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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205120p1-7501205120p8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399060

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Scanning the environment is critical for driving safety. The ScanCourse is a functional assessment that assesses a person's ability to scan the environment for visual information while in motion. Measurement properties for the ScanCourse have been reported; however, its predictive validity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive validity of the ScanCourse for on-road driving performance and establish clinical cutoff scores. DESIGN: Retrospective chart reviews were conducted over a 6-mo period. SETTING: Four Canadian driver rehabilitation programs. PARTICIPANTS: Charts from patients with neurological or vision conditions were eligible if they contained ScanCourse and on-road driving evaluation results between September 1, 2008, and August 30, 2018. Three hundred twenty-five charts were included for analysis. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the predictive validity of ScanCourse scores for on-road outcomes; cutoff scores were established by optimizing sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The ScanCourse had an AUC of .702. The optimal cutoff score was 18/20 with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 47.1%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Assessing the scanning abilities of at-risk drivers who intend to return to driving after sustaining an injury can help identify safety risks and inform interventions. The ScanCourse was found to have acceptable discriminatory ability for on-road driving performance. This study provides evidence supporting its continued use as a screening tool to assess driver fitness with an identified optimal cutoff score for clinical use. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Measuring the predictive ability of the ScanCourse assessment in relation to on-road driving performance provides occupational therapists with an evidence-based clinical tool to assist with screening fitness to drive among at-risk people.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Exame para Habilitação de Motoristas , Canadá , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406588

RESUMO

The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people's lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March-18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18-2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51-6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74-5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23-4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59-14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sono , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Solidão , Masculino , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lockdown measures have a profound effect on many aspects of daily life relevant for diabetes self-management. We assessed whether lockdown measures, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, differentially affect perceived stress, body weight, exercise and related this to glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a short-term observational cohort study at the Leiden University Medical Center. People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes ≥18 years were eligible to participate. Participants filled out online questionnaires, sent in blood for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analysis and shared data of their flash or continuous glucose sensors. HbA1c during the lockdown was compared with the last known HbA1c before the lockdown. RESULTS: In total, 435 people were included (type 1 diabetes n=280, type 2 diabetes n=155). An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise was observed in both groups. There was improvement in glycemic control in the group with the highest HbA1c tertile (type 1 diabetes: -0.39% (-4.3 mmol/mol) (p<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes: -0.62% (-6.8 mmol/mol) (p=0.0036). Perceived stress was associated with difficulty with glycemic control (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in perceived stress and anxiety, weight gain and less exercise but no deterioration of glycemic control occurs in both people with relatively well-controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes during short-term lockdown measures. As perceived stress showed to be associated with glycemic control, this provides opportunities for healthcare professionals to put more emphasis on psychological aspects during diabetes care consultations.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Automonitorização da Glicemia/tendências , /psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , /tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário
4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(1): 44-48, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify how children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were coping with their condition during the COVID-19 lockdown, by detecting differences in blood glucose control and in lifestyle, including diet, physical activity, and mood deterioration, before and during the lockdown. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2020 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from interviews, using various forms of telecommunication. RESULTS: The total sample size was 150 patients, 48 (28%) of whom were males and 102 (72%) females. The mean age of the patients was 12.45 years. The lockdown was associated with a significant increase in patients' weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.001), and blood glucose readings (p=0.007) compared to their values before the lockdown. Conclusion: A negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was found on blood glucose values and BMI, which may correlate with a lack of physical activity, increased consumption of carbohydrates and fast food, and mood deterioration.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Adolescente , Afeto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Arábia Saudita , Ganho de Peso
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23876, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on cognition function in people with schizophrenia (SZ) during daily nursing. METHODS: The literature search will be conducted via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be adopted to calculate the association between AE and cognitive function in patients with SZ. Publication bias will be performed by Begg test. When there is publication bias, "cut-and-fill method" will be adopted to adjust publication bias. Sensitivity analysis will be used to test the stability of the result. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%), meta regression will be used to explore the source of inter-study heterogeneity. When the heterogeneity is large (I2 ≥ 50%) and the results are statistically significant (P < .05), age, sex, duration of disease, duration of intervention, amount of exercise per week, improvement of cardiopulmonary health, and other factors will be sub-analyzed. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis will evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in patients with SZ during daily nursing on the basis of existing evidence. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/C8ABX.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/enfermagem , Correlação de Dados , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimidinas/química , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 304, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436631

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle conveys several of the health-promoting effects of exercise; yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Studying skeletal muscle is challenging due to its different fiber types and the presence of non-muscle cells. This can be circumvented by isolation of single muscle fibers. Here, we develop a workflow enabling proteomics analysis of pools of isolated muscle fibers from freeze-dried human muscle biopsies. We identify more than 4000 proteins in slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. Exercise training alters expression of 237 and 172 proteins in slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers, respectively. Interestingly, expression levels of secreted proteins and proteins involved in transcription, mitochondrial metabolism, Ca2+ signaling, and fat and glucose metabolism adapts to training in a fiber type-specific manner. Our data provide a resource to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying muscle function and health, and our workflow allows fiber type-specific proteomic analyses of snap-frozen non-embedded human muscle biopsies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Exercício Físico , Liofilização , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Proteômica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteoma/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418907

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, entire populations were instructed to live in home-confinement to prevent the expansion of the disease. Spain was one of the countries with the strictest conditions, as outdoor physical activity was banned for nearly two months. This study aimed to analyse the changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Spanish university students before and during the confinement by COVID-19 with special focus on gender. We also analysed enjoyment, the tools used and motivation and impediments for doing physical activity. An online questionnaire, which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and certain "ad hoc" questions, was designed. Students were recruited by distributing an invitation through the administrative channels of 16 universities and a total of 13,754 valid surveys were collected. Overall, university students reduced moderate (-29.5%) and vigorous (-18.3%) physical activity during the confinement and increased sedentary time (+52.7%). However, they spent more time on high intensity interval training (HIIT) (+18.2%) and mind-body activities (e.g., yoga) (+80.0%). Adaptation to the confinement, in terms of physical activity, was handled better by women than by men. These results will help design strategies for each gender to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour during confinement periods.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Ioga , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429989

RESUMO

Background and objectives: It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic impaired people's moods and general levels of physical activity, but the way in which each country is coping with the situation may result in different outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental health and physical activity levels between residents of Brazil and Switzerland during the social distancing period associated with COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire aiming to assess personal, quarantine, physical activity, and mood state disorders data was answered by 114 participants (57 from each country) of both sexes. Results: Swiss participants presented a higher frequency of people (47.4%) not abiding by social distancing measures compared to Brazilian participants (1.8%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.56). There were no significant differences between the participants from the two countries regarding physical activity levels (p = 0.09). The Swiss presented a higher frequency (78.9%) of people without symptoms of depression compared to Brazilians (31.6%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.48). The Swiss also presented a higher frequency (77.2%) of people without symptoms of anxiety compared to Brazilians (35.1%; p < 0.001, effect size = 0.43). There was a significant association between the restriction level and depression symptoms (p = 0.01, effect size = 0.25) but not with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.21, effect size = 0.16). Conclusions: According to the preliminary results, Brazilians presented a much higher frequency of depression and anxiety symptoms, which can be explained by characteristics other than the restriction level.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
Global Health ; 17(1): 10, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences on social network sites (SNS) can enhance individual social connectedness. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sharing physical activity experiences on SNS, positive self-presentation, positive feedback, and social connectedness during isolation. METHODS: Based on the Physical Activity Experience Sharing Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Positive Self-Presentation Scale, and Online Positive Feedback Scale, we collected 460 questionnaires online from across 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China. We used multiple linear regression models to investigate the relationship between variables, and used bootstrapping to test for mediation.. RESULTS: During isolation, sharing physical activity experiences was positively associated with social connectedness (b = 0.308, p < 0.001), as well as with positive self-presentation(b = 0.956, p < 0.001)and positive feedback(b = 0.421, p < 0.001). In addition,we found that positive self-presentation showed a significant positive impact on positive feedback (b = 0.563, p < 0.001), and that positive self-presentation(b = 0.331, p < 0.001) and positive feedback(b = 0.311, p < 0.001) were positively associated with social connectedness. Finally, we found an effect on sharing physical activity experiences indirectly through positive self-presentation (b = 0.316, 95% CI: [0.180, 0.463]),and positive feedback (b = 0.131, 95% CI: [0.063, 0.207]) and that the mediation chain between the two also had a significant impact on social connectedness (b = 0.167, 95% CI: [0.088, 0.251]). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing physical activity experiences on SNS can create a positive, healthy, and energetic personal image, gain recognition from others, and establish new interpersonal relationships.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Quarentena , Isolamento Social , Rede Social , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435497

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the resulting outbreak response measures in Germany and worldwide led to severe limitations in everyday life. This affected all sorts of daily activities and the possibility for physical activity (PA), which represents a major coping strategy against stress. The objective of this study was to analyse PA in German adults during a total lockdown phase including school closures in April 2020 in certain subgroups and in relation to other coping strategies. Data from the COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) survey, an online cross-sectional study with 1034 participants between 18 and 74 years, were utilised (14/15 April 2020). In addition to descriptive analyses, the odds of performing PA according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for adults (at least 2.5 h/week of at least moderate intensity) were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In total, 440 (42.6%) participants fulfilled this criterion. Participants with children <6 years were less likely to meet the WHO recommendation (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33-0.78), while those with a higher level of education, good coping behaviour, regular alcohol consumption, and being satisfied with life were more likely to meet the WHO recommendation. In conclusion, PA intervention strategies tailored to specific vulnerable subgroups such as individuals with low educational background and parents with young children are needed in future pandemic response.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos
14.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(1): 17-30, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402235

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we investigated self-weighing frequency (SWF) among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and retrospectively (6 months) before the pandemic, and whether SWF was associated with changes in health-related behaviors. Methods: United States adults (N = 1607) completed a health-related questionnaire during COVID-19 and associated shelter-in-place. We categorized respondents into 4 groups of SWF at the time of the pandemic: "Never," "< 1x a week," "1x a week," or "> 1x a week." Results: The proportion of adults never weighing increased during the pandemic (15% to 25%), whereas the proportion of those weighing < 1x week went down (41% to 29%). Higher SWF was significantly associated with changes in energy expenditure including increased total physical activity (PA), lower likelihood of decreases in vigorous, moderate, and walking PA, and a lower likelihood of sitting more. More frequent self-weighing also was associated statistically with lower likelihood of keeping unhealthy eating behaviors the same. Conversely, there was no significant difference in changes in alcohol, caffeine, takeout, fruit or vegetable consumption, and television viewing among SWF groups. Conclusion: SWF decreased during the pandemic in the lower 2 SWF categories. Higher SWF was associated with fewer negative changes in health behaviors, especially related to PA.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Quarentena , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(1): 44-61, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402237

RESUMO

Objectives: We examined perceived behavior change since implementation of physical distancing restrictions and identified modifiable (self-rated health, resilience, depressive symptoms, social support and subjective wellbeing) and non-modifiable (demographics) risk/protective factors. Methods: A representative US sample (N = 362) completed an online survey about potential risk/protective factors and health behaviors prior to the pandemic and after implemented/recommended restrictions. We assessed change in perceived health behaviors prior to and following introduction of COVID-19. We conducted hierarchical linear regression to explore and identify risk/protective factors related to physical activity, diet quality, and social isolation. Results: There have been substantial decreases in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior and social isolation, but no changes in diet quality since COVID-19. We identified modifiable and non-modifiable factors associated with each health behavior. Conclusions: Negative effects indicate the need for universal intervention to promote health behaviors. Inequalities in health behaviors among vulnerable populations may be exacerbated since COVID-19, suggesting need for targeted invention. Social support may be a mechanism to promote health behaviors. We suggest scaling out effective health behavior interventions with the same intensity in which physical distancing recommendations were implemented.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413813

RESUMO

Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Descanso , Sono , Acelerometria , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466860

RESUMO

COVID-19 restrictions may prevent people from reaching recommended levels of physical activity (PA). This study examines self-perceived changes in the extent and intensity of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the relation between perceived changes in PA and general life satisfaction and perceived physical capacity. A total of 1318 participants (mean age 47.8 SD12.6; 82.1% women) were recruited through social media in Sweden during autumn 2020. The survey included questions regarding perceived changes in PA compared to the previous year, the "Rating of Perceived Capacity" scale and "Life Satisfaction Questionnaire-11". A change in PA was reported by 65% of participants. More participants reported an increase (36%) than a decrease (29%), however a decrease in PA was significantly more often considered to be due to the pandemic. The highest odds of decreased PA was found in the oldest age group (70+ years) (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.4-5.7). Those who reported decreased levels of PA reported lower life satisfaction and aerobic capacity than the other groups (p > 0.001). Decreased physical activity was reported by many, but an equal share reported increased activity during the pandemic. The highest odds for decreased activity was found in the oldest group-the group that has been subjected to the strictest recommended COVID-19 restrictions in Sweden.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the effects of the lockdown on lifestyle behaviors may help to guide the public health response to COVID-19 at a national level and to update the global strategy to respond COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on device-measured physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep and self-regulation; and to determine whether PA and sleep are related to self-regulation problems during the lockdown. METHODS: PA, sedentary time and sleep were assessed using accelerometry in the week in which the Spanish national state of alarm was declared (n = 21). Parents reported preschooler's self-regulation difficulties (internalizing and externalizing) before (n = 268) and during the lockdown (n = 157) by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Preschoolers showed a decrease in total PA (mean difference [MD] = -43.3 min per day, 95% CI -68.1 to -18.5), sleep efficiency (MD = -2.09%, 95% CI -4.12 to -0.05), an increase in sedentary time (MD = 50.2 min per day, 95% CI 17.1 to 83.3) internalizing (MD = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.28) and externalizing (MD = 0.33, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.44) problems. Preschoolers who met the World Health Organization recommendations for PA had lower internalizing scores than non-active peers (MD = -1.28, 95% CI -2.53 to -0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of meeting PA recommendations to reduce psychosocial difficulties during a lockdown situation.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Autocontrole , Sono , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Espanha
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467514

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of many people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyse the physical activity (PA) and daily routine among children (0-12 years) during lockdown and to establish the main relationships among the variables. METHODS: A quantitative study with a descriptive-comparative and cross-sectional design carried out. The sample, selected for convenience, consisted of 837 Spanish children aged 0-12. The "Children and confinement" questionnaire was used, distributed electronically through Google Forms and social networks and activated for 45 days. The individuals participating in this study were mainly children (50.2%) who were in primary education (44.8%). Predominantly, the families of participants were biparental (87.9%), with established routines and schedules (85.7%). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The use of digital screens is an important part of children's daily routine. Their daily activities were practiced for more than three-six years, with more by girls. The time children devoted to sleep was directly proportional to the time they devoted to physical activity and indirectly proportional to the time they spent watching screens. The children who slept the most were those aged zero-three years, especially girls, who belonged to large families. The levels of physical activity in the sample were low, as were the times spent on activities such as music or games.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Tela , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 41(1): 1-5, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Masking has been employed as a strategy for reducing transmission of a variety of communicable diseases. With the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, many countries have implemented mandatory public masking. However, the perceived impact of mask use on pulmonary function has been a deterrent to public compliance with recommendations. COVID-19 has shed light on the impact that comorbid cardiac and pulmonary conditions may have on disease severity. This knowledge has led to increased primary and secondary prevention efforts for which exercise and rehabilitation are central. The importance of safe methods of exercise while mitigating risk of viral transmission is paramount to global recovery from the pandemic and prevention of future outbreaks. METHODS: We constructed a focused literature review of the impact of various masks on pulmonary function at rest and with exercise. This was then incorporated into recommendations for the integration of masks with exercise and rehabilitation in the COVID-19 era. RESULTS: While there is a paucity of evidence, we identified the physiological effects of masking at rest and during exercise to be negligible. The perceived impact appears to be far greater than the measured impact, and increased frequency of mask use leads to a physiological and psychological adaptive response. CONCLUSIONS: Masking during daily activities, exercise, and rehabilitation is safe in both healthy individuals and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Rehabilitation participants should be reassured that the benefits of masking during COVID-19 far outweigh the risks, and increased frequency of mask use invokes adaptive responses that make long-term masking tolerable.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/fisiologia , Máscaras , Atividades Cotidianas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Reabilitação , Descanso/fisiologia
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