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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 41-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471794

RESUMO

Wildlife is exposed to a diverse range of natural and man-made chemicals. Some environmental chemicals possess specific endocrine disrupting properties, which have the potential to disrupt reproductive and developmental process in certain animals. There is growing evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a key role in reproductive disorders in fish, amphibians, mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. This evidence comes from field-based observations and laboratory based exposure studies, which provide substantial evidence that environmental chemicals can cause adverse effects at environmentally relevant doses. There is particular concern about wildlife exposures to cocktails of biologically active chemicals, which combined with other stressors, may play an even greater role in reproductive disorders than can be reproduced in laboratory experiments. Regulation of chemicals affords some protection to animals of the adverse effects of exposure to legacy chemicals but there continues to be considerable debate on the regulation of emerging pollutants.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução , Animais
2.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(1): 21-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556547

RESUMO

Our understanding of aetiological factors associated with urinary bladder cancer has radically improved over the last decades. Cigarette smoking is considered the most important risk factor, even in the industrialised world, while various occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals are also held responsible. The link between bladder cancer and schistosomiasis, highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Egypt, and Yemen, provides input for investigating and potentially preventing bladder carcinogenesis. Growing concern regarding environmental diseases prompts investigation into the historical milestones that have helped disentangle the relationships between health and environment.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Esquistossomose/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
JAMA ; 322(6): 546-556, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408135

RESUMO

Importance: While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it is not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and black carbon exposure with change in percent emphysema assessed via computed tomographic (CT) imaging and lung function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Air and Lung Studies conducted in 6 metropolitan regions of the United States, which included 6814 adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited between July 2000 and August 2002, and an additional 257 participants recruited from February 2005 to May 2007, with follow-up through November 2018. Exposures: Residence-specific air pollutant concentrations (O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon) were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models incorporating cohort-specific monitoring, determined from 1999 through the end of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent emphysema, defined as the percent of lung pixels less than -950 Hounsfield units, was assessed up to 5 times per participant via cardiac CT scan (2000-2007) and equivalent regions on lung CT scans (2010-2018). Spirometry was performed up to 3 times per participant (2004-2018). Results: Among 7071 study participants (mean [range] age at recruitment, 60 [45-84] years; 3330 [47.1%] were men), 5780 were assigned outdoor residential air pollution concentrations in the year of their baseline examination and during the follow-up period and had at least 1 follow-up CT scan, and 2772 had at least 1 follow-up spirometric assessment, over a median of 10 years. Median percent emphysema was 3% at baseline and increased a mean of 0.58 percentage points per 10 years. Mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NOx, but not O3, decreased substantially during follow-up. Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon at study baseline were significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema per 10 years (O3: 0.13 per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.03-0.24]; PM2.5: 0.11 per 2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.03-0.19]; NOx: 0.06 per 10 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]; black carbon: 0.10 per 0.2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.01-0.18]). Ambient O3 and NOx concentrations, but not PM2.5 concentrations, during follow-up were also significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema. Ambient O3 concentrations, but not other pollutants, at baseline and during follow-up were significantly associated with a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second per 10 years (baseline: 13.41 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.7-26.1]; follow-up: 18.15 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 1.59-34.71]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study conducted between 2000 and 2018 in 6 US metropolitan regions, long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants was significantly associated with increasing emphysema assessed quantitatively using CT imaging and lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1193: 35-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368096

RESUMO

Aldehydes, which are present within the air as well as food and beverage sources, are highly reactive molecules that can be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. To prevent harm from reactive aldehyde exposure, the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes reactive aldehydes to a less toxic form. However, the genetic variant of ALDH2, ALDH2*2, significantly reduces the ability to metabolize reactive aldehydes in humans. Therefore, frequent environmental aldehyde exposure, coupled with inefficient aldehyde metabolism, could potentially lead to an increased health risk for diseases such as cancer or cardiovascular disease.Here, we discuss the environmental sources of reactive aldehydes and the potential health implications particularly for those with an ALDH2*2 genetic variant. We also suggest when considering the ALDH2*2 genetic variant the safety limits of reactive aldehyde exposure may have to be reevaluated. Moreover, the ALDH2*2 genetic variant can also be used as an example for how to implement precision medicine in the field of environmental health sciences.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos
5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 705-715, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systematic evaluation of the results of time-series studies of air pollution is challenged by differences in model specification and publication bias. METHODS: We evaluated the associations of inhalable particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) and fine PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) with daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries or regions. Daily data on mortality and air pollution were collected from 652 cities in 24 countries or regions. We used overdispersed generalized additive models with random-effects meta-analysis to investigate the associations. Two-pollutant models were fitted to test the robustness of the associations. Concentration-response curves from each city were pooled to allow global estimates to be derived. RESULTS: On average, an increase of 10 µg per cubic meter in the 2-day moving average of PM10 concentration, which represents the average over the current and previous day, was associated with increases of 0.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.50) in daily all-cause mortality, 0.36% (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.43) in daily cardiovascular mortality, and 0.47% (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.58) in daily respiratory mortality. The corresponding increases in daily mortality for the same change in PM2.5 concentration were 0.68% (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.77), 0.55% (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.66), and 0.74% (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.95). These associations remained significant after adjustment for gaseous pollutants. Associations were stronger in locations with lower annual mean PM concentrations and higher annual mean temperatures. The pooled concentration-response curves showed a consistent increase in daily mortality with increasing PM concentration, with steeper slopes at lower PM concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show independent associations between short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 and daily all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in more than 600 cities across the globe. These data reinforce the evidence of a link between mortality and PM concentration established in regional and local studies. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others.).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Risco
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 55-63, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445060

RESUMO

Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides has been associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study assessed the association between environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of developing thyroid diseases. A population-based case-control study was carried out among Spanish populations living in areas categorized as of high or low pesticide use according to agronomic criteria, which were used as surrogates for environmental exposure to pesticides. The study population consisted of 79.431 individuals diagnosed with goiter, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and thyroiditis (according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) and 1.484.257 controls matched for age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected from computerized hospital records for the period 1998 to 2015. Prevalence rates and risk of having thyroid diseases were significantly higher in areas with higher pesticide use, with a 49% greater risk for hypothyroidism, 45% for thyrotoxicosis, 20% for thyroiditis and 5% for goiter. Overall, this study indicates an association between increased environmental exposure to pesticides as a result of a greater agricultural use and diseases of the thyroid gland, thus supporting and extending previous evidence. This study also provides support to the methodology proposed for real-life risk simulation, thus contributing to a better understanding of the real life threat posed by exposure to multiple pesticides from different sources.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Res ; 177: 108641, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421445

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant that even at low levels influences brain development and affects neurobehavior later in life; nevertheless it is only a small fraction of the neurotoxicant (NT) exposome. Exposure to environmental Pb concurrent with other NT substances is often the norm, but their joint effects are challenging to study during early life. The aim of this review is to integrate studies of Pb-containing NT mixtures during the early life and neurodevelopment outcomes of children. The Pb-containing NT mixtures that have been most studied involve other metals (Mn, Al, Hg, Cd), metalloids (As), halogen (F), and organo-halogen pollutants. Co-occurring Pb-associated exposures during pregnancy and lactation depend on the environmental sources and the metabolism and half-life of the specific NT contaminant; but offspring neurobehavioral outcomes are also influenced by social stressors. Nevertheless, Pb-associated effects from prenatal exposure portend a continued burden on measurable neurodevelopment; they thus favor increased neurological health issues, decrements in neurobehavioral tests and reductions in the quality of life. Neurobehavioral test outcomes measured in the first 1000 days showed Pb-associated negative outcomes were frequently noticed in infants (<6 months). In older (preschool and school) children studies showed more variations in NT mixtures, children's age, and sensitivity and/or specificity of neurobehavioral tests; these variations and choice of statistical model (individual NT stressor or collective effect of mixture) may explain inconsistencies. Multiple exposures to NT mixtures in children diagnosed with 'autism spectrum disorders' (ASD) and 'attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders' (ADHD), strongly suggest a Pb-associated effect. Mixture potency (number or associated NT components and respective concentrations) and time (duration and developmental stage) of exposure often showed a measurable impact on neurodevelopment; however, net effects, reversibility and/or predictability of delays are insufficiently studied and need urgent attention. Nevertheless, neurodevelopment delays can be prevented and/or attenuated if public health policies are implemented to protect the unborn and the young child.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 903, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass-burning cookstoves to cardiometabolic disease risk. Few randomized controlled interventions of cookstoves (biomass or otherwise) have quantitatively characterized changes in exposure and indicators of cardiometabolic health, a growing and understudied burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Ideally, the solution is to transition households to clean cooking, such as with electric or liquefied petroleum gas stoves; however, those unable to afford or to access these options will continue to burn biomass for the foreseeable future. Wood-burning cookstove designs such as the Justa (incorporating an engineered combustion zone and chimney) have the potential to substantially reduce air pollution exposures. Previous cookstove intervention studies have been limited by stove types that did not substantially reduce exposures and/or by low cookstove adoption and sustained use, and few studies have incorporated community-engaged approaches to enhance the intervention. METHODS/DESIGN: We conducted an individual-level, stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial with the Justa cookstove intervention in rural Honduras. We enrolled 230 female primary cooks who were not pregnant, non-smoking, aged 24-59 years old, and used traditional wood-burning cookstoves at baseline. A community advisory board guided survey development and communication with participants, including recruitment and retention strategies. Over a 3-year study period, participants completed 6 study visits approximately 6 months apart. Half of the women received the Justa after visit 2 and half after visit 4. At each visit, we measured 24-h gravimetric personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, qualitative and quantitative cookstove use and adoption metrics, and indicators of cardiometabolic health. The primary health endpoints were blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and glycated hemoglobin. Overall study goals are to explore barriers and enablers of new cookstove adoption and sustained use, compare health endpoints by assigned cookstove type, and explore the exposure-response associations between PM2.5 and indicators of cardiometabolic health. DISCUSSION: This trial, utilizing an economically feasible, community-vetted cookstove and evaluating endpoints relevant for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in LMICs, will provide critical information for household air pollution stakeholders globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02658383 , posted January 18, 2016, field work completed May 2018. Official title, "Community-Based Participatory Research: A Tool to Advance Cookstove Interventions." Principal Investigator Maggie L. Clark, Ph.D. Last update posted July 12, 2018.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Utensílios Domésticos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Biomassa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Características da Família , Feminino , Honduras , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
10.
Chemosphere ; 233: 879-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340414

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse impacts on human health. However, limited studies have investigated the effects of short-term exposure to PM2.5 and its constituents on mortality in China. This study used the generalized linear model (GLM) to investigate the effects of PM2.5 and its constituents, including organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), on different causes of mortality in Shanghai from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. The single-day lagged model and the moving average lagged model were used to examine the lagging effects of pollutants on mortality. At lag0 day, PM2.5 had a significant effect on all-cause mortality, and a 10 µg/m3 increase leads to 0.68% increase in all-cause mortality (RR 1.0068, 95%CI 1.0013-1.0123). Among the five constituents, EC had the greatest impact on all-cause mortality in Shanghai, with 10.48% increase of mortality (RR 1.1048, 95%CI 1.0266-1.1891) per 10 µg/m3 increase of concentrations, followed by OC (RR 1.0577, 95%CI 1.0277-1.0886), NH4+ (RR 1.0272, 95%CI 1.0028-1.0522) and SO42- (RR 1.0104, 95%CI 1.0003-1.0206). For respiratory diseases mortality, EC, OC, NO3- and NH4+ had significant impacts and caused an increase of mortality by 44.99% (RR 1.4499, 95%CI 1.1813-1.7794), 10.40% (RR 1.1040, 95%CI 1.0260-1.1880), 5.338% (RR 1.0533, 95%CI 1.0097-1.0989) and 7.34% (RR 1.0734, 95%CI 1.0015-1.1505) per 10 µg/m3 increase of concentrations, respectively. The cumulative effect of PM2.5 on mortality was significant in Shanghai. Except for SO42-, the RR value of the single-day lagged model was smaller than the moving average lagged model.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Nitratos/análise , Sulfatos/análise
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 686-691, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238620

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the short-term effects of ambient PM(2.5) on the outpatient visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Ningbo city. Methods: Through the regional health information platform, number of daily COPD outpatients from the four general hospitals in Ningbo was gathered. Related data on meteorological and air pollution from 2014 to 2016 was also collected. Generalized additive model (GAM) of Possion regression was used to estimate the impact of PM(2.5) pollution on COPD outpatients and the lagging effects. Results: In cold (November- April) or warm seasons (May-October), an 10 µg/m(3) increase of PM(2.5) would result in the excessive number of COPD outpatients as 1.87% (95%CI: 0.98%-2.76%), 2.09% (95%CI: 1.11%-3.08%) and 2.56% (95%CI: 0.56%-4.59%), respectively. In terms of the short-term effects of PM(2.5) the strongest was seen in the days of warm season but without delay (P<0.05). The strongest effect appeared at day 4 in cold season and the effect was particularly significant seen in the over 65 year-old group or in the female population. After the introduction of PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2), the concentration of PM(2.5), did not show significant effect on the number of hospital visits due to COPD on the same day (P>0.05). The effect of COPD on the fourth day showed a slight change after the lagging, and the effect was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The increase of PM(2.5) concentration in Ningbo was related to the increase of COPD outpatient numbers. Effective prevention measures should be taken to protect the vulnerable population and to reduce the risk of COPD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , População Urbana
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 705, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is becoming an increased burden to the world. Previous studies have confirmed its effects on adverse birth outcomes, but few associated with premature small for gestational age (SGA). We report a retrospective cohort study conducted in Changzhou city to evaluate the association between air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) and premature SGA during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 46,224 births were collected from January, 2013 to December, 2016, in Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, finally 2709 preterm births were admitted for study. Corresponding air monitoring data were collected from Changzhou Environmental Protection Agency. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between these air pollutants and premature SGA controlling for individual covariates in single- and multi-pollutant models. RESULTS: We found that, in the third trimester, every 10 µg/m3 increments in PM2.5 concentration were associated with premature SGA (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-2.83; OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-3.58) in two- and three-pollutants models. In the whole gestation, a 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration in two- and three-pollutant models were related to premature SGA (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.38-2.47; OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.18-2.57). The OR (95% CI) of premature SGA were increasing across quintiles of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 concentrations during the whole gestation period adjusting for confounders (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that pregnant women exposed to PM2.5, combined with other pollutants in the third trimester have a higher risk to deliver premature SGA babies, providing further evidence linking PM2.5 and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 610-620, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158624

RESUMO

Air pollution is a growing problem in developing countries, and there exists a wide range of evidence documenting the large health and productivity losses associated with high concentrations of pollutants. South Africa is a developing country with high levels of air pollution in some regions, and the costs of air pollution on human health and economic growth in South Africa are still uncertain. The environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP) model was applied to South Africa using local data on population, mortality rates, and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as mortality risk coefficients from the epidemiological literature. BenMAP estimates the number of premature deaths that would likely have been avoided if South African air quality levels met the existing annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 20 µg m-3, and the more stringent World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for annual average PM2.5 of 10 µg m-3. We estimate 14,000 avoided premature mortalities in 2012 if all of South Africa met the existing NAAQS annual average standard for PM2.5. These avoided cases of mortality have an estimated monetary value of $14.0 billion (US2011$), which is equivalent to 2.2% of South Africa's 2012 GDP (PPP, US2011$). We estimate 28,000 avoided premature mortalities if the more stringent WHO guideline for annual average PM2.5 is met across South Africa, which when expressed as a national burden is equivalent to 6% of all deaths in South Africa being attributable to PM2.5 exposure. These avoided cases of mortality have an estimated monetary value of $29.1 billion, which is equivalent to 4.5% of South Africa's 2012 GDP. These results show that there are significant public health benefits to lowering PM2.5 concentrations across South Africa, with correspondingly high economic benefits.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , África do Sul
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 621-628, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158625

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) are two common groundwater toxicants. The toxicity of As is closely related to As metabolism, and several biological and environmental factors have been associated with As modification. However, limited information about the effect of F exposure on the modification of the As metabolism profile has been described. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction effect of AsF coexposure on the As metabolism profile in an adult population environmentally exposed to low-moderate As levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 adults from three Mexican communities. F and As concentrations were quantified in water samples. The concentrations of urinary F and As species [inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MAs) and dimethylated arsenic (DMAs)] were also determined and used as exposure biomarkers. As species percentages and methylation indices were estimated to evaluate the As methylation profile. Our results showed a relationship between the water and urine concentrations of both contaminants and, a significant correlation between the As and F concentrations in water and urine samples. A statistically significant interaction of F and As exposure on the increase in MAs% (ß = 0.16, p = 0.018) and the decrease in DMAs% (ß = -0.3, p = 0.034), PMI (ß = -0.07, p = 0.052) and SMI (ß = -0.13, p = 0.097) was observed. These findings indicate that drinking water is the main source of AsF coexposure and suggest that F exposure decreases As methylation capacity. However, additional large and prospective studies are required to confirm our findings, and to elucidate the involved mechanisms of interaction and their implications in adverse health effects.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 723, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor environmental quality significantly influences the occurrence of asthma attack. Zunyi District has abundant coal reserves and is regarded as one of the cities that are most severely polluted by high levels of particulate matter in China. This study aimed to examine the correlation of indoor exposure with adult respiratory health, as well as the differences in effect between winter and summer. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 1207 adult residents in Zunyi, Guizhou Province of Southwest China in winter and summer. Data on health variables related to asthma and home environmental factors were collected using a modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey II questionnaire. The following data were obtained: samples of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) inside and outside the households under study (n = 20); lung function status, including peak expiratory flow rate, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC ratio. RESULT: The odds ratio (OR) for asthma-like symptoms and asthma in adults using coal stove for cooking or warming, relative to non-users, was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11-2.69) in winter vs. 1.30 (95% CI, 0.79-2.14) in summer. Adult residents with exposure to cooking oil fumes were at a considerably higher risk of asthma-like symptoms and asthma [OR = 2.65 (95% CI, 1.25 to 5.61) in winter vs. OR = 7.93 (95% CI, 2.54 to 24.75] in summer] than those without such exposure. The prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma was significantly higher in adults with high kitchen risk scores or high sleeping-area risk scores than in those with low scores in both seasons (p < 0.05). The relative kitchen and sleeping area PM2.5 concentrations were higher in winter than in summer (p < 0.05). Lung function was negatively associated with indoor kitchen and sleeping area relative PM2.5 concentration in winter rather than summer (p < 0.001). The effect of exposure to indoor risk factors on lung function among the residents was greater in winter than in summer (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Exposure to indoor risk factors, such as aerocontaminants from coal combustion, causes asthma symptoms and reduces pulmonary function. The effect of indoor risk factors on respiratory health among adults with such exposure was greater in winter than in summer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Carvão Mineral , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24162-24175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228056

RESUMO

Ship breaking and recycling industry (SBRI) loops back scarce ferrous and non-ferrous materials from dismantled ships and also renews the global shipping fleet by treating the end-of-life (EoL) ships. Currently, SBRIs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan are dismantling the majority of the EoL ships by open beaching method. Accordingly, ship dismantling carries the blame of releasing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to the coastal and marine environment risking the food chain through potential bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Health risk assessment associated with PTEs from open beach ship dismantling is scarce. This study aimed at assessing concentrations and seasonal variations of PTEs in soils exposed to the activities of SBRIs for their source apportionment by using contamination factor (CF) and multivariate statistical analysis, while carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks due to the PTEs have also been determined. Soil samples were collected twice-during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons-from three working zones of each of the 15 different ship breaking yards spanning the entire SBRI zone in Bangladesh. Soil contamination was assessed by using the CF, and inverse distance weighting interpolation mapping showed the spatial distribution of metals at SBRI zone in Bangladesh. Multivariate statistical analysis, principal component analysis, and correlation matrix yielded the source apportionment of PTEs. Subsequently, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were assessed following the approach recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with uncertainty estimation through Monte Carlo simulation. Contamination levels of PTEs followed Cd > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Mn > As. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Zn were higher than the maximum allowable regulatory limits at storage zone and also higher as compared with the beaching and cutting zones in general. The contamination index indicated extreme Cd contamination in the area with elevated levels in pre-monsoon. Two principal components (PC) were identified-PC1 (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) and PC2 (As, Cr, Ni) inferring their source segmentation. Indirect soil ingestion is the major possible exposure path to PTEs. The health index indicated the absence of any obvious health effects on the people active at SBRI yards in Bangladesh. The carcinogenic risk was for 6 to 7 persons per 100,000 people which was within the USEPA acceptable range.


Assuntos
Indústrias/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Navios , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bangladesh , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Análise Multivariada , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Reciclagem , Estações do Ano , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
17.
Pneumologie ; 73(6): 347-373, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185518

RESUMO

The second part of the DGP-statement on adverse health effects of ambient air pollution provides an overview of the current ambient air quality in Germany and its development in the past 20 years. Further, effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system und underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are introduced. Air pollutants form a highly complex and dynamic system of thousands of organic and inorganic components from natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollutants are produced locally or introduced by long-range transport over hundreds of kilometers and are additionally subjected to local meteorological conditions. According to air quality regulations ambient air quality is monitored under uniform standards including immission of particulate matter, up to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or 10 µm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, and of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or ozone (O3). The clean air measures of recent years led to a continuous decline of air pollution in the past 20 years in Germany. Accordingly, the focus is nowadays directed at population-related health hazards caused by low concentrations of air pollution. Exceeded limits for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and lead are not detected anymore. Also the number of days with increased ozone concentration declined, although the annual mean concentration is unaltered. Decreasing concentrations of particulate matter and NO2 have been observed, however, about 40 % of the monitoring stations at urban traffic sites still measure values exceeding current limits for NO2. Moreover, the stricter, solely health-based WHO-standards for PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 are still not met so that an optimal protection from air pollution-related health hazards is currently not given for the German population. In recent years, the findings of numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies underscored adverse effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system, especially for particulate matter, although the level of evidence still varies for the different health outcomes. Further, the studies show that cardiovascular health hazards on the population level are of higher relevance than those for the respiratory system. The existing evidence for cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and stroke can be regarded as strong, while that for heart failure is rather moderate. While the evidence for air pollution-related short-term alteration of the cardiac autonomic balance can be considered as sufficient, long-term effects are still unclear. Likewise, the heterogeneous findings on air pollution-related arrhythmia do currently not allow a distinct conclusion in this regard. A large number of studies support the observation that both, short- and long-term air pollution exposure contribute to increased blood pressure, may impair vascular homeostasis, induce endothelial dysfunction and promote the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. These effects provide reasonable biological explanation for the fatal events associated with exposure to air pollution. Short-term exposure may not pose a significant risk on healthy individuals but may be considered as precursor for fatal events in susceptible populations, while repetitive or long-term exposure may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases even in healthy subjects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Humanos , Material Particulado
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(21): 469-473, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145717

RESUMO

In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey caused unprecedented flooding and devastation to the Houston metropolitan area (1). Mold exposure was a serious concern because investigations after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005) had documented extensive mold growth in flood-damaged homes (2,3). Because mold exposure can cause serious illnesses known as invasive mold infections (4,5), and immunosuppressed persons are at high risk for these infections (6,7), several federal agencies recommend that immunosuppressed persons avoid mold-contaminated sites (8,9). To assess the extent of exposure to mold and flood-damaged areas among persons at high risk for invasive mold infections after Hurricane Harvey, CDC and Texas health officials conducted a survey among 103 immunosuppressed residents in Houston. Approximately half of the participants (50) engaged in cleanup of mold and water-damaged areas; these activities included heavy cleanup (23), such as removing furniture or removing drywall, or light cleanup (27), such as wiping down walls or retrieving personal items. Among immunosuppressed persons who performed heavy cleanup, 43% reported wearing a respirator, as did 8% who performed light cleanup. One participant reported wearing all personal protective equipment (PPE) recommended for otherwise healthy persons (i.e., respirator, boots, goggles, and gloves). Immunosuppressed residents who are at high risk for invasive mold infections were exposed to mold and flood-damaged areas after Hurricane Harvey; recommendations from health care providers to avoid exposure to mold and flood-damaged areas could mitigate the risk to immunosuppressed persons.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
20.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(5): 715-724, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061340

RESUMO

As a countermeasure against terrorism involving highly toxic chemical warfare agents, the rapid identification of the causative toxic substances is extremely important. This symposium review describes analytical methods the author's group has developed for detecting nerve gases after either high level or low level exposure. As a method for assessing human exposure to high levels of nerve gases, a technology that detects nerve gas hydrolysis products, i.e., strong anion exchange extraction-tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization-selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional GC-MS, is explained. As a method for assessing human exposure to low levels of nerve gases, two technologies that detect adducts of nerve gas with blood cholinesterase, i.e., adduct purification-enzymatic digestion-LC/MS and fluoride-mediated regeneration-solid phase extraction-large volume introduction GC-MS, are explained.


Assuntos
Terrorismo Químico/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/isolamento & purificação , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/análise , Agentes Neurotóxicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrólise , Agentes Neurotóxicos/efeitos adversos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/metabolismo
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