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1.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 042003, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021206

RESUMO

Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection (COVID-19) is currently based on detection of the viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swab samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, sampling via nasopharyngeal swabs frequently provokes sneezing or coughing, which results in increased risk of the viral dissemination and environmental contamination. Furthermore, the sensitivity associated with the PCR tests s limited to 60%-70%, which is mainly attributable to technical deficiency in sampling. Given that the disease is transmitted via exhaled aerosol and droplets, and that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is the established modality for sampling exhaled aerosol, detection of the viral RNA in EBC is a promising approach for safe and efficient diagnosis of the disease. Subjects are those patients who are diagnosed with COVID-19 by positive nasopharyngeal swab PCR test and admitted to Saitama Medical Center, Japan. EBC samples will be collected using an R-tube® or R-tubeVent® device. Collected EBC samples will be introduced into a nucleic acid purifier. The purified nucleic acids will undergo amplification through RT-PCR for detection and quantification of SARS-COV-2 RNA. To date we have collected eight samples from seven subjects. Among them, two samples from two subjects tested positive for SARS-COV-2 RNA by the RT-PCR. Reflecting the second wave of COVID-19 prevalence in Japan, new admissions of COVID-19 patients to the Saitama Medical Center are increasing, and we are expecting to collect at least 50 EBC samples from 25 patients before the end of this year.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Aerossóis/análise , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Tosse , Expiração , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , RNA Viral/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa , Manejo de Espécimes , Carga Viral
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15665, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973285

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a surge in demand for facemasks to protect against disease transmission. In response to shortages, many public health authorities have recommended homemade masks as acceptable alternatives to surgical masks and N95 respirators. Although mask wearing is intended, in part, to protect others from exhaled, virus-containing particles, few studies have examined particle emission by mask-wearers into the surrounding air. Here, we measured outward emissions of micron-scale aerosol particles by healthy humans performing various expiratory activities while wearing different types of medical-grade or homemade masks. Both surgical masks and unvented KN95 respirators, even without fit-testing, reduce the outward particle emission rates by 90% and 74% on average during speaking and coughing, respectively, compared to wearing no mask, corroborating their effectiveness at reducing outward emission. These masks similarly decreased the outward particle emission of a coughing superemitter, who for unclear reasons emitted up to two orders of magnitude more expiratory particles via coughing than average. In contrast, shedding of non-expiratory micron-scale particulates from friable cellulosic fibers in homemade cotton-fabric masks confounded explicit determination of their efficacy at reducing expiratory particle emission. Audio analysis of the speech and coughing intensity confirmed that people speak more loudly, but do not cough more loudly, when wearing a mask. Further work is needed to establish the efficacy of cloth masks at blocking expiratory particles for speech and coughing at varied intensity and to assess whether virus-contaminated fabrics can generate aerosolized fomites, but the results strongly corroborate the efficacy of medical-grade masks and highlight the importance of regular washing of homemade masks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Tosse/virologia , Expiração , Feminino , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2013807, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716517

RESUMO

Importance: Individuals with asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported to frequently transmit the disease even without direct contact. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been found at very high concentrations in swab and sputum samples from such individuals. Objective: To estimate the virus levels released from individuals with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 into different aerosol sizes by normal breathing and coughing, and to determine what exposure could result from this in a room shared with such individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mathematical modeling study combined the size-distribution of exhaled breath microdroplets for coughing and normal breathing with viral swab and sputum concentrations as approximation for lung lining liquid to obtain an estimate of emitted virus levels. Viral data were obtained from studies published as of May 20, 2020. The resulting emission data fed a single-compartment model of airborne concentrations in a room of 50 m3, the size of a small office or medical examination room. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeling was used to estimate the viral load emitted by individuals breathing normally or coughing, and the concentrations expected in the simulated room at different ventilation rates. Results: The mean estimated viral load in microdroplets emitted by simulated individuals while breathing regularly was 0.0000049 copies/cm3, with a range of 0.0000000049 to 0.637 copies/cm3. The corresponding estimates for simulated coughing individuals were a mean of 0.277 copies/cm3 per cough, with a range of 0.000277 to 36 030 copies/cm3 per cough. The estimated concentrations in a room with an individual who was coughing frequently were very high, with a maximum of 7.44 million copies/m3 from an individual who was a high emitter. However, regular breathing from an individual who was a high emitter was modeled to result in lower room concentrations of up to 1248 copies/m3. Conclusions and Relevance: In this modeling study, breathing and coughing were estimated to release large numbers of viruses, ranging from thousands to millions of virus copies per cubic meter in a room with an individual with COVID-19 with a high viral load, depending on ventilation and microdroplet formation process. The estimated infectious risk posed by a person with typical viral load who breathes normally was low. The results suggest that only few people with very high viral load pose an infection risk in poorly ventilated closed environments. These findings suggest that strict respiratory protection may be needed when there is a chance to be in the same small room with an individual, whether symptomatic or not, especially for a prolonged period.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/virologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Carga Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ventilação
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113568, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615522

RESUMO

A one-dimensional droplet evaporation model is used to estimate the droplet lifetime from evaporation in air. The mathematical model invokes assumptions of spherical symmetry, ideal gas mixture, binary diffusion, no re-condensation on droplet surface, and constant properties. Four initial droplet diameters (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mm), two ambient temperatures (20 and 30 oC) and a range of ambient relative humidity are considered. For the conditions studied, the results show that the ambient relative humidity plays an important role in the droplet lifetime calculation. Increasing the ambient temperature does not necessarily decrease the droplet lifetime; it occurs only when the ambient relative humidity is set below 37%. When the ambient relative humidity is higher than 37%, the higher ambient temperature (30 oC) results in a longer droplet lifetime for the same initial droplet diameter considered. The results also suggest that there may exist a critical ambient relative humidity; beyond which, the droplet lifetime will increase exponentially. For ambient temperature at 30 oC, the critical ambient relative humidity is around 55.7%. It must be mentioned that the results of this study do not imply that the COVID-19 virus will be deactivated at the end of the droplet lifetime. The study simply shows the potential effects resulting from the ambient temperature and ambient relative humidity on virus carrying drops.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Temperatura , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expiração , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espirro
6.
J Breath Res ; 14(4): 046001, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691749

RESUMO

Breath analysis by secondary electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS) has potential for clinical diagnosis and drug monitoring. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking data that shows the capability of this technique and allows comparability with other breath analysis techniques. In this regard, the goal of this study was the identification of volatile compounds upon ingestion of a specific peppermint oil capsule to get benchmark data for real-time breath analysis with SESI-HRMS. This was done in the framework of a consortium set up by the International Association of Breath Research (IABR), aimed at comparing several analytical instruments for breath analysis. Breath temporal profiles of two subjects were analyzed with SESI-HRMS before and after ingestion of a peppermint oil capsule. The measurements were performed at two different locations using identical SESI-HRMS platforms to allow for comparability and benchmarking. Remarkably, along with the four major compounds (monoterpenes/cineole, menthone, menthofuran and menthol) reported by other members of the consortium, we detected 57 additional features significantly associated (ρ > 0.8) with the peppermint oil capsule, suggesting that this relatively simple intervention might trigger a more complex metabolic cascade than initially expected. This observation was made on both sites. Additional replicate experiments for one of the subjects suggested that a core of 35-40 unique molecules are consistently detected in exhaled breath upon ingestion of the capsule. In addition, we illustrate the analytical capabilities of real-time SESI-HRMS/MS to assist in the identification of unknown compounds. The results outlined herein showcase the performance of SESI-HRMS and enable comparison with other breath analysis techniques. Along with that, they strengthen the potential of this analytical technique for non-invasive drug monitoring and clinical diagnostic purposes.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Sistemas Computacionais , Expiração , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Adulto , Eucaliptol/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Isótopos , Mentol/análise , Metabolômica , Monoterpenos/análise
7.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 030202, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662449

RESUMO

November 2019 saw Cambridge, UK play host to the second Breath Biopsy Conference, a community-focused event aimed at sharing and supporting advancements in the collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath. The event expanded upon the previous year's format, spanning two days and concluding with an expert panel discussion. Presentations covered detection, monitoring and precision medicine studies examining diseases including asthma, cirrhosis, cancer and tuberculosis. The meeting attracted representatives from diverse backgrounds, such as metabolomics, artificial intelligence, clinical research and chemical analysis. This meeting report offers an overview of what was presented and discussed during the conference.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Expiração , Inteligência Artificial , Biópsia , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20007, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481266

RESUMO

To investigate the changes in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and its relationship with postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).A prospective, case-control study was performed on 55 patients undergoing elective cardiac valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass, between November 2017 and May 2019. According to the diagnosis of postoperative ARDS, the patients were divided into ARDS group and control group. We compared the clinical characteristics, outcomes, respiratory mechanics, oxygenation parameters, and mediators in the 2 groups immediately after tracheal intubation (T1), at the end of CPB (T2), and 2 hours (T3) and 6 hours (T4) after CPB, and calculated the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), sensitivity, and specificity of the corresponding mediators.ARDS occurred in 29 patients after CPB. The ARDS group exhibited prolonged postoperative ventilator support, time to extubation, length of stay in the ICU, and postoperative length of stay. The peak airway pressure (Ppeak) and plat airway pressure (Pplat) at T4 were higher in the ARDS group compared with the control group. The alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure [P(A-a)O2] and respiratory index (RI) were higher and PaO2/FiO2 was lower in the ARDS group at T2-4 compared with the control group. The levels of EBC and serum mediators in the ARDS group were significantly higher at T2-4 compared with those in the control group. All the mediators in EBC were correlated significantly with those in the serum in the ARDS group (r = 0.7314, 0.898, 0.8386, 0.792) and control group (r = 0.6093, 0.8524, r = 0.7828, r = 0.6575) (P < .001). Meanwhile, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-8 in EBC was significantly lower at T2 and the AUC of IL-6 in EBC was significantly higher at T4 than in serum (P < .05). In addition, all of the mediators in EBC had a certain accuracy in diagnose of postoperative ARDS.EBC analysis could be used to predict the high incidence of ARDS after cardiac valve replacement under CPB.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Expiração , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
9.
Ter Arkh ; 92(3): 7-12, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598786

RESUMO

The respiratory muscles (RM) strength is the main indicator of their functional state. However, RM strength is not used as criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) stratification. AIM: To evaluate the RM power of COPD patients with various variants of comorbidity and to determine the role of comorbidity in the development of respiratory muscle dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RM strength of 64 men with exacerbation of COPD was studied. The severity of comorbidity was assessed by the Charlson index. Depending on the prevalence of comorbidity, patients were divided into 3 groups: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and metabolic. Maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressures in the oral cavity, maximum rate of pressure development (MRPD), sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), MEP/MIP and SNIP/MIP indexes were determined with MicroRPM device (UK). Measured values of MIP, MEP and SNIP were compared with the proper ones. The most noticeable decrease of RM strength was defined in the group of patients with severe comorbidity. RESULTS: In case of a mild comorbidity MEP and SNIP values were 68 and 78% of the predicted values and MIP value corresponded to the personified standard. RM strength of patients with COPD depended on the clinical variant of comorbidity. Thus, in the group of patients with cardiovascular variant of comorbidity auxiliary inspiratory muscles strength decreased. In the group of patients with cerebrovascular variant of comorbidity the expiratory muscles dysfunction predominated. In the group of patients with metabolic variant of comorbidity diaphragm dysfunction predominated. CONCLUSION: The pathogenetic significance of various factors of COPD comorbidity in the development of RM dysfunction was confirmed by the results of the correlation analysis.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Músculos Respiratórios , Comorbidade , Expiração , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular
10.
Ter Arkh ; 92(3): 19-24, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598788

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the strength of the respiratory muscles in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with varying severity of endogenous intoxication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the hospital, 78 men aged 1826 years with CAP were examined. СAP was diagnosed in 56 (72%) patients, severe CAP in 22 (28%). The severity of endogenous intoxication was verified using intoxication indices: hematological index of intoxication (HII), leukocyte index of intoxication (LII), nuclear index of intoxication (NII) and Krebs index. Middleweight molecules (MWM) was determined by spectrophotometry in the serum and the concentration of interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor  (TNF-) by ELISA. The strength of the respiratory muscles was measured on the device Micro RPM (Care Fusion, Great Britain). The maximum expiratory pressure (МЕР), inspiratory pressure (MIP) in the oral cavity, the Maximal Rate of Pressure Development (MRPD) during inhalation (MRPDin) and exhalation (MRPDex), and intranasal test (SNIP) were determined. Statistical processing was performed using descriptive statistics, MannWhitney test, correlation and cluster analysis. RESULTS: Three clusters of endogenous intoxication corresponding to mild, moderate and severe degree were identified. The first cluster was represented only by patients with mild CAP, the second-mild CAP and severe CAP, and the third severe CAP. Dysfunction of the expiratory respiratory muscles prevailed during the height of the disease in patients with the first cluster, and in the second and third inspiratory, including the diaphragm. The level of actually measured values of MIP and SNIP was 68% and 58% of those due to severe endogenous intoxication. Significant negative correlations were established LII, HII, MWM, TNF-, IL-10 с MEP, MRPDex, MIP и SNIP. Respiratory muscle dysfunction remained only expiratory respiratory muscles in convalescents of the first cluster, and expiratory and inspiratory muscles of the second and third cluster. CONCLUSION: The development of respiratory muscle dysfunction in CAP is associated with the influence of endogenous intoxication factors. The results can be used in personalized programs of rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Inalação , Pneumonia , Expiração , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Masculino , Músculos Respiratórios
11.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(206): 81-85, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189898

RESUMO

The spread of CoV-2 occurs mainly by respiratory droplets. Its dispersion depends on several factors: viscoelasticity of fluid, ventilation, evaporation rate, exhalations, sneeze or cough. At moment, the preventive distance to avoid the contamination has been established in 1-2 m. We believe that it is necessary to review this aspect, because the respiratory flows change with the intensity of physical activity. The ventilatory response can be evaluated in terms of ventilatory demand or ventilatory efficiency. During maximal effort tests, athletes mobilize an extraordinary amount of air arriving to 150/200 L/min. The respiratory volume follows increase in linear progression during the test in function of power developed. When the air volume is increased 10 times, we think that the distance should be around 6-7 m


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Expiração/fisiologia , Atividade Motora , Esforço Físico , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Ventilação , Espirro , Tosse , Distância Social
12.
Environ Int ; 141: 105794, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273030

RESUMO

Airborne transmission is a pathway of contagion that is still not sufficiently investigated despite the evidence in the scientific literature of the role it can play in the context of an epidemic. While the medical research area dedicates efforts to find cures and remedies to counteract the effects of a virus, the engineering area is involved in providing risk assessments in indoor environments by simulating the airborne transmission of the virus during an epidemic. To this end, virus air emission data are needed. Unfortunately, this information is usually available only after the outbreak, based on specific reverse engineering cases. In this work, a novel approach to estimate the viral load emitted by a contagious subject on the basis of the viral load in the mouth, the type of respiratory activity (e.g. breathing, speaking, whispering), respiratory physiological parameters (e.g. inhalation rate), and activity level (e.g. resting, standing, light exercise) is proposed. The results showed that high quanta emission rates (>100 quanta h-1) can be reached by an asymptomatic infectious SARS-CoV-2 subject performing vocalization during light activities (i.e. walking slowly) whereas a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subject in resting conditions mostly has a low quanta emission rate (<1 quantum h-1). The findings in terms of quanta emission rates were then adopted in infection risk models to demonstrate its application by evaluating the number of people infected by an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subject in Italian indoor microenvironments before and after the introduction of virus containment measures. The results obtained from the simulations clearly highlight that a key role is played by proper ventilation in containment of the virus in indoor environments.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Expiração , Humanos , Itália , Boca/virologia , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Carga Viral
13.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203367

RESUMO

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Aerossóis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232489, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453749

RESUMO

The foot-and-mouth disease is an ever-present hazard to the livestock industry due to the huge economic consequences following an outbreak that necessitates culling of possibly infected animals in vast numbers. The disease is highly contagious and previous epizootics have shown that it spreads by many routes. One such route is airborne transmission, which has been investigated in this study by means of a detailed multilevel model that includes all scales of an outbreak. Local spread within an infected farm is described by a stochastic compartment model while the spread between farms is quantified by atmospheric dispersion simulations using a network representation of the set of farms. The model was applied to the Swedish livestock industry and the risk for an epizootic outbreak in Sweden was estimated using the basic reproduction number of each individual livestock-holding farm as the endpoint metric. The study was based on comprehensive official data sets for both the current livestock holdings and regional meteorological conditions. Three species of farm animals are susceptible to the disease and are present in large numbers: cattle, pigs and sheep. These species are all included in this study using their individual responses and consequences to the disease. It was concluded that some parts of southern Sweden are indeed preconditioned to harbor an airborne epizootic, while the sparse farm population of the north renders such events unlikely to occur there. The distribution of the basic reproduction number spans over several orders of magnitudes with low risk of disease spread from the majority of the farms while some farms may act as very strong disease transmitters. The results may serve as basic data in the planning of the national preparedness for this type of events.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Expiração , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Gado , Análise Multinível , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
17.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371934

RESUMO

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Aerossóis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expiração/fisiologia , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109855, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460210

RESUMO

There must be pathophysiological reason why "cold" viruses like SARS-CoV-2 show proclivity to nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity and upper airways which have lower temperature than core body temperature. Henceforth, facemasks' "therapeutic" role against SARS-CoV-2 must be explored because personal "therapeutic" environments may get created under facemasks due to rebreathing of ~95°F "hot" and ~80% "humid" exhalations which may constantly mitigate SARS-CoV-2 inside nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity and upper airways.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Temperatura Corporal , Expiração , Humanos , Umidade , Boca/virologia , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Faringe/virologia , Traqueia/virologia
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 13-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468452

RESUMO

The exhaled breath condensate is a source of biomarkers with many advantages and benefits compared to other traditional sampling techniques in respiratory medicine. It is a biological product that is formed by cooling the exhaled air via its guidance through a condenser. It is characterized as a cocktail of volatile and non-volatile compounds with water being the predominant constituent. Its composition presents a non-uniformed structure as the volatile and the non-volatile compounds vary in type and ratio. All these compounds originate from the whole respiratory tract. Some of them fulfil the criteria to be characterized as biomarkers since there is a similarity between the content of the exhaled breath condensate and the respiratory tract lining fluid. In addition, the potential biomarkers of the exhaled breath condensate and those from other biological fluids are equivalent.Advantages and Disadvantages Its place in the respiratory medicine as a matrix of biomarkers relies on its various strengths. Some of them are very important and make it exceptional regarding its application, such as its totally non-invasive character and its usage in all ages, while others present a more potential action regarding its purpose such as the categorization of respiratory diseases. However, there are limitations in its application due to the lack of standardization of its conduct which can be minimized by following the official recommendations. Additional studies are needed to develop said standardization.Aim The aim of this paper is to present a brief and comprehensive picture of the sampling technique of the exhaled breath condensate, as well as the criteria to make it a preferred choice as a source of biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Testes Respiratórios , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Expiração , Humanos , Padrões de Referência
20.
Environ Int ; 141: 105794, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416374

RESUMO

Airborne transmission is a pathway of contagion that is still not sufficiently investigated despite the evidence in the scientific literature of the role it can play in the context of an epidemic. While the medical research area dedicates efforts to find cures and remedies to counteract the effects of a virus, the engineering area is involved in providing risk assessments in indoor environments by simulating the airborne transmission of the virus during an epidemic. To this end, virus air emission data are needed. Unfortunately, this information is usually available only after the outbreak, based on specific reverse engineering cases. In this work, a novel approach to estimate the viral load emitted by a contagious subject on the basis of the viral load in the mouth, the type of respiratory activity (e.g. breathing, speaking, whispering), respiratory physiological parameters (e.g. inhalation rate), and activity level (e.g. resting, standing, light exercise) is proposed. The results showed that high quanta emission rates (>100 quanta h-1) can be reached by an asymptomatic infectious SARS-CoV-2 subject performing vocalization during light activities (i.e. walking slowly) whereas a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subject in resting conditions mostly has a low quanta emission rate (<1 quantum h-1). The findings in terms of quanta emission rates were then adopted in infection risk models to demonstrate its application by evaluating the number of people infected by an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 subject in Italian indoor microenvironments before and after the introduction of virus containment measures. The results obtained from the simulations clearly highlight that a key role is played by proper ventilation in containment of the virus in indoor environments.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Expiração , Humanos , Itália , Boca/virologia , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Carga Viral
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