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1.
JAMA ; 322(14): 1415, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593264
3.
BMJ ; 366: l5715, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570340
4.
BMJ ; 366: l5694, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570410
5.
BMJ ; 367: l5456, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575520

RESUMO

The studyTaylor RS, Walker S, Ciani O, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for chronic heart failure: the EXTRAMATCH II individual participant data meta-analysis. Health Technol Assess 2019;23:1-98.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 15/80/30).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000803/cardiac-rehabilitation-for-heart-failure-can-improve-quality-of-life-and-fitness.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Exercício , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1660-1666, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586979

RESUMO

There is continuous ageing in world population. Although life expectancy still increases there is no similar trend in maintaining quality of life. The number of disabilities due to age is expected to double in 2060. Muscle mass is one of the most important factors of health and nutrition in old age and it constant loss is characteristic for process of ageing. Muscle mass is controlled by number of different factors. The most important of which is balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ageing has no influence on muscle protein degradation so for maintaining muscle mass it is better to target muscle protein synthesis. Optimal protein dose in the meal is the minimal amount of protein effecting in maximal anabolic response. Threshold for anabolic response increase with age. This process, named anabolic resistance can be overwhelmed with high amount of protein in diet. Experts in the field of ageing and nutrition recommend 1,2-1,5 g/kg/d protein for the maintaining of muscle mass, 1,2-1,5 g/kg/d for older with additional risk factors, 2,0 g/kg/d for seriously ill and malnourished. Physical training has synergistic influence with diet protein. Physical training improves muscle performance, muscle strength and prevents muscle wasting. Physical training combined with increased amount of protein in diet results with increased muscle mass.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Sarcopenia/terapia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Qualidade de Vida , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
7.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1697-1702, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586986

RESUMO

Physical activity is one of the most important element of a healthy lifestyle and determinant of the physical and mental health. According to the WHO, limited physical activity is the fourth most common premature deaths risk factor in the world. Regular sport and active recreation is very important for our health. Physical exercise is the most effective method used by physiotherapists to prevent and slow down the aging process of the body, and consequently, diseases of elderly, such as: osteoporosis, injuries caused by falls, diabetes or hypertension. Physical activity has a positive effect on the quality of life and cognitive functions of elderly. People over 65 years constitute about 40-50% of people who require specialist medical care in the world. Therefore, health and medical professionals dealing with preventive healthcare and treatment of elderly people should have basic knowledge in geriatric rehabilitation, as well as to be able to plan suitable physiotherapy program adequate to the needs of older people. To assess the functional status of the patient, as well as the effectiveness of the training, various types of functional tests are used, specially designed for the elderly. These tests are based on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (COG) considering the state of health, physical and mental fitness as well as socio-environmental conditions. The physiotherapeutic program should be based on functional training involving the entire human body, i.e. nervous, muscular, skeletal, sensory and balance systems.


Assuntos
Exercício , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida
8.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 1): 1703-1707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586987

RESUMO

Physical activity is one of the most important element of a healthy lifestyle and determinant of the physical and mental health. According to the WHO, limited physical activity is the fourth most common premature death risk factor in the world. Regular sport and active recreation is very important for our health. Physical exercise is the most effective method used by physiotherapists to prevent and slow down the aging process of the body, and consequently, diseases of elderly (e.g. osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension and injuries). Physical activity has a positive effect on the quality of life and cognitive functions of elderly. The physiotherapeutic program should be based on functional training involving the entire human body. To plan and monitor the effectiveness of the training, different types of tests are used to assess the functional status of elderly people. These tests are based on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment considering the state of health, physical and mental fitness as well as social and environmental determinants.


Assuntos
Exercício , Avaliação Geriátrica , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Equilíbrio Postural , Idoso , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
10.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(10): 1186-1191, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564149

RESUMO

AIMS: In previous studies, we identified multiple factors influencing the survivorship of hip resurfacing arthroplasties (HRAs), such as initial anatomical conditions and surgical technique. In addition, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score presents a ceiling effect, so a better quantification of activity is important to determine which activities may be advisable or detrimental to the recovered patient. We aimed to determine the effect of specific groups of sporting activities on the survivorship free of aseptic failure of a large series of HRA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 661 patients (806 hips) representing 77% of a consecutive series of patients treated with metal-on-metal hybrid HRA answered a survey to determine the types and amounts of sporting activities they regularly participated in. There were 462 male patients (70%) and 199 female patients (30%). Their mean age at the time of surgery was 51.9 years (14 to 78). Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.5 kg/m2 (16.7 to 46.5). Activities were regrouped into 17 categories based on general analogies between these activities. Scores for typical frequency and duration of the sessions were used to quantify the patients' overall time spent engaging in sporting activities. Impact and cycle scores were computed. Multivariable models were used. RESULTS: We found no association between any category of activity and a decrease in survivorship. Impact and hip cycle scores also failed to show any association with revision for aseptic failure or wear. CONCLUSION: Return to sporting activities after surgery is safe for patients treated with well-designed and well-implanted HRA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1186-1191.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Próteses Articulares Metal-Metal , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Volta ao Esporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/reabilitação , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Falha de Prótese , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobrevivência , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17201, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laser therapy is widely used for exercise-induced fatigue, while the effect among different studies remains controversial. The present study was to summary available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of laser therapy in subjects with exercise-induced fatigue. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify the potential RCTs from inception to October 2017. The weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty RCTs involving a total of 394 individuals were included in final analysis. No significant differences were observed between the laser therapy and control for the outcomes of lactate (WMD: -0.19; 95%CI: -0.52 to 0.13; P = .244), repetitions (WMD: 4.44; 95%CI: -1.43 to 10.32; P = .138), work load (WMD: 3.38; 95%CI: -1.15 to 7.91; P = .144), time taken to perform the exercise tests (WMD: 4.42; 95%CI: -2.33 to 11.17; P = .199), creatine kinase (WMD: -41.80; 95%CI: -168.78 to 85.17; P = .519), maximum voluntary contraction (WMD: 23.83; 95%CI: -7.41 to 55.07; P = .135), mean peak forces (WMD: 2.87; 95%CI: -1.01 to 6.76; P = = .147), and visual analog scale (VAS) (WMD: -1.91; 95%CI: -42.89 to 39.08; P = = .927). The results of sensitivity analysis suggested that laser therapy might play an important role on the levels of lactate (WMD: -0.30; 95%CI: -0.59 to -0.01; P = = .040), maximum voluntary contraction (WMD: 33.54; 95%CI: 1.95 to 65.12; P = = .037), and VAS (WMD: -21.00; 95%CI: -40.78 to -1.22; P = = .037). The results of subgroup analyses indicated no significant differences between the laser therapy and placebo for lactate and repetitions when stratified by study design, mean age, gender, and study quality. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis did not indicate any significant differences between the laser therapy and placebo.


Assuntos
Fadiga/terapia , Terapia a Laser , Exercício , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD004142, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise has a number of health benefits and has been recommended as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea (period pain), but the evidence for its effectiveness on primary dysmenorrhoea is unclear. This review examined the available evidence supporting the use of exercise to treat primary dysmenorrhoea. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of exercise for women with primary dysmenorrhoea. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED and CINAHL (from inception to July 2019). We searched two clinical trial databases (inception to March 2019) and handsearched reference lists and previous systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies if they randomised women with moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhoea to receive exercise versus no treatment, attention control, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or the oral contraceptive pill. Cross-over studies and cluster-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the studies, assessed eligible studies for risk of bias, and extracted data from each study. We contacted study authors for missing information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Our primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included overall menstrual symptoms, usage of rescue analgesic medication, restriction of daily life activities, absence from work or school and quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 12 trials with 854 women in the review, with 10 trials and 754 women in the meta-analysis. Nine of the 10 studies compared exercise with no treatment, and one study compared exercise with NSAIDs. No studies compared exercise with attention control or with the oral contraceptive pill. Studies used low-intensity exercise (stretching, core strengthening or yoga) or high-intensity exercise (Zumba or aerobic training); none of the included studies used resistance training.Exercise versus no treatmentExercise may have a large effect on reducing menstrual pain intensity compared to no exercise (standard mean difference (SMD) -1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.06 to -1.66; 9 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), n = 632; I2= 91%; low-quality evidence). This SMD corresponds to a 25 mm reduction on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and is likely to be clinically significant. We are uncertain if there is any difference in adverse event rates between exercise and no treatment.We are uncertain if exercise reduces overall menstrual symptoms (as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ)), such as back pain or fatigue compared to no treatment (mean difference (MD) -33.16, 95% CI -40.45 to -25.87; 1 RCT, n = 120; very low-quality evidence), or improves mental quality of life (MD 4.40, 95% CI 1.59 to 7.21; 1 RCT, n = 55; very low-quality evidence) or physical quality of life (as measured by the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12)) compared to no exercise (MD 3.40, 95% CI -1.68 to 8.48; 1 RCT, n = 55; very low-quality evidence) when compared to no treatment. No studies reported on any changes in restriction of daily life activities or on absence from work or school.Exercise versus NSAIDsWe are uncertain if exercise, when compared with mefenamic acid, reduced menstrual pain intensity (MD -7.40, 95% CI -8.36 to -6.44; 1 RCT, n = 122; very low-quality evidence), use of rescue analgesic medication (risk ratio (RR) 1.77, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.60; 1 RCT, n = 122; very low-quality evidence) or absence from work or school (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.49 to 2.03; 1 RCT, n = 122; very low-quality evidence). None of the included studies reported on adverse events, overall menstrual symptoms, restriction of daily life activities or quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current low-quality evidence suggests that exercise, performed for about 45 to 60 minutes each time, three times per week or more, regardless of intensity, may provide a clinically significant reduction in menstrual pain intensity of around 25 mm on a 100 mm VAS. All studies used exercise regularly throughout the month, with some studies asking women not to exercise during menstruation. Given the overall health benefits of exercise, and the relatively low risk of side effects reported in the general population, women may consider using exercise, either alone or in conjunction with other modalities, such as NSAIDs, to manage menstrual pain. It is unclear if the benefits of exercise persist after regular exercise has stopped or if they are similar in women over the age of 25. Further research is required, using validated outcome measures, adequate blinding and suitable comparator groups reflecting current best practice or accounting for the extra attention given during exercise.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16860, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The blood glucose response to moderate-intensity exercise remains unclear for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, little is known about determinants of blood glucose response to a 12-week moderate-intensity exercise training. Therefore, this study aimed to explore trends in blood glucose in response to a 12-week moderate-intensity exercise training in patients with T2DM and to explore the predictors of post-exercise blood glucose (PEBG) and exercise-induced glucose response (EIGR). METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted. Of the 66 participants with T2DM recruited from outpatient clinics of a medical center, 20 were eligible to enroll in a 12-week moderate-intensity exercise training. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 exercise times (morning, afternoon, or evening). Blood glucose were measured pre- and post-exercise. The EIGR was calculated by subtracting the PEBG from the before-exercise blood glucose (BEBG). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the trends and predictors of PEBG and EIGR. RESULTS: The BEBG declined progressively (ß = -1.69, P < .001); while the PEBG (ß = -0.18, P = .08) remained stable over time during the 12-week exercise training. Higher BEBG predicted higher (ß = 0.53, P < .001) PEBG. Higher baseline maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) contributed to a larger magnitude of EIGR; higher HgbA1c and BEBG predicted higher EIGR (ß = 0.27, P = .02; ß = 0.45, P < .001); afternoon or evening exercise predicted lower (ß = -13.2, P = .04; ß = -5.96, P = .005) EIGR than did morning exercise. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week moderate-intensity exercise training appears safe for patients with T2DM. Time of day for exercise, baseline VO2max, and baseline metabolic control may influence the impact of exercise for individuals with T2DM. These findings provide considerations for design of optimal exercise training for T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eRB4898, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508659

RESUMO

Alongside a proper diet, ergogenic aids with potential direct and/or indirect physical performance enhancing effects are sought after for improved adaptation to physical training. Nutritional ergogenics include diet composition changes and/or dietary supplementation. Branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are widely popular among products with ergogenic claims. Their major marketing appeal derives from allegations that branched-chain amino acids intake combined with resistance physical exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Evidence supporting the efficacy of branched-chain amino acids alone for muscle hypertrophy in humans is somewhat equivocal. This brief review describes physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effects of complete protein source and branched-chain amino acid intake on skeletal muscle growth in the postabsorptive and post-exercise state. Evidence in favor of or against potential anabolic effects of isolated branched-chain amino acid intake on muscle protein synthesis in humans is also examined.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 425-428, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Physical effort plays a positive role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular status in postmenopausal women after several years of regular amateur training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 55 generally healthy females aged 50-70 years, of whom 38 were members of a senior exercise group and 17 comprised a control group, were enrolled in the study. Parameters of blood flow, vascular resistance, myocardial contractility and thoracic fluid content were measured in a 10-minute supine resting test by impedance cardiography. Thereafter, central blood pressure, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured by applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Exercising women have a better outcome than the control group, when evaluated both with impedance cardiography and with applanation tonometry. They have a lower heart rate - HR (65.1 vs 71.5; p = 0.033), higher blood flow (stroke index - SI, 58.6 vs 50.3; p = 0.040), better myocardial contractility (acceleration index - ACI, 108.8 vs 88.1; p = 0.027), higher preload (thoracic fluid content index - TFCI, 20.5 vs 18.1; p = 0.002), lower afterload (systemic vascular resistance index - SVRI, 1972.9 vs 2110.5; p = 0.026), lower central systolic blood pressure - cBPsys (119.0 vs 129.5; p = 0.037), lower augmentation pressure - AP (10.3 vs 15.0; p = 0.044) and lower pulse wave velocity - PWV (7.4 vs 8.4; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Regular moderate continuous aerobic exercise training has a beneficial impact on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercício , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiografia de Impedância , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
BMJ ; 366: l5693, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558471
19.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(35): 2773-2776, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550801

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the brain activities of exercise addiction (EA) group people with the task-functional magnetic resonance image (task-fMRI). Methods: A total of 29 exercise addicts (addiction group, average age 46±4 years) and 26 non-exercise addicts (control group, average age 46±6 years) matched by sex, age, average education level and sports dependence degree were selected by using exercise addiction index (EAI) through questionnaires to members of Jiangsu Local Fitness and Long-distance Running Association between January 2018 and June 2018. The participants were scanned with fMRI while watching sports pictures or non-sports pictures. The brain responses of the two groups under two stimulation tasks were analyzed and compared. Results: Compared with the control group, while watching sports pictures, the right fusiform gyrus (MNI:x=30, y=-87, z=0), left posterior central gyrus (MNI:x=-51, y=-21, z=54), left medial superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-9, y=54, z=30), and right middle occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36) were significantly inhibited in the addiction group (t-test, all P<0.05). When watching non-sports pictures, the addictive group showed the left superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-12, y=54, z=30), left middle frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-30, y=18, z=45), right inferior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=33, z=-12), right occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36), and they were more significantly inhibited than the control group (t-test, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared to the control group, the EA group shows significant brain inhibition with visual stimulation, particularly with non-sports pictures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Temporal
20.
BMJ ; 366: l5759, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558482
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