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1.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(13): 1-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541516

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents final 2018 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin and race, state of residence, and cause of death. The race categories are consistent with 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standards, which are different from previous reports (1977 OMB standards). Methods-Information reported on death certificates is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. As of 2018, all states and the District of Columbia were using the 2003 revised certificate of death, which includes the 1997 OMB revised standards for race. The 2018 data based on the revised standards are not completely comparable to previous years. Selected estimates are presented in this report for both the revised and previous race standards to provide some reference for interpretation of trends. Results-In 2018, a total of 2,839,205 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 723.6 deaths per 100,000 U.S. standard population, a decrease of 1.1% from the 2017 rate. Life expectancy at birth was 78.7 years, an increase of 0.1 year from 2017. Age-specific death rates decreased in 2018 from 2017 for age groups 15-24, 25-34, 45-54, 65-74, 75-84, and 85 and over. The 15 leading causes of death in 2018 remained the same as in 2017. The infant mortality rate decreased 2.2% to a historically low figure of 5.66 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2018. Conclusions-The age-adjusted death rate for the total, male, and female populations decreased from 2017 to 2018, and life expectancy at birth increased in 2018 for the total, male, and female populations.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e11, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536113

RESUMO

AIMS: There is evidence that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders present higher mortality in comparison with the general population. The aim of this study was to analyse the causes of mortality and sociodemographic factors associated with mortality, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), life expectancy and potential years of life lost (YLL) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Spain. METHODS: The study included a cohort of patients from the Malaga Schizophrenia Case Register (1418 patients; 907 males; average age 42.31 years) who were followed up for a minimum of 10 years (median = 13.43). The factors associated with mortality were analysed with a survival analysis using Cox's proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: The main causes of mortality in the cohort were circulatory disease (21.45%), cancer (17.09%) and suicide (13.09%). The SMR of the cohort was more than threefold that of the population of Malaga (3.19). The life expectancy at birth was 67.11 years old, which is more than 13 years shorter than that of the population of Malaga. The YLL was 20.74. The variables associated with a higher risk of mortality were age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.069, p < 0.001], male gender (AHR = 1.751, p < 0.001) and type of area of residence (p = 0.028; deprived urban zone v. non-deprived urban area, AHR = 1.460, p = 0.028). In addition, receiving welfare benefit status in comparison with employed status (AHR = 1.940, p = 0.008) was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There is excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and also an association with age, gender, socioeconomic inequalities and receiving welfare benefits. Efforts directed towards improved living conditions could have a positive effect on reducing mortality.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/mortalidade , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Suicídio
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 92-104, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of county-level contextual factors to differences in life expectancy in the United States. METHODS: We used a counterfactual approach to estimate the years of life expectancy lost associated with 45 potentially modifiable county-level contextual characteristics in the United States in the year 2016. Contextual data and life expectancy data were obtained from the County Health Ranking Project and the U.S. Small-Area Life Expectancy Estimates Project, respectively. RESULTS: Median census-tract-level life expectancy was 78.90 (interquartile range, 76.30-81.00) years, and the range across census tracts spanned 41.20 years. Large variations in life expectancy existed within and between states and within and between counties; the gap between counties was 20.30 years and gaps within counties ranged from 0 to 34.60 years. An array of 45 county-level factors was associated with 4.30 years of life expectancy loss. County-level adult smoking, food insecurity, adult obesity, physical inactivity, college education, and median household income were associated with 1.24-, 0.89-, 0.58-, 0.35-, 0.33-, and 0.14-year losses in life expectancy, respectively; and altogether were associated with a 3.53-year loss in life expectancy. The contribution of contextual factors to years of life expectancy lost varied among states and was more pronounced in states with lower life expectancy and in areas of increased socioeconomic deprivation and increased percentage of Black race. CONCLUSION: Substantial geographic variation in life expectancy was observed. Six county-level contextual factors were associated with a 3.53-year loss in life expectancy. The findings may inform and help prioritize approaches to reduce inequalities in life expectancy in the United States.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
5.
Global Health ; 17(1): 3, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Previous studies of infectious diseases showed that infectious diseases not only cause physical damage to infected individuals but also damage to the mental health of the public. Therefore this study aims to analyze the factors that affected depression in the public during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide evidence for COVID-19-related mental health policies and to emphasize the need to prepare for mental health issues related to potential infectious disease outbreaks in the future. RESULTS: This study performed the following statistical analyses to analyze the factors that influence depression in the public during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, to confirm the level of depression in the public in each country, the participants' depression was plotted on a Boxplot graph for analysis. Second, to confirm personal and national factors that influence depression in individuals, a multi-level analysis was conducted. As a result, the median Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score for all participants was 6. The median was higher than the overall median for the Philippines, Indonesia, and Paraguay, suggesting a higher level of depression. In personal variables, depression was higher in females than in males, and higher in participants who had experienced discrimination due to COVID-19 than those who had not. In contrast, depression was lower in older participants, those with good subjective health, and those who practiced personal hygiene for prevention. In national variables, depression was higher when the Government Response Stringency Index score was higher, when life expectancy was higher, and when social capital was higher. In contrast, depression was lower when literacy rates were higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals that depression was higher in participants living in countries with higher stringency index scores than in participants living in other countries. Maintaining a high level of vigilance for safety cannot be criticized. However, in the current situation, where coexisting with COVID-19 has become inevitable, inflexible and stringent policies not only increase depression in the public, but may also decrease resilience to COVID-19 and compromise preparations for coexistence with COVID-19. Accordingly, when establishing policies such as social distancing and quarantine, each country should consider the context of their own country.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Capital Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446511

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in a staggering death toll in the United States: over 215,000 by mid-October 2020, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black and Latino Americans have experienced a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, reflecting persistent structural inequalities that increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 and mortality risk for those infected. We estimate life expectancy at birth and at age 65 y for 2020, for the total US population and by race and ethnicity, using four scenarios of deaths-one in which the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred and three including COVID-19 mortality projections produced by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Our medium estimate indicates a reduction in US life expectancy at birth of 1.13 y to 77.48 y, lower than any year since 2003. We also project a 0.87-y reduction in life expectancy at age 65 y. The Black and Latino populations are estimated to experience declines in life expectancy at birth of 2.10 and 3.05 y, respectively, both of which are several times the 0.68-y reduction for Whites. These projections imply an increase of nearly 40% in the Black-White life expectancy gap, from 3.6 y to over 5 y, thereby eliminating progress made in reducing this differential since 2006. Latinos, who have consistently experienced lower mortality than Whites (a phenomenon known as the Latino or Hispanic paradox), would see their more than 3-y survival advantage reduced to less than 1 y.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Hispano-Americanos , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Previsões , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Nat Metab ; 3(1): 33-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462515

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA genes encoding mitochondrial proteins1,2. MDs cause pathologies with severe tissue damage and ultimately death3,4. There are no cures for MDs and current treatments are only palliative5-7. Here we show that tetracyclines improve fitness of cultured MD cells and ameliorate disease in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome. To identify small molecules that prevent cellular damage and death under nutrient stress conditions, we conduct a chemical high-throughput screen with cells carrying human MD mutations and discover a series of antibiotics that maintain survival of various MD cells. We subsequently show that a sub-library of tetracycline analogues, including doxycycline, rescues cell death and inflammatory signatures in mutant cells through partial and selective inhibition of mitochondrial translation, resulting in an ATF4-independent mitohormetic response. Doxycycline treatment strongly promotes fitness and survival of Ndufs4-/- mice, a preclinical Leigh syndrome mouse model8. A proteomic analysis of brain tissue reveals that doxycycline treatment largely prevents neuronal death and the accumulation of neuroimmune and inflammatory proteins in Ndufs4-/- mice, indicating a potential causal role for these proteins in the brain pathology. Our findings suggest that tetracyclines deserve further evaluation as potential drugs for the treatment of MDs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doença de Leigh/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Leigh/patologia , Expectativa de Vida , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Doenças Mitocondriais/mortalidade , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Aptidão Física , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 417-425, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore in a sample of adult cancer patients: (1) the relative influence of initiation source, information format and consultation format on preferred approach to life expectancy disclosure using a discrete choice experiment (DCE); and (2) whether patient age, cancer type and perceived prognosis were associated with preferences within the three attributes. METHODS: A DCE survey of adult solid tumour and haematological cancer patients. Participants chose between three hypothetical scenarios about life expectancy disclosure consisting of three attributes: initiation source (i.e. doctor versus patient-initiated discussion), information content (i.e. estimate presented as best-worst-typical length of life case scenario versus median survival time) and consultation format (i.e. two 20-min versus one 40-min consultation). Respondents selected their most preferred scenario within each question. RESULTS: Three hundred and two patients completed the DCE (78% consent rate). Initiation source was the most influential predictor of patient choice. More preferred a doctor deliver life expectancy information as soon as it is available rather than waiting for the patient to ask (59% vs 41% z = - 7.396, p < 0.01). More patients preferred the two 20-min rather than the one 40-min consultation format (55% vs 45%, z = 4.284, p < 0.01). Information content did not influence choice. Age, cancer type, and patient-perceived prognosis were not associated with preferences. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals should assess cancer patients' preferences for engaging in life expectancy discussions as soon as they have this information, and ensure patients have adequate time to consider the information they receive, seek additional information and involve others if they wish.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 93: 104312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economy development and income are compactly associated with mortality of infant, children, young people, and mid age all over the world, and high income brings higher life expectancy, aging rate and 80+ rate as a result. On the contrary, the relationship between income and centenarian rate is obscure, in China, low income regions have lower life expectancy, lower 80+ rate but higher 90+ rate and 100+ rate before 2000, but 90+ rate and centenarian rate in low income regions fall behind high income regions after 2010. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between regional economic performance and centenarian rate in long period. METHOD: Gravity center of five longevity indicators, demographic methodology between age-specific mortality rate and centenarian rate were conducted of 31 provinces in China from 1982 to 2018. We also explored the association between centenarian rate and per capita income using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: higher income brings better medical care and mortality rate is sharply decreased, among all age stages, the age 70-84 has the highest number of death, and will get most number of extra lives when the mortality rate decreases, and then 80+ rate will be increased immediately. Meanwhile, the extra 70-84 years people increased denominator of 90+ rate and centenarian rate, then 90+ rate and centenarian rate in higher income region will be fall behind. 10-20 years later, benefited from additional 70-84 years population, the number of 90+ will be largely increased. 20-30 years later, the number of 100+ will be largely increased too. CONCLUSION: Income is positively related with lower mortality rate of oldest-old and higher 90+ rate and centenarian rate, although the effect will be lagged for 10-20 years and 20-30 years, respectively.


Assuntos
Renda , Expectativa de Vida , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Longevidade , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53156

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Costa Rica has long been a country of special interest in the Americas and in global health because of its good health. The United Nations Development Programme ranks countries according to their level of human development based on life expectancy, education and national income. Although Costa Rica is ranked at 63 and classified as ‘High’, in terms of health it belongs in the ‘Very High’ group. In 2018 mean life expectancy for the ‘Very High’ countries was 79.5, while in Costa Rica it was 80. In 2018, under five mortality was 8.8/1000 live births, lower than countries ranked in the ‘Very High’ human development group. Expected years of schooling in Costa Rica is 15.4, closer to the average, 16.4 years, of the ‘Very High’ human development group than the average of the ‘High’ group. The country is much healthier than would be predicted by its national income; rather, other features of society’s development are likely to have played a key role in the development of good health. These include (i) the decision to cease investment in national defence, which freed up money to invest in health, education and the welfare of the population; (ii) the decision to create a universal health system financed by the State, employers and workers in the 1940s; and (iii) the educational system, that generated opportunities to lift important sectors of the population out of poverty, allowing them to have basic sanitary conditions that increase their possibilities to live longer and in better conditions. Despite these advances, inequalities in terms of income and social conditions persist, presenting challenges in the field of health, particularly for lower-income populations and those of African and indigenous descent. These inequalities must be addressed using decisions based on scientific evidence, a greater use of disaggregated data to reveal progress in addressing these inequalities, and with a broader articulation of the health sector with policies that act on the social determinants of health.


[RESUMEN]. Costa Rica es un país de especial interés en las Américas y en la salud mundial debido a su buena salud. El Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo clasifica a los países según su nivel de desarrollo humano con base en la esperanza de vida, la educación y el ingreso nacional. Aunque Costa Rica está clasificada en el puesto 63 y clasificada dentro del grupo ‘Alto’, en términos de salud pertenece al grupo ‘Muy alto’. En 2018 la esperanza de vida media de los países del grupo ‘Muy alto’ era de 79,5 años, mientras que en Costa Rica era de 80. En 2018, la mortalidad en menores de cinco años era de 8,8/1000 nacidos vivos, inferior a la de los países clasificados en el grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’. Los años de escolaridad esperados en Costa Rica son 15,4, más cercanos al promedio, 16,4 años, del grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’ que el promedio del grupo ‘Alto’. El país es mucho más saludable de lo que podría predecirse por su ingreso nacional; más bien, es probable que otras características del desarrollo de la sociedad hayan desempeñado un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la buena salud. Entre ellas figuran: (i) la decisión de dejar de invertir en la defensa nacional, que liberó dinero para invertir en salud, educación y bienestar de la población; (ii) la decisión de crear un sistema de salud universal financiado por el Estado, los empleadores y los trabajadores en el decenio de 1940; y (iii) el sistema educativo, que generó oportunidades para sacar de la pobreza a importantes sectores de la población, permitiéndoles disponer de condiciones sanitarias básicas que aumentan sus posibilidades de vivir más y en mejores condiciones. A pesar de estos avances, persisten desigualdades en términos de ingresos y condiciones sociales, lo que plantea desafíos en el ámbito de la salud, en particular para las poblaciones de menores ingresos y las de ascendencia africana e indígena. Estas desigualdades deben abordarse mediante decisiones basadas en pruebas científicas, un mayor uso de datos desagregados que revelen los progresos realizados para hacer frente a esas desigualdades, y una mayor articulación del sector de la salud con las políticas que actúan sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Humano , Expectativa de Vida , Costa Rica , Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Humano , Expectativa de Vida
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315959

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that high life expectancy is closely related to low life disparity. Unlike life expectancy, which can be increased by mortality decline at any age, life disparity can either increase or decrease in response to mortality decline. Disparity can thus be decomposed into two opposite components, called compression and expansion, depending on the effect of mortality decline on the age distribution of mortality. Without specifying the two components, various conventional measures of disparity may provide misleading information relating to how life chances in society can be equalized. Based on the relevant properties of changes in disparity, we develop a new measure of disparity-the ratio of expansion to compression-that can account for the relative importance of the two components. This simple measure not only provides a clear view of the evolution of disparity, but also permits changes in disparity related to mortality decline to be interpreted in a consistent manner similar to life expectancy. Simulations and an empirical analysis demonstrated the advantages of this new measure over conventional measures of disparity.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidade/tendências
17.
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 26-38, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332326

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the context surrounding the deaths of homeless people in New Zealand and to determine the proportion of deaths that could be considered amenable to healthcare. METHOD: We used coroners' findings related to 171 deaths of persons with "no fixed abode" at the time of death, from 2008 to 2019. Recent lists of amenable mortality from the New Zealand Ministry of Health and the Office of National Statistics in the UK were combined to determine the rate of amenable mortality. RESULTS: The life expectancy of homeless persons identified in this sample was 30 years shorter than in the housed population, with a mean age of death of 45.7 years. Deaths occurred mainly alone, in public spaces (56.1%) or in private vehicles (14%). Three-quarters (75.8%) of homeless persons died from conditions amenable to timely and effective healthcare interventions, mostly from natural causes (45.7%) and suicide (41.5%). CONCLUSION: Homeless people experience considerable challenges when accessing the healthcare system, as uncovered by the dramatic rate of amenable mortality. Our findings highlight the urgent need to implement specific models of care that are designed to meet the social and healthcare needs of homeless persons and address the significant health inequalities they experience.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Etanol/envenenamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338338

RESUMO

The self-preserving behavior, as well as matrimonial, reproductive and migratory behavior, is component of demographic behavior and is characterized by complexity of evaluating and interpretating data obtained. The statistics provide no information about effectiveness of disease-oriented measures that affect longer healthy life expectancy and measures improving accessibility and quality of care that affect life expectancy and quality of patients with chronic diseases and the disabled. This information was derived from the results of sociological survey «The Demographic Well-being of Russia¼ implemented by the Institute of Social and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020-2021. This article is devoted to the results of this study in terms of assessment by Russians their own health status and possibility of longevity.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Longevidade , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Federação Russa
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 604339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330343

RESUMO

Context: The human development territories have been severely constrained under the Covid-19 pandemic. A common dynamics has been observed, but its propagation has not been homogeneous over each continent. We aimed at characterizing the non-viral parameters that were most associated with death rate. Methods: We tested major indices from five domains (demography, public health, economy, politics, environment) and their potential associations with Covid-19 mortality during the first 8 months of 2020, through a Principal Component Analysis and a correlation matrix with a Pearson correlation test. Data of all countries, or states in federal countries, showing at least 10 fatality cases, were retrieved from official public sites. For countries that have not yet finished the first epidemic phase, a prospective model has been computed to provide options of death rates evolution. Results: Higher Covid death rates are observed in the [25/65°] latitude and in the [-35/-125°] longitude ranges. The national criteria most associated with death rate are life expectancy and its slowdown, public health context (metabolic and non-communicable diseases (NCD) burden vs. infectious diseases prevalence), economy (growth national product, financial support), and environment (temperature, ultra-violet index). Stringency of the measures settled to fight pandemia, including lockdown, did not appear to be linked with death rate. Conclusion: Countries that already experienced a stagnation or regression of life expectancy, with high income and NCD rates, had the highest price to pay. This burden was not alleviated by more stringent public decisions. Inherent factors have predetermined the Covid-19 mortality: understanding them may improve prevention strategies by increasing population resilience through better physical fitness and immunity.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Expectativa de Vida , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161659

RESUMO

The article analyzes the demographic situation in the Republic of Dagestan and presents analysis of indices of population mortality and life expectancy. It is established that number of deaths per 1000 people of the Republic of Dagestan is one of the lowest not only in the Northern Caucasus, but in the country at large. At the same time, high mortality indices are determined in elder age groups both in Dagestan and on average in Russia. The main causes of death in the Republic of Dagestan are diseases of circulatory system and respiratory system, neoplasms, accidents, poisoning and traumas, which account almost three quarters of all cases of deaths. However, mortality indices in Dagestan from diseases of circulatory system, neoplasms, digestive system diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases are significantly lower as compared to the national average level. In Dagestan, one of the highest indices of life expectancy is observed as compared with other subjects of the Russian Federation (2nd place in the Russian Federation) - on 6 years exceeding the national average level (in males, difference in values ​​of indicator amounted to 7.5 years). In Dagestan, during analyzed period, life expectancy at birth increased more than on 5 years.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Daguestão , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Mortalidade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
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