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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19826, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible disease characterized by cough, sputum production, and dyspnea, and has a high prevalence and mortality. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a management that improves the quality of life for COPD patients; however, PR is not readily accessible. Therefore, we developed lung-conduction exercises (LCE) that can be performed without any limitations. LCE consists of breathing, stretching, and tapping to relieve dyspnea in COPD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This randomized, assessor-blind, multicenter trial aims to recruit 54 patients with moderate and severe COPD. Subjects will be randomly allocated to a control group (only medication), an LCE group (medication + LCE, 5 times a week), or a PR group (medication + PR, 5 times a week). The 6-minute walk distance, pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume at 1 second, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume at 1 second/forced vital capacity), modified Borg scale, modified medical research council dyspnea scale, COPD assessment test, and St. George respiratory questionnaire will be measured before starting the trial and after the 4th and 8th weeks to determine motor performance, lung function, and dyspnea. CONCLUSION: We aim to demonstrate that LCE is effective in improving symptoms and psychosomatic stability in COPD patients. Therefore, this trial will play an important role in fortifying the foundation of clinical application.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Testes de Função Respiratória , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(2): 405-413, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breathing exercises can improve the symptoms of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but their specific effect and function are disputed. To evaluate and conduct a meta-analysis on the effect of breathing exercises on patients with GERD. METHODS: A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies on the effects of employing breathing exercises on patients with GERD was conducted of all major online English databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, CENTRAL, Web of Science, AMED, and CINAHL). After the systematic review of all the studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, we analyzed the extracted data through meta-analysis by using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This thesis analyzes 7 studies (including three RCTs), which together involved 194 patients and 16 healthy volunteers. The primary outcomes of these studies included GERD symptoms, esophageal manometry, esophageal pH monitoring, laryngoscopic findings, and acid suppression usage. The results of meta-analysis indicate that breathing exercises can improve pressure generated by the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES), and a statistically significant difference was observed. The possible mechanism behind this is the enhancement of the anti-regurgitation barrier [especially crural diaphragm (CD) tension]. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, breathing exercises can relieve the symptoms of patients with GERD.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Testes de Função Respiratória
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19337, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of combined inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training (RMT) with respect to the swallowing function, pulmonary function, functional performance, and dysarthria in patients with stroke. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The trial included 21 subjects (12 men, 9 women) aged 35 to 80 years presenting with 6 months history of unilateral stroke, respiratory muscle weakness (≥70% predicted maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and/or ≤70% maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)), dysphagia, or dysarthria. These subjects were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10, rehabilitation) and experimental (n = 11, rehabilitation with RMT) groups. INTERVENTION: Inspiratory RMT starting from 30% to 60% of MIP and expiratory RMT starting from 15% to 75% of MEP for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MIP, MEP, pulmonary function, peak cough flow, perception of dyspnea, Fatigue Assessment Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and parameters of voice analysis. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between both groups in terms of MIP, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1) of the percentage predicted. Significant difference was found with respect to the change in fatigue, shimmer percent, amplitude perturbation quotient, and voice turbulence index (VTI) according to the acoustic analysis in the RMT group. The FEV1/FVC ratio was negatively correlated with jitter percent, relative average perturbation, pitch perturbation quotient, and VTI; the maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) and MMEF% were also negatively correlated with VTI. Significant differences among participants of the same group were observed while comparing the Brunnstrom stage before and after training of the affected limbs and the Barthel scale and FOIS scores in both the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, 6-week combined inspiratory and expiratory RMT is feasible as adjuvant therapy for stroke patients to improve fatigue level, respiratory muscle strength, lung volume, respiratory flow, and dysarthria.Clinical trial registration number (Clinical Trial Identifier): NCT03491111.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Disartria/terapia , Debilidade Muscular/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercícios Respiratórios/normas , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Disartria/etiologia , Disartria/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921295, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study examined the effects of abdominal draw-in lumbar stabilization exercises (ADIM) with respiratory resistance on women ages 40-49 years with low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-four women ages 40-49 years were screened for participation and were randomly assigned to either a respiratory with resistance exercise group (n=22) or a control group (n=22). Abdominal draw-in lumbar stabilization exercises were administered to both groups, but only the respiratory with resistance exercise group received the respiratory resistance training. The exercise training lasted 50 min per session, 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. The assessment methods used were the quadruple visual analogue scale (QVAS), Oswestry disability index-Korean version (ODI-K), diaphragm thickness and contraction rate, and lung capacity test. RESULTS Both groups showed significant differences in the QVAS, ODI-K, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and diaphragm thickness and contraction rate before and after the intervention (p<0.05). In the respiratory resistance exercise group, the ODI-K, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MVV, and diaphragm thickness and contraction rate showed significantly better improvement than the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS A lumbar stabilization exercise program consisting of ADIM and respiratory resistance resulted in decreased pain, reduced dysfunctions, and increased muscle thickness in contraction, contraction rate, and pulmonary function. Strong contraction of the diaphragm and deep abdominal muscles through breathing resistance increased the pressure in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, this may be an effective clinical exercise method for patients with lumbar instability.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978126

RESUMO

The inspiratory muscles contribute to balance via diaphragmatic contraction and by increasing intra-abdominal pressure. We have shown inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves dynamic balance significantly with healthy community-dwellers. However, it is not known how the magnitude of balance improvements following IMT compares to that of an established balance program. This study compared the effects of 8-week of IMT for community-dwellers, to 8-week of the Otago exercise program (OEP) for care-residents, on balance and physical performance outcomes. Nineteen healthy community-dwellers (74 ± 4 years) were assigned to self-administered IMT. Eighteen, healthy care-residents (82 ± 4 years) were assigned to instructor-led OEP. The IMT involved 30 breaths twice-daily at ~50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The OEP group undertook resistance and mobility exercises for ~60 minutes, twice-weekly. Balance and physical performance were assessed using the mini Balance Evaluation System Test (mini-BEST) and time up and go (TUG). After 8-week, both groups improved balance ability significantly (mini-BEST: IMT by 24 ± 34%; OEP by 34 ± 28%), with no between-group difference. Dynamic balance sub-tasks improved significantly more for the IMT group (P < 0.01), than the OEP group and vice versa for static balance sub-tasks (P = 0.01). The IMT group also improved MIP (by 66 ± 97%), peak inspiratory power (by 31 ± 12%) and TUG (by -11 ± 27%); whereas the OEP did not. IMT and OEP improved balance ability similarly, with IMT eliciting greater improvement in dynamic balance, whilst OEP improved static balance more than IMT. Unlike IMT, the OEP did not provide additional benefits in inspiratory muscle function and TUG performance. Our findings suggest that IMT offers a novel method of improving dynamic balance in older adults, which may be more relevant to function than static balance and potentially a useful adjunct to the OEP in frailty prevention.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Resistência Física
6.
Phys Ther ; 100(1): 14-43, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972027

RESUMO

The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), in conjunction with the Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Section of APTA, have commissioned the development of this clinical practice guideline to assist physical therapists in their clinical decision making when managing patients with heart failure. Physical therapists treat patients with varying degrees of impairments and limitations in activity and participation associated with heart failure pathology across the continuum of care. This document will guide physical therapist practice in the examination and treatment of patients with a known diagnosis of heart failure. The development of this clinical practice guideline followed a structured process and resulted in 9 key action statements to guide physical therapist practice. The level and quality of available evidence were graded based on specific criteria to determine the strength of each action statement. Clinical algorithms were developed to guide the physical therapist in appropriate clinical decision making. Physical therapists are encouraged to work collaboratively with other members of the health care team in implementing these action statements to improve the activity, participation, and quality of life in individuals with heart failure and reduce the incidence of heart failure-related re-admissions.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Fisioterapeutas , Fisioterapia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Exercício Físico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Readmissão do Paciente , Fisioterapia/organização & administração , Treinamento de Resistência , Medição de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
7.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(6): 337-341, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187807

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: La toxicidad pulmonar inducida por radiación es un proceso común, pero poco atendido, ocasionado tras la aplicación de radioterapia en el cáncer de mama. A largo plazo tras la aplicación de radioterapia se ha encontrado una disminución de los test pulmonares y de la difusión de oxígeno, pudiendo provocar fatiga e intolerancia al ejercicio en las mujeres supervivientes al carcinoma mamario. El objetivo de este trabajo fue mejorar la función pulmonar a través de un programa de trabajo con espirometría incentiva y máscara de presión espiratoria positiva en las mujeres tratadas de cáncer de mama con radioterapia, y describir su efecto sobre la tolerancia al esfuerzo y la percepción de fatiga. Descripción de los casos: Cinco mujeres que percibieron fatiga tras la aplicación de radioterapia. Intervención: Se llevó a cabo un tratamiento domiciliario basado en la utilización de la espirometría incentiva y de la máscara de presión espiratoria positiva, trabajando diariamente 30min, a lo largo de 3 semanas. Resultados y discusión: El tratamiento con espirometría incentiva y máscara presión espiratoria positiva parece mejorar las secuelas pulmonares inducidas por radioterapia y aumentar la tolerancia al esfuerzo en mujeres tratadas de cáncer de mama. Sin embargo, la variabilidad en los resultados obtenidos hace que no puedan ser concluyentes


Background and objective: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is a common process following radiation therapy in breast cancer which is not usually considered. In the long term after the application of radiotherapy, a decrease in pulmonary tests and in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity has been found. It may lead to fatigue and intolerance to exercise in women surviving mammary carcinoma. The objective of this paper was to improve pulmonary function through a work programme with EI and mask of PEP in women treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy and describe if it has a beneficial effect on the tolerance to effort and the perception of fatigue. Cases description: Five women who perceived fatigue after the application of radiotherapy. Intervention: A domiciliary treatment was carried out based on the use of the EI and the PEP mask, working daily for 30minutes over 3 weeks. Result and discussion: Treatment with IE and the PEP mask seems to improve the pulmonary effects induced by radiotherapy and increases exercise tolerance in women treated for breast cancer. However, the variability in the results obtained means that they cannot be conclusive


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Espirometria/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fadiga/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Espirometria , Fadiga/radioterapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais
8.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 31(4): 323-330, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study reports the respiratory muscle training effect on strength and endurance in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Articles published from 1984 to 2017 were reviewed. Six articles met the inclusion criteria that included within-subject control or between-subject control group, participants with a diagnosis of only Duchenne muscular dystrophy, participation in respiratory muscle training intervention, and outcome measures of endurance and strength. Effect sizes were calculated for each study and overall, weighted mean effect sizes for strength and endurance outcome measures. RESULTS: There was a large effect for improving respiratory endurance and a moderate effect for muscle strength. However, these effects were not significant. CONCLUSION: Findings justify further exploration of the potential benefits of respiratory muscle training for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/reabilitação , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD011711, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting the anterior horn cell of spinal cord, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerves and muscles. NMDs cause physical disability usually due to progressive loss of strength in limb muscles, and some NMDs also cause respiratory muscle weakness. Respiratory muscle training (RMT) might be expected to improve respiratory muscle weakness; however, the effects of RMT are still uncertain. This systematic review will synthesize the available trial evidence on the effectiveness and safety of RMT in people with NMD, to inform clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) for neuromuscular disease (NMD) in adults and children, in comparison to sham training, no training, standard treatment, breathing exercises, or other intensities or types of RMT. SEARCH METHODS: On 19 November 2018, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase. On 23 December 2018, we searched the US National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and reference lists of the included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, including cross-over trials, of RMT in adults and children with a diagnosis of NMD of any degree of severity, who were living in the community, and who did not need mechanical ventilation. We compared trials of RMT (inspiratory muscle training (IMT) or expiratory muscle training (EMT), or both), with sham training, no training, standard treatment, different intensities of RMT, different types of RMT, or breathing exercises. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 studies involving 250 randomized participants with NMDs: three trials (N = 88) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; motor neuron disease), six trials (N = 112) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), one trial (N = 23) in people with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and one trial (N = 27) in people with myasthenia gravis.Nine of the trials were at high risk of bias in at least one domain and many reported insufficient information for accurate assessment of the risk of bias. Populations, interventions, control interventions, and outcome measures were often different, which largely ruled out meta-analysis. All included studies assessed lung capacity, our primary outcome, but four did not provide data for analysis (1 in people with ALS and three cross-over studies in DMD). None provided long-term data (over a year) and only one trial, in ALS, provided information on adverse events. Unscheduled hospitalisations for chest infection or acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure were not reported and physical function and quality of life were reported in one (ALS) trial.Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)Three trials compared RMT versus sham training in ALS. Short-term (8 weeks) effects of RMT on lung capacity in ALS showed no clear difference in the change of the per cent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) between EMT and sham EMT groups (mean difference (MD) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.48 to 9.88; N = 46; low-certainty evidence). The mean difference (MD) in FVC% after four months' treatment was 10.86% in favour of IMT (95% CI -4.25 to 25.97; 1 trial, N = 24; low-certainty evidence), which is larger than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID, as estimated in people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis). There was no clear difference between IMT and sham IMT groups, measured on the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALFRS; range of possible scores 0 = best to 40 = worst) (MD 0.85, 95% CI -2.16 to 3.85; 1 trial, N = 24; low-certainty evidence) or quality of life, measured on the EuroQol-5D (0 = worst to 100 = best) (MD 0.77, 95% CI -17.09 to 18.62; 1 trial, N = 24; low-certainty evidence) over the medium term (4 months). One trial report stated that the IMT protocol had no adverse effect (very low-certainty evidence).Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)Two DMD trials compared RMT versus sham training in young males with DMD. In one study, the mean post-intervention (6-week) total lung capacity (TLC) favoured RMT (MD 0.45 L, 95% CI -0.24 to 1.14; 1 trial, N = 16; low-certainty evidence). In the other trial there was no clear difference in post-intervention (18 days) FVC between RMT and sham RMT (MD 0.16 L, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.63; 1 trial, N = 20; low-certainty evidence). One RCT and three cross-over trials compared a form of RMT with no training in males with DMD; the cross-over trials did not provide suitable data. Post-intervention (6-month) values showed no clear difference between the RMT and no training groups in per cent predicted vital capacity (VC%) (MD 3.50, 95% CI -14.35 to 21.35; 1 trial, N = 30; low-certainty evidence).Becker or limb-girdle muscular dystrophyOne RCT (N = 21) compared 12 weeks of IMT with breathing exercises in people with Becker or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. The evidence was of very low certainty and conclusions could not be drawn.Myasthenia gravisIn myasthenia gravis, there may be no clear difference between RMT and breathing exercises on measures of lung capacity, in the short term (TLC MD -0.20 L, 95% CI -1.07 to 0.67; 1 trial, N = 27; low-certainty evidence). Effects of RMT on quality of life are uncertain (1 trial; N = 27).Some trials reported effects of RMT on inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength; this evidence was also of low or very low certainty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: RMT may improve lung capacity and respiratory muscle strength in some NMDs. In ALS there may not be any clinically meaningful effect of RMT on physical functioning or quality of life and it is uncertain whether it causes adverse effects. Due to clinical heterogeneity between the trials and the small number of participants included in the analysis, together with the risk of bias, these results must be interpreted very cautiously.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Doenças Neuromusculares/reabilitação , Adulto , Criança , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Capacidade Vital
10.
Ergonomics ; 62(11): 1439-1449, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389759

RESUMO

Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) whilst adopting body positions that mimic exercise (functional IMT; IMTF) improves running performance above traditional IMT methods in unloaded exercise. We investigated the effect of IMTF during load carriage tasks. Seventeen males completed 60 min walking at 6.5 km·h-1 followed by a 2.4 km load carriage time-trial (LCTT) whilst wearing a 25 kg backpack. Trials were completed at baseline; post 4 weeks IMT (consisting of 30 breaths twice daily at 50% of maximum inspiratory pressure) and again following either 4 weeks IMTF (comprising four inspiratory loaded core exercises) or maintenance IMT (IMTCON). Baseline LCTT was 15.93 ± 2.30 min and was reduced to 14.73 ± 2.40 min (mean reduction 1.19 ± 0.83 min, p < 0.01) after IMT. Following phase two, LCTT increased in IMTF only (13.59 ± 2.33 min, p < 0.05) and was unchanged in post-IMTCON. Performance was increased following IMTF, providing an additional ergogenic effect beyond IMT alone. Practitioner Summary: We confirmed the ergogenic benefit of Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) upon load carriage performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that functional IMT methods provide a greater performance benefit during exercise with thoracic loads. Abbreviations: [Lac-]B: blood lactate; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1/FVC: forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio; FVC: forced vital capacity; HR: heart rate; IMT: inspiratory muscle training; IMTCON: inspiratory muscle training maintenance; IMTF: functional inspiratory muscle training; LC: load carriage; LCTT: load carriage time trial; Pdi: transdiaphragmatic pressure; PEF: peak expiratory flow; PEmax: maximum expiratory mouth pressure; PImax: maximum inspiratory mouth pressure; RPE: rating of perceived exertion; RPEbreating: rating of perceived exertion for the breathing; RPEleg: rating of perceived exertion for the legs; SEPT: sport-specific endurance plank test; V̇ O2: oxygen consumption; V̇ O2peak: peak oxygen consumption.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Inalação/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Remoção , Masculino , Mecânica Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
11.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 547-554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397649

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to analyze changes in Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP), lung function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood pressure, in 10 healthy active elderly women, following 7 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) combined with a multicomponent training program (MCTP). The association among these health parameters, their changes after training (deltas), and the influence of MIP at baseline (MIPpre) are also considered. Methods: IMT involved 30 inspirations at 50% of the MIP, twice daily, 7 days a week, while MCTP was 1 hr, twice a week. MIP, lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, PEF), 6MWT, and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), jointly with body composition, were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: Seven weeks were enough to improved MIP (p = .019; d = 1.397), 6MWT (p = .012; d = .832), SBP (p = .003; d = 1.035) and DBP (p = .024; d = .848). Despite the high physical fitness (VO2 peak: M = 23.38, SD = 3.39 ml·min·Kg-1), MIPpre was low (M = 39.00, SD = 7.63 cmH2O) and displayed a significant negative correlation with ΔMIPpre-post (r = -.821; p < .004), showing that women who started the intervention with lower MIP achieved higher improvements in inspiratory muscle strength after training. Conclusions: No significant changes in spirometric parameters may signal that lung function is independent of early improvements in inspiratory muscles and cardiorespiratory fitness. Absence of correlation between physical fitness and respiratory outcomes suggests that being fit does not ensure cardiorespiratory health in active elderly women, so IMT might be beneficial and should supplement the MCTP in this population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Inalação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia
12.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(2): e1439, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal disorders can alter respiratory function and increase the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AIM: To improve the physiotherapeutic and muscular capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary muscular inspiration in the preoperative preparation in abdominal surgeries. METHOD: Retrospective and documentary study using SINPE © , clinical database software of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and candidates to abdominal operation. The sample consisted of 100 men aged 55-70 years, all with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who underwent preoperative physiotherapeutic treatment. They were divided into two groups of 50 individuals (group A and group B). In group A the patients were treated with modern mobility techniques for bronchial clearance and the strengthening of the respiratory muscles was performed with IMT ® Threshold. In group B the treatment performed for bronchial obstruction was with classic maneuvers and for the strengthening of the respiratory muscles for flow incentive was used Respiron ® . RESULTS: Both groups obtained improvement in the values ​​of the PiMáx after the different treatments. Group A obtained greater change in the intervals and a more significant increase of the values of the PiMax in relation to the average pre and post-treatment. However, when analyzing the variance and the standard deviation of the samples, group B presented the best results showing more homogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The modern and traditional bronchial clearance techniques associated with inspiratory muscle training were equally effective in gaining inspiratory muscle strength with increased Pmax. In this way, the two can be used in the preoperative preparation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and referred to abdominal operations.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Espirometria
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5159-5169, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Respiratory therapy is an integral part of treatment of cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to second-stage cardiac rehabilitation on exercise tolerance and function of lower extremities in patients following myocardial infarction (MI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 90 patients (mean age 65 years) with MI who took part in the second stage of an 8-week cycle of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). They were divided into 3 groups: group I underwent CR and IMT, group II only underwent CR, and group III only underwent IMT. Groups I and II were allocated randomly according sealed opaque envelopes. The third group consisted of patients who could not participate in standard rehabilitation for various reasons. Before and after the 8-week program, participants were assessed for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PImax and PEmax) values, exercise tolerance, and knee muscle strength. RESULTS In groups I and II, a significant increase in the PImax parameters and exercise tolerance parameters (MET) were observed. Group I had increased PEmax parameters. In group III, the same changes in the parameter values that reflect respiratory muscle function were observed. All of the examined strength parameters of the knee joint muscles demonstrated improvement in all of the investigated groups, but the biggest differences were observed in group I. CONCLUSIONS Use of IMT in the ambulatory rehabilitation program of MI patients resulted in improved rehabilitation efficacy, leading to a significant improvement in physical condition.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2513-2521, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357915

RESUMO

Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) has been consistently reported in elite endurance athletes. This study examined the effects of an inspiratory muscle training protocol (IMT) on resting pulmonary function, end-exercise arterial oxygen saturation and performance in hypoxemic rowers. Twenty male and sixteen female well-trained hypoxemic rowers were divided into four groups: IMT-male, control-male, IMT-female and control-female. The IMT groups, additionally to the regular training, performed IMT (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 weeks). Before and after training, groups underwent an incremental rowing test, a 2000-m time trial and a 5-min "all-out" race. IMT increased respiratory strength in the IMT-male (135 ± 31 vs. 180 ± 22 cmH2O) and IMT-female (93 ± 19 vs. 142 ± 22 cmH2O) (P < 0.05). The IMT-female group exhibited lower EIAH and improved rowing performance in the 2000-m time trial (487 ± 32 vs. 461 ± 34 sec) and in the 5-min "all-out" test (1,285 ± 28 vs. 1,310 ± 36m) (P < 0.05). IMT protocol improved performance in IMT-male only in the 5-min test (1,651 ± 31 vs. 1,746 ± 37m) (P < 0.05). IMT may be a useful tool for increasing respiratory strength and enhancing performance in hypoxemic rowers, especially for women. Abbreviations: EIAH: Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia; IMT: inspiratory muscle training protocol; PaO2: partial pressure of arterial oxygen; SaO2: arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation; VO2max: maximal oxygen consumption; [(A-a)DO2]: alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference; VA/Q: ventilation-perfusion inequality/mismatching; PImax: maximal inspiratory pressure; BMI: body mass index; BSA: body surface area; FVC: vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 sec; VCin: vital capacity; MVV12: maximal voluntary ventilation in 12 sec.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Capacidade Inspiratória/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Esportes Aquáticos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuromodulation ; 22(6): 751-757, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347247

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of transcutaneous electrical acustimulation (TEA) combined with deep breathing training (DBT) on refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (rGERD). METHODS: Twenty-one patients with rGERD were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either only esomeprazole (ESO, 20 mg bid) (group A, n = 7), TEA + DBT + ESO (group B, n = 7), or sham-TEA + DBT + ESO (group C, n = 7) in a four-week study. The reflux diagnostic questionnaire (RDQ) score and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded and evaluated at baseline and at the end of each treatment. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum acetylcholine (Ach) and nitric oxide (NO). Esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH monitoring were performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: After treatment, 1) the participants in group B had significantly lower scores of RDQ and DeMeester and increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) than those in group C (all p < 0.05), suggesting the role of TEA; 2) low frequency band (LF)/(LF + HF) ratio in groups B and C was decreased, compared with group A (p = 0.010, p = 0.042, respectively); high frequency band (HF)/(LF + HF) ratio in B and C groups was significantly increased, compared with group A (p = 0.010, p = 0.042, respectively); 3) The serum Ach in groups B and C was significantly higher than group A (p = 0.022, p = 0.046, respectively); the serum NO in groups B and C was significantly lower than group A (p = 0.010, p = 0.027, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TEA combined with the DBT can effectively improve the reflux symptoms in rGERD patients by increasing LESP and reducing gastroesophageal reflux, which may be mediated via the autonomic and enteric mechanisms.


Assuntos
Vias Autônomas/fisiologia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/inervação , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/fisiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(19-20): 3632-3640, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192478

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of the two-month breathing-based walking intervention and its follow-up on anxiety, depression, dyspnoea and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BACKGROUND: Mind-body-related exercises improve bio-psychological symptoms and quality of life in chronic diseases, but these improvements are not proven for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. DESIGN: This was a randomised controlled study and applied the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. METHODS: Outpatients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were recruited from a medical centre in Taiwan and randomly assigned to two groups. The walking group (n = 42) received breathing, meditation and walking for two months, and the control group (n = 42) did not. Data from the outcomes of anxiety, depression, dyspnoea and quality of life were collected at baseline and in Month 1, Month 2 and Month 3. Clinical trial registration was done (ClinicalTrials.gov.: NCT03388489). FINDINGS: The results showed significant changes in anxiety, depression, dyspnoea and quality of life in the walking group across three months, compared to those in the control group and at baseline. CONCLUSION: This breathing-based walking intervention is promising to achieve bio-psychological well-being for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This breathing-based walking, as a mind-body exercise, could serve as an evidence-based nursing care that contributes to improving anxiety, depression, dyspnoea and quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. The feasibility and acceptability of the breathing-based walking were met the requirement of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients, which could be considered as home-based exercise.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapias Mente-Corpo/enfermagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Caminhada/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Dispneia/complicações , Dispneia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Taiwan
17.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 1-8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192742

RESUMO

Respiratory disease in children can contribute to damaged alveoli, frailty of respiratory muscles, reduced lung function, impaired gas exchange, and gas retention in the airway. Such condition may lead to disruption of oxygen status. This study aimed to examine the effects of modified pursed lips breathing (PLB) by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw and a party whistle on the oxygenation status in children with oxygenation problems. This study used a quasi-experiment method with a pretest-posttest without a control group design approach. The sample consisted of 32 school-aged children and adolescents who were divided into two intervention groups. Group 1 underwent modified PLB by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw and Group 2 was provided with modified PLB by blowing a party whistle. The intervention was conducted one time in a day, in a rest time, for 10 min. The results showed that modified PLB by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw was more effective in reducing respiratory rate (RR) and improving oxygen saturation (SpO2) than modified PLB by blowing a party whistle. Modified PLB intervention by blowing into a water-filled bottle through a straw improved the oxygenation status of children affected by oxygenation problems. This intervention can be implemented as an independent nursing intervention to improve children's oxygenation status.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/normas , Lábio/fisiologia , Oximetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração , Adolescente , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Criança , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Pediatria/métodos
18.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 33(4): 197-203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192831

RESUMO

This study tests the hypothesis that yoga breathing (pranayama) improves lung function in healthy volunteers during a 6-week protocol. A randomized controlled pilot study demonstrated an improvement in peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume. The easy-to-learn approach can be translated to the inpatient and outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/normas , Respiração , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Ioga , Adulto , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , South Dakota
19.
Cancer Invest ; 37(4-5): 227-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198066

RESUMO

Purpose: This randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT02633748) examined effectiveness of an abbreviated mindfulness program on psychosocial symptoms, behaviors, and inflammation. Methods: Cancer survivors (n = 36) underwent a 4-week mindfulness intervention compared to a breathing control. Data included psychosocial questionnaires, anthropometrics, actigraphy, and blood draws. Clinic visits occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and a 3-month post-follow-up. Results: Compared to baseline, the intervention arm displayed reductions in sedentary time and perceived stress and improvements in subjective sleep quality, and daily steps at post-follow-up. Conclusions: An abbreviated mindfulness intervention in feasible in cancer survivors and signs of efficacy warrant further mindfulness studies among this population.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(8): 616-620, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of normocapnic hyperpnoea training on pulmonary function and patient-reported outcomes in chronic spinal cord injury. DESIGN: Single-centre randomized controlled trial. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with spinal cord injury > 24 months post-injury and without regular respiratory muscle training prior to the study were included prospectively. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either normocapnic hyperpnoea or control groups. The normocapnic hyperpnoea group patients performed training 15-20 min per day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The patients hyperventilated through partial re-breathing of ventilated air. The control group received no respiratory muscle training. Other rehabilitative programmes were performed identically in both groups. Lung function testing was performed in the sitting position prior to and after the study. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test and Borg scores. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the improvement ratio between the normocapnic hyperpnoea and control groups for all investigated parameters, except total lung capacity and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. CONCLUSION: Normocapnic hyperpnoea training may reduce the incidence of respiratory symptoms, improve pulmonary function and quality of life, and reduce depression in patients with chronic spinal cord injury, regardless of their neurological level of injury, even at more than 24 months after injury.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
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