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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1191-1194, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473685

RESUMO

Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms) are large colonies of algae or cyanobacteria that can harm humans, animals, and the environment (1-3). The number of algal blooms has been increasing in the United States, augmented by increasing water temperatures and nutrients in water from industry and agricultural run-off (4,5). The extent to which harmful algal bloom exposures cause human illness or long-term health effects is unknown. As the number of blooms increases annually, the likelihood of negative health outcomes (e.g., respiratory or gastrointestinal illness) from exposure also increases (4,5). To explore the utility of syndromic surveillance data for studying health effects from harmful algal bloom exposures, CDC queried emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) for harmful algal bloom exposure-associated administrative discharge diagnosis codes and chief complaint text terms related to harmful algal bloom exposure (6). A total of 321 harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified during January 1, 2017-December 31, 2019. An increase in harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits occurred during warmer months (June-October), consistent with seasonal fluctuations of blooms and recent publications (6,7). Although syndromic surveillance data are helpful for understanding harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits in the United States, exposures were documented infrequently with discharge diagnosis codes; 67% of harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified through querying chief complaint text. Improving the documentation of harmful algal bloom exposures in medical records would further benefit future health studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483811

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits for dry eye disease (DED) in Shenzhen, China. Methods: Generalized additive models were utilized to explore the acute effects of air pollution exposure on pediatric outpatient visits for DED. Results: Single-day lag exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 were associated with DED outpatient visits at lag days 0, 6, 4 and 2. Relative risks (RRs) for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 1.062[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003, 1.123], 1.015(95% CI 1.001, 1.031), 1.052(95% CI 1.001, 1.115), and 1.038 (95% CI 1.002, 1.076), respectively. RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 over cumulative lag days 0-1 was 1.075 (95% CI 1.009, 1.147), and RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 over cumulative lag days 0-4 was 1.051 (95% CI 1.003, 1.102). Conclusion: The observed associations between air pollution and outpatient visits for DED may provide evidence for policy makers to consider implementing measures to reduce the risk of DED owing to air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Assistência Ambulatorial , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
4.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117570, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438493

RESUMO

In recent years, the incidence of lipid metabolism disorders in adolescents has gradually increased, and the effects of DEHP on lipid metabolism have received widespread attention. In this study, 463 adolescents aged 16-19 years were enrolled as subjects. This study analyzed the associations between the urinary levels of DEHP metabolites (MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MECPP, MCMHP, and ∑DEHP) and BMI, WHR, WtHR, VAI, LAP, the plasma levels of lipids (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C), and the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels of SREBP-2, SR-BI, LDLR, and NR1H3. Animal experiments were performed to confirm and expand findings. Wistar rats were administered DEHP at 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. The serum and liver levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, and the liver mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-2, SR-BI, LDLR, and NR1H3 were measured. The results showed that WHR, VAI, and LAP were significantly positively associated with the urinary levels of MECPP and ∑DEHP; the plasma HDL-C level was significantly negatively associated with the levels of MECPP, MCMHP and ∑DEHP; the peripheral blood leukocyte mRNA levels of SREBP-2, NR1H3, and LDLR were significantly positively correlated with the MCMHP level; and the SR-BI mRNA level was significantly positively correlated with the levels of MECPP and MCMHP in adolescents. Moreover, the results of animal experiments showed that DEHP exposure significantly increased the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C in 500 mg/kg/d group, as well as the liver levels of TC and HDL-C, up-regulated SREBP-2 mRNA and protein expression in 50 and 500 mg/kg/d groups. DEHP exposure significantly down-regulated SR-BI and NR1H3 protein expression in the liver of the 500 mg/kg/d group rats. Our findings indicate that DEHP exposure can affect lipid metabolism in adolescents by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Animais , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117574, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438496

RESUMO

People use a particulate respirator in order to reduce exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Acute exposure to PM2.5 is known to increase blood pressure. However, systematic reviews or meta-analyses on blood pressure-related benefits of using a particulate respirator is lacking. Therefore, we reviewed randomized crossover intervention studies on blood pressure-related effects of particulate matter respirator use. We conducted a literature review of articles found on Embase, Medline, and Cochrane library on August 31, 2020. The study outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure. A random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses, based on age (adult < 60 years, elderly ≥ 60 years), personal PM2.5 exposure levels (High: ≥ 25 µg/m3, Low: < 25 µg/m3), and types of monitoring methods (ambulatory and resting blood pressure) were conducted. We identified 297 references, and seven studies were included in our systematic review. None of the studies used a sham respirator as control and complete allocation concealment and blinding were impossible. The use of a particulate respirator was associated with a -1.23 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.53, 0.07) change in systolic blood pressure and a -1.57 mmHg (95% CI: -3.85, 0.71) change in mean arterial pressure. There were significant heterogeneities and possibilities for publication bias. The subgroup analyses revealed that studies involving elderly individuals, those conducted in high PM2.5 personal exposure, and those in which resting blood pressure was monitored demonstrated a larger decrease in blood pressure resulting from respirator use. Further intervention studies with a large sample size and subjects with diverse characteristics and different personal PM2.5 levels may add the evidence to current literature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ventiladores Mecânicos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441029

RESUMO

Along with playing vital roles in pathogen exclusion and immune system priming, the upper airways (UAs) and their microbiota are essential for myriad physiological functions such as conditioning and transferring inhaled air. Dysbiosis, a microbial imbalance, is linked with various diseases and significantly impedes the quality of one's life. Daily inhaled exposures and/or underlying conditions contribute to adverse changes to the UA microbiota. Such variations in the microbial community exacerbate UA and pulmonary disorders via modulating inflammatory and immune pathways. Hence, exploring the UA microbiota's role in maintaining homeostasis is imperative. The microbial composition and subsequent relationship with airborne exposures, inflammation, and disease are crucial for strategizing innovating UA diagnostics and therapeutics. The development of a healthy UA microbiota early in life contributes to normal respiratory development and function in the succeeding years. Although different UA cavities present a unique microbial profile, geriatrics have similar microbes across their UAs. This lost community segregation may contribute to inflammation and disease, as it stimulates disadvantageous microbial-microbial and microbial-host interactions. Varying inflammatory profiles are associated with specific microbial compositions, while the same is true for many disease conditions and environmental exposures. A shift in the microbial composition is also detected upon the administration of numerous therapeutics, highlighting other beneficial and adverse side effects. This review examines the role of the UA microbiota in achieving homeostasis, and the impact on the UAs of environmental airborne pollutants, inflammation, and disease.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbiota , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Inflamação , Nariz
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360500

RESUMO

The risk assessment of lead (Pb) requires the use of biokinetic models to translate measured concentrations of Pb in food and environmental media into blood lead (BPb). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in the health risk assessment of Pb among children in Blantyre. Children (152) aged 1-6 years were recruited into this cross-sectional study, and foods, house dust, playground soil, water, and venous blood (1 mL) were collected and analyzed for Pb. A seven-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food consumption data. The concentrations of Pb ranged from 0.01 to 3.3 mg/kg in food, 2.3 to 265 mg/kg and 1.5 to 482 mg/kg in house dust and playground soil, respectively, as well as 2.0 µg/dL to 50.4 µg/dL and 6.8 to 39.2 µg/dL for measured and predicted BPb, respectively. Various statistical tests indicated less than satisfactory agreement between measured and predicted BPb values. Despite the lack of reliable food consumption data and other limitations, both the predicted and measured BPb values indicate that children in Blantyre are exposed to high levels of Pb, largely through food and soil as a minor source.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Malaui , Medição de Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360038

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between urinary cadmium concentration (uCd, µg/g Cr) and risk of cause-specific mortality according to urinary ß2-microglobulin (MG) concentration. Participants were 1383 male and 1700 female inhabitants of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The uCd and ß2-MG were evaluated in a survey in 1981-1982, where those participants were followed-up over 35 years later. Among the participants with a urinary ß2-MG < 1000, the hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval) for mortality were significantly higher in those with a uCd of ≥10.0 compared with <5.0 for cardiovascular disease [HR 1.92 (1.08-3.40) for men, 1.71 (1.07-2.71) for women], pneumonia or influenza [2.10 (1.10-4.00) for men, 2.22 (1.17-4.19) for women], and digestive diseases [for men; 3.81 (1.49-9.74)]. The uCd was significantly associated with mortality from heart failure in women and digestive diseases in men, after adjustment for other causes of death using the Fine and Gray competing risk regression model. For participants with a urinary ß2-MG of ≥1000, no significant association was observed between uCd and any major cause of death. In the absence of kidney damage, Cd may increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, pneumonia, and digestive diseases.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Exposição Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/química , Masculino , Microglobulina beta-2
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360070

RESUMO

Air pollution, noise, and green space are important environmental exposures, having been linked to a variety of specific health outcomes. However, there are few studies addressing overall early life development. To assess their effects, associations between developmental milestones for a large population of 0-4-year old children in The Netherlands and environmental exposures were explored. Developmental milestones and background characteristics were provided by Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) and supplemented with data from Statistics Netherlands. Milestones were summarized and standardized into an aggregate score measuring global development. Four age groups were selected. Environmental exposures were assigned to geocoded addresses using publicly available maps for PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, NO2, EC, road traffic noise, and green space. Associations were investigated using single and multiple-exposure logistic regression models. 43,916 PCHC visits by 29,524 children were available. No consistent associations were found for air pollution and road traffic noise. Green space was positively associated in single and multiple-exposure models although it was not significant in all age groups (OR 1.01 (0.95; 1.08) (1 year) to 1.07 (1.01; 1.14) (2 years)). No consistent associations were found between air pollution, road traffic noise, and global child development. A positive association of green space was indicated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360085

RESUMO

One year after the opening of the Hokuriku Shinkansen (high-speed) railway, in 2016, we conducted a social survey targeting the residents of detached houses along the rail. Noise and vibration exposure levels were estimated at outdoor points closest to the noise source side of the houses. Of the 1980 people contacted, there were 1022 valid respondents. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between noise and vibration exposure and community responses. The results demonstrated that the noise annoyance and daily activity disturbances of residents living in areas without a conventional railway are higher than those of residents living in areas running parallel to a conventional railway line. This tendency was remarkable, especially for areas with high vibration exposure caused by the Shinkansen railway. There was no difference between before and after the opening of the Shinkansen railway in the evaluation of housing satisfaction, or regarding the preference for the residential area and quietness around the house. However, since the survey before the opening was conducted only in the Ishikawa site, it will be necessary to conduct before-and-after surveys in areas where there are no conventional railways, and where the speed of the Shinkansen is fast.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Ferrovias , Acústica , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vibração/efeitos adversos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360101

RESUMO

Suicide is a significant public health concern worldwide and in the United States. Despite the far-reaching impact of suicide, risk factors are still not well understood and efforts to accurately assess risk have fallen short. Current research has highlighted how potentially modifiable environmental exposures (i.e., meteorological, pollution, and geographic exposures) can affect suicide risk. A scoping review was conducted to evaluate the strength of the historical and current literature on the environment's effect on suicide and suicide risk. Three databases (i.e., Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo) were reviewed to identify relevant studies and two authors independently reviewed studies considering pre-determined inclusion criteria. A total of 46 meteorological studies were included as well as 23 pollution studies and 12 geographic studies. Descriptive statistics, including counts, percentages, review of studies' sample size (minimum, maximum, median, and interquartile range), were calculated using Excel and SAS 9.4. Overall, strong evidence supports that exposure to sunlight, temperature, air pollution, pesticides, and high altitude increases suicide risk, although effect sizes range from very small to small.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Suicídio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gerenciamento de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360102

RESUMO

Children walking to school are at a high risk of exposure to air pollution compared with other modes because of the time they spend in close proximity to traffic during their commute. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a walker's route choice on their exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) on the walk to school. During morning commutes over a period of three weeks, exposure to UFP was measured along three routes: two routes were alongside both sides of a busy arterial road with significantly higher levels of traffic on one side compared to the other, and the third route passed through quiet streets (the background route). The results indicate that the mean exposure for the pedestrian walking along the background route was half the exposure experienced on the other two routes. Walkers on the trafficked side were exposed to elevated concentrations (>100,000 pt/cc) 2.5 times longer than the low-trafficked side. However, the duration of the elevated exposure for the background route was close to zero. Public health officials and urban planners may use the results of this study to promote healthier walking routes to schools, especially those planned as part of organized commutes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caminhada
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) refers to the wide range of air pollutants emitted by traffic that are dispersed into the ambient air. Emerging evidence shows that TRAP can increase asthma incidence in children. Living with asthma can carry a huge financial burden for individuals and families due to direct and indirect medical expenses, which can include costs of hospitalization, medical visits, medication, missed school days, and loss of wages from missed workdays for caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to estimate the economic impact of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a common traffic-related air pollutant in urban areas, in the United States at the state level. METHODS: We calculate the direct and indirect costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 using previously published burden of disease estimates and per person asthma cost estimates. By multiplying the per person indirect and direct costs for each state with the NO2-attributable asthma incident cases in each state, we were able to estimate the total cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the United States. RESULTS: The cost calculation estimates the total direct and indirect annual cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the year 2010 to be $178,900,138.989 (95% CI: $101,019,728.20-$256,980,126.65). The state with the highest cost burden is California with $24,501,859.84 (95% CI: $10,020,182.62-$38,982,261.250), and the state with the lowest cost burden is Montana with $88,880.12 (95% CI: $33,491.06-$144,269.18). CONCLUSION: This study estimates the annual costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 and demonstrates the importance of conducting economic impacts studies of TRAP. It is important for policy-making institutions to focus on this problem by advocating and supporting more studies on TRAP's impact on the national economy and health, including these economic impact estimates in the decision-making process, and devising mitigation strategies to reduce TRAP and the population's exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360233

RESUMO

Fish serves as the principal source of animal protein for the indigenous people of the Amazon, ensuring their food and nutritional security. However, gold mining causes mercury (Hg) contamination in fish, and consequently increases health risks associated with fish consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the health risk attributed to the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish by Munduruku indigenous communities in the Middle-Tapajós Region. Different fish species were collected in the Sawré Muybu Indigenous Land to determine mercury levels. The health risk assessment was carried out according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2008) methodology and different scenarios were built for counterfactual analysis. Eighty-eight fish specimens from 17 species and four trophic levels were analyzed. Estimates of Hg ingestion indicated that the methylmercury daily intake exceeds the U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2000) reference dose from 3 to 25-fold, and up to 11 times the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)/WHO (2003) dose recommendation. In all situations analyzed, the risk ratio estimates were above 1.0, meaning that the investigated Munduruku communities are at serious risk of harm as a result of ingestion of mercury-contaminated fish. These results indicate that, at present, fish consumption is not safe for this Munduruku population. This hazardous situation threatens the survival of this indigenous population, their food security, and their culture.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Mineração , Medição de Risco
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