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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17899, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702666

RESUMO

This survey was to investigate the short-term effect of particulate matters (PMs) exposure on clinical and microbiological variables, especially septic emboli, in infective endocarditis (IE). The study analyzed 138 IE patients in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2015 and clinical variables were retrospectively requested. The data of air quality were recorded and collected by a network of 26 monitoring stations spreading in Northern part of Taiwan. We found that IE patients with septic emboli were found to be exposed to a significantly higher level of PM2.5 (32.01 ±â€Š15.89 vs. 21.70 ±â€Š13.05 µg/m, P < .001) and PM10 (54.57 ±â€Š24.43 vs 40.98 ±â€Š24.81 µg/m, P = .002) on lag 0 day when compared to those without. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis revealed that that ambient exposure to PM2.5 (odds ratio: 3.87, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-8.31; P = .001) and PM10 (odds ratio: 4.58, 95% confidence interval: 2.03-10.32; P < .001) significantly increased risk of septic emboli in IE patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that short-term exposure to PMs was associated with septic emboli in IE.


Assuntos
Endocardite/microbiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1152-1157, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683404

RESUMO

Objective: Using Meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the short-term exposure to fine particular matter (PM(2.5)) and the morbidity of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: In this paper, "particulate matter" , "PM2.5" , "ischemic heart disease" , "coronary heart disease" , "coronary artery disease" , "atherosclerotic heart disease" , and "atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease" were used to systematically search for the literature on the association between the short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and the ischemic heart disease through China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip as well as Pubmed and Web of Science. The time was up to January 31(st) 2019. The quality of literature was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis method was performed by using R3.5.0 software and was used to perform heterogeneity test, calculate combined risk of IHD with short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and carry out publication bias test. Results: A total of 1 424 literatures were retrieved. Of the 23 literatures included studies (2 literatures in Chinese and 21 literatures in English) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 used a time-series design and 9 used a case-crossover design. The heterogeneity existed across all identified studies (I(2)=81%, P<0.05). The Random effect model showed that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) was associated with estimated relative risk of IHD morbidity at 1.007 (95%CI: 1.005-1.009); Publication bias was noted in the analysis (t=2.76, P<0.05), and the combined effect values of IHD morbidity was reduced to 1.005(95%CI: 1.004-1.007) after adjusting for asymmetry. Conclusion: Short-term exposure to PM(2.5) may lead to the increase of ischemic heart disease morbidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Risco
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191100. 11 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026274

RESUMO

Todos los años diversos departamentos de la sierra de nuestro país están experimentando la presencia de bajas temperaturas caracterizado por las heladas. Este evento afecta negativamente la forma de vida de la población, principalmente la salud; lo cual se manifiesta con el incremento de casos de infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) y neumonías. Las poblaciones más expuestas son las que se encuentran en situación de pobreza y pobreza extrema, y los grupos vulnerables de niños y niñas, adultos mayores y enfermos crónicos principalmente, que se ven afectados por el súbito descenso de la temperatura. Como Agente Comunitario en Salud, describe una guía metodológica para que, junto al personal de salud, fortalezcan sus labores en la promoción de prácticas saludables frente a la temporada de bajas temperaturas


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Desastre Hidrológico , Planos e Programas de Educação em Desastres , Geada , Exposição Ambiental , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Promoção da Saúde
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191100. 11 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026275

RESUMO

La temporada de heladas en las regiones de nuestro país, en muchas ocasiones se convierte, en situaciones de emergencias. La Política de Estado N° 32, reconoce y enmarca la Gestión de Riesgo de Desastres, como un compromiso nacional de prioritario interés, generándose los espacios para las diversas acciones de prevención, preparación y respuesta que se materializan. En tal sentido, el Ministerio de Salud en articulación con el Ministerio de Educación y otros sectores desarrolla intervenciones en los espacios de la familia, instituciones educativas y comunidad en general. La presente cartilla informativa está dirigida a la comunidad educativa para que se desarrollen prácticas saludables en el ámbito escolar, frente a la temporada de bajas temperaturas, para reducir las consecuencias de este evento climatológico sobre la salud de las personas, fundamentalmente las de mayor vulnerabilidad


Assuntos
Medição de Risco , Desastre Meteorológico , Planos e Programas de Educação em Desastres , Geada , Exposição Ambiental , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Promoção da Saúde
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191100. 11 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026277

RESUMO

Todos los años departamentos de la sierra de nuestro país experimentan la presencia de bajas temperatura, fenómeno climatológico caracterizado por las heladas. Los daños a la salud reportados durante la temporada de frío en algunas zonas del país son preocupantes, las que coincidentemente son producto de múltiples determinantes tales como pobreza extrema, deficiencias en el acceso a la salud, insuficiente educación para la percepción de los riesgos, las que se traducen en vulnerabilidades. En términos de salud, este fenómeno climatológico se refleja en incremento de neumonías y defunciones en la población vulnerable como son los menores de cinco años y adultos mayores. La presente cartilla informativa es para los gobiernos locales que fortalezcan los conocimientos de su comunidad para que desarrollen prácticas saludables frente a esta temporada de bajas temperaturas, de manera que puedan organizar la vigilancia comunal de su población vulnerable y posibilite la reducción del efecto negativo de las heladas en la salud de la población


Assuntos
Planos e Programas de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Desastre Meteorológico , Geada , Exposição Ambiental , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Promoção da Saúde
7.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed., 2 reimp; 20191100. 16 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos, LIPECS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1026351

RESUMO

El presente rotafolio describe la información sobre las prácticas para prevenir las infecciones respiratorias agudas ante el friaje y heladas, con énfasis en niños y niñas menores de 5 años, mayores de 60 años de edad o personas con enfermedades crónicas


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Medição de Risco , Desastre Meteorológico , Planos e Programas de Educação em Desastres , Exposição Ambiental , Promoção da Saúde
8.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 791-802, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664577

RESUMO

Water shortage events negatively impact plant productivity, threaten ecosystem functioning, and are predicted to increase dramatically in the coming years. Consequently, building a detailed understanding of how plants respond to water stress is critical for improving predictions of ecological processes and species range shifts under climate change. Here, we characterized patterns of intraspecific variation in dehydration tolerance (DhT, also dehydration tolerant) across a variable landscape in the tropical plant, Marchantia inflexa. DhT enables tissues to survive substantial drying (below an absolute water content of - 10 MPa) and despite the ecological significance of DhT, many questions remain. We tested if DhT was correlated with an environmental exposure gradient, if male and female plants had contrasting DhT phenotypes, and if variation in DhT had a genetic component. To do so, we collected plants from five populations, spanning an environmental exposure gradient in the forests of northern Trinidad, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. We measured DhT immediately after collection, and after growing plants for ~ 1 year in a common garden. We found that DhT varied significantly among populations and tracked the characterized exposure gradient. Additionally, we showed that phenotypic differences among populations in DhT were maintained in the common garden, suggesting that underlying genetic differences contribute to DhT variability. Finally, we detected a fluctuating sexual dimorphism where males had lower DhT than females in less exposed sites, but not in more exposed sites. Interestingly, this fluctuating sexual dimorphism in DhT was driven primarily by male variation (females exhibited similar DhT across sites).


Assuntos
Desidratação , Hepatófitas , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Trinidad e Tobago , Água
10.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 304-310, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-2594

RESUMO

Objetivo. Investigar la calidad asistencial en los episodios de exposición a monóxido de carbono (CO) asistidos por unidades prehospitalarias mediante indicadores de calidad (IC) y las variables relacionadas con el uso del pulsicooxímetro para medir de forma incruenta el porcentaje de saturación de la hemoglobina con CO (SpCO). Método. Estudio de cohorte de los episodios de exposición a CO atendidos por las unidades de soporte vital avanza-do (SVA) del Sistema de Emergencias Médicas de Cataluña. Se seleccionaron 11 IC y se diseñó un análisis multivariante para investigar las variables relacionadas con el uso del pulsicooxímetro.Resultados. Se recogieron 1.676 episodios de exposición a CO. En 1.108 (66,1%) se registró la SpCO con pulsicooxímetro, siendo SpCO > 10% en 358 (32,3%). De los 11 IC, cinco no alcanzaron el estándar recomendado. El análisis multivariante mostró un menor uso del pulsicooxímetro cuando había asociación con otro tóxico, OR 0,34 (IC 95% 0,11-1,00) y cuando la primera asistencia era realizada por SVA médico, OR 0,43 (IC 95% 0,31-0,59). Hubo mayor uso del pulsicooxímetro ante la presencia de antecedentes psiquiátricos OR 3,01 (IC 95% 1,27-7,17), la cefalea OR 2,13 (IC 95% 1,22-3,72) y el uso de oxigenoterapia OR 10,33 (5,46-19,53). Conclusión. En la asistencia prehospitalaria de los episodios de exposición al CO existe una falta de cumplimiento de algunos IC. Hay variables relacionadas con la infrautilización del pulsicooxímetro, con puntos de mejora


Objective. To describe health care quality indicators in cases of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure attended by prehospital services and to explore factors associated with the use of pulse CO-oximetry (SpCO) for the noninvasive estimation of CO saturation of arterial blood. Method. Cohort study of patients exposed to CO and transported by advanced life support units of the Emergency Medical Services of Catalonia between January 2015 and December 2017. We selected 11 applicable quality indicators and used multivariate analysis to explore factors associated with the recording of SpCO. Results. We studied 1676 cases of CO exposure. SpCO was recorded in 1108 cases (66.1%). CO saturation exceeded 10% in 358 patients (32.3%). Adherence was deficient in 5 of the 11 applicable quality indicators. Multivariate analysis showed less use of pulse CO-oximetry when another toxic exposure was present (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-1.00) and when the first responder was from the advanced life support service (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.31-0.59). SpCO was used more in the presence of a history of mental health problems (OR, 3.01; 95% CI,1.27-7.17), headache (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.2-3.72), and along with use of oxygen therapy (OR, 10.33; 95% CI, 5.46-19.53). Conclusion. Prehospital attendance of episodes of CO exposure is marked by failure to comply with some health care quality indicators. We detected factors associated with under use of SpCO as well as areas to target for improvement


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar/organização & administração , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência Pré-Hospitalar/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Exposição Ambiental , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Razão de Chances
11.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(2): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637694

RESUMO

Chemical and biological (CB) warfare have long been practiced, and although these types of warfare are not acceptable in modern times, this does not prevent them from occurring. This makes it important for societies to be able to appropriately respond to these events, including the best way to decontaminate victims to keep them and emergency responders safe. Decontamination methods such as chemical, physical, wet, and dry methods are discussed, as well as their downsides. Secondary contamination, which played a significant role in the Tokyo sarin attacks, has long been noted by anecdotal evidence, although it has been little studied. Biological agents cause more problems after infection has taken place, and thus preventing the spread of infection is the largest concern. There are many differences between military and civilian populations, and the response to mass casualty attacks differs accordingly. There are several emerging technologies that can make this process easier on all parties, such as bioscavengers, antitoxins, and color changing bleach for visualization. A reliable way to quantify decontamination is also needed, which would allow for better care of victims both in normal hospital situations, as well as during aeromedical transport. In addition, several gaps were identified, such as the lack of scientific basis for 90 percent reduction during decontamination, a way to quantify decontamination, and the lack of studies on toxic industrial chemicals and secondary contamination.


Assuntos
Guerra Biológica , Guerra Química , Descontaminação/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Militares , Guerra Nuclear , Humanos
12.
Bull Cancer ; 106(11): 975-982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607391

RESUMO

While improvements in the environment and living conditions have contributed to a significant increase in human longevity for over a century, the role of environmental factors in the occurrence of cancer has become a public health concern. It is recognized that a number of environmental factors such as environmental quality (air, water, soil), or environmental changes contribute to the occurrence of certain cancers. Despite this awareness, their potential impacts on health raise many scientific questions. The development of new methodological tools for the characterization of exposure, the study of the association between environmental agents and cancer through an exposure-cancer approach and the health impacts associated, have led to changes in scientific paradigms including the concept of exposome. This concept, at the heart of health and environmental issues, takes into account the determinants of health related to the quality of populations' living environments and provides assistance in public policy decision-making. Ultimately, the aim is to develop measures likely to reduce exposure and prevent health risks and damage to the most vulnerable populations, both in their physical environment and in their living environment, including the economic and social determinants.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Causalidade , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
13.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191000. 11 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026266

RESUMO

La temporada de friaje en las regiones de nuestro país se convierte, en muchas ocasiones, en situaciones de emergencias. La Política de Estado N° 32, reconoce y enmarca la Gestión de Riesgo de Desastres, como un compromiso nacional de prioritario interés, generándose los espacios para las diversas acciones de prevención, preparación y respuesta que se materializan. En tal sentido, el Ministerio de Salud en articulación con el Ministerio de Educación y otros sectores desarrolla intervenciones en los espacios de la familia, instituciones educativas y comunidad en general. La presente cartilla informativa está dirigida a la comunidad educativa para promover comportamientos y entornos saludables en el ámbito escolar, frente a la temporada de bajas temperaturas, para reducir las consecuencias que este evento climatológico podría generar sobre la salud de las personas, fundamentalmente las de mayor vulnerabilidad


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Medição de Risco , Planos e Programas de Educação em Desastres , Exposição Ambiental , Materiais Educativos e de Divulgação , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Promoção da Saúde
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191000. 14 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026272

RESUMO

Todos los años departamentos de la selva de nuestro país experimentan la presencia de bajas temperatura, fenómeno climatológico caracterizado por el friaje. Los daños a la salud reportados durante la temporada de frío en algunas zonas del país son preocupantes, las que coincidentemente son producto de múltiples determinantes tales como pobreza extrema, deficiencias en el acceso a la salud, insuficiente educación para la percepción de los riesgos, las que se traducen en vulnerabilidades. En términos de salud, este fenómeno climatológico se refleja en incremento de neumonías y defunciones en la población vulnerable como son los menores de cinco años y adultos mayores. Reducir el riesgo de los efectos de la temporada de friaje requiere de una intervención y participación conjunta, tanto de las autoridades de todos los sectores (salud, educación, vivienda entre otros), de todos los niveles de gobierno (central, regional y local), y en especial de las familias, agentes comunitarios en salud y de la comunidad en general. La presente cartilla informativa útil para los gobiernos locales que fortalezcan los conocimientos de su comunidad para que desarrollen prácticas saludables frente a esta temporada de bajas temperaturas, de manera que puedan organizar la vigilancia comunal de su población vulnerable y posibilite la reducción del efecto negativo del friaje en la salud de la población


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Clima Frio , Medição de Risco , Desastre Meteorológico , Planos e Programas de Educação em Desastres , Exposição Ambiental , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Promoção da Saúde
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11536-11541, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589045

RESUMO

Limited reports on the use of nanobodies (Nbs) in fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) aroused us to explore if the small size of Nbs is a drawback for the development of sensitive FPIA to small molecular compounds, particularly since FPIA is a technology strongly dependent on molecular weight. In the present work, three different molecular weight Nbs against 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), an exposure biomarker of pyrethroid insecticides, including bare Nbs (15 kDa), Nbs-Avidin (Nbs-AV, 60 kDa), and Nbs-Alkaline phosphatase (Nbs-AP, 130 kDa) were specifically generated to cover distinct regions on the polarization and molecular weight relationship curve for a fluorescein tracer. In competitive FPIA, similar half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 3-PBA of 16.4, 12.2, and 14.8 ng mL-1 were obtained for Nbs, Nbs-AV, and Nbs-AP, respectively, indicating that the size of Nbs in the range tested had no significant effect on the sensitivity of the resulting competitive FPIA. An IC50 of 20.2 ng mL-1 for an anti-3-PBA polyconal antibody based FPIA further demonstrated the performance of Nbs, which was comparable to that of traditional antibodies in FPIA. Spike-recovery studies showed good and reproducible recovery of 3-PBA in urine samples, demonstrating the applicability of Nb-based FPIA. Overall, our results show that Nb-based FPIA achieves sensitivity levels of FPIA based on conventional antibodies and further indicate that Nb absolutely meets the sensitivity requirement of FPIA.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/urina , Imunoensaio de Fluorescência por Polarização/métodos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Imunoensaio de Fluorescência por Polarização/instrumentação , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Se Pu ; 37(8): 815-823, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642251

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) are a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In recent years, the harmful effects of PAEs on human health, in particular their toxicity toward the reproductive system and development, have received significant attention because of their increasing production and usage. PAEs are ubiquitous in the environment and food products, resulting in unavoidable and long-term exposure in humans. Therefore, exposure and risk assessments of PAEs in humans are necessary. Screening and quantification of phthalate metabolites in urine is an important method for evaluating PAEs exposure, and establishing accurate analytical methods for this purpose has become a high priority. Phthalate monoesters and secondary metabolites are the most commonly targeted biomarkers of exposure to short-and long-chain PAEs, respectively. The combination of off-line or on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has become the preferred method for the determination of phthalate metabolites. This paper reviews the analytical methods available for the detection of urinary phthalate metabolites and discusses the advantages, limitations, and challenges presented by each method in practical applications.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(10): 750-754, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594108

RESUMO

Objective: To analyzed the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with H7N9 avian influenza. Methods: The baseline characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatments, laboratory and imaging findings were collected and analyzed for 20 patients with H7N9 avian influenza admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from December 2016 to March 2017. According to the final clinical outcome, the patients were divided into the death group and the survival group. Ten patients in the death group died, and 10 patients in the survival group were discharged. The data with normal distribution were analyzed by t test. The data with non-normal distribution were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Of the 20 patients, 13 were males and 7 were females, aging 40-82 years, with a mean age of (60±12) years. Twelve patients had a definite history of poultry exposure and 10 had chronic underlying diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. The clinical manifestations were mainly fever, cough, hemoptysis, respiratory distress, fatigue, etc. In the survival group, the platelet count was(167-315)×10(9)/L, while it was (78-152)×10(9)/L in the death group. The average white blood cell count was (7.78-11.52)×10(9)/L and (9.91-15.93)×10(9)/L in the survival and death groups respectively. The average value of lymphocyte count was (0.69-1.59)×10(9)/L and (0.58-0.86)×10(9)/L in the survival and death groups respectively. In the death group the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) value was (14.0-352.0) U/L, the total bilirubin value was (6.9-34.5) µmol/L, the creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) was (16.0-162.0) U/L, the serum calcium value was (1.4-2.0) mmol/L, the C-reactive protein value was (33.1-414.0) mg/L, and the calcium reduction prime value was (0.6-100.0) µg/L. In the survival group,the ALT value was (25.0-181.0) U/L, the total bilirubin value was (4.8-25.9) µmol/L, the CK-MB value was (15.0-40.0) U/L, the serum calcium value was (1.9-2.4) mmol/L, the C-reaction protein value was (12.8-52.5) mg/L, and the procalcitonin value was (0.3-23.3) µg/L. Sixteen cases suffered severe pneumonia. Twelve patients received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and 4 survived. The cause of death was mainly related to factors such as age, chronic underlying diseases and severity of illness. Conclusions: Human infection with H7N9 avian influenza virus was highly pathogenic, and prone to progress into severe pneumonia, with a high mortality. Decreased platelet count was associated with mortality (t=4.07, P=0.001), predictive of patient outcome.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Aves , China/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/virologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 41-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471794

RESUMO

Wildlife is exposed to a diverse range of natural and man-made chemicals. Some environmental chemicals possess specific endocrine disrupting properties, which have the potential to disrupt reproductive and developmental process in certain animals. There is growing evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a key role in reproductive disorders in fish, amphibians, mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. This evidence comes from field-based observations and laboratory based exposure studies, which provide substantial evidence that environmental chemicals can cause adverse effects at environmentally relevant doses. There is particular concern about wildlife exposures to cocktails of biologically active chemicals, which combined with other stressors, may play an even greater role in reproductive disorders than can be reproduced in laboratory experiments. Regulation of chemicals affords some protection to animals of the adverse effects of exposure to legacy chemicals but there continues to be considerable debate on the regulation of emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Animais
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 200-207, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471027

RESUMO

The exposure to plastic debris and associated pollutants for wildlife is of urgent concern, but little attention has been paid on the transfer of plastic additives from plastic debris to organisms. In the present study, the leaching of incorporated flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alternative brominated FRs (AFRs), and phosphate flame retardants (PFRs), from different sizes of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer were investigated in avian digestive fluids. The impact of co-ingested sediment on the leaching of additive-derived FRs in digestive fluids was also explored. In the recycled ABS, BDE 209 (715 µg/g) and 1, 2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE, 1766 µg/g) had the highest concentrations among all target FRs. The leaching proportions of FRs were higher in finer sizes of ABS. The leaching proportions of FRs from recycled ABS increased with elevated logKOW of FRs. In the tests with coexisted ABS and sediment, hexa- to deca-BDEs, BTBPE, and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) migrated from ABS to sediment, which resulted in the less bioaccessible fractions of these FRs in gut fluids. More lipophilic chemicals tended to be adsorbed by sediment from ABS. The results suggest the migration of additive-derived FRs from plastics to other indigestible materials in digestive fluids. The findings in this study provide insights into the transfer of additive-derived FRs from plastics to birds, and indicate the significant contribution of FR-incorporated plastics to bioaccumulation of highly lipophilic FRs.


Assuntos
Aves , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Ácido Gástrico/química , Plásticos/química , Animais , Bromobenzenos/química , Butadienos , Exposição Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Organofosfatos
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 919-924, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474074

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of long-term exposure of nitrogen dioxide on the incidence of hypertension. Methods: From March to December 2009, 37 386 eligible residents from four cities in northern China (Tianjin, Shenyang, Taiyuan, and Rizhao) were enrolled in a follow-up study by using the random cluster sampling method. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle, history of diseases, and self-report situation of hypertension were collected by using questionnaire. Based on the average annual concentration of NO2 during the period from the cohort to the onset of hypertension as an estimate of exposure, the effect of NO2 exposure on hypertension was analyzed by employing Cox proportional hazards model. The interactions between NO2 exposure and different characteristics (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, economy, exercise, and fruit intake) were also examined. Results: The baseline age of residents was (43.74±13.78) years, and the body mass index (BMI) was (22.56±2.92) kg/m(2). During an average follow-up time of 11.40 years, 2 619 (7.0%) new cases of hypertension were reported. The overall mean environmental pollution levels during the study period for the entire cohort was (40.74±17.07) µg/m(3). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, family history of hypertension, socio-economic information, and lifestyle, the hazard ratio (HR) of incident hypertension with a 10 µg/m(3) increase of NO2 was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.18-1.25). Compared with residents aged 60 years and over (HR=1.19, 95%CI: 1.14-1.26), former and current smoking (HR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.14-1.25), and high-frequency fruit consumption (HR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.13-1.21), residents younger than 60 years (HR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.25-1.32), non-smoker (HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.19-1.27), and low-frequency fruit consumption (HR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.20-1.35) had stronger interaction effect with NO2 (all P values for interaction<0.05). Conclusion: NO2 exposure may lead to the onset of hypertension, which has a stronger effect on people younger than 60 years old, without smoking history and with low-frequency fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental , Hipertensão , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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