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Comportamento Sedentário , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isotemporal substitution evaluates hypothetical time replacement scenarios of physical movement on health, with few studies conducted among ethnically diverse preschool-aged populations. This study examines the reallocation of waking movement behaviors on adiposity, cardiovascular, and quality of life indicators among low-income, majority Hispanic preschool-aged youth (2-5 years) with overweight. METHODS: Participants wore an ActiGraph monitor (waist) and completed adiposity, cardiovascular, and health-related quality of life health assessments. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The isotemporal substitution approach was employed to address study aims. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 131 preschoolers. For boys, reallocating 5 minutes of stationary time with light intensity, moderate to vigorous intensity, or total physical activity showed a relation with beneficial reductions in adiposity indicators; for girls, these relations were statistically null. For boys and girls, reallocating 5 minutes of stationary time [-2.2 (95% CI: -3.7, -0.7) mmHg], light intensity [-2.1 (95% CI: -3.7, -0.7) mmHg], or moderate intensity activity [-2.7 (95% CI: -5.0, -0.4) mmHg] to vigorous intensity activity was related to favorable systolic blood pressure. Reallocating 5 minutes of stationary time to moderate to vigorous intensity activity [0.6 (95% CI: -1.0, -0.1) mmHg] or total physical activity [-0.2 (95% CI: -0.3, -0.01) mmHg] was related to lowered systolic blood pressure. Reallocating 5 minutes of stationary time to moderate to vigorous intensity activity [0.6 (95% CI: -1.1, -0.02) bpm] was related to lowered resting heart rate. No significant results for quality of life were found. CONCLUSION: Reallocation of time from stationary time to other movement behaviors is associated with several favorable adiposity and cardiovascular health outcomes among preschool children with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Acelerometria , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Pré-Escolar , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186393

RESUMO

Sprint-interval training (SIT) is efficient at improving maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic fitness at sea-level and may be a feasible training strategy at altitude. Here, it was evaluated if SIT intensity can be maintained in mild to moderate hypoxia. It was hypothesized that 6 x 30 s Wingate sprint performance with 2 min active rest between sprints can be performed in hypoxic conditions corresponding to ~3,000 m of altitude without reducing mean power output (MPO). In a single-blinded, randomized crossover design, ten highly-trained male endurance athletes with a maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max) of 68 ± 5 mL O2 × min-1 × kg-1 completed 6 x 30 s all-out Wingate cycling sprints separated by two-minute active recovery on four separate days in a hypobaric chamber. The ambient pressure within the chamber on each experimental day was 772 mmHg (~0 m), 679 mmHg (~915 m), 585 mmHg (~ 2,150 m), and 522 mmHg (~3,050 m), respectively. MPO was not different at sea-level and up to ~2,150 m (~1% and ~3% non-significant decrements at ~915 and ~2,150 m, respectively), whereas MPO was ~5% lower (P<0.05) at ~3,050 m. Temporal differences between altitudes was not different for peak power output (PPO), despite a main effect of altitude. In conclusion, repeated Wingate exercise can be completed by highly-trained athletes at altitudes up to ~2,150 m without compromising MPO or PPO. In contrast, MPO was compromised in hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to ~3,050 m. Thus, SIT may be an efficient strategy for athletes sojourning to moderate altitude and aiming to maintain training quality.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto , Altitude , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Corrida/fisiologia
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