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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852105

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients who experience difficulties with independent walking use gait-assistive devices such as a cane, walker, or wheelchair. Few studies have explored gait patterns or cardiopulmonary function in chronic SCI patients after powered exoskeleton training. We investigated whether the cardiopulmonary function of a patient with an incomplete chronic cervical SCI and a hemiplegic gait pattern could be improved by walking training using a powered exoskeleton (Angelegs). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male was diagnosed with an SCI at C3-C4. The right upper and lower limb motor functions differed when evaluated before entry into the program. Motor function was good in the right leg but poor in the left one. Before program entry, the patient could walk for about 10 m using a cane. He did not have a history of severe medical or psychological problems and was not cognitively impaired. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was tetraplegia with incomplete SCI at C3-C4. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was trained for 6 weeks using a powered exoskeleton. The training program consisted of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit movements, maintenance of balanced standing for 5 minutes, and walking for 15 minutes. OUTCOMES: After 6 weeks of training, gait speed improved in the timed up-and-go test, and cardiac function was enhanced as measured by the metabolic equivalent and VO2 tests. LESSIONS: Walking training using a powered exoskeleton can facilitate the effective rehabilitation and improve the gait speed and cardiopulmonary function of patients with chronic SCIs or strokes.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725606

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive multisystem neuromuscular disease characterized by myotonia and muscle weakness and wasting of distal and axial muscles. People with DM1, due to the disease progression, are often concerned about their ability to carry out and participate in the activities of daily living. Rehabilitation approaches in DM1, including moderate-to-intense strength training, have shown not univocal efficacy to face such difficulties. Aim of this case-study was to demonstrate the effects of a combined approach by using conventional plus robotic training in rare neuromuscular diseases, such as DM1. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman came to our observation complaining of difficulty in opening fist after strong voluntary muscle contraction for about 20 years. Over the years, she referred swallowing difficulties for solid foods, balance impairment complicated by tendency to stumble and falls, fatigability, hand muscle weakness with difficulty to open bottles and lifting weights, and daytime sleepiness DIAGNOSIS:: Paraparesis in DM1. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent 2 different trainings. The first period of treatment was carried out by using conventional physiotherapy, 6 times a week (twice a day) for 4 weeks. Then, she underwent a two-month specific task-oriented robotic rehabilitation training for the gait impairment using an overground exoskeleton, namely Ekso-GT, combined to the conventional therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient, after the EKSO training, gained a significant improvement in walking, balance and lower limbs muscle strength, as per 10-meter walking test and Left Lower Limb Motricity Index. Neurophysiological data (electroencephalography and surface electromyography) were also collected to more objectively assess the functional outcomes. LESSONS: Rehabilitation approaches in DM1, including moderate-to-intense strength training, have shown not univocal efficacy. Emerging and advancing robotic technologies can enhance clinical therapeutic outcomes by allowing therapists to activate and/or modulate neural networks to maximize motor and functional recovery.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Distrofia Miotônica/reabilitação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Terapia Combinada , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 094101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575258

RESUMO

Robotic therapy is a useful method applied during rehabilitation of stroke patients (to regain motor functions). To ensure active participation of the patient, assistance-as-needed is provided during robotic training. However, most existing studies are based on a predetermined desired trajectory, which significantly limits the use of this method for more complex scenarios. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI) agents are introduced to enhance the robot so that a knee exoskeleton can be autonomously controlled. A new assist-as-needed (AAN) method is proposed, where the subjects and agents cooperatively control movements. An electromyographic (EMG)-controlled knee exoskeleton with an interesting screen game is developed. Two different AI agents, modular pipeline and deep Q-network, are introduced; both can control the exoskeleton to play the screen game independently. The human-robot cooperative control is studied with two different assistant strategies, i.e., fixed assistant ratio and AAN. Eight healthy subjects participated in the initial experiment, and four assistant modes were studied. The game scores obtained by the two agents were significantly higher than those obtained by healthy subjects (EMG control), indicating that using the agents to assist stroke rehabilitation is possible. The AAN method demonstrated a better performance than the fixed assistant ratio method, indicated by the higher integral muscle activation level and participant score. Compared to a fully active control (EMG control) and fully fixed guidance (AI control), human-robot cooperative control had significantly higher integral muscle activation levels, i.e., the subjects were more involved and motivated during training. Using AI agents to power rehabilitation robots is a promising way to realize AAN rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Articulação do Joelho , Robótica/instrumentação , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Músculos/fisiologia , Reabilitação/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 785-794, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631627

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of wearable lower limb exoskeletons on the kinematics and kinetic parameters of the lower extremity joints and muscles during normal walking, aiming to provide scientific basis for optimizing its structural design and improving its system performance. We collected the walking data of subjects without lower limb exoskeleton and selected the joint angles in sagittal plane of human lower limbs as driving data for lower limb exoskeleton simulation analysis. Anybody (the human biomechanical analysis software) was used to establish the human body model (the human body model without lower limb exoskeleton) and the man-machine system model (the lower limb exoskeleton model). The kinematics parameters (joint force and joint moment) and muscle parameters (muscle strength, muscle activation, muscle contraction velocity and muscle length) under two situations were compared. The experimental result shows that walking gait after wearing the lower limb exoskeleton meets the normal gait, but there would be an occasional and sudden increase in muscle strength. The max activation level of main lower limb muscles were all not exceeding 1, in another word the muscles did not appear fatigue and injury. The highest increase activation level occurred in rectus femoris (0.456), and the lowest increase activation level occurred in semitendinosus (0.013), which means the lower limb exoskeletons could lead to the fatigue and injury of semitendinosus. The results of this study illustrate that to avoid the phenomenon of sudden increase of individual muscle force, the consistency between the length of body segment and the length of exoskeleton rod should be considered in the design of lower limb exoskeleton extremity.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614811

RESUMO

While controlling a lower limb exoskeleton providing walking assistance to wearers, the walking terrain is an important factor that should be considered for meeting performance and safety requirements. Therefore, we developed a method to estimate the slope and elevation using the contact points between the limb exoskeleton and ground. We used the center of pressure as a contact point on the ground and calculated the location of the contact points on the walking terrain based on kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton. Then, a set of contact points collected from each step during walking was modeled as the plane that represents the surface of the walking terrain through the least-square method. Finally, by comparing the normal vectors of the modeled planes for each step, features of the walking terrain were estimated. We analyzed the estimation accuracy of the proposed method through experiments on level ground, stairs, and a ramp. Classification using the estimated features showed recognition accuracy higher than 95% for all experimental motions. The proposed method approximately analyzed the movement of the exoskeleton on various terrains even though no prior information on the walking terrain was provided. The method can enable exoskeleton systems to actively assist walking in various environments.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Pressão , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Calibragem , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Caminhada/fisiologia
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615048

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a knee exoskeleton. Due to the complicated structure of the knee, an exoskeleton can limit the wearer's movement (e.g., when completely sitting down). To prevent this, the proposed exoskeleton is designed to move the ankle part prismatically, so the movement of the wearer is not limited. In addition, the developed exoskeleton could be worn on only one leg, but in this case, it is difficult to detect the intention because the relative relationship information of the two legs is unknown. For this purpose, the length between the knee center of rotation and the ankle (LBKA) was measured and used for intention detection. Using a physical sensor-an encoder and an LBKA sensor, the success rate of intention detection was 82.1%. By additionally using an electromyogram (EMG) sensor, the success rate of intention detection was increased to 92%, and the intention detection was also 27.1 ms faster on average.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Joelho/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Entropia , Humanos , Joelho/anatomia & histologia , Movimento , Probabilidade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Caminhada
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618848

RESUMO

Compared with conventional exoskeletons with rigid links, cable-driven upper-limb exoskeletons are light weight and have simple structures. However, cable-driven exoskeletons rely heavily on the human skeletal system for support. Kinematic modeling and control thus becomes very challenging due to inaccurate anthropomorphic parameters and flexible attachments. In this paper, the mechanical design of a cable-driven arm rehabilitation exoskeleton is proposed to accommodate human limbs of different sizes and shapes. A novel arm cuff able to adapt to the contours of human upper limbs is designed. This has given rise to an exoskeleton which reduces the uncertainties caused by instabilities between the exoskeleton and the human arm. A kinematic model of the exoskeleton is further developed by considering the inaccuracies of human-arm skeleton kinematics and attachment errors of the exoskeleton. A parameter identification method is used to improve the accuracy of the kinematic model. The developed kinematic model is finally tested with a primary experiment with an exoskeleton prototype.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Movimento/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540298

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a single leg knee joint assistance robot. Commonly used exoskeletons have a left-right pair, but when only one leg of the wearer is uncomfortable, it is effective to wear the exoskeleton on only the uncomfortable leg. The designed exoskeleton uses a lightweight material and uses a wire-driven actuator, which reduces the weight of the driving section that is attached on the knee directly. Therefore, proposed exoskeleton reduces the force of inertia that the wearer experiences. In addition, the lower frame length of the exoskeleton can be changed to align with the complex movement of the knee. Furthermore, the length between the knee center of rotation and the ankle (LBKA) is measured by using this structure, and the LBKA values are used as the data for intention detection. These value helps to detect the intention because it changes faster than a motor encoder value. A neural network was trained using the motor encoder values, and LBKA values. Neural network detects the intention of three motions (stair ascending, stair descending, and walking), Training results showed that intention detection was good in various environments.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Rotação , Algoritmos , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fricção , Humanos , Curva ROC , Torque
10.
J Appl Biomech ; 35(5): 320-326, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541067

RESUMO

The authors tested 4 young healthy subjects walking with a powered knee exoskeleton to determine if it could reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion. Subjects walked with a backpack loaded and unloaded, on a treadmill with inclinations of 0° and 15°, and outdoors with varied natural terrain. Participants walked at a self-selected speed (average 1.0 m/s) for all conditions, except incline treadmill walking (average 0.5 m/s). The authors hypothesized that the knee exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic cost of walking uphill and with a load compared with walking without the exoskeleton. The knee exoskeleton reduced metabolic cost by 4.2% in the 15° incline with the backpack load. All other conditions had an increase in metabolic cost when using the knee exoskeleton compared with not using the exoskeleton. There was more variation in metabolic cost over the outdoor walking course with the knee exoskeleton than without it. Our findings indicate that powered assistance at the knee is more likely to decrease the metabolic cost of walking in uphill conditions and during loaded walking rather than in level conditions without a backpack load. Differences in positive mechanical work demand at the knee for varying conditions may explain the differences in metabolic benefit from the exoskeleton.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Joelho , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Suporte de Carga
11.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 21-27, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374601

RESUMO

Wearable exoskeletons show promise as a means for compensating lost function as well as for providing optimal assistance for maximal therapeutic benefit during everyday tasks. Development of lightweight spring systems for efficient storage and return are proposed as a key component in the successful deployment of wearable exoskeletons for individuals with neurological deficits. Both spring steel and natural rubber are common materials used in energy storage, but have not been directly compared by metrics such as energy storage density, energy storage efficiency, and hysteresis. In this work, we perform cyclic loading tests on spring steel extension springs of varying wire diameter and natural rubber tubing of varying wall thicknesses. We then use measured load-extension profiles to illustrate and compute metrics to better quantify the energy storing capabilities of each material and their appropriateness for use as energy storing and returning components in wearable robotic applications. Results show that natural rubber has a higher capacity for energy storage per unit weight in comparison to steel springs. Hysteresis is also higher in natural rubber and can be dramatically reduced by applying adequate pre-strain at levels greater than the anticipated strain during use.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Robótica/instrumentação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Borracha , Aço , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
12.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 53-58, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374606

RESUMO

The human ankle provides significant positive power during the stance phase of walking, which has resulted in studies focusing on methods to reduce the energetic walking cost by augmenting the ankle with exoskeletons. Recently, a few devices have successfully reduced the metabolic cost of walking by replacing part of the biological ankle plantar flexor torque. Despite these achievements, development of assistive ankle devices remains challenging, partly because the current practice of design and control of powered exoskeletons is highly time and effort consuming, which prevents quickly exploring different design and control parameters. Predictive simulations using musculoskeletal models coupled with robotic devices may facilitate the process of design and control of assistive devices. In this study, we simulate human walking augmented by a powered ankle exoskeleton. The walking problem was formulated as a predictive dynamic optimization in which both the optimal assistive device torque and the gait were solved simultaneously. Cases with exoskeletons assisting one ankle and both ankles were considered. The results showed that the energetic cost of walking could be reduced by 45% with one ankle augmented, and by 52% with both ankles augmented. This study contributes towards the goal of providing optimal assistive torque through external devices and theoretical peak reductions that could be expected from such devices.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Metabolismo Energético , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aparelhos Ortopédicos
13.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 65-70, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374608

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the new personalized 3D printed soft robotic hand for providing rehabilitation training and daily activities assistance to stroke survivors. The Soft-Elastic Composite Actuator (SECA) on the robotic hand is direct 3D printed to accommodate with different finger sizes. Flexion and extension can be actively facilitated on the SECA using the same pressurizing source. Iterative learning model predictive control (ILMPC) method is used to be the control algorithm of SECA. At 160 kPa of maximum input pressure, results show that the actuator bending angles can reach to 137 °, and tip output force can also reach to 2.45 N. Multiple 3D printed SECAs are integrated to a 3D printed hand base and then to be worn on stroke survivors. Two stroke survivors are recruited to evaluate the intention-based rehabilitation training with the 3D printed soft robotic hand, which improvement of their hand function can be observed on performing some daily tasks such as grasping a coin.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Força da Mão , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
14.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 108-114, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374615

RESUMO

Children with hand motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, or pediatric stroke are considerably affected in their independence, development, and quality of life. Treatment conventionally includes task-oriented training in occupational therapy. While dose and intensity of hand therapy can be promoted through technology, these approaches are mostly limited to large stationary robotic devices for non-task-oriented training, or passive wearable devices for children with mild impairments. Here we present PEXO, a fully wearable actuated pediatric hand exoskeleton to cover the special needs of children (6 to 12 years of age) with strong impairments in hand function. Through three degrees of freedom, PEXO provides assistance in various grasp types needed for the execution of functional tasks. It is lightweight, water proof, and inherently interacts safely with the user. It meets mechanical requirements such as force, fast closing movement, and battery lifetime derived from literature and discussions with clinicians. Appealing appearance, user-friendly design, and intuitive control with visual feedback of forearm muscle activity should keep the user motivated during training in the clinic or at home. A pilot test with a 6-years old child with stroke showed that PEXO can provide assistance in grasping various objects weighing up to 0.5 kg. These are promising first results on the way to make hand exoskeletons accessible for children with neuromotor disorders.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Terapia Ocupacional/instrumentação , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
15.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 187-192, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374628

RESUMO

Nowadays, many people suffer from physical disabilities caused by illness or accidents. The problems in the lower limb are one of the main that interrupt the activities of daily life of these people. To assist them in the activities of daily living, many support devices for upper and lower limb movement have been developed. In this paper is proposed a new simple and low-cost pneumatic robotic mechanism for lower limb rehabilitation. We employ a pneumatic actuator so that it is possible to obtain safety for the operation and the control of the force by the appropriate regulation of the pressures in the pneumatic cylinder chambers of the robot for rehabilitation. This work deals with the development of the robot for rehabilitation from a methodology of integration of mathematical modeling with the phases of the design process. It is concluded that the results obtained are a modular design that can be improved for multiple degrees of freedom and adapted also for rehabilitation of upper limbs.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Prótese , Reabilitação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 311-316, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374648

RESUMO

Stroke is one of the leading causes of impairment in the world. Many of those who have suffered a stroke experience long-term loss of upper-limb function as a result. BLUE SABINO is an exoskeleton device being developed at the University of Idaho to help assess these patients and aid in their rehabilitation. One of the central design challenges with exoskeletons is limiting the overall weight of the device. Motors used in actuation of these devices are often oversized to allow gravity balancing of the device and user and the creation of torques to facilitate patient movements. If the torques required for gravity balancing are achieved through elastic elements, the motor and other upstream components can be lighter, potentially greatly reducing the overall weight of the device. In this paper, constant-force springs may provide an effective method of generating a constant offsetting torque to compensate for gravity. In experimental testing of multiple mounting configurations of C-shaped constant-force springs (single, back-to-back, double-wrapped), the force output fluctuated less than 8.6% over 180° of wrapping, with friction values below 2.6%, validating the viability of constant-force springs for this application. The results suggest the back-to-back configuration provides a simpler implementation with better force consistency while the double-wrapped configuration adds less friction to the system.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Gravitação , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Robótica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
17.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 317-322, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374649

RESUMO

Low impedance and torque control are critical for movement rehabilitation using robotic exoskeletons. A grounded 3 degree of freedom shoulder exoskeleton was designed for movement assistance in shoulder abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, and shoulder internal/external rotation. Two series elastic actuators designs were developed using a linear spring arrangement with a global nonlinear stiffness behavior. RMS errors during application of constant torque were less than.06 Nm in shoulder add/abd and less than.04 Nm in arm rotation as the limb was moved in sinusoidal trajectories up to 3.5 Hz. For abd/adduction, the step response rise time was.05 s, and free mode impedance peaked at.007 Nm/deg during 3.5 Hz oscillations. For arm rotation, the step response rise time was.03 s, and impedance peaked at.023 Nm/deg during 3.5 Hz oscillations. Both SEA designs had performance measurements that were similar to other SEA designs in terms of torque tracking, but with much lower impedance than previously reported.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Movimento , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Rotação , Ombro , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
18.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 323-330, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374650

RESUMO

Over the past decade, many medical lower limb exoskeletons have been developed and exploited. The advantage of such a systems is to ensure the mobility of paraplegic patients, as well as their physical rehabilitation. However, existing solutions have not been widely available among the disabled population, particularly adolescents, due to the limitations of their conception caused by the rapid physical growth and morphological variation of this population.In this paper, a new scalable structure of the exoskeleton is proposed as a feasible solution to the problem of morphological changes. As this is the first time the generic term "scalability" has been used, its requirements and design methods, including the morphological changes and alignment, are presented in detail to better meet the growing needs for such a promising device. The evaluation of the proposed scalable structure shows a promising utility that is illustrated by several experimental scenarios: the load capacity of the structure, the efficiency of the fixation mechanisms, the validation of the hip alignment mechanism and finally the validation of the evolutionary structure.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Paraplegia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Paraplegia/patologia
19.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 331-336, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374651

RESUMO

This paper presents a Transmissive Force Sensing Elastic Actuator (TFSEA) for exoskeleton applications. Exoskeletons can serve as orthotic or rehabilitative devices enabling people with paraplegia to walk. Several exoskeletons have been commercialized, most of which are above 23 kg, making them too heavy and bulky for people with paraplegia to put on and take off by themselves. One of the bottlenecks of achieving lightweight exoskeleton design is actuation. This work focused on developing a compact, lightweight and high-performance actuator. Using the differential property of harmonic drive, a new elastic actuator configuration was created. A dynamic model was developed for the proposed design and a model-based controller was implemented. Various tests were done to evaluate the performance of the actuator. The results showed that the torsional spring exhibits linearity of 99.99%, with no backlash or hysteresis. Thejoint can output 100 Nm peak torque with a large-torque bandwidth of 5 Hz. Moreover, it weighs only 1.56 kg, leading to a torque density of 64 Nm/kg and a power density of 360 W/kg, the highest published to date in the same torque and power rating.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Marcha , Modelos Teóricos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Robótica , Humanos , Caminhada
20.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 337-342, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374652

RESUMO

This paper presents the development of a pneumatically actuated soft robotic based bilateral therapy system for hand rehabilitation in post-stroke patients. The goal is to use a healthy hand to guide the motion of the paretic hand using a sensorized glove and a robotic exoskeleton, respectively. The sensorized glove tracks the motion of the healthy hand and provides inputs for the soft robotic hand exoskeleton to apply mimicking motion to the paretic hand. Two control algorithms, PD flow-based and adaptive PD pressure-based position controls, were developed and tested. Initial tests confirmed the ability of the systems to apply bilateral therapy. Furthermore, the adaptive pressure-based controller showed better performance with overall error reduced by 25.8% with respect to the flow-based controller. Future studies will include feasibility and performance of the system for applying therapy to post-stroke patients.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem , Paresia/reabilitação , Robótica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos
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