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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1203-1217, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470483

RESUMO

The unregulated oil exploitation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon Region (NEAR), mainly from 1964 to the 90's, led to toxic compounds largely released into the environment. A large majority of people living in the Amazon region have no access to drinking water distribution systems and collects water from rain, wells or small streams. The concentrations of major ions, trace elements, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) were analyzed in different water sources to evaluate the impacts of oil extraction and refining. Samples were taken from the NEAR and around the main refinery of the country (Esmeraldas Oil Refinery/State Oil Company of Ecuador) and were compared with domestic waters from the Southern region, not affected by petroleum activities. In most of the samples, microbiological analysis revealed a high level of coliforms representing significant health risks. All measured chemical compounds in waters were in line with national and international guidelines, except for manganese, zinc and aluminum. In several deep-water wells, close to oil camps, toluene concentrations were higher than the natural background while PAHs concentrations never exceeded individually 2 ng·L-1. Water ingestion represented 99% of the total exposure pathways for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements (mainly zinc) in adults and children, while 20% to 49% of the Total Cancer Risk was caused by arsenic concentrations. The health index (HI) indicates acceptable chronic effects for domestic use according the US-EPA thresholds. Nevertheless, these limits do not consider the cocktail effects of metallic and organic compounds. Furthermore, they do not include the social determinants of human exposure, such as socio-economic living conditions or vulnerability. Most (72%) of interviewed families knew sanitary risks but a discrepancy was observed between knowledge and action: religious beliefs, cultural patterns, information sources, experience and emotions play an important role front to exposure.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Social , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Equador , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1079-1086, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466148

RESUMO

Chicken, duck, egg, and duck egg samples from the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta regions in China were analyzed for 17 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The concentrations of PFCs in chicken and duck livers ranged from

Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1244-1254, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466163

RESUMO

Bioaccessibility (BAC) of fine surface dust (FSD, particle size ≤10 µm) and surface dust samples (particle size ≤250 µm) collected from a gold mining district was used as a tool to determine the portion of arsenic that would be available via simulated lung and gastrointestinal (G.I) fluids. BAC was considered low for both tests (lung 2.7 ±â€¯1%, n = 5 and G.I 3.4 ±â€¯2%, n = 14 for residential surface dust samples). An analytical procedure was developed to further identify arsenic-bearing phases found in FSD samples and analyze the main components that regulate arsenic solubility. Up to five different arsenic-bearing phases were identified among a total of 35 minerals surveyed by scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (Mineral Liberation Analyzer - MLA). Arsenic-bearing Fe oxy-hydroxides and mixed phases comprised the main arsenic phases encountered in FSD samples, thus likely being responsible for regulating arsenic bioaccessibility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the mixed phases comprised a mix of oriented nanostructure aggregates formed by hematite and goethite entangled with phyllosilicates. The main As-bearing phases identified in FSD samples are similar to those reported in soil samples in the same region. The predominant arsenic-bearing phase encountered in the ore was arsenopyrite, mostly in large particles (>10 µm in size), and therefore unlikely to be found in residential dust. Arsenic intake from both inhalation and ingestion were minimal when compared to total arsenic intake (considering food and water ingestion), which itself was <7% of the value established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) of 3.0 µg per kg-1 body weight per day. These results indicated that the relative risks associated with arsenic exposure by inhalation and oral ingestion in this region are low.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração
6.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1550-1560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277024

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to chromium and neuropsychological development among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 393 children aged 6-11 years old randomly selected from State-funded schools in two provinces in Southern Spain (Almeria and Huelva), in 2010 and 2012. Chromium levels in urine and hair samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system. Neuropsychological development was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and three computerized tests from the Behavioural Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders, including heavy metals, were applied to examine the association between chromium levels and neuropsychological outcomes. A 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels was associated with a decrease of 5.99 points on the WISC-IV Full-Scale IQ (95% CI: 11.98 to -0.02). Likewise, a 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels in boys was associated with a decrease of 0.03 points in the percentage of omissions (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.05) in the SAT, with an increase of 68.35 points in latency (95% CI: 6.60 to 130.12) in the RTT, and with an increase in the number of trials with latencies > 1000 ms (ß = 37.92; 95% CI: 2.73 to 73.12) in the RTT. An inverse significant association was detected between chromium levels in hair and latency in the SAT in boys (ß = -50.53; 95% CI: 86.86 to -14.22) and girls (ß = -55.95; 95% CI: 78.93 to -32.97). Excluding trials with latencies >1000 ms in the RTT increased latency scores by 29.36 points in boys (95% CI: 0.17 to 58.57), and 39.91 points in girls (95% CI: 21.25 to 58.59). This study is the first to show the detrimental effects of postnatal chromium exposure on neuropsychological development in school-aged children.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cromo/urina , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Espanha
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109402, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280095

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are widely used in industrial and consumer applications. Due to their persistence, bioaccumulation, long-distance migration and toxicity, it is important to find new compounds that can replace PFASs. The present review investigated the sources, fates and environmental effects of alternative PFAS compounds using surveys have been conducted over the past several years. Concentrations of PFAS alternatives in various environmental media, as well as human tissues, are summarized based on the available data. The results showed that hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer (HFPO-DA), hexafluoropropylene trimer acids (HFPO-TA), and 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) have become the dominant global perfluorinated pollutants. Currently, there are a few toxicity assessments of these novel fluorinated alternatives, showing that they have systemic multiple organ toxicities. PFAS alternatives exhibited comparable or even more serious potential toxicity than legacy PFASs, indicating that these fluorinated alternatives are also harmful to the environment. Therefore, these alternatives require additional toxicological studies to confirm whether they can be used for a long time.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 70-75, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284197

RESUMO

Phthalates are widely used in several consumer products, including plastics, toys, cosmetics, and medical devices. Little is known about phthalate exposure in pet animals, however, even though they share an indoor environment with humans; this is the first study to measure such exposure. We measured 21 phthalate monoester metabolites (PhMs) in the urine of pet cats (n = 50) and dogs (n = 50) collected from New York State, USA. PhMs were widely detected in all samples, and 12 of 21 PhMs had detection frequencies (Dfs) >80%. The median urinary concentrations of total PhMs in pet cats and dogs were 630 ng/mL and 186 ng/mL, respectively. Monoethyl phthalate (mEP) was the most abundant compound in both cats and dogs. Phthalic acid (PA; a non-specific metabolite of phthalates) was found at very high concentrations in cats (median: 520 ng/mL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) for major phthalates in pets showed that DEHP exposures in cats and dogs were only 2-fold less than the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested reference dose (RfD) for humans.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Animais , Gatos , Cães
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109419, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301591

RESUMO

Parabens are a kind of preservatives widely used in cosmetic and personal care products and ubiquitously detected in the environment. However, little is known on human exposure to these chemicals. Our study mainly investigated the urinary parabens in adults from South China to evaluate the cumulative risk of paraben exposure. A total of 562 urine samples were collected from adult workers for the determination of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), butyl paraben, and benzyl parabens. High detection frequencies (≥98%) were observed for MeP, EtP, and PrP with median concentrations of 8.88, 5.11, and 1.44 µg/L, respectively. Urinary parabens was 4.5-46.2 fold higher in urine of females than those in males. Urinary MeP was associated with alcohol drinking and a history of tumor, while urinary PrP was negatively associated with education levels of the subjects. There were not significant associations between urinary concentrations of parabens and body mass index, which indicated that obesity was not associated with paraben exposure. Also, parabens did not correlate with human dietary habits. Although the total estimated daily intake (TEDI) of the major compound MeP and EtP in adult workers was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the TEDI of PrP exceed the ADI for a very few subjects, especially for females and low-educated ones, suggesting potential health risks.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Parabenos/metabolismo , Adulto , China , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/metabolismo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 705-716, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301510

RESUMO

Wildlife physiological responses to environmental and human-related stressors provide useful clues on animal welfare. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), allow researchers to assess whether variations in habitat quality, behavior, and climate influence the animals' physiological stress. We examined the role of fragment size, ambient temperature, ripe fruit availability and consumption, percentage of records moving, sex, female reproductive state, and group composition as predictors of the level of fGCM in adult brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We collected bimonthly behavioral data and fecal samples from adult individuals over three years, and used a multimodel inference framework to identify the main predictors of fGCM. We found that the mean (±SD) fGCM in the study groups ranged from 57 ±â€¯49 ng/g to 93 ±â€¯58 ng/g, which were within the known range for howler monkeys. We found 10 best models including five of the 17 tested variables. Sex and reproductive state were the only variables included in all these models. We found that fGCM was higher in nursing females (mean ±â€¯SD = 104 ±â€¯73 ng/g) than in non-nursing females (64 ±â€¯55 ng/g) and males (53 ±â€¯40 ng/g, P < 0.05) and that it decreased with increasing ripe fruit consumption and minimum temperature. However, fragment size did not predict fGCM concentration (groups in small fragments = 71 ±â€¯58 ng/g vs. groups in large fragments = 63 ±â€¯54 ng/g, P > 0.05). We conclude that factors related to the energetic balance of individuals play major roles in modulating the physiological stress of brown howler monkeys. Future studies should investigate the consequences of higher levels of stress hormones on howler monkey health and demography.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Primatas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Alouatta , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Primatas/psicologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 854, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A challenge in environmental health research is collecting robust data sets to facilitate comparisons between personal chemical exposures, the environment and health outcomes. To address this challenge, the Exposure, Location and lung Function (ELF) tool was designed in collaboration with communities that share environmental health concerns. These concerns centered on respiratory health and ambient air quality. The ELF collects exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), given their association with diminished lung function. Here, we describe the ELF as a novel environmental health assessment tool. METHODS: The ELF tool collects chemical exposure for 62 PAHs using passive sampling silicone wristbands, geospatial location data and respiratory lung function measures using a paired hand-held spirometer. The ELF was tested by 10 individuals with mild to moderate asthma for 7 days. Participants wore a wristband each day to collect PAH exposure, carried a cell phone, and performed spirometry daily to collect respiratory health measures. Location data was gathered using the geospatial positioning system technology in an Android cell-phone. RESULTS: We detected and quantified 31 PAHs across the study population. PAH exposure data showed spatial and temporal sensitivity within and between participants. Location data was used with existing datasets such as the Toxics Release Inventory and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System. Respiratory health outcomes were validated using criteria from the American Thoracic Society with 94% of participant data meeting standards. Finally, the ELF was used with a high degree of compliance (> 90%) by community members. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF is a novel environmental health assessment tool that allows for personal data collection spanning chemical exposures, location and lung function measures as well as self-reported information.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Saúde Ambiental/instrumentação , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 506, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342280

RESUMO

Iran as a developing country is experiencing the industrialization process quickly and is thus exposed to different industrial hazards mostly derived from chemicals. In the light of this problem, this study estimated the human vulnerability in chemical accidents using the software simulation of accidental chlorine gas releases. A mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) study carried out in 4 phases during 2015-2017 in Ray County, Tehran Province. It included a systematic literature review, software simulation, Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Process (FDAHP) hierarchy process study, and creating a reliable tool for purpose of this study in at-risk areas. The valuable finding indicated that decreasing the human vulnerability depends on both social and physical characteristics of area and even the social vulnerability indicators have more important role when compared with the physical vulnerability indicators. The statistical analysis revealed that the human vulnerability has the significant relationship with factors such as type of living place (rural or urban) areas, nationality, economic situation of households, the distance between housing and the nearest exit to main road, health centers, and manufacturing or storing chemical plants (P value < 0.01). The result also showed that the area under study is vulnerable from average to very high, both in its physical and social domains, against industrial chemical accidents. Additional comparative studies are needed to develop and generalize the appropriate set of indicators of human vulnerability to human induced disasters in Iran.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Cloro/análise , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Países em Desenvolvimento , Habitação , Humanos , Indústrias , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
13.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 190-198, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310869

RESUMO

Increased public awareness of the health impacts of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has led to increased demand and deployment of indoor air cleaners. Yet, questions still remain about the effectiveness of indoor air cleaners on indoor PM2.5 concentrations and personal exposure to potentially hazardous components of PM2.5. Metals in PM2.5 have been associated with adverse health outcomes, so knowledge of their sources in urban indoor and outdoor areas and how exposures are influenced by indoor air cleaners would be beneficial for public health interventions. We collected 48-h indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 exposure samples for 43 homes with asthmatic children in suburban Shanghai, China during the spring months. Two sets of samples were collected for each household, one set with a functioning air filter placed in the bedroom ("true filtration") and the other with a non-functioning ("sham") air cleaner. PM2.5 samples were analyzed for elements, elemental carbon, and organic carbon. The major sources of metals in PM2.5 were determined by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to be regional aerosol, resuspended dust, residual oil combustion, roadway emissions, alloy steel abrasion, and a lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) source. Under true filtration, the median indoor to outdoor percent removal across all elements increased from 31% to 78% and from 46% to 88% across all sources. Our findings suggest that indoor air cleaners are an effective strategy for reducing indoor concentrations of PM2.5 metals from most sources, which could translate into improved health outcomes for some populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais/análise , Aerossóis , Filtros de Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , China , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filtração , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 831-840, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344544

RESUMO

Research on hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has increased since its listing in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2011. However, thorough reports on recent data regarding this topic are lacking. Moreover, potential associations between HCBD and some chlorinated organics have usually been ignored in previous research. In this review, possible formation pathways and sources, current environmental occurrences and human exposure risks of HCBD are discussed, as well as the association with several organochlorine compounds. The results reveal that unintentional production and emission from industrial activities and waste treatments are the main sources of HCBD. Similar precursors are found for HCBD and chlorobenzenes, indicating the presence of common sources. Although recent data indicates that levels of HCBD in the environment are generally low, risks from human exposure to HCBD, together with other pollutants, may be high. More attention in the future needs to be paid to the mixed contamination of HCBD and other pollutants from common sources.


Assuntos
Butadienos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/agonistas , Butadienos/toxicidade , Clorobenzenos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade
15.
Chemosphere ; 233: 705-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195275

RESUMO

Speciation and isotopic analyses of mercury (Hg) detected at high concentration (11-107 mg total Hg/kg) in the hair samples of Pakistani subjects were carried out to analyze whether the source of Hg was the skin cream or the soap they used. Liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometric speciation analysis revealed that the Hg in the hair was primarily inorganic. This result supported our assumption that skin care products were the source of the high concentration of Hg in hair, which was based on the statistical association found in our previous study because it is known that inorganic Hg compounds are added to some skin care products sold in some countries. Stable isotope ratios of the Hg in the hair samples of 6 subjects and 3 skin cream samples, which were reported to be used by the subjects, were measured by multi-collector ICP mass spectrometry after acid digestion. A comparison of the isotopic compositions of Hg in hair and skin cream in two subjects revealed that the composition in both samples matched in one subject, hence confirming that the products were the source of high Hg concentration in hair. However, the isotopic compositions of Hg in hair and skin cream did not match in the other subject demonstrating the presence of other exposure source(s).


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Humanos , Isótopos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Paquistão
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105217, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200331

RESUMO

Evidence of the ecological and biological impact of pharmaceuticals in surface waters on aquatic organisms is increasing. Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic used to treat chronic and acute pain. To investigate its long-term effects at environmentally relevant levels, we evaluated heart rate (HR) and locomotion of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus during a 21-day exposure to 1 µg L-1 tramadol followed by 14 days depuration. Locomotion and HR were recorded over a period 30 min before and 30 min after exposure to physiological fluids of an injured conspecific, a natural stressor, four times during the tramadol exposure and four times during depuration. A significant increase in HR following stress induction was found in the majority of tramadol-exposed and control crayfish, as well as significant group-specific HR changes between both groups. Locomotor activity during tramadol treatment differed from that during depuration, in general showing less time spent in locomotion and lower distance moved. The tramadol exposed crayfish exhibited higher velocity during depuration than during the exposure period. Results may suggest a potential shift in prey-predator relationships.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1235-1245, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252121

RESUMO

Previous meta-analyses on associations between air pollution (AP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were mainly focused on studies conducted in high-income countries. Evidence should be updated by including more recent studies, especially those conducted in low- and middle-income countries. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to conclude an updated pooled effect estimates between long-term AP exposure and the prevalence and incidence of T2DM. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies regarding associations of AP with T2DM prevalence and incidence prior to January 2019. A random-effects model was employed to analyze the overall effects. A total of 30 articles were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that higher levels of AP exposure were significantly associated with higher prevalence of T2DM (per 10 µg/m3 increase in concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5): odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.05, 1.13; particles with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10): OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.19; nitrogen dioxide (NO2): OR = 1.05, 95%CI:1.03, 1.08). Besides, higher level of PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher T2DM incidence (per 10 µg/m3 increase in concentration of PM2.5: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95%CI:1.04, 1.16), while the associations between PM10, NO2 and T2DM incidence were not statistically significant. The associations between AP exposure and T2DM prevalence showed no significant difference between high-income countries and low- and middle-incomes countries. However, different associations were identified between PM2.5 exposure and T2DM prevalence in different geographic areas. No significant differences were found in associations of AP and T2DM prevalence/incidence between females and males, except for the effect of NO2 on T2DM incidence. Overall, AP exposure was positively associated with T2DM. There still remains a need for evidence from low- and middle-income countries on the relationships between AP and T2DM.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Razão de Chances , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência
18.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(8): 1364-1373, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157809

RESUMO

Characterization of residential indoor air is important to understanding exposures to airborne chemicals. While it is well known that non-polar VOCs are elevated indoors, polar VOCs remain poorly characterized. Recent measurements showed that total polar water-soluble organic gas (WSOG) concentrations are also much higher indoors than directly outdoors (on average 15× greater at 13 homes, on a carbon-mass basis). This work aims to chemically characterize these WSOG mixtures. Acetic, lactic, and formic acids account for 41% on average (30-54% across homes), of the total WSOG-carbon collected inside each home. Remaining WSOGs were characterized via high-resolution positive-mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In total, 98 individual molecular formulas were detected. On average 67% contained the elements CHO, 11% CHN, 11% CHON, and 11% contained sulfur, phosphorus, or chlorine. Some molecular formulas are consistent with compounds having known indoor sources such as diethylene glycol (m/z+ 117.091, C4H10O3), hexamethylenetetramine (m/z+ 141.113, C6H12N4), and methacrylamide (m/z+ 86.060, C4H7NO). Exposure pathways, potential doses, and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Gases/química , Habitação/normas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Gases/análise , Humanos , Água/química
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(5): 585-589, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177743

RESUMO

Objective: The urine concentrations of phthalate metabolites were used to estimate the cumulative risk assessment in preschool children in Ma'anshan of Anhui province. Methods: Based on the China-Anhui Birth Cohort, the demographic information and urine samples of 3 743 children were collected in Ma'anshan from April 2014 to April 2015. The concentrations of 7 metabolites' [monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl- 5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP)] of 5 phthalates [dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in the urine samples of the children were measured by solid-phase extration-triple quadrupole high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-isotope method. In addition, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of 5 phthalates were calculated according to the metabolites' concentrations. Cumulative risk assessment was performed using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) methods. Results: The M (Q(R)) of seven metabolite concentrations were 29.58 (18.69-48.26), 26.65 (13.44-56.09), 256.86 (150.99-438.51), 0.12 (0.04-0.32), 6.27 (3.71-11.13), 17.94 (11.94-28.42) and 24.80 (16.05-40.32) µg/g creatinine, respectively. For the EDIs of 5 phthalates, DBP ranked first, followed by DEHP, DMP, DEP and BBzP with the M (Q(R)) of 7.54 (4.41-12.85), 3.35 (2.20-5.42), 0.75 (0.47-1.24), 0.71 (0.36-1.52) and 0.003 (0.001-0.009) µg/(kg·d), respectively. The HQ and HI varied with age, gender and sampling season, the differences were significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: These results indicated that risk of cumulative exposure to phthalates was high in preschool children aged 3-6 years in Ma'anshan. Age, gender and sampling season were influencing factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano
20.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(15-16): 374-380, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175442

RESUMO

Mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), lung deposited surface area and particle number concentrations were measured for the first time in all Viennese subway lines inside cabins and in two subway stations, one aboveground and the other underground. The observed data were examined for significant differences between the exposure to fine particulate matter and ultrafine particles. Analysis of the trip averages in the five lines U1, U2, U3, U4 and U6 showed significant differences for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (all three mass concentrations: p < 0.001). Medians for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were highest in the U1 (73.6, 38.9, 27.1 µg/m3, respectively) and U3 (113.3, 47.1, 26.7 µg/m3, respectively) and significantly higher in the underground subway station than in the subway station on ground level. Regarding ultrafine particles no significant differences were found between the subway lines and no significant differences between the underground subway station and the subway station on ground level; however, new air-conditioned cabins had lower particle number concentrations and both particle number concentrations and lung deposited surface area were higher in cabins with open windows.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Transportes , Áustria/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ferrovias
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