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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23876, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on cognition function in people with schizophrenia (SZ) during daily nursing. METHODS: The literature search will be conducted via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be adopted to calculate the association between AE and cognitive function in patients with SZ. Publication bias will be performed by Begg test. When there is publication bias, "cut-and-fill method" will be adopted to adjust publication bias. Sensitivity analysis will be used to test the stability of the result. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%), meta regression will be used to explore the source of inter-study heterogeneity. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%) and the results are statistically significant (P < .05), age, sex, duration of disease, duration of intervention, amount of exercise per week, improvement of cardiopulmonary health, and other factors will be sub-analyzed. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis will evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in patients with SZ during daily nursing on the basis of existing evidence. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/C8ABX.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Correlação de Dados , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lockdown measures have a profound effect on many aspects of daily life relevant for diabetes self-management. We assessed whether lockdown measures, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, differentially affect perceived stress, body weight, exercise and related this to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a short-term observational cohort study at the Leiden University Medical Center. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes ≥18 years were eligible to participate. Participants filled out online questionnaires, sent in blood for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis and shared data of their flash or continuous glucose sensors. HbA1c during the lockdown was compared with the last known HbA1c before the lockdown. RESULTS: In total, 435 people were included (type 1 diabetes n=280, type 2 diabetes n=155). An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise was observed in both groups. There was improvement in glycemic control in the group with the highest HbA1c tertile (type 1 diabetes: -0.39% (-4.3 mmol/mol) (p<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes: -0.62% (-6.8 mmol/mol) (p=0.0036). Perceived stress was associated with difficulty with glycemic control (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise but no deterioration of glycemic control occurs in both people with relatively well-controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes during short-term lockdown measures. As perceived stress showed to be associated with glycemic control, this provides opportunities for healthcare professionals to put more emphasis on psychological aspects during diabetes care consultations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Automonitorização da Glicemia/tendências , /psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , /tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMO

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Lanches , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Adolesc Health ; 68(1): 35-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 quarantine periods and may be at risk for developing psychological distress symptoms that extend beyond a crisis, including depression. This study examined adolescents' postquarantine depressive symptoms associated with pandemic stressors. The primary aim was to identify potential protective factors that may buffer the association between the presence of COVID-19 cases in adolescents' communities and their postquarantine depressive symptoms. METHODS: Adolescents from public schools were recruited from Zhengzhou city, Henan, China (N = 1,487, Mage=13.14 years, 50% girls). Adolescents reported the presence of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases in their communities, their daily activities and routines during the 2-month quarantine period, and depressive symptoms after the quarantine period. RESULTS: The presence of cases in adolescents' communities during the quarantine contributed to more depressive symptoms in adolescents after the quarantine. This association was buffered by adolescents' spending more time on physical activities and better maintenance of daily living routines during the quarantine period. The presence of community infection was also more strongly associated with depressive symptoms in older adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of COVID-19 cases in communities contributed to adolescents' poorer mental health, and the association was stronger for older adolescents. Spending time on physical activities and maintaining daily living routines during the quarantine appear to be practical strategies that can be used by adolescents to mitigate the association between pandemic stressors and their diminishing mental health.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 289-300, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate lifestyle in a population-based sample of long-term (≥ 5 years since diagnosis) young adult cancer survivors (YACSs), and explore factors associated with not meeting the lifestyle guidelines for physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and smoking. METHODS: YACSs (n = 3558) diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), colorectal cancer (CRC), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or localized malignant melanoma (MM) between the ages of 19 and 39 years and treated between 1985 and 2009 were invited to complete a mailed questionnaire. Survivors of localized MM treated with limited skin surgery served as a reference group for treatment burden. RESULTS: In total, 1488 YACSs responded (42%), and 1056 YACSs were evaluable and included in the present study (74% females, average age at survey 49 years, average 15 years since diagnosis). Forty-four percent did not meet PA guidelines, 50% reported BMI ≥ 25 and 20% smoked, with no statistically significant differences across diagnostic groups. Male gender, education ≤ 13 years, comorbidity, lymphedema, pain, chronic fatigue, and depressive symptoms were associated with not meeting single and/or an increasing number of lifestyle guidelines. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of long-term YACSs do not meet the lifestyle guidelines for PA, BMI, and/or smoking. Non-adherence to guidelines is associated with several late effects and/or comorbidities that should be considered when designing lifestyle interventions for YACSs.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 145-154, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Existing research indicates that physical activity (PA) is beneficial to men with prostate cancer (PCa). We examined the potential of a single-contact peer-support-based behavioural intervention to promote PA engagement in men treated for PCa. METHODS: A mixed methods design was employed, comprising a two-arm pragmatic trial and semi-structured interviews. The intervention was a 10-min PA-based presentation by a former patient, delivered in group seminars that are provided for patients as standard care. Seminars were alternately allocated to (a) cancer exercise specialist talk + patient speaker talk or (b) cancer exercise specialist talk only. Self-reported PA, exercise motivation, quality of life, fatigue and clinical and demographic characteristics were obtained from n = 148 (intervention: n = 69; control: n = 79) patients immediately prior to the seminar, and at follow-up ≈ 100 days later. Data were analysed using ANCOVA models and χ2 tests. Fourteen semi-structured interviews with intervention participants, which explored how the intervention was experienced, were analysed using a grounded theory-style approach. RESULTS: The intervention had no significant effect on quantitatively self-reported PA (p = 0.4). However, the intervention was statistically and clinically beneficial for fatigue (p = 0.04) and quality of life (p = 0.01). Qualitative analysis showed that the intervention was beneficial to psychological wellbeing and some participants had increased intention to engage in PA as a result of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: A brief one-off PA-based presentation for men with PCa, delivered by a former patient alongside cancer exercise specialist advice, may result in clinically significant benefits to quality of life and may influence PA intention in certain individuals.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prostatectomia/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Fadiga/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato
8.
Maturitas ; 144: 4-10, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of confinement due to the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resilience in peri- and postmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used an online questionnaire which was sent between April 30th and May 13th, 2020 to women aged 40-70 years who were peri- or postmenopausal according to STRAW criteria. We used the 16-item Cervantes short-form scale (Cervantes-SF) to measure HRQoL, and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) to measure resilience. High scores on the Cervantes-SF indicate low HRQoL and high scores on the RS-14 indicate high levels of resilience. Covid-19 status, sociodemographic descriptors, and lifestyle variables were also evaluated. RESULTS: We included 2430 peri- and postmenopausal women with valid questionnaires. All items of the Cervantes-SF were completed in 2151 cases, whilst the RS-14 was completed in 2413 cases. There was a negative correlation between scores on the Cervantes-SF and RS-14 scales (Rho -0.350; p < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between Cervantes-SF scores and living with others (ß-coefficient -10.2; p < 0.001), use of antidepressants (ß 9.3; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß -8.6; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß -2.7; p < 0.001). Resilience was associated with the use of antidepressants (ß -5.9; p < 0.001), physical activity (ß 3.2; p < 0.001) and sexual activity (ß 1.7; p = 0.005). According to the multivariate analysis, there were no associations between either Covid-19 or menopausal status and HRQoL or resilience scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the period of mandatory Covid-19 confinement, peri- and postmenopausal women who engaged in physical and sexual activity had higher HRQoL and higher levels of resilience, whilst women who were using antidepressants had lower HRQoL and lower levels of resilience. HRQoL was greater in women who lived with others.


Assuntos
Perimenopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 35-48, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to examine the evidence on adventure therapy (AT) intervention for child, adolescent, and young adult (AYA) cancer patients in order to inform the design of future research and clinical practice. METHODS: This review included studies that tested the AT intervention among child and AYA cancer patients. Nine electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBase, Medline via EbscoHost, OpenGrey, PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were searched for English-language published studies using a quasi-experimental design, one-group pre-test-post-test experimental study design, or randomized controlled trial (RCT) from 1981 to May 2020. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists for RCTs and for Quasi-Experimental Studies by two researchers independently. A narrative synthesis of intervention characteristics and related health-related outcomes was performed. RESULTS: Eight papers from seven studies were included in the review, namely four RCTs, two quasi-experimental study papers, and two one-group pre-test-post-test experimental study papers. Studies varied in the components and duration of AT. Medium to high methodological quality of included studies was noted in all study designs. Results showed the positive effects of AT on the physical activity, fatigue, psychological distress, and quality of life of child and AYA cancer patients. CONCLUSION: AT is a promising intervention that may improve a number of health-related outcomes in child and AYA cancer patients. Evidence-based AT interventions should be developed and incorporated as part of supportive care for the target population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Fadiga , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 52(1): 41-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222983

RESUMO

The growing epidemic of physician burnout suggests that a change is needed. Physician wellness is an ever-growing consideration, especially in orthopedic surgery, where the challenges to wellness are significant. This review provides many common sense wellness principles and solutions in four main components of wellness (physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual) interwoven with current research on the topic. Although directed to orthopedic surgeons, this guide can be applied to all physicians, because they are based on common human principles of wellness. Wellness is not created overnight, so wellness practices that increase the likelihood of experiencing wellness are encouraged.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Dieta Saudável , Emoções , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Meditação , Atenção Plena , Cultura Organizacional , Grupo Associado , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoimagem , Sono , Apoio Social , Navegação Espacial , Espiritualismo , Estresse Psicológico
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23431, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285736

RESUMO

The benefits of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy are widely reported; however, PA practice is seemingly not a valued habit among pregnant women attending public antenatal health centres in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Guided by the ecological model, we sought to explore modifiable barriers to PA among pregnant women.Semi-structured interviews involved a purposive sample of 15 pregnant women. Interview questions were guided by the ecological model constructs at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental level. Thematic analysis was applied to summarise the modifiable barriers to PA during pregnancy.Three main themes emerged, based on the modifiable barriers to PA during pregnancy that belong to the varying Ecological Model constructs. On the intrapersonal level, 5 themes emerged, namely, time-constraint beliefs, feeling of tiredness, low energy, lack of motivation, and a lack of knowledge on benefits and types of PA. Two themes emerged for the interpersonal level, lack of PA advice and lack of information on PA recommendations and guidelines. Another theme defined the environmental level lacking resources. Most themes related to individual factors, which prevent PA-promoting behaviour.Overall, intrapersonal factors relating to tiredness and exhaustion, lack of time beliefs, work and household commitments, and lack of motivation were key modifiable barriers to PA by the women. The findings provide insights into possible interventional strategies to optimise PA during pregnancy among women in this setting. Appropriate knowledge, education and advice on the benefits, types, and intensity of PA in pregnancy are needed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Motivação , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 8375096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354578

RESUMO

Recently, the novel coronavirus epidemic occurred in China and spread worldwide to become a global pandemic. COVID-19 is a fatal viral infection causing death, particularly in aged individuals, due to impaired immunity. To date, no intervention is available to prevent COVID-19 and its manifestations. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits, and it assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Therefore, this review is aimed at exploring the role of physical exercise training in the face of COVID-19 in older adults and elderly individuals. From this point of view, this review suggests that physical exercise training plays a key role in promoting immune system regulation, delaying immunity dysfunction, reducing circulatory inflammation markers, and preventing sarcopenia and thus could prevent the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection and reduce the complications of recommended self-isolation in older adults and elderly individuals. Additionally, immunity biomarkers were optimistically demonstrated in older adults following physical exercise training, thereby reducing mortality and morbidity rates. Finally, in accordance with recommendations to stay home and perform self-isolation to prevent the spread of COVID-19, all populations are strongly recommended to practice regular home exercise training at home to promote immune system functioning.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Isolamento de Pacientes , Carência Psicossocial , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected physical and mental health worldwide. Pregnant women already exhibit an elevated risk for depression compared to the general public, a pattern expected to be exacerbated by the pandemic. Certain lifestyle factors, including moderate exercise, may help support mental health during pregnancy, but it is unclear how the pandemic may impact these associations across different locations. Here, we test whether: (i) reported exercise routine alterations during the pandemic are associated with depression scores; and, (ii) the likelihood of reporting pandemic-related exercise changes varies between women living in metro areas and those in non-metro areas. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the COVID-19 And Reproductive Effects (CARE) study, an online survey of pregnant women in the United States. Participants were recruited April-June 2020 (n = 1,856). Linear regression analyses assessed whether reported COVID-19-related exercise change was associated with depression score as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Survey. Logistic regression analyses tested whether a participant's Rural-Urban Continuum Code classification of "metro" was linked with higher odds of reporting exercise changes compared to a "non-metro" classification. RESULTS: Women who reported exercise changes during the pandemic exhibited significantly higher depression scores compared to those reporting no changes. Moreover, individuals living in metro areas of all sizes were significantly more likely to report exercise changes compared to women living in non-metro areas. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the ability to maintain an exercise routine during the pandemic may help support maternal mental health. It may therefore be prudent for providers to explicitly ask patients how the pandemic has impacted their exercise routines and consider altered exercise routines a potential risk factor for depression. An effort should also be made to recommend exercises that are tailored to individual space restrictions and physical health.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e25117, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Location-based augmented reality (AR) games, such as Pokémon GO and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite, have been shown to have a beneficial impact on the physical activity, social connectedness, and mental health of their players. In March 2020, global social distancing measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic prompted the AR games developer Niantic Inc to implement several changes to ensure continued player engagement with Pokémon GO and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite. We sought to examine how the physical and mental well-being of players of these games were affected during the unprecedented COVID-19 restriction period as well as how their video game engagement was affected. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the impact of COVID-19-related social restrictions on the physical and mental well-being of AR game players; to examine the impact of COVID-19-related social restrictions on the use of video games and motivations for their use; and to explore the potential role of AR games (and video games in general) in supporting well-being during COVID-19-related social restrictions. METHODS: A mixed methods web-based self-reported survey was conducted in May 2020, during which COVID-19-related social restrictions were enforced in many countries. Participants were recruited on the web via four subreddits dedicated to Pokémon GO or Harry Potter: Wizards Unite. Data collected included quantitative data on demographics, time spent playing video games, physical activity, and mental health; qualitative data included motivations to play and the impact of video games on mental health during COVID-19 lockdown. RESULTS: We report results for 2004 participants (1153/1960 male, 58.8%, average age 30.5 years). Self-reported physical activity during COVID-19-related social restrictions significantly decreased from 7.50 hours per week on average (SD 11.12) to 6.50 hours (SD 7.81) (P<.001). More than half of the participants reported poor mental health (925/1766, 52.4%; raw World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index score <13). Female gender, younger age, and reduced exercise were significant predictors of poor mental health. Participants reported a significant increase in video game play time from 16.38 hours per week on average (SD 19.12) to 20.82 hours (SD 17.49) (P<.001). Approximately three quarters of the participants (n=1102/1427, 77.2%) reported that playing video games had been beneficial to their mental health. The changes made to Pokémon GO and Harry Potter: Wizards Unite were very well received by players, and the players continued to use these games while exercising and to maintain social connection. In addition to seeking an escape during the pandemic and as a form of entertainment, participants reported that they used video games for emotional coping and to lower stress, relax, and alleviate mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: AR games have the potential to promote physical and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Used by populations under isolation and distress, these games can improve physical and mental health by providing virtual socialization, sustained exercise, temporal routine, and mental structure. Further research is needed to explore the potential of AR games as digital behavioral interventions to maintain human well-being in the wider population.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
17.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260711

RESUMO

Social isolation has adverse effects on mental health, physical exercise, and dietary habits. This longitudinal observational study aimed to investigate the effects of mood states and exercise on nutritional choices, on 176 college students (92 males, 84 females; 23 ± 4 years old) during the COVID-19 lockdown. During 21 days, nutrition and exercise were daily monitored, and the mood states assessed. A factor analysis was used to reduce the number of nutritional variables collected. The relationships between exercise, mood and nutrition were investigated using a multivariate general linear model and a mediation model. Seven factors were found, reflecting different nutritional choices. Exercise was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and fish consumption (p = 0.004). Depression and quality of life were, directly and inversely, associated with cereals, legumes (p = 0.005; p = 0.004) and low-fat meat intake (p = 0.040; p = 0.004). Exercise mediated the effect of mood states on fruit, vegetables and fish consumption, respectively, accounting for 4.2% and 1.8% of the total variance. Poorer mood states possibly led to unhealthy dietary habits, which can themselves be linked to negative mood levels. Exercise led to healthier nutritional choices, and mediating the effects of mood states, it might represent a key measure in uncommon situations, such as home-confinement.


Assuntos
Afeto , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 132, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alopecia Areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by hair loss. Individuals diagnosed with it often describe feelings of trauma and social rejection due to cosmetic repercussions and are at high risk of experiencing psychological distress. Physical activity (PA) participation has been associated with better mental health outcomes in diverse populations. A preliminary study of individuals with AA indicated that severe hair loss is associated with symptomatic depression, anxiety and stress, which negatively impacted PA participation. While strategies to increase PA participation in the general population have been established, little is known about PA participation in people with AA. This study aimed to understand barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA to inform the development of evidence-based interventions. METHODS: The study used a grounded theory (GT) methodology, relying on an iterative and simultaneous process of data collection, coding, theory development, and data comparisons to explore the perceived barriers and enablers to PA. Data were collected through a focus group (8 participants [33.38 ± 10.81 years]) and individual telephone interviews (8 participants [33.89 ± 11.87 years]). The study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Interview data were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim and analysed. Recruitment continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. RESULTS: The constructivist grounded theory method used has assisted to develop an explanatory model which is used to explain the themes for barriers and enablers to PA participation. The four phases in the explanatory model are as follows (1) onset of AA; (2) reaction towards the condition; (3) adjustment; and (4) acceptance. CONCLUSION: The findings highlighted perceived barriers and enablers to PA participation in people with AA. Future interventions could consider addressing these barriers specifically to maximise effectiveness and to improve mental health status based on the phases of the explanatory model.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Teoria Fundamentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Alopecia em Áreas/complicações , Ansiedade/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206685

RESUMO

The physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) is a measurement instrument that is commonly used in monitoring and intervention research to assess how much people enjoy being physically active, as this has been related to physical activity adherence. However, while the measurement properties of PACES are well-researched in the English language, there is a gap of research in the German language, especially when looking at adults. Thus, the purpose of this work was to examine reliability, factorial validity, criterion-related validity, and measurement invariance across sex, age groups and time of the PACES for German-speaking adults. Data was obtained from the Motorik-Modul-Study (MoMo) in which 863 adults (53.5% female; mean age = 20.9 years) were examined. To investigate measurement invariance across age groups, data from 2,274 adolescents (50.5% female; mean age = 14.4 years) was obtained additionally. The study provided a nationwide representative sample for Germany. Results showed high internal consistency of PACES in adults (Cronbach's α = .94). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the invariance of the measure across age groups, time, and sex. Criterion-related validity could be shown as the global factor significantly correlated with overall physical activity, physical activity in sports clubs, and leisure-time physical activity. The analyses of factorial structure indicated a method effect for positively and negatively worded items. Correlated uniqueness, latent method factor and a hybrid model were applied to analyze the method effect and results indicated that the method effect of positively worded items was predictive of physical activity independently of the global factor. Overall, it can be concluded that PACES is reliable, valid and invariant measure of physical activity enjoyment to be used in German-speaking adults. Further studies are warranted to examine the factorial structure of the PACES and the consequences of the method effect.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Felicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Idioma , Atividades de Lazer , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137943

RESUMO

In contrast to leisure time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA) does not have similar beneficial health effects. These differential health effects might be explained by dissimilar effects of LTPA and OPA on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). This study investigated cross-sectional associations between different physical behaviours during both work and leisure time and CRF by using a Compositional Data Analysis approach. Physical behaviours were assessed by two accelerometers among 309 workers with various manual jobs. During work time, more sedentary behaviour (SB) was associated with higher CRF when compared relatively to time spent on other work behaviours, while more SB during leisure time was associated with lower CRF when compared to other leisure time behaviours. Reallocating more time to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the other behaviours within leisure time was positively associated with CRF, which was not the case for MVPA during work. The results of our study are in line with the physical activity health paradox and we call for further study on the interaction between LTPA and OPA by implementing device-worn measures in a longitudinal design. Our results highlight the need for recommendations to take into account the different effects of OPA and LTPA on CRF.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Bélgica , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Carga de Trabalho
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