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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2411-2421, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520286

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of an opinion poll conducted in Brazil on the perception of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms, disseminated through social networks, with questions about the socioeconomic profile and factors associated with isolation. A non-probabilistic sample was obtained with 16,440 respondents. Data were analyzed using the Stata 13 software. Social interaction was the most affected aspect among people with higher education and income (45.8%), and financial problems caused a more significant impact (35%) among people with low income and education. Those who practice some physical activity showed lower levels of stress 13%, as well as greater normality in sleep 50.3%. People who reported living in worse habitability conditions reported willingness to remain isolated for less time, 73.9%. Among non-isolated people (10.7% of the total sample), 75.8% believe that social isolation will reduce the number of victims of COVID-19. We conclude, based on this sample, that the perception about social isolation as a pandemic mitigation action varies by income, education, age, and gender. However, most believe that it is the most appropriate control measure and are willing to wait as long as necessary to contribute to the fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527993

RESUMO

This coronavirus pandemic has placed unprecedented restrictions on people's physical activity and routines. Prolonged home stays may lead to fear, panic, anxiety, and depression states, which in turn, can drive to a reduction of active lifestyles. Hence, determining the psychological response in the general population, and the influence level of home-based physical activity development could be relevant during this exceptional Covid-19 disease quarantine period. A multicenter, cross-sectional, and observational study design will be conducted in 12 Iberoamerican countries expecting to enroll 3,096 participants, through a snowball sampling technique. The study started on March 15th, 2020, and it is expected to be completed in August 2020 through online survey that will include demographic data, health status, psychological impact of the Covid-19 outbreak, mental health status, and level of physical activity. This study will be conducted following the principles established by the protocol, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research. Data from the study will be disseminated in manuscripts for submission to peer-reviewed journals as well as in abstracts for submission to relevant conferences. Trial registration number: NCT04352517, pre-results.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20427, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481443

RESUMO

To describe social support, self-efficacy, and exercise adherence and to measure the correlations among these factors in postoperative breast cancer patients in Southwest China.Social support, self-efficacy, and exercise adherence are interacting factors that contribute to physical and mental health and quality of life. Little is known about the status of these factors in Southwest China, and little research has explored the relationships among them.Using a stratified sampling method, we selected patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy in 20 secondary and tertiary comprehensive hospitals in Southwest China. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Questionnaires were given to 632 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (from August 2018 to February 2019). The questionnaire included the following 4 sections: general information, perceived social support scale, strategies used by people to promote health, and postoperative functional exercise adherence scale. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the hypothesized relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and exercise adherence.The level of social support of postoperative patients with breast cancer in Southwest China was high (63.43 ±â€Š9.25); however, levels of self-efficacy (95.00 ±â€Š18.81) and exercise adherence (49.07 ±â€Š10.57) were moderate. Higher social support correlated with higher exercise adherence (r = 0.526, P < .01). Higher self-efficacy was also correlated with higher exercise adherence (r = 0.427, P < .01). In-home support, out-of-home support, and self-efficacy had direct positive effects on exercise adherence (ß = 0.37, P < .01; ß = 0.23, P < .01; and ß = 0.32, P < .01, respectively); in-home support indirectly affected exercise adherence through self-efficacy (ß = 0.58, P < .01).Social support and self-efficacy correlated highly with exercise adherence. It is recommended that attention be paid to the development of self-efficacy and social support during postoperative rehabilitation to improve the exercise adherence of postoperative breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585830

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in physical isolation measures in many parts of the world. In Australia, nationwide restrictions included staying at home, unless seeking medical care, providing care, purchasing food, undertaking exercise, or attending work in an essential service. All undergraduate university classes transitioned to online, mostly home-based learning. We, therefore, examined the effect of isolation measures during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia (March/April) on diet (24-h recall) and physical activity (Active Australia Survey) patterns in third-year biomedical students. Findings were compared with students enrolled in the same course in the previous two years. In females, but not males, energy intake was ~20% greater during the pandemic, and snacking frequency and energy density of consumed snacks also increased compared with 2018 and 2019. Physical activity was impacted for both sexes during the pandemic with ~30% fewer students achieving "sufficient" levels of activity, defined by at least 150 min over at least five sessions, compared with the previous two years. In a follow-up study six to eight weeks later (14-18% response rate), during gradual easing of nationwide restrictions albeit continued gym closures and online learning, higher energy intake in females and reduced physical activity levels in both sexes persisted. These data demonstrate the health impacts of isolation measures, with the potential to affect long-term diet and activity behaviours.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486380

RESUMO

A global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) resulted in restrictions to daily living for Canadians, including social distancing and closure of city and provincial recreation facilities, national parks and playgrounds. The objective of this study was to assess how these preemptive measures impacted physical activity behaviour and well-being of Canadians. An online survey was utilized to measure participant physical activity behavior, nature exposure, well-being and anxiety levels. Results indicate that while 40.5% of inactive individuals became less active, only 22.4% of active individuals became less active. Comparatively, 33% of inactive individuals became more active while 40.3% of active individuals became more active. There were significant differences in well-being outcomes in the inactive population between those who were more active, the same or less active (p < 0.001) but this was not seen in the active population. Inactive participants who spent more time engaged in outdoor physical activity had lower anxiety than those who spent less time in outdoor physical activity. Public health measures differentially affected Canadians who were active and inactive and physical activity was strongly associated with well-being outcomes in inactive individuals. This suggests that health promoting measures directed towards inactive individuals may be essential to improving well-being.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010423, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426123

RESUMO

Background: To describe and compare the separate and combined prevalence of physical activity, active transportation, physical education, and sedentary behavior among adolescents 12-15 year-olds in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We used the latest data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), which collect data on the physical behaviors of young adolescents in LMICs. The weighted prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of separate, combined and all of the qualifying physical behaviors were calculated. Pooled overall and regional estimates were calculated using a random effects model. Results: In total, 154 559 young adolescents (45.90% boys) aged 12-15 from 54 countries covered in the GSHS were included in our analysis. Only 0.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5%-1.0%) of the adolescents, comprising 0.9% (95% CI = 0.6%-1.3%) of the boys and 0.5% (95% CI = 0.3%-0.7%) of the girls, displayed all of the qualifying physical behaviors. The overall prevalence of physical activity, active transportation, physical education, and sedentary behavior was 15.2% (95% CI = 13.7%-16.7%), 39.5% (95% CI = 34.9%-44.0%), 18.8% (95% CI = 16.1%-21.5%), and 34.6% (95% CI = 28.4%-40.7%), respectively. The overall prevalence of high levels of combined physical behaviors was 6.6% (95% CI = 5.4%-7.8%), with lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.5%-6.2%) and highest in Southeast Asia (8.6%, 95% CI = 4.9%-12.3%). Conclusion: The prevalence of the separate physical behaviors and high levels of the combined physical behaviors was consistently low among young adolescents in LMICs, and that of all qualifying physical behaviors was even lower.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5268, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428066

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with a motivational approach on exercise capacity and usual physical activity levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with single blinding of subjects. Adolescents aged 15 to 18 years with overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile) were included. The adolescents were randomized into two groups: interdisciplinary intervention or control - traditional approach aiming at lifestyle modifications. The initial evaluations were carried out, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the physical activity level measurement by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a pedometer. The evaluations were performed in two moments: time zero (time of inclusion in the study) and after 3 months (end of intervention). There were 12 sessions with weekly meetings. Results A total of 37 participants were included, 19 in the Intervention Group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, anthropometric and physical activity characteristics between groups, with mean age of 17.3±1.0 years in the Control Group, and 16.8±0.9 years in the Intervention Group (p=0.14). The motivational intervention did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in the comparison of the variables of exercise capacity and usual physical activity (questionnaire and pedometer) between groups. Conclusion The intervention with a motivational approach did not alter exercise capacity and levels of usual physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(6): 852-855, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371988

RESUMO

COVID-19 is causing a global pandemic with a high number of deaths and infected people. To contain the diffusion of COVID-19 virus, Governments have enforced restrictions on outdoor activities or even collective quarantine on the population. One important consequence of quarantine is a change in lifestyle: reduced physical activity and unhealthy diet. 2019 guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease indicate that "Adults should engage in at least 150 minute per week of accumulated moderate-intensity or 75 minute per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity (or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous activity) to reduce ASCVD risk." During quarantine, strategies to further increase home-based physical activity and to follow a healthy diet should be implemented. Quarantine carries some long-term effects on cardiovascular disease, mainly related to unhealthy lifestyle and anxiety. Following quarantine a global action supporting healthy diet and physical activity is mandatory to encourage people to return to good lifestyle.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic lung cancer can have severe cancer-related symptoms and treatment-induced side effects. Exercise is beneficial for patients with metastatic lung cancer; however, little information is available on guiding patients how to perform exercise during hospitalization. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand exercise experiences in patients with metastatic lung cancer. METHODS: Patients with metastatic lung cancer (n = 24) participated in face-to-face in-depth interviews at an inpatient ward of a medical center in central Taiwan. Interview transcripts were evaluated using narrative analysis to extract and validate themes. RESULTS: Three primary themes were identified: (1) modifying exercise to maximize physical functions; (2) living with symptoms and frustration, but still exercising; and (3) doing exercise to sustain hopes, inner power, and life. Secondary findings included: (1) adopting walking as their main form of exercise because of its convenience; and (2) among patients with severe symptoms, adjusting exercise towards shorter time durations and shorter distances, slower speeds, and higher frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: The study found physically active lung cancer patients, although with metastatic condition, adjusted their exercise activities to balance disease and treatment-induced deteriorations and boost themselves to feel hope and fight for cancer. However, the results may not be applicable to physically inactive patients. Future research to explore experiences from those with even worse physical conditions and further helping them to take some mild exercise to enhance the positive side of cancer experiences are suggested.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia
10.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(2): 33-44, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Middle-aged and older individuals suffer from skeletal muscle loss due to aging, increasing the risk of sarcopenia. Muscular dystrophy reduces lower-extremity muscle endurance. The annual incidence of falls in the community is about 30-40%. Falls contribute to disability and fractures, affect quality of life, reduce mental health, and, in severe cases, result in death. Therefore, preventing lower limb muscle weakness in middle-aged and older individuals should be taken seriously. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to promote community health with a focus on older, community-dwelling individuals. The effects of a lower-extremity exercise intervention on middle-aged and older individuals in terms of improving functional fitness, physiological indexes, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and mental health were explored. METHODS: This study used convenience sampling to recruit community residents over 55 years old as participants, with 50 participants assigned to the control group and to the experimental group, respectively. The experimental group participated in a 50-min lower extremity exercise intervention three times a week for 12 weeks. Differences in functional fitness, basic physiological index, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and mental health variables between the two groups were assessed at the conclusion of the intervention. RESULTS: The lower-extremity muscle exercise program significantly improved functional fitness, physiological indexes, exercise self-efficacy, sleep quality, and overall mental health status in the experimental group, as compared to the control group (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: It is recommended that the concept and application of lower extremity movement intervention should be popularized among middle-aged and older individuals to promote physical and mental health, prevent the decline and loss of lower extremity muscle strength, and help realize healthy aging goals.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Vida Independente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoeficácia , Sono/fisiologia
11.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(5): jrm00056, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between, and impact of, level of physical activity and perceived impact on life at 12 months post-stroke. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: A total of 73 participants with first-time stroke included in the Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg (SALGOT study), Sweden. METHODS: Perceived impact of stroke was assessed with the Stroke Impact Scale and level of physical activity was assessed with the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Scale at 12 months post-stroke. Data were presented with descriptive and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The physically active group perceived their strength, emotion, mobility, participation and overall stroke recovery as significantly less problematic compared with the inactive group. Being physically active contributed to higher scores in the Strength domain (odds ratio, OR 7.89) and in the Stroke Recovery domain (OR 18.55). In the Participation domain being physically active (OR 8.01) and independent (OR 0.162) contributed to higher scores. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation was found between level of physical activity at 12 months post-stroke and levels of strength, participation and stroke recovery.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(687): 573-577, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216179

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease that requires a complex treatment. Establishing a balanced diet and regular physical activity is not always simple, especially in the long term. There are multiple factors (biological and psychological) favoring weight gain, often limiting the effectiveness of lifestyle approaches. Pharmacology offers us another therapeutic option with new molecules effective for weight loss. Bariatric surgery is also effective, but it is not without risks, especially if the patients have not been adequately prepared for this procedure. Furthermore, these approaches should always be proposed as complementary to lifestyle changes. This article summarizes the different treatments for obesity and highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary management and proper patient education.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Obesidade/psicologia , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores the links between measures of motivation based on Self-Determination Theory, and physical activity (PA) indicators assessed with accelerometers during physical education lessons. METHODS: Questionnaires about motivation and psychological needs on the context of physical education were completed by 319 middle high school students, up to 5 times within a 2-year period; they were equipped with an accelerometer and videotaped during a physical education lesson. PA-related indicators were computed considering the entire duration of the lessons (strategy 1), but also retaining only active times during the lesson (strategy 2). RESULTS: When the first strategy was used very few correlations emerged between motivation constructs and PA-related indicators. On the other hand, the second strategy was more effective to detect the link between motivation and students activity during class-time, in particular with sedentary time, moderate and vigorous PA. CONCLUSIONS: This study shed light on the importance of considering how the sequences of PA sessions should be coded, in order to link psychological phenomena with PA levels, as well as to provide a meaningful support for motivational hypotheses.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento
14.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(3): 271-277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors of mental health professionals about physical activity and exercise for people with mental illness. METHODS: The Portuguese version of The Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and behaviors about exercise prescription for people with mental illness in a sample of 73 mental health professionals (68.5% women, mean age = 37.0 years) from 10 Psychosocial Care Units (Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) in Porto Alegre and Canoas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Most of respondents had received no formal training in exercise prescription. Exercise ranked fifth as the most important treatment, and most of the sample never or occasionally prescribed exercise. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of training in physical activity and exercise prescription and social stigma related to mental illness. Professionals who themselves met recommended physical activity levels found fewer barriers to prescribing physical activity and did so with greater frequency. CONCLUSION: Exercise is underrated and underused as a treatment. It is necessary to include physical activity and exercise training in mental health curricula. Physically active professionals are more likely to prescribe exercise and are less likely to encounter barriers to doing so. Interventions to increase physical activity levels among mental health professionals are necessary to decrease barriers to and increase the prescription of physical activity and exercise for mental health patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
South Med J ; 113(3): 104-110, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Personal health behavior can influence the academic development of healthcare students. This study was designed to evaluate the personal health behavior, including sleep time, of healthcare students at a large health sciences center. METHODS: An anonymous online survey based on standardized questionnaires about sleep, insomnia, depression, alcohol use, and exercise was sent to all of the healthcare students (including medical, nursing, pharmacy, graduate biomedical science, and allied health students) in the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center graduate education programs in Lubbock. RESULTS: In total, 412 students replied to this survey. Their mean sleep duration during the weekday was 7.5 ± 1.2 hours; 16.5% were short sleepers (<7 hours) during weekdays; 33% of the students woke up "feeling tired or worn out" >15 days during the last month. Many students were either moderately or severely bothered by "the lack of energy" because of poor sleep, and 56.6% of students rated their sleep as either fair or poor. Approximately 35% of students had drinking patterns that qualified as hazardous drinking, 6.3% of students smoked, and 23% of students did not do even mild exercise during the week. Eighty-nine percent of students reported stress in their life, including family stress, job stress, financial stress, legal stress, and other stress. Thirty-five percent of students considered their health as either poor or fair. Approximately 50% of students did not expect any change in their situation during the next 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although most healthcare students report adequate sleep times, more than half of them rate their sleep as fair or poor. In addition, some have poor health habits, including excessive alcohol use. Health science centers should introduce programs to promote healthy behaviors and reduce stress in healthcare students.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(8): 953-960, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156187

RESUMO

Whether the acute coordinative exercise could affect the inhibitory control and food-cue related attention in obese adolescents remains understudied. Therefore, this study used the Stroop test and the food-cue related Stroop test to explore the impacts of 20 min of acute coordinative exercise on the cognitive tests involving inhibitory control and attentional bias towards food-cue related stimuli, respectively, in obese adolescents. Thirty-eight obese adolescents (mean age = 14.63 ± 0.69 years) were equally divided into exercise and control groups. The cognitive tests (i.e., the Stroop test and the food-cue related Stroop test) and hunger scores were conducted and assessed before and after an intervention. The exercise group had significantly larger negative pre-post response time difference in the congruent (-1.04 ± 0.29 ms) and incongruent (-5.76 ± 1.66 ms) conditions of the Stroop test than the control group (ps < 0.01), and a smaller post-interference (1.13 ± 0.14) than the pre-interference (1.31 ± 0.14, p = 0.04). Moreover, a significantly larger negative pre-post response time difference on the food-cue related Stroop test was observed in the exercise group (-4.42 ± 7.20 ms) than the control group (1.76 ± 8.37 ms, p = 0.02). Collectively, an acute coordinative exercise session could induce superior inhibitory control and less attentional bias towards food-cue related stimuli in obese adolescents.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia) , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Alimentos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino , Teste de Stroop
17.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 61-74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021134

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study investigates behavioral conformity regarding physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older couples where one partner suffers from osteoarthritis (OA). Hereby the question is addressed whether and to what extent the typical physical limitations of OA patients have negative effects on their partners. Patients and Methods: The habitual PA and SB of end-stage osteoarthritis patients (n = 32, 52-81 years | n = 14 gonarthrosis, n = 18 coxarthrosis), their spouses (n = 32, 50-83 years) and control couples (n = 26 subjects, 52-78 years) were assessed by accelerometry. Besides individual results of accelerometry hourly couple-specific performance ratios were calculated for four parameters of PA (number of steps, vector magnitude (VM), metabolic rate (MET), and total time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)) and two parameters of SB (number of sedentary bouts and total time of sedentary bouts per hour). Analyses of covariance were used to explore differences in hourly couple-specific performance ratios between couples affected by osteoarthritis and control couples. Results: Significant differences in PA were observed between the three groups, whereby the patients showed the lowest PA and the subjects of the control group the highest PA. In contrast to this, SB did not differ between the three groups. The hourly analyses of couple-specific performance ratios revealed significant differences between the target couples (patients and spouses) and the control couples for all parameters of PA. Thereby, the deviance in PA between the patients and their spouses was always smaller than in control couples and also decreased with age. The investigation of SB, on the other hand, revealed larger deviations between the patients and their spouses as compared to control couples and no changes with age. Conclusion: This study confirmed the known negative impact of osteoarthritis on the PA and SB of elderly patients. More important, however, was the finding that the patients' spouses adapt to this poor health behavior and show reduced PA as well. Consequentially, spouses of OA patients should be considered as a risk group for inactivity-related diseases in old age. This should be considered in interventions that aim to use the individual support of spouses to increase the PA of OA patients.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Osteoartrite , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Cônjuges/psicologia
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(5): 309-315, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of longitudinal population-based studies examining whether changes in work factors are associated with concurrent changes in leisure time physical activity (LTPA). This study examines this issue using 12 years of longitudinal survey data. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. The initial analytical sample in 1994 of 6407 working individuals was followed every 2 years from 2000 to 2010. Seven work factors were measured as independent variables: skill discretion, decision authority, psychological demands, physical exertion, number of jobs, hours at work and shift schedule. LTPA was categorised as inactive, moderately active or active based on metabolic equivalent task values. Fixed-effects multinomial logistic models were used to examine associations between work factors and LTPA controlling for time-invariant effects and adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Workers with lower skill discretion (OR=0.96; 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99), higher psychological demands (OR=0.95; 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99), higher physical exertion (OR=0.93; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99) and longer work hours (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.95 to 098) were associated with a lower odds of transitioning from inactive to active and moderately active. There was no evidence of effect modification by age or sex. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that as participants' skill discretion decreased, and their physical and psychological demands, and work hours increased, their likelihood of becoming more active and moderately active also decreased, supporting the value of targeting improvements in these work factors for physical activity interventions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 262-271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors is essential to reduce the prevalence adolescent depression. Self-report data suggest that physical activity and sedentary behaviour might be associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. We examined associations between depressive symptoms and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescents. METHODS: From a population-based cohort of adolescents whose mothers were invited to participate in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study, we included participants with at least one accelerometer recording and a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) depression score at age 17·8 years (reported as age 18 years hereafter). Amounts of time spent in sedentary behaviour and physical activity (light or moderate-to-vigorous) were measured with accelerometers at around 12 years, 14 years, and 16 years of age. Total physical activity was also recorded as count per minute (CPM), with raw accelerometer counts averaged over 60 s epochs. Associations between the physical activity and sedentary behaviour variables and depression (CIS-R) scores at age 18 years were analysed with regression and group-based trajectory modelling. FINDINGS: 4257 adolescents from the 14 901 enrolled in the ALSPAC study had a CIS-R depression score at age 18 years. Longitudinal analyses included 2486 participants at age 12 years, 1938 at age 14 years, and 1220 at age 16 years. Total follow-up time was 6 years. Total physical activity decreased between 12 years and 16 years of age, driven by decreasing durations of light activity (mean 325·66 min/day [SD 58·09] at 12 years; 244·94 min/day [55·08] at 16 years) and increasing sedentary behaviour (430·99 min/day [65·80]; 523·02 min/day [65·25]). Higher depression scores at 18 years were associated with a 60 min/day increase in sedentary behaviour at 12 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1·111 [95% CI 1·051-1·176]), 14 years (1·080 [1·012-1·152]), and 16 years of age (1·107 [1·015-1·208]). Depression scores at 18 years were lower for every additional 60 min/day of light activity at 12 years (0·904 [0·850-0·961]), 14 years (0·922 [0·857-0·992]), and 16 years of age (0·889 [0·809-0·974]). Group-based trajectory modelling across 12-16 years of age identified three latent subgroups of sedentary behaviour and activity levels. Depression scores were higher in those with persistently high (IRR 1·282 [95% CI 1·061-1·548]) and persistently average (1·249 [1·078-1·446]) sedentary behaviour compared with those with persistently low sedentary behaviour, and were lower in those with persistently high levels of light activity (0·804 [0·652-0·990]) compared with those with persistently low levels of light activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (per 15 min/day increase) at age 12 years (0·910 [0·857-0·966]) and total physical activity (per 100 CPM increase) at ages 12 years (0·941 [0·910-0·972]) and 14 years (0·965 [0·932-0·999]), were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Sedentary behaviour displaces light activity throughout adolescence, and is associated with a greater risk of depressive symptoms at 18 years of age. Increasing light activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour during adolescence could be an important target for public health interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of depression. FUNDING: Details of funding are provided in the Acknowledgments.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Depressão , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Correlação de Dados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Psiquiatria Preventiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
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