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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1203-1217, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470483

RESUMO

The unregulated oil exploitation in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon Region (NEAR), mainly from 1964 to the 90's, led to toxic compounds largely released into the environment. A large majority of people living in the Amazon region have no access to drinking water distribution systems and collects water from rain, wells or small streams. The concentrations of major ions, trace elements, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) were analyzed in different water sources to evaluate the impacts of oil extraction and refining. Samples were taken from the NEAR and around the main refinery of the country (Esmeraldas Oil Refinery/State Oil Company of Ecuador) and were compared with domestic waters from the Southern region, not affected by petroleum activities. In most of the samples, microbiological analysis revealed a high level of coliforms representing significant health risks. All measured chemical compounds in waters were in line with national and international guidelines, except for manganese, zinc and aluminum. In several deep-water wells, close to oil camps, toluene concentrations were higher than the natural background while PAHs concentrations never exceeded individually 2 ng·L-1. Water ingestion represented 99% of the total exposure pathways for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements (mainly zinc) in adults and children, while 20% to 49% of the Total Cancer Risk was caused by arsenic concentrations. The health index (HI) indicates acceptable chronic effects for domestic use according the US-EPA thresholds. Nevertheless, these limits do not consider the cocktail effects of metallic and organic compounds. Furthermore, they do not include the social determinants of human exposure, such as socio-economic living conditions or vulnerability. Most (72%) of interviewed families knew sanitary risks but a discrepancy was observed between knowledge and action: religious beliefs, cultural patterns, information sources, experience and emotions play an important role front to exposure.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Social , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Equador , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 1331-1341, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470495

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of drinking water salinity on children's education using a unique and rich dataset collected from eight southwest coastal districts of Bangladesh. Salinity concentration in drinking water is measured at the household level using water samples from households' primary source of drinking water during the summer, wet and dry season of 20014-15. A third of the deep tube-well water samples was found to be slightly (1000 < TDS < 2000 mg/l) to moderately (TDS ≥ 2000 mg/l) saline. Linking the child-level data on educational outcome to water salinity (i.e. TDS level), the study reveals a statistically significant negative effect of excessive salinity on grade advancement for 7-12 year old children. More specifically, exposure to excessive drinking water salinity (TDS > 1000 mg/l) decreases the grade advancement likelihood of 7-12 year old children by 6.7 percentage points. The results remain robust to alternative model and econometric specifications. The adverse effect of salinity on grade advancement does not vary significantly across the gender of the child while poverty, as expected, exacerbates the effect. Impaired cognitive development due to early childhood exposure appears to be the most plausible channel through which the negative effects of excessive sodium consumption permeate to young children's educational deficit. Additionally, poor health of the adults and elevated medical expenditure play a small yet significant mediating role.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Salinidade , Bangladesh , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1079-1086, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466148

RESUMO

Chicken, duck, egg, and duck egg samples from the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta regions in China were analyzed for 17 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The concentrations of PFCs in chicken and duck livers ranged from

Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Produtos Avícolas/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1125-1132, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466152

RESUMO

Pollution by heavy metals and metalloids is detrimental to human health due to their toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects. The traditional approach to assess the extent of environmental and occupational exposures of metals is human biomonitoring (HBM). This method has several limitations, including invasiveness, sampling bias, cost- and time-intensiveness, and ethical issues. This suggests the need for a more robust, non-invasive, epidemiological tool for assessment of exposure to metals and their public health effects. Recently, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been suggested and utilized as a novel approach to accurately determine the extent of exposure to multiple substances on the population level. We suggest the potential application of WBE to the study of metal exposure on the population level, including possible biomarkers for wastewater analysis of 10 metals belonging to three categories according to health effects and nutritional benefits, and its public health implications. Similar to previous studies of exposure to regulated or illegal drugs, unregulated legal substances, and pesticides, WBE can be applied to the study of metal exposure in a given community. Parental substance biomarkers (PSBs), metabolic substance biomarkers (MSBs), and non-substance biomarkers (NSBs) of 10 common metals are available for consideration in wastewater analysis. The use of WBE would allow for the interpretation of the relationship between metal exposure and population health, reveal synergistic effects of different health factors, and model public health risks under different scenarios.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1244-1254, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466163

RESUMO

Bioaccessibility (BAC) of fine surface dust (FSD, particle size ≤10 µm) and surface dust samples (particle size ≤250 µm) collected from a gold mining district was used as a tool to determine the portion of arsenic that would be available via simulated lung and gastrointestinal (G.I) fluids. BAC was considered low for both tests (lung 2.7 ±â€¯1%, n = 5 and G.I 3.4 ±â€¯2%, n = 14 for residential surface dust samples). An analytical procedure was developed to further identify arsenic-bearing phases found in FSD samples and analyze the main components that regulate arsenic solubility. Up to five different arsenic-bearing phases were identified among a total of 35 minerals surveyed by scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (Mineral Liberation Analyzer - MLA). Arsenic-bearing Fe oxy-hydroxides and mixed phases comprised the main arsenic phases encountered in FSD samples, thus likely being responsible for regulating arsenic bioaccessibility. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the mixed phases comprised a mix of oriented nanostructure aggregates formed by hematite and goethite entangled with phyllosilicates. The main As-bearing phases identified in FSD samples are similar to those reported in soil samples in the same region. The predominant arsenic-bearing phase encountered in the ore was arsenopyrite, mostly in large particles (>10 µm in size), and therefore unlikely to be found in residential dust. Arsenic intake from both inhalation and ingestion were minimal when compared to total arsenic intake (considering food and water ingestion), which itself was <7% of the value established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) of 3.0 µg per kg-1 body weight per day. These results indicated that the relative risks associated with arsenic exposure by inhalation and oral ingestion in this region are low.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1019-1029, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390693

RESUMO

Extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing in frequency, posing a greater risk of adverse human health effects. As such, developing sociological and psychological based interventions is paramount to empowering individuals and communities to actively protect their own health. Accordingly, this study compared the efficacy of two established social-cognitive models, namely the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) and Risks-Attitudes-Norms-Abilities-Self-regulation (RANAS) framework, in predicting health behaviours following EWEs. Surface water flooding was used as the exemplar EWE in the current study, due to the increasing incidence of these events in the Republic of Ireland over the past decade. Levels of prior experience with flooding were considered for analyses and comparative tools included a number of variables predicting health behaviours and intervention potential scores (i.e. measure of impact of targeting each model element). Results suggest that the RANAS model provides a robust foundation for designing interventions for any level of experience with an extreme weather event, however, use of the simpler HBM may be more cost-effective among participants unacquainted with an EWE and in relatively infrequent health threat scenarios. Results provide an evidence base for researchers and policymakers to appropriately engage with populations about such threats and successfully promote spatiotemporally appropriate health behaviours in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1030-1041, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between meteorological variables and risk of fractures has attracted increasing attentions but remain controversial. Therefore, our main aim is to clarify the association, and also to identify possible susceptible groups. METHODS: Relevant literature was obtained through standard MeSH literature searching seven electronic databases. Because some studies expressed the association as the rate of incidence (IRR) of fractures associated with each 1 °C rise in temperature and 1% increase in relative humidity (RH), some expressed as IRR of fractures for the day with specific climatic variable versus control days, and also the association was expressed as correlations coefficients (COR) in some studies, separated meta-analyses were undertaken, with one based on IRR and another based on COR. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included. Results showed that each 1 °C increase was significantly associated with a 3.0% decrease in fracture risk (IRR = 0.970, 95%CI: 0.952-0.988). The day with freezing rain and snow were associated with increased risk for both the lower extremity fracture (freezing rain: IRR = 1.174, 95%CI: 1.022-1.348; snow: IRR = 1.245, 95%CI: 1.050-1.477) and the upper extremity fracture (freezing rain: IRR = 1.376, 95%CI: 1.192-1.588; snow: IRR = 1.548, 95%CI: 1.361-1.761). No significant association was detected between RH, dew, frost, fog, storm and high wind, and fracture. The COR meta-analysis showed that mean temperature (moderately), maximum temperature (moderately), rainfall (weakly) and sunlight duration (weakly) were correlated with fracture occurrence. CONCLUSION: The incidence of fractures was increased in lower temperature, the day with freezing rain, and snow. Other meteorological factors may have some effects on the incidence of fracture. The association maybe stronger for males, lower extremity fracture, and people living in Asia, subtropical zone, low-latitude, and northern hemisphere. Further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Humanos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 296-305, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With global climate change, there is growing concern about the effects of temperature changes on childhood asthma. However, current research only focuses on the effects of temperature, while ignoring the adverse effects of humidity on children. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to quantify the impact of humidex on childhood asthma hospitalizations, which combined temperature and humidity, and further to assess how the effect is modified by individual-factors, such as age and gender. METHODS: Poisson generalized linear models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models were used to estimate the association between daily childhood asthma hospitalizations and humidex from 2013 to 2016. Air pollutions (CO, O3, and NO2) and wind velocity were modelled simultaneously using DLNM, as well as day of week, seasonality and long-term trend. RESULTS: Low humidex was associated with an increased risk of admissions for asthma in children. The adverse effect appeared on the 4th day, with the RR of 1.045 (95%CI: 1.007-1.084) and lasted until the 7th day (RR: 1.045, 95%CI: 1.006-1.085). Compared with the male, there was an immediate effect on female exposed to low humidex. And the female seems to be more sensitive to low humidex. Besides, the significant effects of humidex on children asthma were detected in the children with preschool and school-age, whereas not for the subgroup of infants. And the school-age children are most sensitive to low humidex. CONCLUSIONS: Low humidex was associated with the increased risk of admissions for childhood asthma in Hefei. Children suffering from asthma should avoid exposure to the low humidex environment, especially in female and school-age children. In addition, the index of humidex was more significant for disease prevention and public health than the average temperature. These findings may provide epidemiology evidence for formulating precaution guidelines to reduce the risk of childhood asthma hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Umidade/efeitos adversos , Ventilação/instrumentação , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 584-594, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325858

RESUMO

Siloxanes are organo-silicon compounds containing Si-O-Si linkages and methyl branches. Depending on the structure, siloxanes can be divided into cyclic and linear compounds. Methyl siloxanes with small and medium molecular weights (molecular weights less than 500 g mol-1), are volatile under normal conditions, and hence are referred to as volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs). VMSs are additive ingredients in many products such as plastics, rubber, personal care products, and household items. This review provides information on the distribution of VMSs in consumer products, indoor air and dust, and their implications for human exposure. VMSs have been used in personal care products and household items at concentrations on the order of hundreds to thousands of micrograms per gram which are the main sources of contamination in the indoor environments. VMSs have been found widely in indoor air and dust. A significant correlation existed between VMS concentrations in indoor air and dust. Among typical VMSs, dodecamethylcylcopentasiloxane (D5) is the major compound found in indoor environments. The human exposure doses to VMSs through dermal absorption, dust ingestion, and inhalation were compiled; Inhalation is a dominant pathway of exposure to VMSs, especially in indoor environments of occupational settings like hair salons. The human exposure doses were higher in children than in adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Siloxanas/análise , Humanos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 621-630, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325862

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal supply water have been a concern. Many DBPs have been characterized as possible and probable human carcinogens, which can pose elevated cancer risks through lifetime exposure to municipal supply water. Few DBPs are regulated in many countries to control human exposure and risk from DBPs. In risk assessment studies, concentration of DBPs in water distribution systems is often used, whereas populations are typically exposed to indoor tap water. Through employing several techniques, DBPs can be reduced prior to water consumption, which is likely to reduce human exposure and risk of DBPs. This study investigated six indoor techniques in reducing trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in synthetic water and the effects of these techniques on exposure and risk. The techniques are: S1, S2: storing water in a refrigerator with and without lids respectively; S3, S4: boiling water for 1 min followed by storing in a refrigerator with and without lids respectively; S5, S6: filtering water using new and used granular activated carbon (GAC) filters and storing in a refrigerator without lids. Storing of water (S1, S2) reduced THMs in the range of 14.8-47.2% while boiling (S3, S4) and filtration (S5, S6) reduced THMs in the range of 77.3-92.8%. In S1-S4 techniques, HAAs were not reduced significantly while in S5 - S6 techniques, HAAs were reduced in the range of 64.7-69.8%. In S3-S6 techniques, overall cancer and non-cancer risks were reduced by 45.5-82.6% and 26.3-80.0% respectively. The findings might prove useful in understanding DBPs exposure, associated risks, strategies to minimize exposure to these contaminants and updating regulatory guidelines for better protection of health risks from DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 868-873, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on glucose metabolism have been rarely examined in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations between long-term PM exposure and blood glucose and prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in a large population of Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: In 2013, a total of 11,814 children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from seven provinces/municipalities in China. Fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood glucose. Satellite-based spatial-temporal models were used to estimate exposure to ambient submicrometer particles (PM1), fine particles (PM2.5) and thoracic particles (PM10). Cross-sectional analyses were performed using mixed-effects multivariable linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for a range of covariates, every 10 µg/m3 increment in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations was associated with 0.160 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.039, 0.280], 0.150 (95% CI: 0.044, 0.256) and 0.079 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.167) mmol/L higher blood glucose levels, respectively. PM exposure was also associated with higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose, but the associations did not reach statistical significance [odds ratio per 10 µg/m3 increment in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10: 1.30 (95% CI: 0.86,1.96), 1.20 (95% CI: 0.85,1.69) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.83,1.41)]. CONCLUSIONS: We found that long-term exposure to PM air pollution was associated with increased levels of blood glucose in children and adolescents. The associations were more evident for PM1 and PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 996-1004, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the relationship between temperature and cardiovascular mortality in middle and low-income countries, particularly in Latin America. In this study, we investigated the total effect of temperature on cardiovascular mortality in 27 Brazilian cities, and the effect modification by geographic, socioeconomic, demographic and infrastructure characteristics within cities. METHODS: In the city-specific analysis, we used time-series analyses to estimate the relationship between mean temperature and daily cardiovascular mortality using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models combined with distributed lag non-linear models. In the second stage, a meta-analysis was used to pool the effects of temperature on cardiovascular mortality for Brazil and its five regions (Central-West, North, Northeast, South, and Southeast). We used a meta-regression to examine the effect modification of city-specific geographic, socioeconomic, demographic and infrastructure-related variables. RESULTS: The risks associated with temperature varied across the locations. Higher cardiovascular mortality was associated with low and high temperatures in most of the cities, Brazil and the Central-West, North, South, and Southeast regions. The overall relative risk (RR) for Brazil was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.35) for the 1st percentile of temperature and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01-1.13) for the 99th percentile of temperature versus the 79th percentile (27.7 °C), where RR was lowest. The temperature range was the variable that best explained the variation in effects among the cities, with greater effects in locations having a broader range. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate effects of low and high temperatures on the risk of cardiovascular mortality in most of Brazil's capital cities, besides a pooled effect for Brazil and the Central-West, North, South, and Southeast regions. These findings can help inform public policies addressing the health impact of temperature extremes, especially in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 742-750, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255812

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate internal biomarkers and external estimation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a high cancer mortality area in southeast China and identify which of these showed a stronger association of PAH with cancer mortality. A retrospective death survey was conducted to determine the mortality rate of cancer. Cumulative and aggregate external exposures to PAHs of local residents were estimated by field sampling. Three regions in southwest China with gradient PAH exposure levels from high to low (H, M, and L) were selected in this study. Research participants were selected from these three regions using a statistical sampling method. To determine the internal exposure, urinary OH-PAHs were measured using the first morning urine samples. From the retrospective death survey, the highest age-standardized lung cancer mortality rate occurred in Region H (78 per 100,000 person-years), followed by that in Regions M (33 per 100,000 person-years) and L (15 per 100,000 person-years), and the rate was nearly four times China's national mortality rate (20 per 100,000 person-years). Residents estimated daily aggregate exposure doses per unit body weight to carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration were 159 ±â€¯14 ng-kg-1-day-1, 7.41 ±â€¯2.76 ng-kg-1-day-1, and 6.13 ±â€¯2.89 ng-kg-1-day-1 in Region H, M, and L, respectively. The participants in Region M had the greatest urinary OH-PAH concentration (9.10 ±â€¯4.92 µg-g-1 crt), followed by Region H (8.01 ±â€¯4.22 µg-g-1 crt) and L (7.12 ±â€¯3.10 µg-g-1 crt). The spatial difference in the total OH-PAHs was not statistically significant. Aggregate and cumulative exposure to 16 PAHs from external routes were found, and external exposure had a stringer relationship with lung cancer mortality than internal exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , China/epidemiologia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109419, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301591

RESUMO

Parabens are a kind of preservatives widely used in cosmetic and personal care products and ubiquitously detected in the environment. However, little is known on human exposure to these chemicals. Our study mainly investigated the urinary parabens in adults from South China to evaluate the cumulative risk of paraben exposure. A total of 562 urine samples were collected from adult workers for the determination of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), butyl paraben, and benzyl parabens. High detection frequencies (≥98%) were observed for MeP, EtP, and PrP with median concentrations of 8.88, 5.11, and 1.44 µg/L, respectively. Urinary parabens was 4.5-46.2 fold higher in urine of females than those in males. Urinary MeP was associated with alcohol drinking and a history of tumor, while urinary PrP was negatively associated with education levels of the subjects. There were not significant associations between urinary concentrations of parabens and body mass index, which indicated that obesity was not associated with paraben exposure. Also, parabens did not correlate with human dietary habits. Although the total estimated daily intake (TEDI) of the major compound MeP and EtP in adult workers was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the TEDI of PrP exceed the ADI for a very few subjects, especially for females and low-educated ones, suggesting potential health risks.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Parabenos/metabolismo , Adulto , China , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/metabolismo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 705-716, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301510

RESUMO

Wildlife physiological responses to environmental and human-related stressors provide useful clues on animal welfare. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), allow researchers to assess whether variations in habitat quality, behavior, and climate influence the animals' physiological stress. We examined the role of fragment size, ambient temperature, ripe fruit availability and consumption, percentage of records moving, sex, female reproductive state, and group composition as predictors of the level of fGCM in adult brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We collected bimonthly behavioral data and fecal samples from adult individuals over three years, and used a multimodel inference framework to identify the main predictors of fGCM. We found that the mean (±SD) fGCM in the study groups ranged from 57 ±â€¯49 ng/g to 93 ±â€¯58 ng/g, which were within the known range for howler monkeys. We found 10 best models including five of the 17 tested variables. Sex and reproductive state were the only variables included in all these models. We found that fGCM was higher in nursing females (mean ±â€¯SD = 104 ±â€¯73 ng/g) than in non-nursing females (64 ±â€¯55 ng/g) and males (53 ±â€¯40 ng/g, P < 0.05) and that it decreased with increasing ripe fruit consumption and minimum temperature. However, fragment size did not predict fGCM concentration (groups in small fragments = 71 ±â€¯58 ng/g vs. groups in large fragments = 63 ±â€¯54 ng/g, P > 0.05). We conclude that factors related to the energetic balance of individuals play major roles in modulating the physiological stress of brown howler monkeys. Future studies should investigate the consequences of higher levels of stress hormones on howler monkey health and demography.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Primatas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Alouatta , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Primatas/psicologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 923-931, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of heatwaves on public health has led to an urgent need to describe extremely hot weather events (EHWEs) and evaluate their health impacts. METHODS: In Hong Kong, a very hot day (VHD) can be defined when the daily maximum temperature ≥ 33 °C, and a hot night (HN) can be identified if the daily minimum temperature ≥ 28 °C. Three lengths of time, nine combinations of VHD and HN, and four categories of occurrence intervals between two EHWEs were considered over 2006-2015. The daily relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality was estimated using Poisson generalized additive regression models, controlling for both short-term and long-term trends in temperature as well as four air pollutants. Lagged effects of the representative EHWEs were further examined for their association with mortality. Subgroup analysis was conducted for different sex and age groups. RESULTS: Significant associations with raised mortality risks were observed for a single HN, while stronger associations with mortality were observed as significant for five or more consecutive VHDs/HNs. More HNs between the consecutive VHDs also significantly amplified the impact on mortality, with the strongest association observed for EHWEs characterized as 2D3N, and the effect significantly lagged for five days. Therefore, with identifiable health impacts, three thresholds (5VHDs, 5HNs, & 2D3N) were determined to be representative of identical types of EHWEs in Hong Kong. Furthermore, by taking 2 (3) consecutive VHDs (HNs) as one daytime (nighttime) EHWE event, those occurring consecutively without non-hot days (nights) in between were found to be significantly associated with excess mortality risks. Moreover, females and older adults were determined to be relatively more vulnerable to all defined EHWEs. CONCLUSIONS: Among all the observed significant heat-mortality associations in highly urbanized cities, EHWEs that occurred during the nighttime, with extended length, consecutively without any break in between, or in the pattern of 2D3N might require the meteorological administration, healthcare providers, and urban planners to work interactively.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta , Mortalidade/tendências , Cidades , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Urbanização
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 248-260, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288116

RESUMO

Severe air pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China has increased attention of both the scientific community and policy makers. Air quality data collected at the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network during 2006-2015 were analyzed for assessing the effectiveness of pollution control measures and for estimating the trends of premature mortality attributable to ambient PM2.5 and O3. Statistically significant decreasing trends were detected for PM2.5 (-1.74 to -1.83 µg m-3 yr-1), PM10 (-2.70 to -2.78 µg m-3 yr-1), NO (-0.61 to -0.74 µg m-3 yr-1), NO2 (-1.20 to -1.22 µg m-3 yr-1), and SO2 (-3.46 to -4.01 µg m-3 yr-1), while an increasing trend was found for O3 (0.70-0.86 µg m-3 yr-1) during the study period. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of control measures implemented in the last decade for primary pollutants and also indicate the challenges for controlling secondary pollutants. The PM2.5-related premature deaths varied little, e.g., from 40.6 thousand deaths in 2006 to 40.4 thousand deaths in 2015, due to the two contrasting factors, i.e., the decreased PM2.5 concentration and increased population. The increases in both O3 concentration and exposed population resulted in a significant rising trend for the O3-related premature deaths, which increased from 2.7 thousand deaths in 2006 to 4.5 thousand deaths in 2015, at a rate of 165 deaths yr-1. Consistent with the spatial distribution of air pollution and population density, high levels of premature deaths from PM2.5 and O3 were located in the central PRD including Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan, and Shenzhen. Decreasing PM2.5 concentration is the most effective way in reducing the regional mortality burden from air pollution in the near future. Besides controlling primary emissions of PM2.5, reducing VOCs emissions is also important for limiting atmospheric oxidizing capacity and associated secondary PM2.5 formation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , China , Rios
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 511, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346790

RESUMO

Arsenic is one of the naturally occurring heavy metal that has been reported to cause damaging effects on different body organs. This study was aimed to determine the arsenic level in different water sources and investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human participants and experimental animals. We recruited 150 participants to investigate the arsenic exposure in their urine and from drinking water. We found that males contained significantly higher (P < 0.001) concentrations of urinary arsenic as compared with that of their female counterparts. Similarly, urinary arsenic concentration was high and showed significant association in the age of ≥ 60 years (P < 0.05), illiterate (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.0001), and diabetic (P < 0.0001) participants. Moreover, urinary arsenic exposure was also associated with higher levels of fasting (P < 0.001) and random blood glucose (P < 0.001), HbA1c (P < 0.001), AST, ALT, MDA, IL-6, CRP, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in arsenic-exposed diabetics as compared with that of unexposed diabetics. Further, we also exposed the white albino rats with arsenic in drinking water for 30 days and their blood glucose was measured at 15th and 30th days of treatment that was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. Similarly, arsenic-exposed animals failed to tolerate exogenously administered glucose (P < 0.001) as compared with that of unexposed animals. Likewise, insulin and glutathione concentrations were also significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. The alterations in normal values of glucose, insulin, and glutathione exhibited the damaging effects of arsenic exposure in experimental rats. This study showed that arsenic exposed to human beings and animals through drinking water resulted in the disruption of pancreatic ß-cell functioning that provoked the risk factor for development of DM. This study also suggested that long-term arsenic exposure induces hyperglycemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress that may lead to the onset of development of DM.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 831-840, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344544

RESUMO

Research on hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has increased since its listing in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2011. However, thorough reports on recent data regarding this topic are lacking. Moreover, potential associations between HCBD and some chlorinated organics have usually been ignored in previous research. In this review, possible formation pathways and sources, current environmental occurrences and human exposure risks of HCBD are discussed, as well as the association with several organochlorine compounds. The results reveal that unintentional production and emission from industrial activities and waste treatments are the main sources of HCBD. Similar precursors are found for HCBD and chlorobenzenes, indicating the presence of common sources. Although recent data indicates that levels of HCBD in the environment are generally low, risks from human exposure to HCBD, together with other pollutants, may be high. More attention in the future needs to be paid to the mixed contamination of HCBD and other pollutants from common sources.


Assuntos
Butadienos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/agonistas , Butadienos/toxicidade , Clorobenzenos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade
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