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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1191-1194, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473685

RESUMO

Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms (harmful algal blooms) are large colonies of algae or cyanobacteria that can harm humans, animals, and the environment (1-3). The number of algal blooms has been increasing in the United States, augmented by increasing water temperatures and nutrients in water from industry and agricultural run-off (4,5). The extent to which harmful algal bloom exposures cause human illness or long-term health effects is unknown. As the number of blooms increases annually, the likelihood of negative health outcomes (e.g., respiratory or gastrointestinal illness) from exposure also increases (4,5). To explore the utility of syndromic surveillance data for studying health effects from harmful algal bloom exposures, CDC queried emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) for harmful algal bloom exposure-associated administrative discharge diagnosis codes and chief complaint text terms related to harmful algal bloom exposure (6). A total of 321 harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified during January 1, 2017-December 31, 2019. An increase in harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits occurred during warmer months (June-October), consistent with seasonal fluctuations of blooms and recent publications (6,7). Although syndromic surveillance data are helpful for understanding harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits in the United States, exposures were documented infrequently with discharge diagnosis codes; 67% of harmful algal bloom-associated ED visits were identified through querying chief complaint text. Improving the documentation of harmful algal bloom exposures in medical records would further benefit future health studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483811

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the associations between air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits for dry eye disease (DED) in Shenzhen, China. Methods: Generalized additive models were utilized to explore the acute effects of air pollution exposure on pediatric outpatient visits for DED. Results: Single-day lag exposures to NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 were associated with DED outpatient visits at lag days 0, 6, 4 and 2. Relative risks (RRs) for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 1.062[95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003, 1.123], 1.015(95% CI 1.001, 1.031), 1.052(95% CI 1.001, 1.115), and 1.038 (95% CI 1.002, 1.076), respectively. RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 over cumulative lag days 0-1 was 1.075 (95% CI 1.009, 1.147), and RR for DED given a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 over cumulative lag days 0-4 was 1.051 (95% CI 1.003, 1.102). Conclusion: The observed associations between air pollution and outpatient visits for DED may provide evidence for policy makers to consider implementing measures to reduce the risk of DED owing to air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Assistência Ambulatorial , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
4.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360101

RESUMO

Suicide is a significant public health concern worldwide and in the United States. Despite the far-reaching impact of suicide, risk factors are still not well understood and efforts to accurately assess risk have fallen short. Current research has highlighted how potentially modifiable environmental exposures (i.e., meteorological, pollution, and geographic exposures) can affect suicide risk. A scoping review was conducted to evaluate the strength of the historical and current literature on the environment's effect on suicide and suicide risk. Three databases (i.e., Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo) were reviewed to identify relevant studies and two authors independently reviewed studies considering pre-determined inclusion criteria. A total of 46 meteorological studies were included as well as 23 pollution studies and 12 geographic studies. Descriptive statistics, including counts, percentages, review of studies' sample size (minimum, maximum, median, and interquartile range), were calculated using Excel and SAS 9.4. Overall, strong evidence supports that exposure to sunlight, temperature, air pollution, pesticides, and high altitude increases suicide risk, although effect sizes range from very small to small.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Suicídio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gerenciamento de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) refers to the wide range of air pollutants emitted by traffic that are dispersed into the ambient air. Emerging evidence shows that TRAP can increase asthma incidence in children. Living with asthma can carry a huge financial burden for individuals and families due to direct and indirect medical expenses, which can include costs of hospitalization, medical visits, medication, missed school days, and loss of wages from missed workdays for caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to estimate the economic impact of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a common traffic-related air pollutant in urban areas, in the United States at the state level. METHODS: We calculate the direct and indirect costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 using previously published burden of disease estimates and per person asthma cost estimates. By multiplying the per person indirect and direct costs for each state with the NO2-attributable asthma incident cases in each state, we were able to estimate the total cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the United States. RESULTS: The cost calculation estimates the total direct and indirect annual cost of childhood asthma cases attributable to NO2 in the year 2010 to be $178,900,138.989 (95% CI: $101,019,728.20-$256,980,126.65). The state with the highest cost burden is California with $24,501,859.84 (95% CI: $10,020,182.62-$38,982,261.250), and the state with the lowest cost burden is Montana with $88,880.12 (95% CI: $33,491.06-$144,269.18). CONCLUSION: This study estimates the annual costs of childhood asthma incident cases attributable to NO2 and demonstrates the importance of conducting economic impacts studies of TRAP. It is important for policy-making institutions to focus on this problem by advocating and supporting more studies on TRAP's impact on the national economy and health, including these economic impact estimates in the decision-making process, and devising mitigation strategies to reduce TRAP and the population's exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371934

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is increasingly hypothesized to be a factor contributing to changes in fetal growth velocity. BPA exposure may be environmental, occupational, and/or dietary, with canned foods and plastic bottles contributing significantly. Our systematic review aims to evaluate the current literature and to investigate the role of BPA in abnormal fetal growth patterns. A search was conducted in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 25 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Eleven of them failed to show a clear relationship between BPA and abnormal fetal growth. The majority of the remaining studies (9/14) found an inverse association of BPA with indicators of fetal growth, whereas three studies suggested increased fetal growth, and two studies produced contradictory findings. Of note, both of the studies that collected a sample (amniotic fluid) directly reflecting BPA concentration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy revealed an inverse association with birth weight. In conclusion, there is mounting evidence that combined exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources during pregnancy may contribute to abnormal fetal growth; a tendency towards fetal growth restriction was shown, especially when exposure occurs during the first half.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360285

RESUMO

The association of short-term particulate matter concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among cancer survivors is yet unclear. Using the National Health Insurance Service database from South Korea, the study population consisted of 22,864 5-year cancer survivors with CVD events during the period 2015-2018. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, each case date (date of incident CVD) was matched with three or four referent dates, resulting in a total of 101,576 case and referent dates. The daily average particulate matter 10 (PM10), 2.5 (PM2.5), and 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) on the day of case or referent date (lag0), 1-3 days before the case or referent date (lag1, lag2, and lag3), and the mean value 0-3 days before the case or referent date (lag0-3) were determined. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD according to quartiles of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10. Compared to the 1st (lowest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10, the 4th (highest) quartile of lag0-3 PM10 was associated with higher odds for CVD (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.21). The 4th quartiles of lag1 (aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19), lag2 (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), lag3 (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12), and lag0-3 (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) PM2.5 were associated with higher odds for CVD compared to the respective 1st quartiles. Similarly, the 4th quartile of lag0-3 PM2.5-10 was associated with higher CVD events (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19) compared to the 1st quartile. Short-term exposure to high levels of PM may be associated with increased CVD risk among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15960, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354189

RESUMO

It is not clear if COVID-19 can be indirectly transmitted. It is not possible to conclude the role of the environment in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 without studying areas in which people transit in great numbers. In this work we aimed to better understand the role of environment in the spread of COVID-19. We investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in fomites as well as in the air and in the sewage using RT-qPCR. We studied both, a reference market area and a COVID-19 reference hospital at Barreiras city, Brazil. We collected and analyzed a total of 418 samples from mask fronts, cell phones, paper money, card machines, sewage, air and bedding during the ascendant phase of the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 in Barreiras. As a result, we detected the human RNAse P gene in most of samples, which indicates the presence of human cells or their fragments in specimens. However, we did not detect any trace of SARS-CoV-2 in all samples analyzed. We conclude that, so far, the environment and inanimate materials did not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission in Barreiras city. Therefore, similar results can probably be found in other cities, mainly those with COVID-19 epidemiological scenarios similar to that of Barreiras city. Our study is a small piece indicating the possibility that fomites and the environment do not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the world scenario.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Fômites , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
15.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): e109-e117, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of defining secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers using an expanded serum cotinine range is currently unknown. METHODS: This study assessed the trends in secondhand smoke exposure prevalence among a nationally representative sample of 23,753 U.S. nonsmokers aged ≥3 years. Serum cotinine ranges of 0.05-10 ng/mL (established) and of 0.015-10 ng/mL (expanded) were analyzed in 2021 using data from the 2011-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: During 2011-2018, the percentage of people with a serum cotinine range of 0.05-10 ng/mL remained stable (25.3% to 24.6%) across most sociodemographic subgroups but declined significantly among adult Mexican Americans aged ≥20 years (23.9% to 14.1%). However, the percentage of people with serum cotinine range of 0.015-10 ng/mL significantly declined (58.3% to 52.3%) among male individuals (60.9% to 55.0%), among female individuals (56.2% to 50.0%), among adults aged ≥20 years (55.8% to 49.2%), among Mexican Americans (60.9% to 41.2%), among people with a college degree or higher (44.4% to 36.0%), among those who rented their housing (71.7% to 62.5%), among people not living with someone who smoked inside the home (56.1% to 50.0%), and among Mexican Americans aged ≥20 years (60.9% to 39.1%) (all p<0.05 for linear trend test). CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the serum cotinine range to 0.015-10 ng/mL more than doubles the estimated proportion of U.S. nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. In contrast to a serum cotinine range of 0.05-10 ng/mL, it suggests that progress has been made in reducing population-level secondhand smoke exposure during 2011-2018, especially among nonsmokers experiencing lower exposure levels.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Almost half of all school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have asthma-like symptoms and more suffer from lung function deficits. While air pollution and indoor respiratory irritants are known to affect high-risk populations of children, few studies have objectively evaluated environmental contributions to long-term respiratory morbidity in this population. This study aimed to examine the role of indoor environmental exposures on respiratory morbidity in children with BPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Air quality, Environment and Respiratory Ouctomes in BPD (AERO-BPD) study is a prospective, single-centre observational study that will enrol a unique cohort of 240 children with BPD and carefully characterise participants and their indoor home environmental exposures. Measures of indoor air quality constituents will assess the relationship of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), temperature and humidity, as well as dust concentrations of allergens, with concurrently measured respiratory symptoms and lung function.Adaptations to the research protocol due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic included remote home environment and participant assessments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study protocol was approved by the Boston Children's Hospital Committee on Clinical Investigation. Dissemination will be in the form of peer-reviewed publications and participant information products. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04107701.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Alérgenos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Temperatura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299914

RESUMO

Due to climate change, bushfires are becoming a more frequent and more severe phenomenon which contributes to poor health effects associated with air pollution. In pregnancy, environmental exposures can have lifelong consequences for the fetus, but little is known about these consequences in the context of bushfire smoke exposure. In this review we summarise the current knowledge in this area, and propose a potential mechanism linking bushfire smoke exposure in utero to poor perinatal and respiratory outcomes in the offspring. Bushfire smoke exposure is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including reduced birth weight and an increased risk of prematurity. Some publications have outlined the adverse health effects on young children, particularly in relation to emergency department presentations and hospital admissions for respiratory problems, but there are no studies in children who were exposed to bushfire smoke in utero. Prenatal stress is likely to occur as a result of catastrophic bushfire events, and stress is known to be associated with poor perinatal and respiratory outcomes. Changes to DNA methylation are potential epigenetic mechanisms linking both smoke particulate exposure and prenatal stress to poor childhood respiratory health outcomes. More research is needed in large pregnancy cohorts exposed to bushfire events to explore this further, and to design appropriate mitigation interventions, in this area of global public health importance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Incêndios , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise
19.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3294-3309.e12, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293321

RESUMO

Temperature is a variable component of the environment, and all organisms must deal with or adapt to temperature change. Acute temperature change activates cellular stress responses, resulting in refolding or removal of damaged proteins. However, how organisms adapt to long-term temperature change remains largely unexplored. Here we report that budding yeast responds to long-term high temperature challenge by switching from chaperone induction to reduction of temperature-sensitive proteins and re-localizing a portion of its proteome. Surprisingly, we also find that many proteins adopt an alternative conformation. Using Fet3p as an example, we find that the temperature-dependent conformational difference is accompanied by distinct thermostability, subcellular localization, and, importantly, cellular functions. We postulate that, in addition to the known mechanisms of adaptation, conformational plasticity allows some polypeptides to acquire new biophysical properties and functions when environmental change endures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Proteoma/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Saccharomycetales/genética
20.
Environ Int ; 156: 106715, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have observed associations between long-term air pollution and cardiovascular disease hospitalization. Little is known, however, about effect modification of these associations by greenness, temperature and humidity. METHODS: We constructed an open cohort consisting of all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, aged ≥ 65, living in the contiguous US from 2000 through 2016 (~63 million individuals). We assigned annual average PM2.5, NO2 and ozone zip code concentrations. Cox-equivalent Poisson models were used to estimate associations with first cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBV) hospitalization. RESULTS: PM2.5 and NO2 were both positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization, after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations were substantially stronger at the lower end of the exposure distributions. For CVD hospitalization, the hazard ratio (HR) of PM2.5 was 1.041 (1.038, 1.045) per IQR increase (4.0 µg/m3) in the full study population and 1.327 (1.305, 1.350) per IQR increase for a subgroup with annual exposures always below 10 µg/m3 PM2.5. Ozone was only positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization for the low-exposure subgroup (<40 ppb). Associations of PM2.5 were stronger in areas with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower summer and winter temperature and lower summer and winter specific humidity. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 and NO2 were positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization. Associations were more pronounced at low exposure levels. Associations of PM2.5 were stronger with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower temperature and lower specific humidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Umidade , Medicare , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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