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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126051, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to various cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints. However, little is known regarding the health effects of PM2.5 constituents. This study aimed to assess the associations of CVD incidence with long-term exposures to PM2.5 constituents in China, including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+). METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 14,331 adults were drawn from the China Family Panel Study, a high-quality longitudinal survey initiated from 2010 over 25 provincial regions in China. We used the baseline survey and the ensuing three waves of follow-up data during 2010-2017 to conceive our study cohort. Annual county-level exposures of PM2.5 and its constituents for each participant were assessed by aggregating satellite-derived estimates at a monthly time-scale and 1 km-resolution. A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was developed to identify confounding variables. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying exposures and province-level random intercepts were employed to quantify associations of CVD incidence with long-term exposures to PM2.5 and its constituents. RESULTS: During 84,162.4 person-years' follow-up, a total of 1575 CVD, 953 hypertension and 342 stroke incidents occurred. DAG-based Cox model estimated an hazard ratio (HR) of 1.291 (95% confidence interval: 1.147-1.454) for total CVD and 1.326 (1.151-1.528) for hypertension, associated with per interquartile range (IQR=27.9 µg/m3) increase in exposure to PM2.5 mass. Elevated CVD risks were also significantly related to several PM2.5 constituents, with the largest HRs observed in SO42- (1.721 [1.517-1.951], IQR = 5.67 µg/m3), followed by NH4+ (1.537 [1.341-1.762], IQR = 4.44 µg/m3), NO3- (1.311 [1.128-1.523], IQR = 8.92 µg/m3) and BC (1.294 [1.158-1.446], IQR = 2.28 µg/m3). No associations were identified between long-term exposures to particulate constituents and incidence of stroke. Associations with PM2.5 and constituents (BC, NO3-, NH4+ and SO42-) were more pronounced among adults aged over 50 years, and residents in southern region. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposures to PM2.5 mass and specific constituents (i.e., BC, NO3-, NH4+ and SO42-) were associated with increased risks of total CVD and hypertension incidence in Chinese adults. Findings may have implications for in-depth understandings of biological mechanisms in chronic impacts of ambient PM2.5 on cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126120, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492915

RESUMO

Evidence is limited regarding the acute effects of personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and its respiratory tract depositions on the alteration of children's blood pressure (BP). We conducted 2 longitudinal panel studies in 2 cities to evaluate the relations of 72-h real-time personal PM2.5 exposure and its depositions in 3 respiratory tract regions over different lag times with BP and the risk of prehypertension and hypertension among 286 children aged 4-12 years. We found the strongest effects of PM2.5 exposure on increased BP and risk of prehypertension and hypertension at lag 2 day, in dose-response manner, even when PM2.5 below Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) Grade II. Moreover, compared to PM2.5, tracheobronchial and alveolar depositions displayed more evident effects on BP outcomes. Interestingly, all above relationships were stronger among children in Guangzhou with lower PM2.5 and its deposited doses than those in Weinan. Additionally, boys and those with daily extra-school activity ≥ 1 h were more susceptible to PM2.5-induced BP effects with significant interactions. Our results highlighted that short-term PM2.5 exposure and its respiratory tract depositions were dose-responsive related to higher BP, prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among children, even when PM2.5 below CAAQS II.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
Talanta ; 234: 122683, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364482

RESUMO

Humans are continuously exposed to numerous environmental pollutants including potentially toxic elements. Essential elements play an important role in human health. Abnormal elemental levels in the body, in different forms that existed, have been reported to be correlated with different diseases and environmental exposure. Blood is the conventional biological sample used in human biomonitoring. However, blood samples can only reflect short-term exposure and require invasive sampling, which poses infection risk to individuals. In recent years, the number of research evaluating the effectiveness of non-invasive samples (hair, nails, urine, meconium, breast milk, placenta, cord blood, saliva and teeth) for human biomonitoring is increasing. These samples can be collected easily and provide extra information in addition to blood analysis. Yet, the correlation between the elemental concentration in non-invasive samples and in blood is not well established, which hinders the application of those samples in routine human biomonitoring. This review aims at providing a fundamental overview of analytical methods of non-invasive samples in human biomonitoring. The content covers the sample collection and pretreatment, sample preparation and instrumental analysis. The technical discussions are separated into solution analysis and solid analysis. In the last section, the authors highlight some of the perspectives on the future of elemental analysis in human biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15960, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354189

RESUMO

It is not clear if COVID-19 can be indirectly transmitted. It is not possible to conclude the role of the environment in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 without studying areas in which people transit in great numbers. In this work we aimed to better understand the role of environment in the spread of COVID-19. We investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in fomites as well as in the air and in the sewage using RT-qPCR. We studied both, a reference market area and a COVID-19 reference hospital at Barreiras city, Brazil. We collected and analyzed a total of 418 samples from mask fronts, cell phones, paper money, card machines, sewage, air and bedding during the ascendant phase of the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 in Barreiras. As a result, we detected the human RNAse P gene in most of samples, which indicates the presence of human cells or their fragments in specimens. However, we did not detect any trace of SARS-CoV-2 in all samples analyzed. We conclude that, so far, the environment and inanimate materials did not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission in Barreiras city. Therefore, similar results can probably be found in other cities, mainly those with COVID-19 epidemiological scenarios similar to that of Barreiras city. Our study is a small piece indicating the possibility that fomites and the environment do not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the world scenario.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Fômites , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (1) To determine the contribution of diet, time spent outdoors, and habitual physical activity (PA) on vitamin D status in men with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to physical activity matched controls (TDC) without neurological impairment; (2) to determine the role of vitamin D on musculoskeletal health, morphology, and function in men with CP compared to TDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison study where 24 active, ambulant men with CP aged 21.0 ± 1.4 years (Gross Motor Function Classification Score (I-II) and 24 healthy TDC aged 25.3 ± 3.1 years completed in vivo assessment of musculoskeletal health, including: vastus lateralis anatomical cross-sectional area (VL ACSA), isometric knee extension maximal voluntary contraction (KE iMVC), 10 m sprint, vertical jumps (VJ), and radius and tibia bone ultrasound (US) Tus and Zus scores. Assessments of vitamin D status through venous samples of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone, dietary vitamin D intake from food diary, and total sun exposure via questionnaire were also taken. RESULTS: Men with CP had 40.5% weaker KE iMVC, 23.7% smaller VL ACSA, 22.2% lower VJ, 14.6% lower KE iMVC/VL ACSA ratio, 22.4% lower KE iMVC/body mass (BM) ratio, and 25.1% lower KE iMVC/lean body mass (LBM) ratio (all p < 0.05). Radius Tus and Zus scores were 1.75 and 1.57 standard deviations lower than TDC, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas neither tibia Tus nor Zus scores showed any difference compared to TDC (p > 0.05). The 25(OH)D was not different between groups, and 90.9% of men with CP and 91.7% of TDC had low 25(OH)D levels when compared to current UK recommendations. The 25(OH)D was positively associated with KE iMVC/LBM ratio in men with CP (r = 0.500, p = 0.020) but not in TDC (r = 0.281, p = 0.104). CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal outcomes in men with CP were lower than TDC, and despite there being no difference in levels of 25(OH)D between the groups, 25 (OH)D was associated with strength (KE iMVC/LBM) in the CP group but not TDC. The findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency can accentuate some of the condition-specific impairments to musculoskeletal outcomes.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Registros de Dieta , Avaliação da Deficiência , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117574, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438496

RESUMO

People use a particulate respirator in order to reduce exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Acute exposure to PM2.5 is known to increase blood pressure. However, systematic reviews or meta-analyses on blood pressure-related benefits of using a particulate respirator is lacking. Therefore, we reviewed randomized crossover intervention studies on blood pressure-related effects of particulate matter respirator use. We conducted a literature review of articles found on Embase, Medline, and Cochrane library on August 31, 2020. The study outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure. A random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses, based on age (adult < 60 years, elderly ≥ 60 years), personal PM2.5 exposure levels (High: ≥ 25 µg/m3, Low: < 25 µg/m3), and types of monitoring methods (ambulatory and resting blood pressure) were conducted. We identified 297 references, and seven studies were included in our systematic review. None of the studies used a sham respirator as control and complete allocation concealment and blinding were impossible. The use of a particulate respirator was associated with a -1.23 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.53, 0.07) change in systolic blood pressure and a -1.57 mmHg (95% CI: -3.85, 0.71) change in mean arterial pressure. There were significant heterogeneities and possibilities for publication bias. The subgroup analyses revealed that studies involving elderly individuals, those conducted in high PM2.5 personal exposure, and those in which resting blood pressure was monitored demonstrated a larger decrease in blood pressure resulting from respirator use. Further intervention studies with a large sample size and subjects with diverse characteristics and different personal PM2.5 levels may add the evidence to current literature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ventiladores Mecânicos
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444236

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) flare is related to increased joint damage, disability, and healthcare use. The impact of short-term air pollution exposure on RA disease activity is still a matter of debate. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM)10, PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) affected RA disease activity (DAS28 and SDAI) in 422 consecutive RA residents in Lombardy, North of Italy. Air pollutant concentrations, estimated by Regional Environmental Protection Agency (Lombardy-Italy) at the municipality level, were used to assign short-term exposure from the day of enrolment, back to seven days. Some significant negative associations emerged between RA disease activity, PM10, and NO2, whereas some positive associations were observed for O3. Patients were also stratified according to their ongoing Disease-Modifying anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) treatment: no DMARDs (n = 25), conventional synthetic DMARDs (n = 108), and biological or targeted synthetic DMARDs (n = 289). Therapy interaction seemed partially able to influence the relationship between short-term air pollution exposure and RA disease activity (PM2.5 levels and DAS28 at the day of the visit-O3 levels and disease activity scores for the seven days before the evaluation). According to our results, the impact of short-term air pollution exposure (seven days) minimally impacts disease activity. Moreover, our study suggests therapy could alter the response to environmental factors. Further evidence is needed to elucidate determinants of RA flare and its management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Artrite Reumatoide , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 11155-11165, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347462

RESUMO

Little is known about temporal trends of pregnant women's exposures to environmental phenols and parabens. We quantified four phenols [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, bisphenol S, and triclosan), four parabens [butyl paraben, ethyl paraben (ETPB), methyl paraben (MEPB), and propyl paraben (PRPB)], and triclocarban in 760 urine samples collected during 2007-2014 from 218 California pregnant women participating in a high-familial risk autism spectrum disorder cohort. We applied multiple regression to compute least square geometric means of urinary concentrations and computed average annual percent changes. We compared our urinary concentrations with those of other study populations to examine geographic variations in pregnant women's exposure to these target compounds. Urinary concentrations of BPA, MEPB, ETPB, and PRPB in this study population decreased over the study period [percent change per year (95% confidence interval): -5.7% (-8.2%, -3.2%); -13.0% (-18.1%, -7.7%); -5.5% (-11.0%, 0.3%); and -13.3% (-18.3%, -8.1%), respectively] and were consistently lower than those in pregnant women in other U.S. regions during the same study period. In recent years, certain phenols and parabens with known adverse health effects are being regulated or replaced with alternatives, which explains decreased body burdens observed in this study population. Either the national regulations or the advocacy campaigns in California may have influenced exposures or consumer product choices.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Parabenos , Carbanilidas , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Parabenos/análise , Fenol , Fenóis , Gravidez , Gestantes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360101

RESUMO

Suicide is a significant public health concern worldwide and in the United States. Despite the far-reaching impact of suicide, risk factors are still not well understood and efforts to accurately assess risk have fallen short. Current research has highlighted how potentially modifiable environmental exposures (i.e., meteorological, pollution, and geographic exposures) can affect suicide risk. A scoping review was conducted to evaluate the strength of the historical and current literature on the environment's effect on suicide and suicide risk. Three databases (i.e., Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo) were reviewed to identify relevant studies and two authors independently reviewed studies considering pre-determined inclusion criteria. A total of 46 meteorological studies were included as well as 23 pollution studies and 12 geographic studies. Descriptive statistics, including counts, percentages, review of studies' sample size (minimum, maximum, median, and interquartile range), were calculated using Excel and SAS 9.4. Overall, strong evidence supports that exposure to sunlight, temperature, air pollution, pesticides, and high altitude increases suicide risk, although effect sizes range from very small to small.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Suicídio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gerenciamento de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360102

RESUMO

Children walking to school are at a high risk of exposure to air pollution compared with other modes because of the time they spend in close proximity to traffic during their commute. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a walker's route choice on their exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) on the walk to school. During morning commutes over a period of three weeks, exposure to UFP was measured along three routes: two routes were alongside both sides of a busy arterial road with significantly higher levels of traffic on one side compared to the other, and the third route passed through quiet streets (the background route). The results indicate that the mean exposure for the pedestrian walking along the background route was half the exposure experienced on the other two routes. Walkers on the trafficked side were exposed to elevated concentrations (>100,000 pt/cc) 2.5 times longer than the low-trafficked side. However, the duration of the elevated exposure for the background route was close to zero. Public health officials and urban planners may use the results of this study to promote healthier walking routes to schools, especially those planned as part of organized commutes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Caminhada
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) refers to the wide range of air pollutants emitted by traffic that are dispersed into the ambient air. Emerging evidence shows that TRAP can increase asthma incidence in children. Living with asthma can carry a huge financial burden for individuals and families due to direct and indirect medical expenses, which can include costs of hospitalization, medical visits, medication, missed school days, and loss of wages from missed workdays for caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to estimate the economic impact of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a common traffic-related air pollutant in urban areas, in the United States at the state level. METHODS: We calculate the direct and indirect costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 using previously published burden of disease estimates and per person asthma cost estimates. By multiplying the per person indirect and direct costs for each state with the NO2-attributable asthma incident cases in each state, we were able to estimate the total cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the United States. RESULTS: The cost calculation estimates the total direct and indirect annual cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the year 2010 to be $178,900,138.989 (95% CI: $101,019,728.20-$256,980,126.65). The state with the highest cost burden is California with $24,501,859.84 (95% CI: $10,020,182.62-$38,982,261.250), and the state with the lowest cost burden is Montana with $88,880.12 (95% CI: $33,491.06-$144,269.18). CONCLUSION: This study estimates the annual costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 and demonstrates the importance of conducting economic impacts studies of TRAP. It is important for policy-making institutions to focus on this problem by advocating and supporting more studies on TRAP's impact on the national economy and health, including these economic impact estimates in the decision-making process, and devising mitigation strategies to reduce TRAP and the population's exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360233

RESUMO

Fish serves as the principal source of animal protein for the indigenous people of the Amazon, ensuring their food and nutritional security. However, gold mining causes mercury (Hg) contamination in fish, and consequently increases health risks associated with fish consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the health risk attributed to the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish by Munduruku indigenous communities in the Middle-Tapajós Region. Different fish species were collected in the Sawré Muybu Indigenous Land to determine mercury levels. The health risk assessment was carried out according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2008) methodology and different scenarios were built for counterfactual analysis. Eighty-eight fish specimens from 17 species and four trophic levels were analyzed. Estimates of Hg ingestion indicated that the methylmercury daily intake exceeds the U.S. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2000) reference dose from 3 to 25-fold, and up to 11 times the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)/WHO (2003) dose recommendation. In all situations analyzed, the risk ratio estimates were above 1.0, meaning that the investigated Munduruku communities are at serious risk of harm as a result of ingestion of mercury-contaminated fish. These results indicate that, at present, fish consumption is not safe for this Munduruku population. This hazardous situation threatens the survival of this indigenous population, their food security, and their culture.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Mineração , Medição de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360284

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and histone H3 modification among school children in high-traffic (HT) and low-traffic (LT) areas in Malaysia. Respondents' background information and personal exposure to traffic sources were obtained from questionnaires distributed to randomly selected school children. Real-time monitoring instruments were used for 6-h measurements of PM10, PM2.5, PM1, NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Meanwhile, 24-h measurements of PM2.5-bound black carbon (BC) were performed using air sampling pumps. The salivary histone H3 level was captured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HT schools had significantly higher PM10, PM2.5, PM1, BC, NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and TVOC than LT schools, all at p < 0.001. Children in the HT area were more likely to get higher histone H3 levels (z = -5.13). There were positive weak correlations between histone H3 level and concentrations of NO2 (r = 0.37), CO (r = 0.36), PM1 (r = 0.35), PM2.5 (r = 0.34), SO2 (r = 0.34), PM10 (r = 0.33), O3 (r = 0.33), TVOC (r = 0.25), and BC (r = 0.19). Overall, this study proposes the possible role of histone H3 modification in interpreting the effects of TRAP exposure via non-genotoxic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Histonas , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360285

RESUMO

The association of short-term particulate matter concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among cancer survivors is yet unclear. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from South Korea, the study population consisted of 22,864 5-year cancer survivors with CVD events during the period 2015-2018. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, each case date (date of incident CVD) was matched with three or four referent dates, resulting in a total of 101,576 case and referent dates. The daily average particulate matter 10 (PM10), 2.5 (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) on the day of case or referent date (lag0), 1-3 days before the case or referent date (lag1, lag2, and lag3), and the mean value 0-3 days before the case or referent date (lag0-3) were determined. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD according to quartiles of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10. Compared to the 1st (lowest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10, the 4th (highest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10 was associated with higher odds for CVD (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21). The 4th quartiles of lag1 (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19), lag2 (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), lag3 (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12), and lag0-3 (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) PM2.5 were associated with higher odds for CVD compared to the respective 1st quartiles. Similarly, the 4th quartile of lag0-3 PM2.5-10 was associated with higher CVD events (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19) compared to the 1st quartile. Short-term exposure to high levels of PM may be associated with increased CVD risk among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360500

RESUMO

The risk assessment of lead (Pb) requires the use of biokinetic models to translate measured concentrations of Pb in food and environmental media into blood lead (BPb). The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in the health risk assessment of Pb among children in Blantyre. Children (152) aged 1-6 years were recruited into this cross-sectional study, and foods, house dust, playground soil, water, and venous blood (1 mL) were collected and analyzed for Pb. A seven-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food consumption data. The concentrations of Pb ranged from 0.01 to 3.3 mg/kg in food, 2.3 to 265 mg/kg and 1.5 to 482 mg/kg in house dust and playground soil, respectively, as well as 2.0 µg/dL to 50.4 µg/dL and 6.8 to 39.2 µg/dL for measured and predicted BPb, respectively. Various statistical tests indicated less than satisfactory agreement between measured and predicted BPb values. Despite the lack of reliable food consumption data and other limitations, both the predicted and measured BPb values indicate that children in Blantyre are exposed to high levels of Pb, largely through food and soil as a minor source.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Chumbo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Malaui , Medição de Risco
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 149041, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328903

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) insecticides widely used worldwide are a class of non-persistent pollutants with a short biological half-life. Most OP insecticides are rapidly metabolized in the human body to six dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs), of which urinary concentrations are usually used to assess OP insecticide exposures. In this study, to understand the reliability of a single measurement of OP insecticide metabolites in representing a true longer-term average exposure, we investigated the temporal variability of urinary DAPs over one year in 114 Chinese adults aged 18-30. The detection rates for all six DAP metabolites exceeded 98%. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of DAPs indicated poor (ICC < 0.4) to fair (ICC = 0.4-0.75) reproducibility in spot urine samples over one week, month, or year. Log-transformed DAP metabolites requested 2-12 spot urine samples per subject to offer a reliable estimate of OP insecticide exposures over several months or one year. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting subjects with the one-year average OP insecticide exposure in the highest tertile with one, two, or three urine samples varied from 0.25 to 0.991, 0.491 to 0.966, respectively. We recommend at least 3 spot urine samples for the assessment of one-year OP insecticide exposure by using log-transformed DAPs. This study offers a reference for an appropriate evaluation of a relatively long-period exposure to OP insecticides in biomonitoring and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Adulto , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Organofosfatos , Compostos Organofosforados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 74, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particle (PM2.5) pollution is an important public health problem in China. Short-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with increased mortality of respiratory diseases. However, few evidence was available on the effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 on the years of life lost (YLL) from respiratory diseases in the elderly. Furthermore, birth season which is frequently applied as a proxy for environmental exposure in early life may influence the health outcome in the later life. Nevertheless, the modification effect of birth season on the relationship of PM2.5 exposure and respiratory health need to be explored. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly related to ambient PM2.5 exposure between 2013 and 2016 in Ningbo, China. The modification effect of birth season was explored by subgroup comparisons between different birth seasons. RESULTS: Each 10 µg/m3 increase in daily ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increment of 1.61 (95% CI 0.12, 3.10) years in YLL from respiratory diseases in the elderly population. Individuals who were born in winter had significantly higher YLL from respiratory diseases associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure than those who were born in other seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Birth season which reflects the early-life PM2.5 exposure level that may influence the lung development has a potential effect on the disease burden of respiratory diseases related to ambient PM2.5 exposure in later life. The results would provide theoretical basis to protect vulnerable population defined by birth season when exploring the adverse effects of ambient PM2.5 in the respiratory health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Expectativa de Vida , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Estações do Ano
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