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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(20): e2121499119, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537048

RESUMO

SignificanceUsing CMV as a gene therapy vector we illustrated that CMV can be used therapeutically as a monthly inhaled or intraperitoneally delivered treatment for aging-associated decline. Exogenous telomerase reverse transcriptase or follistatin genes were safely and effectively delivered in a murine model. This treatment significantly improved biomarkers associated with healthy aging, and the mouse lifespan was increased up to 41% without an increased risk of cancer. The impact of this research on an aging population cannot be understated as the global aging-related noncommunicable disease burden quickly rises.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Terapia Genética , Expectativa de Vida , Telomerase , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Folistatina/genética , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Neoplasias , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo
2.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(2): 7014, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article attempts to investigate whether inclusive health systems increase societal welfare, with the latter expressed through estimates of healthy life expectancy (HLE). METHODS: The analysis uses publicly available data by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and explores the relationship of HLE at the age of 65 years (HLE_65) with four variables that are representative of institutional inclusivity or extractiveness of health systems. RESULTS: Results indicate that HLE_65 is positively associated with healthcare system institutional inclusivity as expressed in terms of the share of public healthcare expenditure and the spending on preventive care. HLE_65 is inversely associated with the strength of extracting characteristics of the system, such as the market power of physicians and the share of specialists in the total number of physicians. CONCLUSION: In this light, the development of health policies that aim to strengthen inclusive institutions, such as the focus on prevention, financial protection and primary care, could have a significant positive impact in collective welfare and social cohesion - especially for populations in rural, remote and less developed parts of the world.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Idoso , Programas Governamentais , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Assistência Médica
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the dynapenia-free life expectancy among community-dwelling older Brazilian adults and evaluate gender-related and educational differences. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. The data were obtained from the Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (ELSI-Brazil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging), conducted from 2015 to 2016 in Brazil. Dynapenia is defined as low muscle strength (< 27kg for men and < 16kg for women), measured with a handgrip dynamometer. The dynapenia-free life expectancy was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and dynapenia prevalence, stratified by age groups, gender, and schooling. RESULTS: A total of 8,827 participants, aged 50 and over (53.3% women), were investigated. The prevalence of dynapenia was 17.7% among men and 18.5% among women. The women live longer and with more years free of dynapenia than men. Those in the higher education category (four or more years) presented an advantage in the dynapenia-free life expectancy estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest the substantial impact of dynapenia on longer dynapenia-free life expectancy among older people. Understanding dynapenia prevalence and dynapenia-free life expectancy could assist in predicting care needs, as well as targeting efforts to delay the onset of complications related to it at older ages. Without the implementation of policy regarding dynapenia prevention, inequalities in health due to gender and socioeconomic status may continue to increase.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Expectativa de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 394, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice and science, there is debate for which older adults the benefits of cardiovascular preventive medications (CPM) still outweigh the risks in older age. Therefore, we aimed to assess how various clinical characteristics influence the judgement of appropriateness of CPM in older adults. METHOD: We assessed the appropriateness of CPM for adults ≥75 years with regard to clinical characteristics (cardiovascular variables, complexity of health problems, age, side effects and life expectancy) using the RAND/ University of California at Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. A multidisciplinary panel, including 11 medical professionals and 3 older representatives of the target population, received an up-to-date overview of the literature. Using 9-point Likert scales (1 = extremely inappropriate; 9 = extremely appropriate), they assessed the appropriateness of starting and stopping cholesterol lowering medication, antihypertensives and platelet aggregation inhibitors, for various theoretical clinical scenarios. There were two rating rounds, with one face-to-face discussion in between. The overall appropriateness judgments were based on the median panel ratings of the second round and level of disagreement. RESULTS: The panelists emphasized the importance of the individual context of the patient for appropriateness of CPM. They judged that in general, a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease strongly adds to the appropriateness of CPM, while increasing complexity of health problems, presence of hindering or severe side effects, and life expectancy < 1 year all contribute to the inappropriateness of CPM. Age had only minor influence on the appropriateness judgments. The appropriateness judgments were different for the three types of CPM. The literature, time-to-benefit, remaining life expectancy, number needed to treat, and quality of life, were major themes in the panel discussions. The considerations to stop CPM were different from the considerations not to start CPM. CONCLUSION: Next to the patients' individual context, which was considered decisive in the final decision to start or stop CPM, there were general trends of how clinical characteristics influenced the appropriateness, according to the multidisciplinary panel. The decision to stop, and not start CPM, appeared to be two distinct concepts. Results of this study may be used in efforts to support clinical decision making about CPM in older adults.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
5.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(7)2022 05 03.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510448
6.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 563-569, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the adherence to medications prior and within a two-year period after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to estimate its impact on the average lifespan of patients after STEMI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 1,103 patients with STEMI were enrolled in the prospective Ukrainian STIMUL registry with 24-month follow-up. The relationship between adherence to medical treatment and average lifespan was evaluated. RESULTS: Results: The majority of prior STEMI patients were characterized with high and very high cardiovascular risk. The rate of revascularization was 29.9% (21.5% pPCI, 8.4% fibrinolytic therapy). The main reason for the low level of pPCI was late hospitalization and the inaccessibility of pPCI. This contributed greatly to in-hospital mortality (11.3%). Adherence to all medications progressively decreased (p < 0.001) within 24 months after STEMI. Permanent use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and statins during the two-year follow-up was associated with 7.0% of the mortalities, whereas non-adherence to medications was related to a 15% risk of death (OR 4.2; 95% CI 0.2-0.9; p < 0.05). The average life expectancy with regular use of ASA and statins within 24 months after STEMI was 62.3 ± 1.1 years (95% CI 60.1-64.4; p < 0.05) and 61.2 ± 0.9 years with non-regular use of ASA and statins (95% CI 59.4-62.9; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Adherence to evidence-based medicines was low in the STIMUL population both prior and after STEMI. This worsened cardiovascular prognosis and reduced average lifespan by one year within the following two years after STEMI.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7476, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523974

RESUMO

Modest drinking has been repeatedly discussed in scientific papers as protective against certain diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, but in most cases, alcohol worsens health conditions, especially when consumed at high risk levels. The complexity of the risk relationship between alcohol and health conditions has confused clinicians as to whether it should be recommended. The study aims to balance the risks and benefits of modest drinking. This retrospective cohort study of 430,016 adults recruited from a standard health-screening program since 1994, with 11,031 deaths identified as of 2008. Drinking distinguished "modest drinker" (no more than one drink a day) from "regular drinker". Mortality risks including all-cause mortality and diseases-specific mortality with hazard ratio (HR) were calculated by adjusting for 15 confounders. Life table was used for life expectancy. Risk predictors were subjected to Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to identify significant predictors in multivariate models and life expectancy analysis. Nearly one out of 4 males (23%) was a modest drinker, who gained 0.94 year (95% CI 0.65-1.23 year) in life over non-drinker and had 8% reduction in adjusted all-cause mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.97). In contrast, regular drinkers had 43% increase in overall mortality (HR 1.43, CI 1.35-1.52) and shortened life by 6.9 years (95% CI 6.6-7.1 years). As most drinkers also smoked, 59% in modest and 75% in regular, the combined effect shortened life by 2.0 years (95% CI 1.6-2.4 years) in modest drinker and 10.3 years (95% CI 9.8-10.7 years) in regular drinker. Cancer were increased in modest drinkers for oral (HR 2.35, CI 1.38-4.01) and esophageal (HR 3.83, CI 1.90-7.73) cancer. The gain of one year by modest drinkers was erased by a two to fourfold increase in oral and esophageal cancer and that drinking beyond modest amount led to a large loss of life expectancy. Given that drinkers are prone to cross the line of drinking, clinicians should balance the risks and benefits of drinking, as well as the understanding of whether the patient is at risk for addiction.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Neoplasias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 130, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A relative survival approach is often used in population-based cancer studies, where other cause (or expected) mortality is assumed to be the same as the mortality in the general population, given a specific covariate pattern. The population mortality is assumed to be known (fixed), i.e. measured without uncertainty. This could have implications for the estimated standard errors (SE) of any measures obtained within a relative survival framework, such as relative survival (RS) ratios and the loss in life expectancy (LLE). We evaluated the existing approach to estimate SE of RS and the LLE in comparison to if uncertainty in the population mortality was taken into account. METHODS: The uncertainty from the population mortality was incorporated using parametric bootstrap approach. The analysis was performed with different levels of stratification and sizes of the general population used for creating expected mortality rates. Using these expected mortality rates, SEs of 5-year RS and the LLE for colon cancer patients in Sweden were estimated. RESULTS: Ignoring uncertainty in the general population mortality rates had negligible (less than 1%) impact on the SEs of 5-year RS and LLE, when the expected mortality rates were based on the whole general population, i.e. all people living in a country or region. However, the smaller population used for creating the expected mortality rates, the larger impact. For a general population reduced to 0.05% of the original size and stratified by age, sex, year and region, the relative precision for 5-year RS was 41% for males diagnosed at age 85. For the LLE the impact was more substantial with a relative precision of 1286%. The relative precision for marginal estimates of 5-year RS was 3% and 30% and for the LLE 22% and 313% when the general population was reduced to 0.5% and 0.05% of the original size, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: When the general population mortality rates are based on the whole population, the uncertainty in the estimates of the expected measures can be ignored. However, when based on a smaller population, this uncertainty should be taken into account, otherwise SEs may be too small, particularly for marginal values, and, therefore, confidence intervals too narrow.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Expectativa de Vida , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Incerteza
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 408, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505192

RESUMO

Suitable animal models are essential for translational research, especially in the case of complex, multifactorial conditions, such as obesity. The non-inbred mouse (Mus musculus) line Titan, also known as DU6, is one of the world's longest selection experiments for high body mass and was previously described as a model for metabolic healthy (benign) obesity. The present study further characterizes the geno- and phenotypes of this non-inbred mouse line and tests its suitability as an interventional obesity model. In contrast to previous findings, our data suggest that Titan mice are metabolically unhealthy obese and short-lived. Line-specific patterns of genetic invariability are in accordance with observed phenotypic traits. Titan mice also show modifications in the liver transcriptome, proteome, and epigenome linked to metabolic (dys)regulations. Importantly, dietary intervention partially reversed the metabolic phenotype in Titan mice and significantly extended their life expectancy. Therefore, the Titan mouse line is a valuable resource for translational and interventional obesity research.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Animais , Expectativa de Vida , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo
11.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 214: 112472, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364455

RESUMO

Biodegradable polymers typically have inferior barrier properties compared to petroleum-based nonbiodegradable plastic. The addition of zinc oxide nanoparticles may enhance the functional properties of biodegradable packaging and extends the shelf life of packaged foods. Polybutylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) blended ZnO (1-5%) nanocomposite films were developed via blown extrusion for functional active meat packaging. The nanocomposite film morphology showed agglomeration of the nanoparticles, causing poor mechanical properties. Nanovoids formed at the interface between the polymer and nanoparticles, increasing permeability. Dispersion of ZnO nanofillers modified CO and C-O ester bonding in PBAT and increased hydrogen bonding with TPS. The interaction between ZnO and polymers increased the dispersion and reduced the agglomeration of nanoparticles. The highest ZnO content at 5% resulted in a stronger interaction between ZnO and TPS due to increased amorphous starch content, which improved homogeneous dispersion within the matrices, reducing nanoparticle size. The ZnO nanocomposite films reduced lipid oxidation and delayed microbial growth, resulting in a lower total viable count, lactic acid bacteria and yeast and mold in packaged pork meat. Higher ZnO concentrations from 3% showed microbial inhibitory effects. The growth of microorganisms was controlled by residual oxygen, morphology of the films and nanoparticle characteristics. The nanocomposite films effectively extended the shelf life by more than 3 days under refrigerated conditions.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Expectativa de Vida , Carne , Polímeros , Amido , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 75, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382046

RESUMO

Introduction: the factors determining life expectancy (LE) are crucial for policymakers to study in implementing an effective and accurate intervention in society. In Oman, the available data over the past four decades were not extracted to develop a statistical model to understand how the sociodemographic (SD), macroeconomic (ME), and health-status and resources (HSR) factors affecting LE. The study was aimed at creating a representative model to explain the factors affecting LE in Oman and examine the direct and indirect effects of SD, ME, and HSR in LE in Oman. Methods: the research was a retrospective, ecological, time-series study design to collect the annual published data on SD, ME, and HSR in Oman from all available resources from 1978 to 2018. The data were then analyzed with structural equation modeling (SEM) method using IBM® SPSS® Amos 24 for the study of their impacts in LE. Results: in Oman, using SEM, the SD, ME, and HSR significantly and directly affected LE by the estimate of -0.92 (p < 0.001), -0.15 (p < 0.001), and 0.23 (p < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: the study was the first attempt to analyze all the different aspects of LE comprehensively in Oman. In the case of Oman, the health resource is an important factor that need to be addressed to increase or to maintain the current LE. Hence, during social hardship or economic recession, health-related support by the government should be continued or even improved because of its positive effect on LE.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Estatísticos , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Omã/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227705, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435970

RESUMO

Importance: Improvements in control of factors associated with diabetes risk in the US have stalled and remain suboptimal. The benefit of continually improving goal achievement has not been evaluated to date. Objective: To quantify potential gains in life expectancy (LE) among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated with lowering glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and body mass index (BMI) toward optimal levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this decision analytical model, the Building, Relating, Assessing, and Validating Outcomes (BRAVO) diabetes microsimulation model was calibrated to a nationally representative sample of adults with T2D from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2015-2016) using their linked short-term mortality data from the National Death Index. The model was then used to conduct the simulation experiment on the study population over a lifetime. Data were analyzed from January to October 2021. Exposure: The study population was grouped into quartiles on the basis of levels of HbA1c, SBP, LDL-C, and BMI. LE gains associated with achieving better control were estimated by moving people with T2D from the current quartile of each biomarker to the lower quartiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy. Results: Among 421 individuals, 194 (46%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 65.6 (8.9) years. Compared with a BMI of 41.4 (mean of the fourth quartile), lower BMIs of 24.3 (first), 28.6 (second), and 33.0 (third) were associated with 3.9, 2.9, and 2.0 additional life-years, respectively, in people with T2D. Compared with an SBP of 160.4 mm Hg (fourth), lower SBP levels of 114.1 mm Hg (first), 128.2 mm Hg (second), and 139.1 mm Hg (third) were associated with 1.9, 1.5, and 1.1 years gained in LE in people with T2D, respectively. A lower LDL-C level of 59 mg/dL (first), 84.0 mg/dL (second), and 107.0 mg/dL (third) were associated with 0.9, 0.7, and 0.5 years gain in LE, compared with LDL-C of 146.2 mg/dL (fourth). Reducing HbA1c from 9.9% (fourth) to 7.7% (third) was associated with 3.4 years gain in LE. However, a further reduction to 6.8% (second) was associated with only a mean of 0.5 years gain in LE, and from 6.8% to 5.9% (first) was not associated with LE benefit. Overall, reducing HbA1c from the fourth quartile to the first is associated with an LE gain of 3.8 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings can be used by clinicians to motivate patients in achieving the recommended treatment goals and to help prioritize interventions and programs to improve diabetes care in the US.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Objetivos , Adulto , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 367, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recently developed Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions in Frail adults with a limited life expectancy (STOPPFrail) criteria can be helpful for screening medications (PIMs), but it is yet to be widely used in clinical practice. Herein, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of PIMs based on the STOPPFrail criteria (STOPPFrail-PIM) among frail older adults with limited life expectancy admitted to the geriatric center. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the geriatric center at an academic tertiary care hospital in Korea. We evaluated frail older adults with limited life expectancy who received comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) admitted between 1 January, 2019 and 30 June, 2020. Frail older adults with limited life expectancy were identified by geriatricians with retrospective records and the prevalence of STOPPFrail-PIMs was analysed by trained pharmacists. Descriptive analysis, t-test, and chi-square test were conducted using IBM SPSS software version 25.0. RESULTS: Among 504 older adults who underwent CGA after admission, 171 frail older adults with limited life expectancy were identified by geriatricians and included in the study. An average of 11.3 ± 4.7 medications were administered regularly to each patient before admission. Overall, 97.1% (166/171) had at least one STOPPFrail-PIM, and the mean number of STOPPFrail-PIM was 4.2 ± 2.8. Drugs without clear clinical indication (A2) were the most frequent pre-admission STOPPFrail-PIM, followed by lipid-lowering therapies (B1) and neuroleptic antipsychotics (D1). The number of STOPPFrail-PIM was significantly lower at discharge than that at admission, with the decrease being the highest for A2 at 94.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Most frail older adults with limited life expectancy had at least one STOPPFrail-PIM at admission, and the rate of STOPPFrail-PIM decreased significantly at discharge after the geriatric multidisciplinary team care. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between the use of STOPPFrail-PIM and adverse consequences in frail older adults.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Expectativa de Vida , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227067, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416991

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies reported that US life expectancy decreased considerably in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, with estimates suggesting that the decreases were much larger among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations than non-Hispanic White populations. Studies based on provisional data suggested that other high-income countries did not experience the large decrease in life expectancy observed in the US; this study sought to confirm these findings according to official death counts and to broaden the pool of comparison countries. Objective: To calculate changes in US life expectancy between 2019 and 2020 by sex, race, and ethnicity and to compare those outcomes with changes in other high-income countries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved a simulation of life tables based on national death and population counts for the US and 21 other high-income countries in 2019 and 2020, by sex, including an analysis of US outcomes by race and ethnicity. Data were analyzed in January 2022. Exposures: Official death counts from the US and 21 peer countries. Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at birth and credible range (CR) based on 10% uncertainty. Results: Between 2019 and 2020, US life expectancy decreased by a mean of 1.87 years (CR, 1.70-2.03 years), with much larger decreases occurring in the Hispanic (3.70 years; CR, 3.53-3.87 years) and non-Hispanic Black (3.22 years; CR, 3.03-3.40 years) populations than in the non-Hispanic White population (1.38 years; CR, 1.21-1.54 years). The mean decrease in life expectancy among peer countries was 0.58 years (CR, 0.42-0.73 year) across all 21 countries. No peer country experienced decreases as large as those seen in the US. Conclusions and Relevance: Official death counts confirm that US life expectancy decreased between 2019 and 2020 on a scale not seen in 21 peer countries, substantially widening the preexisting gap in life expectancy between the US and peer countries. The decrease in US life expectancy was experienced disproportionately by Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations, consistent with a larger history of racial and ethnic health inequities resulting from policies of exclusion and systemic racism. Policies to address the systemic causes of the US health disadvantage relative to peer countries and persistent racial and ethnic inequities are essential.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social status gradients are powerful health determinants for individuals living in poverty. We tested whether winning an Academy award (Oscar) for acting was associated with long-term survival. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis of all actors and actresses nominated for an Academy award in a leading or a supporting role. For each, a control was identified based on age, sex, and co-staring in the same film. RESULTS: Overall, 2,111 individuals were analyzed with 1,122 total deaths occurring during a median follow-up of 68.8 years. Comparisons of winners to controls yielded a 4.8% relative difference average life-span (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.9, p = 0.004), a 5.1 year absolute increase in life expectancy (95% confidence interval: 3.0 to 7.2, p < 0.001), and a 41% improvement in mortality hazard (95% confidence interval: 19 to 68, p < 0.001). The increased survival tended to be greater in recent years, for individuals winning at a younger age, and among those with multiple wins. The increased survival replicated in secondary analyses comparing winners to nominees and was not observed in analyses comparing nominees to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Academy award winning actors and actresses show a positive association between success and survival, suggesting the importance of behavioral, psychological, or other modifiable health factors unrelated to poverty.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Expectativa de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Longevidade , Filmes Cinematográficos
17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485074

RESUMO

Currently, life expectancy is increasing every year, and with it the diseases that are characteristic of the elderly. Dementia is one such condition. According to statistics, there are 9 people with dementia per 100 healthy people aged 60 and over. However, it is important to understand that dementia can also be viewed in a historical context. Over time, ideas about this condition, approaches to its management, as well as the attitude of society towards patients with dementia have changed. The article describes the history of the study of dementia, which went along with the development of medicine, anatomy, neurology and psychiatry. In different historical periods, people's understanding of the mechanisms of development, etiology and pathogenesis of this condition has changed. Ethics and deontology gradually developed, which undoubtedly played an important role in improving the life of not only patients with dementia, but also the relationship between the doctor and the patient as a whole. The main stages in the study of dementia have become the basis for the modern understanding of this condition.


Assuntos
Demência , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054716, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine cause-specific years of life lost (YLL) changes between predisaster and postdisaster in disaster-affected municipalities, compared with the national average. We estimated the YLL in Soma and Minamisoma cities (the subject area) in Fukushima, Japan, where the tsunami and the nuclear accident hit in 2011. PARTICIPANTS: We used vital registration records from a national survey conducted between January 2006 and December 2015. We analysed 6369 death data in the predisaster period (2006-2010) and 6258 death data in the postdisaster period (2011-2015). METHODS: We incorporated vital statistics data as follows: age-based, sex-based and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision-based cause-specific deaths and calculated YLLs by ages 0, 40, 65 and 75 and sex for attributable causes of death for heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, all cancers and specific cancers; breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, lung cancer, stomach cancer and uterine cancer for predisaster and postdisaster in the subject area. RESULTS: YLL attributed to heart diseases for males showed no decrease and YLL postdisaster was 0.37 years larger than that of the national average at age 0. The difference was -0.17 (95% uncertainty interval: -0.40 to 0.05) years at age 65. It decreased for females; the difference was 0.37 (0.18-0.57) years after the disaster. YLL decrease (that is, difference) in cerebrovascular diseases at age 0 was 0.27 (0.09-0.44) years and 0.18 (0.04-0.32) years; however, the YLLs postdisaster were still 0.24 and 0.25 years larger than those for the national average for males and females, respectively. YLL attributed to cancer did not increase even after the nuclear disaster. CONCLUSIONS: We specified the causes of death to be reduced in disaster-affected areas in the future. This study emphasised the importance of understanding how the health situation changed for the whole society of the area from a comprehensive perspective, rather than focusing only on small mortality increases.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
Clin Ter ; 173(2): 128-134, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385035

RESUMO

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relia-bility and validity of the lifestyle (Miller-Smith) and life expectancy (Schneider) questionnaires in the Italian setting in order to make this instrument available for the determination of lifestyle and hope level in the different domains of everyday life. Method: Before testing their psychometric properties, the original versions of the two questionnaires, lifestyle (Miller-Smith) and life expectancy (Schneider), were translated into the Italian language. We tested the instrument's psychometric properties on a sample of 18 patients over 60 years old with Alzheimer's disease in the Sapienza University of Rome teaching hospital, policlinico Umberto 1. Internal consistency was considered to assess the reliability of the results across items within the adopted scale by using Cronbach's α coefficient. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test, the normality distribution was evaluated to guarantee the applicability of a parametric or non-parametric test. The software used to analyze data was SPSS version 26 for Windows. Results: According to the outcome of our statistical analysis, the lifestyle scale showed high overall internal consistency, and the Cron-bach's α coefficient for the total 20-item scale was 0.80 in the Italian population. On the other hand, using the 12-item questionnaire about life expectancy resulted in a high overall internal consistency of 0.93, according to the Cronbach's alpha test. Conclusions: The outcome of our study shows that the Italian versions of the lifestyle (Miller-Smith) and life expectancy (Schneider) questionnaires demonstrated good psychometric properties and good characteristics of factorial validity for future epidemiological studies aimed at evaluating lifestyle and lifestyle expectancy in the Italian population and can as well be used in clinical practice and research.


Assuntos
Idioma , Estilo de Vida , Humanos , Itália , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883566, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419339

RESUMO

Population aging is getting enlarged in the upcoming decades. Meanwhile, old-aged longevity and dependency are getting large due to improvement in life expectancy. In literature, it is claimed that old-aged dependency affects the wellbeing of society. Thus, the study intends to explore the impact of population aging on human wellbeing. The study adopts the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach for empirical analysis by using time-series series data from 1990 to 2020. The study findings reveal that an increase in population aging reports a significant and decreasing impact on human wellbeing. However, an increase in health expenditure reports a significant and increasing impact on human wellbeing. Thus, China must pay attention to population aging to improve human health.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Expectativa de Vida , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
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