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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140465, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is linked with increased risk of adverse health outcomes, but the evidence for the association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality is weak because of the inadequate adjustment of potential confounders and limited spatial resolution of the exposure assessment. Moreover, there are concerns about the independent effects of NO2. Therefore, we examined the association between NO2 long-term exposure and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included participants who were enrolled in health checkups in Okayama City, Japan, in 2006 or 2007 and were followed until 2016. We used a land-use regression model to estimate the average NO2 concentrations from 2006 to 2007 and allocated them to the participants. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 levels for all-cause or cause-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After excluding the participants who were assigned with outlier exposures, a total of 73,970 participants were included in the analyses. NO2 exposure was associated with increased risk of mortality and the HRs and their confidence intervals were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11) for all-cause, 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) for cardiopulmonary, and 1.36 (1.14, 1.63) for lung cancer mortality. However, the elevated risks became equivocal after the adjustment for fine particulate matter except lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to NO2 was associated with increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and lung cancer mortality. The elevated risk for lung cancer was still observable even after adjustment for fine particulate matter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Causas de Morte , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Japão , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111031, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888610

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) changes were reported to be associated with excessive fluoride exposure and abnormal expression of RUNX2. However, whether the alteration of methylation status, a most commonly used marker for the alteration of gene expression in epidemiological investigation, of RUNX2 is associated with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure and BMD changes has not been reported. Our study aims to explore the role of RUNX2 promoter methylation in BMD changes induced by low-to-moderate fluoride exposure. A total of 1124 adults (413 men and 711 women) were recruited from Kaifeng City in 2017. We measured BMD using ultrasound bone densitometer. Concentrations of urinary fluoride (UF) were measured using ion-selective electrode, and the participants were grouped into control group (CG) and excessive fluoride group (EFG) according to the concentration of UF. We extracted DNA from fasting peripheral blood samples and then detected the promoter methylation levels of RUNX2 using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Relationships between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation and BMD changes were analyzed using generalized linear model and logistic regression. Results showed in EFG (UF concentration > 1.6 mg/L), BMD was negatively correlated with UF concentration (ß: -0.14; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.01) and RUNX2 promoter methylation (ß: -0.13; 95%CI: -0.22, -0.03) in women. The methylation rate of RUNX2 promoter increased by 2.16% for each 1 mg/L increment in UF concentration of women in EFG (95%CI: 0.37, 3.96). No any significant associations between UF concentration, RUNX2 promoter methylation, and BMD were observed in the individuals in CG. Mediation analysis showed that RUNX2 promoter methylation mediated 18.2% (95% CI: 4.2%, 53.2%) of the association between UF concentration and BMD of women in EFG. In conclusion, excessive fluoride exposure (>1.6 mg/L) is associated with changes of BMD in women, and this association is mediated by RUNX2 promoter methylation.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , China , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
3.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127413, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947681

RESUMO

Fishing is part of the traditional activities of Indigenous people in Canada. However, it is also a route of exposure to methylmercury, a known neurotoxicant, and this is a concern for those who rely on fish as part of their diet. The probable weekly intake (PWI) of methylmercury from six species of fish was calculated for Indigenous community members (N = 1406), grouped by age and sex, and compared to Canadian and international provisional reference doses to assess exposure. Mixed-effects regression models were also used to estimate the input of methylmercury into the blood, and Hazard Quotients (HQ) were used to assess potential effects. Of the species of fish in our study, walleye and lake trout contributed the most to methylmercury intake. There was a positive association between the consumption of walleye and the total blood mercury concentrations of mercury in women and men (R2A = 0.40 and 0.47, respectively), and to a lesser extent, children. Similar results were observed for the consumption of lake trout. The 95th-percentile HQ for girls (3.16) and boys (3.18) from the consumption of lake trout was relatively high, and to a lesser extent, so was the HQ for walleye and pike. The consumption of some species of fish increases the exposure to methylmercury, however, taking a balanced approach, there are health benefits associated with the consumption of fish that must be considered. To mitigate future exposure to methylmercury, we recommend follow-up blood monitoring and local-geospatial-based assessments.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Baías , Canadá , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Quebeque , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111018, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888591

RESUMO

Few multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to distinguish the acute effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the years of life lost (YLL) from different subtypes of stroke. We aimed to differentiate the associations between NO2 exposure and YLL from major pathological types of stroke in China, and estimate the relevant economic loss. A time-series study was conducted to explore the associations between short-term NO2 exposure and YLL from ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke from 2013 to 2017 in 48 Chinese cities. Daily NO2 data and stroke mortality counts for each city were obtained from the National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform and Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Generalized additive models were applied to estimate the cumulative effects of NO2 in each city, and meta-analysis was used to combine the city-specific estimates. The relevant economic loss was estimated using the method of the value per statistical life year (VSLY). A 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient NO2 concentration on the present day and previous day (lag 0-1) would lead to relatively higher increments in percentage change of YLL from ischaemic stroke (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.46%, 1.19%) than haemorrhagic stroke (0.46%, 95% CI: 0.09%, 0.84%). The association was significantly stronger in the low-education population than high-education population for ischaemic stroke. Furthermore, significantly higher association was found in South China than those in North China for both subtypes of stroke. Economic loss due to excess YLL from ischaemic stroke related to NO2 exposure was higher than that for haemorrhagic stroke. Our study indicated higher association and economic loss of ischaemic than haemorrhagic stroke related to NO2 exposure in China, which informed priorities for type-specific stroke prevention strategies related to NO2 pollution and vulnerable population protection.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140097, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have suggested that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induces neurodevelopmental disturbances in children and neurodegeneration in animals, the neurotoxic effect of PAH exposure is unclear in adults. The aim was to examine the associations of PAH exposure with brain structure and neuropsychological function in adults without known neurological diseases. METHODS: This study included 421 men and 528 women dwelling in four cities in the Republic of Korea. Urinary concentrations of four PAH metabolites (1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2-hydroxyfluorene) were obtained. Participants underwent brain 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. Cortical thickness and volume were estimated using the region-of-interest method. Separate generalized linear models were constructed for each sex, adjusting for age, years of education, cohabitation status, income, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) age was 68.3 (6.6) years in men and 66.4 (6.1) years in women. In men, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1, the lowest) of urinary 2-naphthol concentration had cortical thinning in the global (ß = -0.03, P = .02), parietal (ß = -0.04, P = .01), temporal (ß = -0.06, P < .001), and insular lobes (ß = -0.05, P = .02). Higher quartiles of urinary 2-naphthol concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the global (P = .01), parietal (P = .004), temporal (P < .001), and insular lobes (P = .01). In women, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1) of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration had cortical thinning in the frontal (ß = -0.03, P = .006) and parietal lobes (ß = -0.03, P = .003). Higher quartiles of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the frontal (P = .006) and parietal lobes (P = .001). In both sexes, verbal learning and memory scores significantly declined with an increase in quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration. CONCLUSIONS: PAH exposure was associated with cortical thinning and decline in verbal learning and memory function in cognitively healthy adults. This suggests PAHs as an environmental risk factor for neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140180, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major threat to cardiovascular health. Endothelial dysfunction is the initiating event associated with the PM2.5-induced cardiovascular disease (CVD). A sensitive marker of endothelial function-circulating von Willebrand factor (vWF), is an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome in CVD patients. PM2.5 exposure may cause CVD, but the reports of relationship between short-term PM2.5 exposure and circulating vWF are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of short-term PM2.5 exposure on circulating vWF. METHODS: By using a combination of computer and manual retrieval, a systematic literature retrieval was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus databases up to October 2019. The heterogeneity among studies was tested by Stata 12.0, and the pooled %-change (percentage change per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated by using random effect model. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias detection were also carried out. RESULTS: 12 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Short-term PM2.5 exposure (per 10 µg/m3 increase) was associated with the increased vWF (%-change = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.11-0.71). The pooled effect estimates of subgroup with PM2.5 exposure level < 25 µg/m3 was higher (%-change = 8.26; 95%CI: 1.99-14.53) than that with PM2.5 exposure level ≥ 25 µg/m3 (%-change = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.09-0.63). CONCLUSION: Short-term PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increased circulating vWF. It suggests that short-term PM2.5 exposure causes endothelial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Biomarcadores , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fator de von Willebrand
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140389, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783874

RESUMO

Air pollution is mostly caused by emissions from human activities, and exposure to air pollution is linked with numerous adverse human health outcomes. Recent studies have identified that although people only spend a small proportion of time on their daily commutes, the commuter microenvironment is a significant contributor to their total daily air pollution exposure. Schoolchildren are a particularly vulnerable cohort of the population, and their exposure to air pollution at home or school has been documented in a number of case studies. A few studies have identified that schoolchildren's exposure during commutes is linked with adverse cognitive outcomes and severe wheeze in asthmatic children. However, the determinants of total exposure, such as route choice and commute mode, and their subsequent health impacts on schoolchildren are still not well-understood. The aim of this paper is to review and synthesize recent studies on assessing schoolchildren's exposure to various air pollutants during the daily commute. Through reviewing 31 relevant studies published between 2004 and 2020, we tried to identify consistent patterns, trends, and underlying causal factors in the results. These studies were carried out across 10 commute modes and 12 different air pollutants. Air pollution in cities is highly heterogeneous in time and space, and commuting schoolchildren move through the urban area in complex ways. Measurements from fixed monitoring stations (FMSs), personal monitoring, and air quality modeling are the three most common approaches to determining exposure to ambient air pollutant concentrations. The time-activity diary (TAD), GPS tracker, online route collection app, and GIS-based route simulation are four widely used methods to determine schoolchildren's daily commuting routes. We found that route choices exerted a determining impact on schoolchildren's exposure. It is challenging to rank commute modes in order of exposure, as each scenario has numerous uncontrollable determinants, and there are notable research gaps. We suggest that future studies should concentrate on examining exposure patterns of schoolchildren in developing countries, exposure in the subway and trains, investigating the reliability of current simulation methods, exploring the environmental justice issue, and identifying the health impacts during commuting. It is recommended that three promising tools of smartphones, data fusion, and GIS should be widely used to overcome the challenges encountered in scaling up commuter exposure studies to population scales.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transportes
8.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 114968, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806398

RESUMO

The interaction between arsenic metabolism and potential modifiers on the risk of diabetes is unclear. This research aimed to investigate arsenic metabolism and diabetes prevalence and to identify the interactive effects of arsenic metabolism with some risk factors on diabetes in a Chinese population. A baseline cross-sectional survey was performed in two areas with groundwater arsenic contamination in China. Arsenic levels in water and arsenic metabolites in urine were analyzed. The proportions of each arsenic metabolite (inorganic arsenic [iAs%], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA%], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA%]) were computed to evaluate arsenic metabolism. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association between arsenic and diabetes. Interaction on the additive scale between arsenic methylation index and effect modifier was evaluated by calculating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Compared with participants in the lower tertile of MMA%, participants in the middle and upper tertiles of MMA% were less prone to diabetes (OR: 0.47 and 0.31, respectively). However, participants in the upper tertiles of urinary DMA% (OR: 3.18) were more likely to have diabetes than those participants in the lower tertiles. The stratified analyses revealed that a one-unit increase in DMA% was associated with higher odds of diabetes in females (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11), older people (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10), and subjects with body mass index (BMI) under 25 kg/m2 (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14). The additive interactions between DMA% and female gender (RERI: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.01, 11.88), DMA% and age (RERI: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 8.85), as well as DMA% and BMI (RERI: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.01, 9.62), were statistically significant. In conclusion, efficient arsenic metabolism is associated with higher odds of diabetes. Urinary DMA% and individual factors interact to synergistically influence diabetes occurrence in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4229, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843631

RESUMO

Scarlet fever has resurged in China starting in 2011, and the environment is one of the potential reasons. Nationwide data on 655,039 scarlet fever cases and six air pollutants were retrieved. Exposure risks were evaluated by multivariate distributed lag nonlinear models and a meta-regression model. We show that the average incidence in 2011-2018 was twice that in 2004-2010 [RR = 2.30 (4.40 vs. 1.91), 95% CI: 2.29-2.31; p < 0.001] and generally lower in the summer and winter holiday (p = 0.005). A low to moderate correlation was seen between scarlet fever and monthly NO2 (r = 0.21) and O3 (r = 0.11). A 10 µg/m3 increase of NO2 and O3 was significantly associated with scarlet fever, with a cumulative RR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07), respectively, at a lag of 0 to 15 months. In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient NO2 and O3 may be associated with an increased risk of scarlet fever incidence, but direct causality is not established.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Escarlatina/diagnóstico , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dinâmica não Linear , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Escarlatina/epidemiologia , Escarlatina/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
10.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115266, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745901

RESUMO

Urban environments are characterized by multiple exposures that may influence body mass index (BMI) growth in early life. Previous studies are few, with inconsistent results and no evaluation of simultaneous exposures. Thus, this study aimed to assess the associations between exposure to air pollution, green spaces and built environment characteristics, and BMI growth trajectories from 0 to 5 years. This longitudinal study used data from an electronic primary care health record database in Catalonia (Spain), including 79,992 children born between January 01, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in urban areas and followed until 5 years of age. Height and weight were measured frequently during childhood and BMI (kg/m2) was calculated. Urban exposures were estimated at census tract level and included: air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5)), green spaces (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and % green space) and built environment (population density, street connectivity, land use mix, walkability index). Individual BMI trajectories were estimated using linear spline multilevel models with several knot points. In single exposure models, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and population density were associated with small increases in BMI growth (e.g. ß per IQR PM10 increase = 0.023 kg/m2, 95%CI: 0.013, 0.033), and NDVI, % of green spaces and land use mix with small reductions in BMI growth (e.g. ß per IQR % green spaces increase = -0.015 kg/m2, 95%CI: -0.026, -0.005). These associations were strongest during the first two months of life. In multiple exposure models, most associations were attenuated, with only those for PM10 and land use mix remaining statistically significant. This large longitudinal study suggests that early life exposure to air pollution, green space and built environment characteristics may be associated with small changes in BMI growth trajectories during the first years of life, and that it is important to account for multiple exposures in urban settings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Espanha
11.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810816

RESUMO

Long-term air pollution exposure has been suggested to increase the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the association between short-term air pollution exposure and ADHD-related outcomes is still unknown. We investigated the associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen oxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hospital admissions with a principal diagnosis of ADHD among adolescents (age 10-19 years) in 16 regions of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2015. We estimated the region-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from quasi-Poisson regressions adjusted for potential confounders, considering single-day and moving average lag. Consequently, we performed meta-analyses to pool the region-specific estimates. The risks of ADHD-related hospital admissions were increased in the single-day and moving average lag models for PM10 (largest association for lag 1 in the single-day lag model, RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.20; lag 0-2 in the moving average lag model, RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27), NO2 (lag 3, RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73; lag 1-3, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04), and SO2 (lag 1, RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.41; lag 1-3, RR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49). The associations were similar between boys and girls, but they were stronger among adolescents aged 15-19 years than those aged 10-14 years for NO2 and SO2. In conclusion, the results indicate that short-term exposure to PM10, NO2, and SO2 may be a risk factor for the exacerbation of ADHD symptoms, leading to hospitalization.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115372, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814266

RESUMO

Global concern exists regarding human exposure to organic pollutants derived from public open spaces and indoor dust. This study has evaluated the occurrence of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and bisphenol A (BPA). To achieve this, a new simple, efficient and fast multi-residue analytical method based on a fully automated pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and subsequent quantification by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was developed. The developed method was applied to indoor dust (12 sampling households) and soil derived from two public open spaces (POSs). Among all compounds studied, PAHs were the most ubiquitous contaminants detected in POS soils and indoor dust although some OPFRs and BPA were detected in lower concentrations. An assessment of the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was done and indicated a high potential cancer risk from the POS sites and some of the indoor dust sampled sites. However, key variables, such as the actual exposure duration, frequency of contact and indoor cleaning protocols will significantly reduce the potential risk. Finally, the ingestion of soils and indoor dust contaminated with OPFRs and BPA was investigated and noted in almost all cases to be below the USEPA reference doses.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise , Fenóis , Solo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115422, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829032

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the links of air pollution and childhood lipid profiles and dyslipidemias. We aimed to explore this topic in Chinese children and adolescents. This study included 12,814 children aged 7-18 years who participated in a national survey in 2013. Satellite-based spatial-temporal model was used to predict 3-y (2011-2013) average particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to evaluate the relationships of air pollution and total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and dyslipidemias. Every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was related to increases of 6.20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 10.10], 5.31% (95%CI: 0.41, 10.44), 3.49% (95%CI: 0.97, 6.08), and 5.25% (95%CI: 1.56, 9.07) in TC, respectively. The odds ratio of hypercholesterolemia associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, and NO2 was 2.15 (95%CI: 1.27, 3.65), 1.70 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.60), and 1.43 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.93), respectively. No associations were found for air pollution and other blood lipids. Long-term PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were positively associated with TC levels and risk of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Adolescente , Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 111015, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800237

RESUMO

The risk of newly emerging diseases is constantly present in a world where changes occur significantly in climatic, commercial, and ecological conditions, in addition to the development of biomedical investigations in new situations. An epidemic respiratory disease instigated by a new coronavirus was initially identified in and has resulted in the current global dissemination. This viral strain and its related disease has been termed "SARS-CoV-2" and "coronavirus disease 2019" (abbreviated "COVID-19" or "2019-nCoV"), respectively, which is transmitted simply between individuals. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the COVID-19 outburst as a pandemic on March 11, which necessitates a cooperative endeavour globally for mitigating the spread of COVID-19. The absence of previous, and minimum present-day information, particularly concerning the path of contagion have precluded the control of this disease. The present article, therefore, describes the SARS-CoV-2 paths of contagion such as drinking water, solid waste, sewer water, ambient air, and the rest of emerging likely paths.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças , Exposição Ambiental , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140982, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736106

RESUMO

Poor indoor air quality in scholar environments have been frequently reported, but its impact on respiratory health in schoolchildren has not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between children's exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) in nursery and primary schools and childhood asthma. Multivariate models (independent and multipollutant) quantified the associations of children's exposure with asthma-related health outcomes: reported active wheezing, reported and diagnosed asthma, and lung function (reduced FEV1/FVC and reduced FEV1). A microenvironmental modelling approach estimated individual inhaled exposure to major indoor air pollutants (CO2, CO, formaldehyde, NO2, O3, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) in nursery and primary schools from both urban and rural sites in northern Portugal. Questionnaires and medical tests (spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator) were used to obtain information on health outcomes and to diagnose asthma following the newest international clinical guidelines. After testing children for aeroallergen sensitisation, multinomial models estimated the effect of exposure to particulate matter on asthma in sensitised individuals. The study population were 1530 children attending nursery and primary schools, respectively 648 pre-schoolers (3-5 years old) and 882 primary school children (6-10 years old). This study found no evidence of a significant association between IAP in nursery and primary schools and the prevalence of childhood asthma. However, reported active wheezing was associated with higher NO2, and reduced FEV1 was associated with higher O3 and PM2.5, despite NO2 and O3 in schools were always below the 200 µg m-3 threshold from WHO and National legislation, respectively. Moreover, sensitised children to common aeroallergens were more likely to have asthma during childhood when exposed to particulate matter in schools. These findings support the urgent need for mitigation measures to reduce IAP in schools, reducing its burden to children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Portugal/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38491-38500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767014

RESUMO

There are inconsistent reports on the association between air pollution and cancers. This systematic review was, therefore, conducted to ascertain the relationship between air pollution and some cancers. This is a systematic review study, which all articles published in this area were extracted from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2018 from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Google scholar. Searching was performed independently by two search-method experts. The required data were extracted from the articles by an author-made questionnaire. Forty-eight articles were investigated. Evidence linking air pollution to some cancers is limited. Leukemia had the highest association with exposure to various air pollutants and bladder cancer had the lowest association. It is noteworthy that the specific type of pollutants in all studies was not specified. Based on the findings, the results are contradictory, and the role of air pollution in some cancers cannot be supported. Accordingly, studies are recommended to be performed at the individual level or multifactorial studies to specifically investigate the relationship between air pollution and these types of cancers. In this way, the role of air pollution in the incidence of these cancers can be determined more accurately.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140914, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night (ALAN) may be an anthropogenic stressor for mental health disturbing humans' natural day-night cycle. However, the few existing studies used satellite-based measures of radiances for outdoor ALAN exposure assessments, which were possibly confounded by traffic-related air pollutants. OBJECTIVES: To assess 1) whether living in areas with increased exposure to outdoor ALAN is associated with depressive symptoms; and 2) to assess the potential confounding effects of air pollution. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from people (N = 10,482) aged 18-65 years in the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Satellite-measured annual ALAN were taken from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. ALAN exposures were assessed at people's home address within 100 and 600 m buffers. We used generalized (geo)additive models to quantify associations between PHQ-9 scores and quintiles of ALAN adjusting for several potential confounders including PM2.5 and NO2. RESULTS: Unadjusted estimates for the 100 m buffers showed that people in the 2nd to 5th ALAN quintile showed significantly higher PHQ-9 scores than those in the lowest ALAN quintile (ßQ2 = 0.503 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.207-0.798], ßQ3 = 0.587 [95% CI: 0.291-0.884], ßQ4 = 0.921 [95% CI: 0.623-1.218], ßQ5 = 1.322 [95% CI: 1.023-1.620]). ALAN risk estimates adjusted for individual and area-level confounders (i.e., PM2.5, urbanicity, noise, land-use diversity, greenness, deprivation, and social fragmentation) were attenuated but remained significant for the 100 m buffer (ßQ2 = 0.420 [95% CI: 0.125-0.715], ßQ3 = 0.383 [95% CI: 0.071-0.696], ßQ4 = 0.513 [95% CI: 0.177-0.850], ßQ5 = 0.541 [95% CI: 0.141-0.941]). When adjusting for NO2 per 100 m buffers, the air pollutant was associated with PHQ-9 scores, but ALAN did not display an exposure-response relationship. ALAN associations were insignificant for 600 m buffers. CONCLUSION: Accounting for NO2 exposure suggested that air pollution rather than outdoor ALAN correlated with depressive symptoms. Future evaluations of health effects from ALAN should consider potential confounding by traffic-related exposures (i.e., NO2).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 141016, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755791

RESUMO

Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products (PCPs). Stretch mark cream is widely used by pregnant and lactating women for the treatment of striae gravidarum. This can be a potential source of paraben exposure, not only to pregnant/lactating women but also to fetuses/newborns. Little is known, however, with regard to the occurrence of parabens in stretch mark creams. In this study, we analyzed eight parabens and their metabolites in 31 popular stretch mark creams originated from various countries including China. The concentrations of Σparaben (sum of eight parabens/metabolites) ranged from 0.007 to 1630 µg/g, with mean and median values of 453 and 273 µg/g, respectively. Methyl- and propyl-parabens accounted for >95% of Σparaben concentrations. We examined the measured paraben concentrations against ingredients listed on the product labels. Parabens were listed as ingredients in those creams that contained concentrations >100 µg/g except for four samples with such high concentrations. Six cream samples that were labeled 'paraben-free' contained trace levels (0.007-9.92 µg/g) of these preservatives. Mean dermal ∑paraben exposure dose from the use of stretch mark creams (30.6 µg/kg bw/day) was well below the current acceptable daily intake value (5 mg/kg bw/day). In comparison to diet and indoor dust ingestion pathways, paraben-laden stretch mark cream may be a major source of paraben exposure in pregnant and lactating women. This study provides information on parabens and other preservatives in stretch mark creams and measures to reduce exposures during pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Parabenos/análise , Estrias de Distensão , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Gravidez
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141185, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771784

RESUMO

In studies investigating the effects of endocrine disruptors (ED) such as phthalates, bisphenols and some pesticides on human health, exposure is usually characterized with urinary metabolites. The variability of biomarkers concentration, due to rapid elimination from the body combined with frequent exposure is however pointed out as a major limitation to exposure assessment. This study was conducted to assess variability of urinary metabolites of ED, and to investigate how sampling time and number of samples analyzed impacts exposure assessment. Urine samples were collected over 6 months from 16 volunteers according to a random sampling design, and analyzed for 16 phthalate metabolites, 9 pesticide metabolites and 4 bisphenols. The amount of biomarkers excreted in urine at different times of the day were compared. In parallel, 2 algorithms were developed to investigate the effect of the number of urine samples analyzed per subject on exposure assessment reliability. In the 805 urine samples collected from the participants, all the biomarkers tested were detected, and 18 were present in >90% of the samples. Biomarkers variability was highlighted by the low intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranging from 0.09 to 0.51. Comparing the amount of biomarkers excreted in urine at different time did not allow to identify a preferred moment for urine collection between first day urine, morning, afternoon and evening. Algorithms demonstrated that between 10 (for monobenzyl (MBzP) phthalate) and 31 (for bisphenol S) samples were necessary to correctly classify 87.5% of the subjects into quartiles according to their level of exposure. The results illustrate the high variability of urinary biomarkers of ED over time and the impossibility to reliably classify subjects based on a single urine sample (or a limited number). Results showed that classifying individuals based on urinary biomarkers requires several samples per subject, and this number is highly different for different biomarkers.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Praguicidas , Ácidos Ftálicos , Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111149, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829210

RESUMO

Exposure to heavy metals was reported to be associated with heart rate variability (HRV) alteration. However, possible pathway of such association remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the possible role of lipid peroxidation in the associations between urinary heavy metals and HRV. We performed a cross-sectional study using baseline data of Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort. Urinary heavy metals (including lead, barium, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese), urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α levels (common biomarker for lipid peroxidation) and HRV indices (SDNN, r-MSSD, low frequency, high frequency and total power) were measured among 3022 participants. We conducted multivariable linear regression models to quantify associations between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and heavy metals or HRV indices. The potential role of 8-iso-PGF2α in the association of urinary heavy metals with HRV was evaluated through mediation analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, urinary manganese, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, antimony and barium were identified to be negatively associated with one or more HRV parameters. Each one-unit growth of log-transformed levels of urinary manganese, iron, copper, zinc, antimony and barium was associated with a 1.9%, 1.5%, 4.7%, 4.0%, 2.7% and 1.3% decrease in SDNN, respectively. We observed positive dose-response relationships between all eight urinary heavy metals and 8-iso-PGF2α, as well as negative association of urinary 8-iso-PGF2α with SDNN and total power (all P trend<0.05). The proportions mediated by 8-iso-PGF2α on SDNN were 4.6% for manganese, 9.3% for iron, 19.8% for antimony and 11.0% for barium. The proportions mediated by 8-iso-PGF2α on total power were 6.9% for manganese and 10.1% for cadmium (all P value < 0.05). This study suggested that urinary manganese, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, antimony and barium were negatively associated with HRV indices. Lipid peroxidation may partly mediate the associations of urinary manganese, iron, cadmium, antimony and barium with specific HRV indices.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Frequência Cardíaca , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Adulto , Antimônio , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cádmio , Cobre , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Manganês , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zinco
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