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1.
Analyst ; 146(23): 7306-7319, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755725

RESUMO

The Mars 2020 and ExoMars 2022, rover-based missions are specifically dedicated to the search for evidence of life and will both utilise Raman spectrometers on the surface of Mars. Raman spectroscopy is indeed a valuable analytical technique for planetary exploration that enables in situ characterisation of rocks and soils collected directly from the surface or retrieved as cores and subsequently crushed when extracted from the subsurface with a drill. On Mars, the miniaturised spectrometers will interrogate ancient geological deposits, in order to try and identify hydrated or aqueously altered minerals and organic matter to assess the habitability of Mars. While the identification of relevant hydrous minerals and organic components is the primary analytical objective of the missions, quantifying their abundances would be of particular significance for interpreting past geological conditions (e.g. formation or alteration processes) and for ascertaining the putative presence of biosignatures. Therefore, we have developed quantitative models that enable the quantification of both mineral proportions from crushed mixtures of geological components and spiked mixtures containing organic analytes dispersed in mineral matrices. Based on data normalisation with appropriate standards (internal and external), we demonstrate that robust quantitative models can be (1) applied for solid dispersions of various complexities relevant to planetary exploration; and (2) applied to different Raman set-ups, including an instrument representative of the ExoMars Raman Laser Spectrometer. With important Raman-active minerals (calcite, gypsum, baryte, quartz), we demonstrate that using a correction factor Fϕ2/ϕ1, based on the ratio of apparent Raman scattering coefficients, the relative proportion of minerals in binary mixtures can be accurately determined. Regarding the organics, evaluated in clay-rich sediments (Fe-smectite) and crushed rocks of coarse-grained fraction (>100µm), we establish calibration curves in the concentration range 2-20 wt% for non-resonant compounds (L-cysteine, phthalic acid, adenine) and even lower (<1 wt%) for pre-resonant anthracene. Despite large levels of heterogeneity, the Raman analyses of these solid dispersions verify that quantitative Raman analyses can be performed in the context of robotic exploration studies.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Minerais , Análise Espectral Raman
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639202

RESUMO

The interactions of ligands with nucleic acids are central to numerous reactions in the biological cell. How such reactions are affected by harsh environmental conditions such as low temperatures, high pressures, and high concentrations of destructive ions is still largely unknown. To elucidate the ions' role in shaping habitability in extraterrestrial environments and the deep subsurface of Earth with respect to fundamental biochemical processes, we investigated the effect of selected salts (MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(ClO4)2) and high hydrostatic pressure (relevant for the subsurface of that planet) on the complex formation between tRNA and the ligand ThT. The results show that Mg2+ salts reduce the binding tendency of ThT to tRNA. This effect is largely due to the interaction of ThT with the salt anions, which leads to a strong decrease in the activity of the ligand. However, at mM concentrations, binding is still favored. The ions alter the thermodynamics of binding, rendering complex formation that is more entropy driven. Remarkably, the pressure favors ligand binding regardless of the type of salt. Although the binding constant is reduced, the harsh conditions in the subsurface of Earth, Mars, and icy moons do not necessarily preclude nucleic acid-ligand interactions of the type studied here.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/metabolismo , Cloreto de Magnésio/farmacologia , Sulfato de Magnésio/farmacologia , Percloratos/farmacologia , Pressão , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Temperatura , Benzotiazóis/química , Planeta Terra , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Ligantes , Marte , Lua , RNA de Transferência/química , Termodinâmica
6.
Extremophiles ; 25(5-6): 437-458, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586500

RESUMO

One of the main objectives of astrobiological research is the investigation of the habitability of other planetary bodies. Since space exploration missions are expensive and require long-term organization, the preliminary study of terrestrial environments is an essential step to prepare and support exploration missions. The Earth hosts a multitude of extreme environments whose characteristics resemble celestial bodies in our Solar System. In these environments, the physico-chemical properties partly match extraterrestrial environments and could clarify limits and adaptation mechanisms of life, the mineralogical or geochemical context, and support and interpret data sent back from planetary bodies. One of the best terrestrial analogues is Antarctica, whose conditions lie on the edge of habitability. It is characterized by a cold and dry climate (Onofri et al., Nova Hedwigia 68:175-182, 1999), low water availability, strong katabatic winds, salt concentration, desiccation, and high radiation. Thanks to the harsh conditions like those in other celestial bodies, Antarctica offers good terrestrial analogues for celestial body (Mars or icy moons; Léveillé, CR Palevol 8:637-648, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2009.03.005 , 2009). The continent could be distinguished into several habitats, each with characteristics similar to those existing on other bodies. Here, we reported a description of each simulated parameter within the habitats, in relation to each of the simulated extraterrestrial environments.


Assuntos
Marte , Planetas , Regiões Antárticas , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Ambientes Extremos
7.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1421-1437, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551267

RESUMO

Detecting evidence of life on other planetary bodies requires a certain understanding of known biomarkers and their chemical nature, preservation potential, or biological specificity. In a planetary search for life, carbonates are of special interest due to their known association with life as we know it. On Earth, carbonates serve as an invaluable paleogeochemical archive of fossils of up to billions of years old. Here, we investigated biomarker profiles on three Chilean Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary records regarding our search for signs of past and present life over ∼200 Ma. A multianalytical platform that combines lipid-derived biomarkers, metaproteomics, and a life detector chip (LDChip) is considered in the detection of biomolecules with different perdurability and source-diagnosis potential. The combined identification of proteins with positive LDChip inmunodetections provides metabolic information and taxonomic affiliation of modern/subrecent biosignatures. Molecular and isotopic analysis of more perdurable hydrocarbon cores allows for the identification of general biosources and dominant autotrophic pathways over time, as well as recreation of prevailing redox conditions over ∼200 Ma. We demonstrate how extraterrestrial life detection can benefit from the use of different biomarkers to overcome diagnosis limitations due to a lack of specificity and/or alteration over time. Our findings have implications for future astrobiological missions to Mars.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Marte , Carbonatos , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Fósseis , Planetas
8.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1485, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522036
9.
Astrobiology ; 21(8): 954-967, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357788

RESUMO

As the exploration of Mars and other worlds for signs of life has increased, the need for a common nomenclature and consensus has become significantly important for proper identification of nonterrestrial/non-Earth biology, biogenic structures, and chemical processes generated from biological processes. The fact that Earth is our single data point for all life, diversity, and evolution means that there is an inherent bias toward life as we know it through our own planet's history. The search for life "as we don't know it" then brings this bias forward to decision-making regarding mission instruments and payloads. Understandably, this leads to several top-level scientific, theoretical, and philosophical questions regarding the definition of life and what it means for future life detection missions. How can we decide on how and where to detect known and unknown signs of life with a single biased data point? What features could act as universal biosignatures that support Darwinian evolution in the geological context of nonterrestrial time lines? The purpose of this article is to generate an improved nomenclature for terrestrial features that have mineral/microbial interactions within structures and to confirm which features can only exist from life (biotic), features that are modified by biological processes (biogenic), features that life does not affect (abiotic), and properties that can exist or not regardless of the presence of biology (abiogenic). These four categories are critical in understanding and deciphering future returned samples from Mars, signs of potential extinct/ancient and extant life on Mars, and in situ analyses from ocean worlds to distinguish and separate what physical structures and chemical patterns are due to life and which are not. Moreover, we discuss hypothetical detection and preservation environments for extant and extinct life, respectively. These proposed environments will take into account independent active and ancient in situ detection prospects by using previous planetary exploration studies and discuss the geobiological implications within an astrobiological context.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Marte , Planeta Terra , Exobiologia , Geologia , Planetas
10.
Astrobiology ; 21(8): 1017-1027, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382857

RESUMO

Habitability has been generally defined as the capability of an environment to support life. Ecologists have been using Habitat Suitability Models (HSMs) for more than four decades to study the habitability of Earth from local to global scales. Astrobiologists have been proposing different habitability models for some time, with little integration and consistency among them, being different in function to those used by ecologists. Habitability models are not only used to determine whether environments are habitable, but they also are used to characterize what key factors are responsible for the gradual transition from low to high habitability states. Here we review and compare some of the different models used by ecologists and astrobiologists and suggest how they could be integrated into new habitability standards. Such standards will help improve the comparison and characterization of potentially habitable environments, prioritize target selections, and study correlations between habitability and biosignatures. Habitability models are the foundation of planetary habitability science, and the synergy between ecologists and astrobiologists is necessary to expand our understanding of the habitability of Earth, the Solar System, and extrasolar planets.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planeta Terra , Planetas
11.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1406-1420, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375145

RESUMO

The nearly logarithmic radiative impact of CO2 means that planets near the outer edge of the liquid water habitable zone (HZ) require ∼106 × more CO2 to maintain temperatures that are conducive to standing liquid water on the planetary surface than their counterparts near the inner edge. This logarithmic radiative response also means that atmospheric CO2 changes of a given mass will have smaller temperature effects on higher pCO2 planets. Ocean pH is linked to atmospheric pCO2 through seawater carbonate speciation and calcium carbonate dissolution/precipitation, and the response of pH to changes in pCO2 also decreases at higher initial pCO2. Here, we use idealized climate and ocean chemistry models to demonstrate that CO2 perturbations large enough to cause catastrophic changes to surface temperature and ocean pH on temperate, low-pCO2 planets in the innermost region of the HZ are likely to have much smaller effects on planets with higher pCO2, as may be the case for terrestrial planets with active carbonate-silicate cycles receiving less instellation than the Earth. Major bouts of extraterrestrial fossil fuel combustion or volcanic CO2 outgassing on high-pCO2 planets in the mid-to-outer HZ should have mild or negligible impacts on surface temperature and ocean pH. Owing to low pCO2, Phanerozoic Earth's surface environment may be unusually volatile compared with similar planets receiving lower instellation.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Dióxido de Carbono , Clima , Planeta Terra , Exobiologia
12.
Astrobiology ; 21(8): 981-996, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406806

RESUMO

Understanding the distribution of trace organic material in a rocky environment is a key to constraining the material requirements for sustaining microbial life. We used an ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy instrument to characterize the distribution of organic biosignatures in basalts collected from two Mars-analog environments. We correlated the fluorescence results with alteration-related sample properties. These samples exhibit a range of alteration conditions found in the volcanic environments of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i (HI), and Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho (ID), including fumarolic systems. LIF mapping of the sample surfaces and interiors showed a heterogeneous distribution of areas of highly fluorescent material (point[s]-of-interest [POIs])-with fluorescence characteristics indicative of organic material. Results suggest that POIs are associated with secondary alteration mineral deposits in the rock's vesicles, including zeolites and calcite. Scanning electron microscopy with electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to characterize the mineralogy present at POIs and support the evidence of carbon-bearing material. Overall, samples collected proximate to active or relict meteoric fumaroles from Hawai'i were shown to contain evidence for organic deposits. This suggests that these minerals are measurable spectroscopic targets that may be used to inform sample-site selection for astrobiology research.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Marte , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Hawaii , Lasers , Minerais/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Astrobiology ; 21(8): 997-1016, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406809

RESUMO

Oxia Planum is a Noachian plain on Mars. It was chosen as the final landing site for in situ studies by ExoMars 2022 rover. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to understand the mineralogy and aqueous evolution of ancient Mars with relevance to habitability. Oxia is covered by vast deposits of Fe,Mg-phyllosilicates, but the exact nature of these deposits is not yet fully understood. We performed a survey of potential terrestrial analog rocks, and here we show combined mineralogical characterization of these rocks with their near-infrared spectral analysis. Samples from two terrestrial sites were studied: (1) vermiculitized chlorite-schists from Otago, New Zealand, which underwent an alteration process without significant oxidation; and (2) basaltic tuffs from Granby, Massachusetts, USA, with Fe-rich clays filling amygdales of supposedly hydrothermal origin. Both analogues are incorporated into the newly built Planetary Terrestrial Analogue Library (PTAL) collection. Oxia bedrock clay-rich deposits are spectrally matched best by a well-crystallized trioctahedral vermiculite/saponite mixture from the basaltic tuff, although the contribution of saponite must be minor. Otago vermiculite is a good analogue to Oxia vermiculite in terms of overall mineralogy and Fe content. However, spectral inconsistencies related to the Al content in the Otago clays indicate that illitization of vermiculite, which results from postalteration oxidation, did not occur at Oxia. This implies limited water/rock interactions and reducing conditions during deposition of sediments now constituting the bedrock at Oxia. Whereas the spectral match does not conclusively imply the mineralogy, trioctahedral vermiculite should be considered a likely mineral component of the bedrock unit at Oxia Planum. Vermiculite has great potential to store organic matter, and the postdeposition geological context of Oxia Planum derived from understanding of environmental conditions in analog sites is promising for organic matter preservation.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Marte , Silicatos de Alumínio , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Minerais , Água
14.
Astrobiology ; 21(8): 893-905, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406807

RESUMO

The physical processes active during the first billion years (FBY) of Earth's history, such as accretion, differentiation, and impact cratering, provide constraints on the initial conditions that were conducive to the formation and establishment of life on Earth. This motivated the Lunar and Planetary Institute's FBY topical initiative, which was a four-part conference series intended to look at each of these physical processes to study the basic structure and composition of our Solar System that was set during the FBY. The FBY Habitability conference, held in September 2019, was the last in this series and was intended to synthesize the initiative; specifically, to further our understanding of the origins of life, planetary and environmental habitability, and the search for life beyond Earth. The conference included discussions of planetary habitability and the potential emergence of life on bodies within our Solar System, as well as extrasolar systems by applying our knowledge of the Solar System's FBY, and in particular Earth's early history. To introduce this Special Collection, which resulted from work discussed at the conference, we provide a review of the main themes and a synopsis of the FBY Habitability conference.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planeta Terra , Planetas , Sistema Solar
15.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1363-1386, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402652

RESUMO

Answering the question of whether life ever existed on Mars is a key goal of both NASA's and ESA's imminent Mars rover missions. The obfuscatory effects of oxidizing salts, such as perchlorates and sulfates, on organic matter during thermal decomposition analysis techniques are well established. Less well studied are the transformative effects of iron oxides and (oxy)hydroxides, which are present in great abundances in the martian regolith. We examined the products of flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (a technique analogous to the thermal techniques employed by past, current, and future landed Mars missions) which form when the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis are heated in the presence of a variety of Mars-relevant iron-bearing minerals. We found that iron oxides/(oxy)hydroxides have transformative effects on the pyrolytic products of cyanobacterial biomolecules. Both the abundance and variety of molecular species detected were decreased as iron substrates transformed biomolecules, by both oxidative and reductive processes, into lower fidelity alkanes, aromatic and aryl-bonded hydrocarbons. Despite the loss of fidelity, a suite that contains mid-length alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and/or aryl-bonded molecules in iron-rich samples subjected to pyrolysis may allude to the transformation of cyanobacterially derived mid-long chain length fatty acids (particularly unsaturated fatty acids) originally present in the sample. Hematite was found to be the iron oxide with the lowest transformation potential, and because this iron oxide has a high affinity for codeposition of organic matter and preservation over geological timescales, sampling at Mars should target sediments/strata that have undergone a diagenetic history encouraging the dehydration, dihydroxylation, and oxidation of more reactive iron-bearing phases to hematite by looking for (mineralogical) evidence of the activity of oxidizing, acidic/neutral, and either hot or long-lived fluids.


Assuntos
Marte , Spirulina , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Óxidos , Pirólise
16.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1438-1449, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449253

RESUMO

Prisons are in some significant respects similar to planetary stations. Their occupants live within a social environment that is confined, takes on its own culture with a strong interdependence and camaraderie between individuals, and contains within it huge latent talents in art, science, engineering, and other disciplines. Recognizing this potential, the Life Beyond project involves the prison population in designing settlements for the Moon and Mars. Involving ∼160 prisoners in Scotland, the project has led to two published books presenting strategies for the settlement of the Moon and Mars. Building on this, a set of course materials was devised for any prisoner anywhere to contribute ideas and plans for the human exploration and settlement of space. Here, we describe this project, the methods used, and the results. In addition to improving educational opportunities in prisons through space science and elements of astrobiology, the project demonstrates the potential for prisoners to contribute to space settlement by applying their experience of the prison space analog environment.


Assuntos
Marte , Prisioneiros , Exobiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Lua , Prisões
17.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1387-1405, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449260

RESUMO

In the subsurface, the interplay between microbial communities and the surrounding mineral substrate, potentially used as an energy source, results in different mineralized structures. The molecular composition of such structures can record and preserve information about the metabolic pathways that have produced them. To characterize the molecular composition of the subsurface biosphere, we have analyzed some core samples by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) that were collected in the borehole BH8 during the operations of the Mars Analog and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project. The molecular analysis at a micron-scale mapped the occurrence of several inorganic complexes bearing PO3-, SOx(2 to 4)-, NOx(2,3)-, FeOx(1,2)-, SiO2-, and Cl-. Their distribution correlates with organic molecules that were tentatively assigned to saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharides, phospholipids, sphingolipids, and potential peptide fragments. SOx- appear to be mineralizing some microstructures larger than 25 microns, which have branched morphologies, and that source SO3-bearing adducts. PO3-rich compounds occur in two different groups of microstructures which size, morphology, and composition are different. While a group of >40-micron sized circular micronodules lacks organic compounds, an ovoidal microstructure is associated with m/z of other lipids. The NO2-/NO3- and Cl- ions occur as small microstructure clusters (<20 microns), but their distribution is dissimilar to the mineralized microstructures bearing PO3-, and SO3-. However, they have a higher density in areas with more significant enrichment in iron oxides that are traced by different Fe-bearing anions like FeO2-. The distribution of the organic and inorganic negative ions, which we suggest, resulted from the preservation of at least three microbial consortia (PO4--, and NO2--/NO3--mineralizers PO4-lipid bearing microstructures), would have resulted from different metabolic and preservation pathways.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Marte , Minerais , Dióxido de Silício , Tecnologia
18.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1350-1362, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314603

RESUMO

Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful laboratory and in situ technique for planetary exploration, with applications in biosignature detection and the search for life on Mars. However, little work has been completed on the utility of fluorescence spectroscopy techniques on asteroid relevant material. In preparation for asteroid sample return missions such as NASA's OSIRIS-REx and JAXA's Hayabusa2, we conducted UV time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIF) analysis of 10 amino acids, all of which have been found in the carbonaceous meteorites Murchison and Allende. We present the calculation of decay rates of each amino acid (1.55-3.56 ns) and compare with those of relevant homogeneous minerals (15-70 ns). Moreover, we demonstrate a linear relationship between calculated lifetimes and elemental abundance of nitrogen and carbon (p < 0.025). The quantitative and qualitative fluorescence analyses presented in this work will lead to more reliable identification of organic material within meteorites and asteroids in a time-efficient, minimally destructive way.


Assuntos
Meteoroides , Aminoácidos , Exobiologia , Lasers , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
19.
Astrobiology ; 21(11): 1325-1349, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314604

RESUMO

Recent observations of the potentially habitable planets TRAPPIST-1 e, f, and g suggest that they possess large water mass fractions of possibly several tens of weight percent of water, even though the host star's activity should drive rapid atmospheric escape. These processes can photolyze water, generating free oxygen and possibly desiccating the planet. After the planets formed, their mantles were likely completely molten with volatiles dissolving and exsolving from the melt. To understand these planets and prepare for future observations, the magma ocean phase of these worlds must be understood. To simulate these planets, we have combined existing models of stellar evolution, atmospheric escape, tidal heating, radiogenic heating, magma-ocean cooling, planetary radiation, and water-oxygen-iron geochemistry. We present MagmOc, a versatile magma-ocean evolution model, validated against the rocky super-Earth GJ 1132b and early Earth. We simulate the coupled magma-ocean atmospheric evolution of TRAPPIST-1 e, f, and g for a range of tidal and radiogenic heating rates, as well as initial water contents between 1 and 100 Earth oceans. We also reanalyze the structures of these planets and find they have water mass fractions of 0-0.23, 0.01-0.21, and 0.11-0.24 for planets e, f, and g, respectively. Our model does not make a strong prediction about the water and oxygen content of the atmosphere of TRAPPIST-1 e at the time of mantle solidification. In contrast, the model predicts that TRAPPIST-1 f and g would have a thick steam atmosphere with a small amount of oxygen at that stage. For all planets that we investigated, we find that only 3-5% of the initial water will be locked in the mantle after the magma ocean solidified.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Planetas , Planeta Terra , Evolução Planetária , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Oceanos e Mares , Água
20.
Astrobiology ; 21(10): 1186-1205, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255549

RESUMO

The search for life beyond Earth has focused on Mars and the icy moons Europa and Enceladus, all of which are considered a safe haven for life due to evidence of current or past water. The surface of Venus, on the other hand, has extreme conditions that make it a nonhabitable environment to life as we know it. This is in contrast, however, to its cloud layer, which, while still an extreme environment, may prove to be a safe haven for some extreme forms of life similar to extremophiles on Earth. We consider the venusian clouds a habitable environment based on the presence of (1) a solvent for biochemical reactions, (2) appropriate physicochemical conditions, (3) available energy, and (4) biologically relevant elements. The diversity of extreme microbial ecosystems on Earth has allowed us to identify terrestrial chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that may be analogs to putative venusian organisms. Here, we hypothesize and describe biological processes that may be performed by such organisms in the venusian clouds. To detect putative venusian organisms, we describe potential biosignature detection methods, which include metal-microbial interactions and optical methods. Finally, we describe currently available technology that can potentially be used for modeling and simulation experiments.


Assuntos
Júpiter , Vênus , Ecossistema , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno
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