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1.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 4-5, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023283

RESUMO

Human health is inextricably connected with the health of the environment. Our actions to reduce the threats of climate change and global warming are key to our well-being and survival.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Saúde , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Papel do Médico , Responsabilidade Social , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Texas
2.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 4, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023284

RESUMO

While the World Health Organization estimates that climate change will cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year worldwide from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress, these estimates are based on assumptions using models that have not been validated using real world, observational data.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global , Educação em Saúde , Saúde , Causas de Morte , Diarreia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Malária , Desnutrição , Texas
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4225-4230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027359

RESUMO

There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isocianatos/toxicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desastres , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autocuidado , Populações Vulneráveis
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 565-571, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918564

RESUMO

Fish consumption from contaminated water-bodies is a serious health issue. This study conducted to reveal the presence of heavy metals and bisphenols in Vembanad lake, an exploiting tourist spot in Kerala, receiving untreated agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial effluents. We evaluated aquatic contaminant impact on hepatic stress markers in Etroplus suratensis from fragile Vembanad lake. The significant difference in water physiochemical parameters, the concentration of heavy metals, and bisphenols (BPA and BPS) were studied. Hepatic tissue of E. suratensis inhabited in lake featured with high iron (11.29 ± 0.39 ppm) and BPA (0.02412 ± 0.0031 µg/mL) content along with an increased hepatic stress marker and distorted hepatic structure. The study highlights the presence of high iron and BPA in edible fish. The study recommends monitoring of physiochemical characters of freshwater lakes is essential for better survival of freshwater flora and fauna.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ciclídeos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Índia , Lagos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110982, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888624

RESUMO

Freshwater ecosystems are constantly threatened by the advance of agricultural activities. Abiotic variables (such as temperature, ammonia, and nitrite) and contaminants (e.g. pesticides) can potentially interact, increasing metabolism and the absorption of toxic substances, which can alter the ability of organisms to establish adequate stress responses. This study aimed to verify which pesticides were most frequently found and in the greatest quantities in low-order streams, and whether the combination of these pesticides with the abiotic variables altered the biological metabolism of aeglids. These freshwater crustaceans are important shredders that inhabit low-order streams and are sensitive to disturbances and/or abrupt environmental variations. The animals were exposed in situ in four streams (reference site and sites 1, 2, and 3). The reference site is a preserved stream with no apparent anthropogenic interference where aeglids still occur, while the other sites no longer exhibit populations of these animals and are influenced by agricultural activities. The exposure was performed bimonthly from November 2017 to September 2018 and lasted 96 h. Measured abiotic data and water samples were collected through all days of exposure. The analyzed biochemical parameters were acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle; and glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, non-protein thiols, antioxidant capacity against peroxides, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, gills, and hepatopancreas. We found 24 active principles of pesticides, the most frequently being clomazone, atrazine, and propoxur. Bentazone was present at the highest amounts. The parameters evaluated in this study, including biochemical biomarkers and abiotic factors measured from the water, provided a separation of the months as a function of environmental conditions. There was a difference in activity and biomarker levels throughout the year within the same site and in some months between sites. The greater concentration or variety of pesticides associated with extreme abiotic (very high temperatures) data generated increased oxidative stress, with high levels of protein damage and considerable lipid damage in all tissues, as well as elevation in ROS, even with high levels of antioxidant capacity and non-protein thiols. With these data, we intend to warn about the risks of exposure to these environmental conditions by trying to contribute to the preservation of limnic fauna, especially aeglid crabs, because most species are under some degree of threat.


Assuntos
Anomuros/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anomuros/metabolismo
6.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 94, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors influence obesity differently, and environmental endocrine disruption may increase the occurrence of obesity. However, most of the previous studies have considered only a unitary exposure or a set of similar exposures instead of mixed exposures, which entail complicated interactions. We utilized three statistical models to evaluate the correlations between mixed chemicals to analyze the association between 9 different chemical exposures and obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We fitted the generalized linear regression, weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to analyze the association between the mixed exposures and obesity in the participants aged 6-19 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. RESULTS: In the multivariable logistic regression model, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) (OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11, 1.40)), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) (OR (95% CI): 1.42 (1.07, 1.89)) were found to be positively associated with obesity, while methylparaben (MeP) (OR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.68, 0.94)) was negatively associated with obesity. In the multivariable linear regression, MEP was found to be positively associated with the body mass index (BMI) z-score (ß (95% CI): 0.12 (0.02, 0.21)). In the WQS regression model, the WQS index had a significant association (OR (95% CI): 1.48 (1.16, 1.89)) with the outcome in the obesity model, in which 2,5-DCP (weighted 0.41), bisphenol A (BPA) (weighted 0.17) and MEP (weighted 0.14) all had relatively high weights. In the BKMR model, despite no statistically significant difference in the overall association between the chemical mixtures and the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), there was nonetheless an increasing trend. 2,5-DCP and MEP were found to be positively associated with the outcome (obesity or BMI z-score), while fixing other chemicals at their median concentrations. CONCLUSION: Comparing the three statistical models, we found that 2,5-DCP and MEP may play an important role in obesity. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the three statistical models, our study confirms the necessity to combine different statistical models on obesity when dealing with mixed exposures.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Pediátrica/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936802

RESUMO

The Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) is a validated questionnaire used worldwide to assess intolerances to chemicals, foods, and drugs, and has emerged as the gold standard for assessing chemical intolerance (CI). Despite a reported prevalence of 8-33%, epidemiological studies and routine primary care clinics rarely assess CI. To help address this gap, we developed the Brief Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (BREESI)-a 3-item CI screening tool. We tested the BREESI's potential to predict whether an individual is likely to be classified as chemically intolerant if administered the 50-item QEESI. We recruited 293 participants from a university-based primary care clinic and through online participation. The statistical sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the BREESI were calculated against the validated QEESI. Ninety percent (90%) of participants answering "yes" to all three items on the BREESI fit the QEESI criteria for being very suggestive of CI based upon their chemical intolerance and symptom scores (positive predictive value = 90%). For participants endorsing two items, 93% were classified as either very suggestive (39%) or suggestive (54%) of CI (positive predictive value = 87%). Of those endorsing only one item, 13% were classified as very suggestive of CI, and 70% as suggestive. Of those answering "No" to all of the BREESI items, 95% were classified as not suggestive of CI (i.e., negative predictive value = 95%). The BREESI is a versatile screening tool for assessing potential CI useful for clinical and epidemiological applications, based upon individuals' past adverse responses in a variety of settings. Just as health care professionals routinely inquire about latex allergy to prevent adverse reactions, the BREESI provides an essential screen for CI. Together, the BREESI and QEESI provide new diagnostic tools that may help predict and prevent future adverse reactions to chemicals, foods, and drugs.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/etiologia , Prevalência , Curva ROC , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(36): 1258-1264, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915165

RESUMO

Community and close contact exposures continue to drive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CDC and other public health authorities recommend community mitigation strategies to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). Characterization of community exposures can be difficult to assess when widespread transmission is occurring, especially from asymptomatic persons within inherently interconnected communities. Potential exposures, such as close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, have primarily been assessed among COVID-19 cases, without a non-COVID-19 comparison group (3,4). To assess community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19, exposures reported by case-patients (154) were compared with exposures reported by control-participants (160). Case-patients were symptomatic adults (persons aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Control-participants were symptomatic outpatient adults from the same health care facilities who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Close contact with a person with known COVID-19 was more commonly reported among case-patients (42%) than among control-participants (14%). Case-patients were more likely to have reported dining at a restaurant (any area designated by the restaurant, including indoor, patio, and outdoor seating) in the 2 weeks preceding illness onset than were control-participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.8). Restricting the analysis to participants without known close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, case-patients were more likely to report dining at a restaurant (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9-4.3) or going to a bar/coffee shop (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5-10.1) than were control-participants. Exposures and activities where mask use and social distancing are difficult to maintain, including going to places that offer on-site eating or drinking, might be important risk factors for acquiring COVID-19. As communities reopen, efforts to reduce possible exposures at locations that offer on-site eating and drinking options should be considered to protect customers, employees, and communities.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 854-866, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910907

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease that often starts in childhood. Genomic and environmental factors as well as aberrant immune maturation early in life can contribute to the onset of disease, with great disparity over time and geographical regions. Epidemiological studies have scrutinised environmental exposures and attempted to translate these exposures into prevention strategies. Some approaches for patients with asthma have been successful (eg, smoking ban, the Finnish Asthma Programme), and primary prevention of wheeze in pre-school children (age 0-5 years) by the supplementation of vitamin D or fish oil, or both, to pregnant women seems promising. Several recent prevention initiatives are based on strong asthma-protective environmental microbial exposures associated with traditional rural lifestyles. Preclinical studies with various bacterial lysates, bacterial and dietary metabolites, or helminthic compounds have yielded promising results that await translation into clinical practice. Given the immense societal and individual burden of asthma, there is an urgent need to further develop novel strategies to eradicate the disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Asma/dietoterapia , Asma/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/provisão & distribução
11.
N C Med J ; 81(5): 320-323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900895

RESUMO

Preventing the adverse health impacts of wildfire smoke involves helping people understand if they are at risk, and the actions they can take to limit exposure. Cooperation between land managers, public health officials, and the health care system could alert the public to take actions that reduce wildfire smoke-related health risks.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Incêndios Florestais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Risco
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 99-103, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994598

RESUMO

In this viewpoint we briefly review the evidence for smoke-free car legislation. We find that this legislation has been consistently associated with reduced secondhand exposure in cars with children/youth in all nine jurisdictions studied. Despite this, there are various aspects of this intervention that warrant further study-especially determining its impact on reducing tobacco-related ethnic inequalities. So we argue that the New Zealand Ministry of Health should invest in a thorough evaluation of this important upcoming public health intervention. This could both help the country in further refining the design of the law (if necessary) and would also be a valuable contribution to advancing the knowledge base for international tobacco control.


Assuntos
Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Automóveis/normas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5423-5426, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Exposure to pesticides has been reportedly associated with several types of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we used data from The United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Census, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to analyze the association between the area density of specific agricultural pesticides and the county level annual incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). RESULTS: Incidence of DLBCL was significantly associated with an area density of 14 of the pesticides reported by USGS. CONCLUSION: This highlights the need for further investigation into the safety of the use of these pesticides. The importance of this study comes not only from the significant association it shows between pesticides and the incidence of cancer, but also from the fact that it included all compounds reported to USGS as being used in agriculture. This helps in prioritizing pesticides for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 198-201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997475

RESUMO

Beryllium has an impact on the human health of professionally or non-occupationally exposed people. Current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as a hapten with limited antigenic properties and is presented by antigen presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific antigen receptors. The immunological changes in humoral immunoreactivity were considered biomarkers of beryllium exposure. In the present, due to the development of immunologic knowledge, tests of cellular immunity have promising potential for further research in this field. The historical view of the immune response to beryllium in acute and/or chronic beryllium disease is an example of the development of the interaction between mechanisms of innate and adaptive (specific), humoral and cellular immunity. The authors emphasize the increasing importance of immunological aspects in the studies of health impacts of human exposure to environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Beriliose/imunologia , Berílio/efeitos adversos , Berílio/imunologia , Cinza de Carvão/química , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Berílio/análise , Humanos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 111015, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800237

RESUMO

The risk of newly emerging diseases is constantly present in a world where changes occur significantly in climatic, commercial, and ecological conditions, in addition to the development of biomedical investigations in new situations. An epidemic respiratory disease instigated by a new coronavirus was initially identified in and has resulted in the current global dissemination. This viral strain and its related disease has been termed "SARS-CoV-2" and "coronavirus disease 2019" (abbreviated "COVID-19" or "2019-nCoV"), respectively, which is transmitted simply between individuals. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the COVID-19 outburst as a pandemic on March 11, which necessitates a cooperative endeavour globally for mitigating the spread of COVID-19. The absence of previous, and minimum present-day information, particularly concerning the path of contagion have precluded the control of this disease. The present article, therefore, describes the SARS-CoV-2 paths of contagion such as drinking water, solid waste, sewer water, ambient air, and the rest of emerging likely paths.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças , Exposição Ambiental , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 23(6): 276-291, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741292

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental pollutants may produce impairment of male reproductive health. The epidemiological literature evaluating potential consequences of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has grown in recent years with concerns for both pre- and postnatal influences. The aim of this systematic review was to assess available evidence on associations between PFAS exposures in different stages of life and semen quality, reproductive hormones, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. A systematic search of literature published prior to March 9th, 2020, was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase®. Predefined criteria for eligibility were applied by two authors screening study records independently. Among the 242 study records retrieved in the literature search, 26 studies were eligible for qualitative assessment. While several investigations suggested weak associations for single compounds and specific outcomes, a lack of consistency across studies limited conclusions of overall evidence. The current gap in knowledge is particularly obvious regarding exposures prior to adulthood, exposure to combinations of both PFAS and other types of environmental chemicals, and outcomes such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. Continued efforts to clarify associations between PFAS exposure and male reproductive health through high-quality epidemiological studies are needed.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Testiculares/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140982, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736106

RESUMO

Poor indoor air quality in scholar environments have been frequently reported, but its impact on respiratory health in schoolchildren has not been sufficiently explored. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between children's exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) in nursery and primary schools and childhood asthma. Multivariate models (independent and multipollutant) quantified the associations of children's exposure with asthma-related health outcomes: reported active wheezing, reported and diagnosed asthma, and lung function (reduced FEV1/FVC and reduced FEV1). A microenvironmental modelling approach estimated individual inhaled exposure to major indoor air pollutants (CO2, CO, formaldehyde, NO2, O3, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) in nursery and primary schools from both urban and rural sites in northern Portugal. Questionnaires and medical tests (spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator) were used to obtain information on health outcomes and to diagnose asthma following the newest international clinical guidelines. After testing children for aeroallergen sensitisation, multinomial models estimated the effect of exposure to particulate matter on asthma in sensitised individuals. The study population were 1530 children attending nursery and primary schools, respectively 648 pre-schoolers (3-5 years old) and 882 primary school children (6-10 years old). This study found no evidence of a significant association between IAP in nursery and primary schools and the prevalence of childhood asthma. However, reported active wheezing was associated with higher NO2, and reduced FEV1 was associated with higher O3 and PM2.5, despite NO2 and O3 in schools were always below the 200 µg m-3 threshold from WHO and National legislation, respectively. Moreover, sensitised children to common aeroallergens were more likely to have asthma during childhood when exposed to particulate matter in schools. These findings support the urgent need for mitigation measures to reduce IAP in schools, reducing its burden to children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Portugal/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237410, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817706

RESUMO

The minimum infectious dose required to induce CWD infection in cervids remains unknown, as does whether peripherally shed prions and/or multiple low dose exposures are important factors in CWD transmission. With the goal of better understand CWD infection in nature, we studied oral exposures of deer to very low doses of CWD prions and also examined whether the frequency of exposure or prion source may influence infection and pathogenesis. We orally inoculated white-tailed deer with either single or multiple divided doses of prions of brain or saliva origin and monitored infection by serial longitudinal tissue biopsies spanning over two years. We report that oral exposure to as little as 300 nanograms (ng) of CWD-positive brain or to saliva containing seeding activity equivalent to 300 ng of CWD-positive brain, were sufficient to transmit CWD disease. This was true whether the inoculum was administered as a single bolus or divided as three weekly 100 ng exposures. However, when the 300 ng total dose was apportioned as 10, 30 ng doses delivered over 12 weeks, no infection occurred. While low-dose exposures to prions of brain or saliva origin prolonged the time from inoculation to first detection of infection, once infection was established, we observed no differences in disease pathogenesis. These studies suggest that the CWD minimum infectious dose approximates 100 to 300 ng CWD-positive brain (or saliva equivalent), and that CWD infection appears to conform more with a threshold than a cumulative dose dynamic.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Príons/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/transmissão , Animais , Cervos
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