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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112363, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087735

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutant (POPs) contamination was analyzed in samples collected from wild and captive giant pandas to characterize seasonal variation in concentrations of POPs and possible sources. POP concentrations in bamboo and fecal samples collected from captive pandas showed significant fluctuations compared with those collected from wild pandas in each season. The highest polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations were 1380 pg g-1 dw and 3140 pg g-1 dw, respectively, which were observed in captive bamboo samples in the summer. PCBs varied seasonally, whereas OCPs did not show apparent seasonal variation. Based on the seasonal variability, component analysis, and the positive matrix factorization results, we determined that the secondary volatilization of POPs during periods of high temperatures was the leading cause of the exposure of pandas to pollutants (45%), and atmospheric transport played a crucial role in the secondary distribution of pollutants in panda food. The other two sources of pollution were historical residues transmitted over long distances to protected areas (28%), as well as UP-POPs and new inputs from agricultural activities (27%). The concentrations of pollutants in bamboo shoots were significantly lower than those in bamboo. Therefore, bamboo shoots should be incorporated into the diet of captive pandas in the spring to reduce their exposure to pollutants. The absorption capacity of pollutants associated with the consumption of bamboo shoots was significantly lower than that associated with the consumption of bamboo. The diet of young captive pandas in the summer should also be managed with caution given their slightly stronger ability to absorb pollutants.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ursidae/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados , Estações do Ano
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112321, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991933

RESUMO

Slag tailings are produced by "cooling-grinding-ball milling-flotation" and other processes of slag, while slag is produced by the flash smelting of the original ore. The utilization and environmental hazards of arsenic in slag tailings have become a focus of attention. This study on slag tailings reveals the presence of arsenic in copper smelting tailings from the mineralogy and leaching perspectives, and the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of arsenic to the human body were assessed by using the USEPA health risk model. The surface particles of the slag tailings were unevenly dispersed, and the mineral crystals were relatively complete. A small amount of secondary minerals had grown on the mineral surface. Most of the fine particles adhered to the surface of the main mineral to form inclusions. The mineral composition of the slag tailings was dominated by maghemite (Fe3O4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and the arsenic-bearing minerals were unevenly distributed, where As (Ⅴ) fine particles were embedded in maghemite, amorphous phase and fayalite. There was a large amount of residual arsenic in the slag tailing particles, and the leaching content of arsenic in the toxicity leaching procedure was always lower than the limit of 5 mg/L. The health risk to the exposed population was evaluated by the USEPA health risk model. Since the exposed population in the industrial land is mainly adults, it is determined that the tailings will not cause harm to children's health. In this evaluation, the exposure duration (length of service of the workers) of 30 years, exposure frequency of 314 d/y and body weight of 60 kg (average weight of the workers) were taken as the parameters of three exposure pathways: hand-oral ingestion, respiratory system inhalation and skin contact. Therefore, longer activity time of the workers in the tailing workshop corresponds to a higher HI (hazard index). Although the arsenic in the slag tailings had a certain degree of bioavailability, it was not sufficient to adversely affect human health.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Cobre , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/química , Humanos , Metalurgia , Minerais , Medição de Risco
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112337, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029837

RESUMO

Mercury in the aquatic environment can lead to exposure of the human population and is a known toxic metal due to its capacity for accumulation in organs. We aimed to evaluate the mercury level in the blood and urine of fishermen and correlate it with the level of oxidative stress in blood cells. We show in this case-control study that the fishermen of the exposed group (case) of Mundaú Lagoon (Maceió - Alagoas, Brazil) have higher concentrations of total mercury in the blood (0.73-48.38 µg L-1) and urine (0.430-10.2 µg L-1) than the total mercury concentrations in blood (0.29-17.30 µg L-1) and urine (0.210-2.65 µg L-1) of the control group. In the blood cells of fishermen, we observed that the lymphomononuclear cells produced high levels of reactive oxygen species (61.7%), and the erythrocytes presented increased lipid peroxidation (151%) and protein oxidation (41.0%) and a decrease in total thiol (36.5%), GSH and the REDOX state (16.5%). The activity of antioxidant system enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GST) was also reduced in the exposed group by 26.9%, 28.3%, and 19.0%, respectively. Furthermore, hemoglobin oxygen uptake was decreased in the exposed group (40.0%), and the membrane of cells presented increased osmotic fragility (154%) compared to those in the control group. These results suggest that mercury in the blood of fishermen can be responsible for causing impairments in the oxidative status of blood cells and is probably the cause of the reduction in oxygen uptake capacity and damage to the membranes of erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Mercúrio/análise , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112352, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), diabetes and exposure to air pollution are thought to be important threat to human health, but no studies have explored the effects of ambient air pollutants on DR-TB when adjusting diabetes status so far. METHODS: We performed a study among 3759 newly diagnosed TB cases with drug-susceptibility testing results, diabetes status, and individual air pollution data in Shandong from 2015 to 2019. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) including three models (Model 1: without covariates, Model 2: adjusted by diabetes status only, Model 3: with all covariates) were applied. RESULTS: Of 3759 TB patients enrolled, 716 (19.05%) were DR-TB, and 333 (8.86%) had diabetes. High exposure to O3 was associated with an increased risk of RFP-resistance (Model 2 or 3: odds ratio (OR) = 1.008, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.002-1.014), ethambutol-resistance (Model 3: OR = 1.015, 95%CI: 1.004-1.027) and any rifampicin+streptomycin resistance (Model 1,2,3: OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.002-1.018) at 90 days. In contrast, NO2 was associated with a reduced risk of DR-TB (Model 3: OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.981-0.999) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (Model 3: OR = 0.977, 95%CI: 0.96-0.994) at 360 days. Additionally, SO2 (Model 1, 2, 3: OR = 0.987, 95%CI: 0.977-0.998) showed a protective effect on MDR-TB at 90 days. PM2.5 (90 days, Model 2: OR = 0.991, 95%CI: 0.983-0.999), PM10 (360 days, Model 2: OR = 0.992, 95%CI: 0.985-0.999) had protective effects on any RFP+SM resistance. CONCLUSIONS: O3 contributed to an elevated risk of TB resistance but PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 showed an inverse effect. Air pollutants may affect the development of drug resistance among TB cases by adjusting the status of diabetes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(16): 595-599, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197697

RESUMO

Aircraft can hold large numbers of persons in close proximity for long periods, which can increase the risk for transmission of infectious disease.* Current CDC guidelines recommend against travel for persons who have not been vaccinated against COVID-19, and a January 2021 CDC order requires masking for all persons while on airplanes.†,§ Research suggests that seating proximity on aircraft is associated with increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). However, studies quantifying the benefit of specific distancing strategies to prevent transmission, such as keeping aircraft cabin middle seats vacant, are limited. Using bacteriophage MS2 virus as a surrogate for airborne SARS-CoV-2, CDC and Kansas State University (KSU) modeled the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and aircraft seating proximity, including full occupancy and vacant middle seat occupancy scenarios. Compared with exposures in full occupancy scenarios, relative exposure in vacant middle seat scenarios was reduced by 23% to 57% depending upon the modeling approach. A 23% exposure reduction was observed for a single passenger who was in the same row and two seats away from the SARS-COV-2 source, rather than in an adjacent middle seat. When quantifying exposure reduction to a full 120-passenger cabin rather than to a single person, exposure reductions ranging from 35.0% to 39.4% were predicted. A 57% exposure reduction was observed under the vacant middle seat condition in a scenario involving a three-row section that contained a mix of SARS-CoV-2 sources and other passengers. Based on this laboratory model, a vacant middle seat reduces risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 from nearby passengers. These data suggest that increasing physical distance between passengers and lowering passenger density could help reduce potential COVID-19 exposures during air travel. Physical distancing of airplane passengers, including through policies such as middle seat vacancy, could provide additional reductions in SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , Aerossóis , Bacteriófagos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921792

RESUMO

The exposome represents the array of dietary, lifestyle, and demographic factors to which an individual is exposed. Individual components of the exposome, or groups of components, are recognized as influencing many aspects of human physiology, including cardiometabolic health. However, the influence of the whole exposome on health outcomes is poorly understood and may differ substantially from the sum of its individual components. As such, studies of the complete exposome are more biologically representative than fragmented models based on subsets of factors. This study aimed to model the system of relationships underlying the way in which the diet, lifestyle, and demographic components of the overall exposome shapes the cardiometabolic risk profile. The current study included 36,496 US Veterans enrolled in the VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) who had complete assessments of their diet, lifestyle, demography, and markers of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The cohort was randomly divided into training and validation datasets. In the training dataset, we conducted two separate exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify common factors among exposures (diet, demographics, and physical activity) and laboratory measures (lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control), respectively. In the validation dataset, we used multiple normal regression to examine the combined effects of exposure factors on the clinical factors representing cardiometabolic health. The mean ± SD age of participants was 62.4 ± 13.4 years for both the training and validation datasets. The EFA revealed 19 Exposure Common Factors and 5 Physiology Common Factors that explained the observed (measured) data. Multivariate regression in the validation dataset revealed the structure of associations between the Exposure Common Factors and the Physiology Common Factors. For example, we found that the factor for fruit consumption was inversely associated with the factor summarizing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, p = 0.008), and the latent construct describing light levels of physical activity was inversely associated with the blood pressure latent construct (p < 0.0001). We also found that a factor summarizing that participants who frequently consume whole milk are less likely to frequently consume skim milk, was positively associated with the latent constructs representing total cholesterol and LDLC as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0006 and <0.0001, respectively). Multiple multivariable-adjusted regression analyses of exposome factors allowed us to model the influence of the exposome as a whole. In this metadata-rich, prospective cohort of US Veterans, there was evidence of structural relationships between diet, lifestyle, and demographic exposures and subsequent markers of cardiometabolic health. This methodology could be applied to answer a variety of research questions about human health exposures that utilize electronic health record data and can accommodate continuous, ordinal, and binary data derived from questionnaires. Further work to explore the potential utility of including genetic risk scores and time-varying covariates is warranted.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Expossoma , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(16): 595-599, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886531

RESUMO

Aircraft can hold large numbers of persons in close proximity for long periods, which can increase the risk for transmission of infectious disease.* Current CDC guidelines recommend against travel for persons who have not been vaccinated against COVID-19, and a January 2021 CDC order requires masking for all persons while on airplanes.†,§ Research suggests that seating proximity on aircraft is associated with increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). However, studies quantifying the benefit of specific distancing strategies to prevent transmission, such as keeping aircraft cabin middle seats vacant, are limited. Using bacteriophage MS2 virus as a surrogate for airborne SARS-CoV-2, CDC and Kansas State University (KSU) modeled the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and aircraft seating proximity, including full occupancy and vacant middle seat occupancy scenarios. Compared with exposures in full occupancy scenarios, relative exposure in vacant middle seat scenarios was reduced by 23% to 57% depending upon the modeling approach. A 23% exposure reduction was observed for a single passenger who was in the same row and two seats away from the SARS-COV-2 source, rather than in an adjacent middle seat. When quantifying exposure reduction to a full 120-passenger cabin rather than to a single person, exposure reductions ranging from 35.0% to 39.4% were predicted. A 57% exposure reduction was observed under the vacant middle seat condition in a scenario involving a three-row section that contained a mix of SARS-CoV-2 sources and other passengers. Based on this laboratory model, a vacant middle seat reduces risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 from nearby passengers. These data suggest that increasing physical distance between passengers and lowering passenger density could help reduce potential COVID-19 exposures during air travel. Physical distancing of airplane passengers, including through policies such as middle seat vacancy, could provide additional reductions in SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , Aerossóis , Bacteriófagos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laboratórios , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112201, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health effect of particulate matter pollution on stroke has been widely examined; however, the effect among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D) in developing countries has remained largely unknown. METHODS: A time-series study was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and inhalable particulate matter (PM10) on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with T2D in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was employed to adjust for important covariates, such as weather conditions and long-term and seasonal trends. RESULTS: A total of 159,298 hospital admissions for stroke comorbid with T2D were reported. Approximately linear exposure-response curves were observed for PM2.5 and PM10 in relation to stroke admissions among T2D patients. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the four-day moving average of PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with 0.14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.23%) and 0.14% (95% CI: 0.06-0.22%) incremental increases in stroke admissions among T2D patients, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 in the two-day moving average corresponded to a 0.72% (95% CI: 0.02-1.42%) incremental increase in hemorrhagic stroke, and a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 in the four-day moving average corresponded to a 0.14% (95% CI: 0.06-0.22%) incremental increase in ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: High particulate matter might be a risk factor for stroke among patients with T2D. PM2.5 and PM10 have a linear exposure-response relationship with stroke among T2D patients. The study provided evidence of the risk of stroke due to particulate matter pollution among patients with comorbid T2D.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Poluição Ambiental , AVC Hemorrágico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Environ Res ; 196: 110888, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662345

RESUMO

Few studies have explored the relationship between long-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and osteoporotic fracture, particularly in high PM2.5 level areas. The aim of this study was to assess the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and osteoporotic fracture. We performed a matched case-control study of 16,175 participants obtained from a hospital registry during 2005-2014 in Taiwan. A major osteoporotic fracture was defined as a fracture of the spine, hip, proximal humerus, and forearm. We applied satellite-based spatiotemporal models with 1-km resolution to individually calculate the 1-year average PM2.5 concentration before the index date which was defined as the first visit date for the osteoporotic fracture. Logistic regression models with and without potential confounding factors were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between PM2.5 and osteoporotic fracture, whereas a restricted cubic spline model was used to estimate the dose-response relationship. The sample's median age was 44.7 years (interquartile range: 30.7, 63.1 years). We observed that long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with osteoporotic fracture, the OR was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.22) per 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 in women. In the dose-response association, the OR of osteoporotic fracture was significantly increased for PM2.5 exposures more than 41 µg/m3. We did not find a significant association between PM2.5 (per 10-µg/m3 increase) and osteoporotic fracture among overall population (adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.97 to 1.08]) and men (adjusted OR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.86 to 1.02]). The results of the stratified analysis showed that women were more sensitive to the adverse impact of PM2.5 that were men, and evidence was obtained of sex-based effect modification (P for interaction = 0.002). Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to PM2.5 is associated with osteoporotic fracture, particularly among women.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas por Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112060, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between ambient air pollutant exposure during the follicular phase and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective analysis. SETTING: Henan Province, China. PATIENTS: Patients (n = 6659) living in Zhengzhou, Henan Province in central China who underwent their first IVF cycle at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between 2013 and 2019 were included for analysis. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The relationships between PM2.5, PM10, and AQI (Air Quality Index) with IVF outcomes during the follicular phase (period I, 85 days before oocyte retrieval; period II, gonadotrophin start to oocyte retrieval). RESULTS: Compared with the bottom tertile, exposure to the top PM2.5 and PM10 tertiles during period I was associated with decreased clinical pregnancy (PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.838%, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.723 and 0.971; PM10: adjusted OR, 0.818%, and 95% CI, 0.705 and 0.950), and decreased live birth rate (PM2.5: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.852%, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.736 and 0.987; PM10: adjusted OR, 0.850%, and 95% CI, 0.733 and 0.986), and exposure to the top PM2.5 tertile during period II adversely affected clinical pregnancy and the live birth rate (adjusted OR, 0.824%, and 95% CI, 0.711 and 0.955; adjusted OR, 0.817%, and 95% CI, 0.706 and 0.945). Compared with the bottom PM10 tertile, exposure to the middle PM10 tertile in period II showed decreased clinical pregnancies and live births (adjusted OR, 0.844; 95% CI, 0.729 and 0.978, adjusted OR, 0.846; 95% CI, 0.731 and 0.979). The PM10 level during period II of the follicular phase tend to adversely affect live birth rate, but the tendency did not reach significance (P = 0.051). CONCLUSION: Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 before oocyte retrieval has an adverse effect on IVF outcomes. CAPSULE: Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 before oocyte retrieval has an adverse effect on IVF outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Recuperação de Oócitos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(2): 89-100, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685567

RESUMO

Objective: The relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure (BP) has been inconclusive. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study in northwestern China to investigate the effect of outdoor temperature on BP and effect modification by season. Methods: A total of 32,710 individuals who participated in both the baseline survey and the first follow-up in 2011-2015 were included in the study. A linear mixed-effect model and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) were applied to estimate the association between outdoor temperature and BP after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: The mean differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between summer and winter were 3.5 mmHg and 2.75 mmHg, respectively. After adjusting for individual characteristics, meteorological factors and air pollutants, a significant increase in SBP and DBP was observed for lag 06 day and lag 04 day, a 0.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.27-0.30) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for SBP and a 0.16 mmHg (95% CI: 0.15-0.17) per 1 °C decrease in average temperature for DBP, respectively. The effects of the average temperature on both SBP and DBP were stronger in summer than in other seasons. The effects of the average temperature on BP were also greater if individuals were older, male, overweight or obese, a smoker or drinker, or had cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), hypertension, and diabetes. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant negative association between outdoor temperature and BP in a high-altitude environment of northwest China. Moreover, BP showed a significant seasonal variation. The association between BP and temperature differed by season and individuals' demographic characteristics (age, gender, BMI), unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption), and chronic disease status (CVDs, hypertension, and diabetes).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112145, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743401

RESUMO

The toxicity of heavy metals is one of the major public health issues leading to hazardous effects on humans. Many studies focus on the adverse effects on people who were working in or living near E-waste recycling. However, little is known to the sustaining effects of E-waste exposure on human health after the recycling factories were shut down. In the present study, we collected the blood of people living near E­waste recycling facilities after the recycling factories were closed for 2 years. Eight heavy metals were examined in all blood samples. The results revealed that the blood levels of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg) were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group, and no difference was observed for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), stannum (Sn), cadmium (Cd). Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed as the important indicators of fibrosis, which were statistically significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group. 8-isoprostane (8-I) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as the biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) were elevated in the exposed group. Furthermore, both Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression showed that Co was positively correlated with TGF-ß, α-SMA and 8-I in the exposed group. Accordingly, we speculate that high concentrations of Co dissolved in the blood may increase the risk of tissue fibrosis through stimulating myofibroblast activation and OS involve in the process, which may provide some potential new hints for the intervention for tissue fibrosis in the future.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobalto , Resíduo Eletrônico , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibrose/epidemiologia , Cádmio/análise , Cobre , Humanos , Malondialdeído , Mercúrio/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel , Estresse Oxidativo , Reciclagem , Zinco
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112133, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) was associated with increased glucocorticoids (GCs) levels, available evidence on associations of long-term exposure to PM and GCs levels is still scant. Previous studies has showed that meat intake is associated with sex hormones levels, but it is unknown whether meat intake is associated with GCs levels. Furthermore, the role of meat intake in the associations between PM and GCs levels remains unclear. AIMS: The aims of this study were to explore the associations of long-term exposure to PM and GCs levels among Chinese rural adults, and the role of meat intake in these associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 6223 subjects were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Serum GCs levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of PM (PM1 and PM2.5) for each subject were assessed with machine learning algorithms. The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to obtain each participant' information on meat intake. The effects of PM and meat intake on GCs levels were assessed using generalized linear models. In addition, modification analyses were performed to identify the role of meat intake played in the associations of PM with serum GCs levels. RESULTS: Per 1 µg/m3 increment in PM1 or PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 0.364 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.234, 0.494) or 0.227 ng/ml (95%CI: 0.110, 0.343) increase in serum cortisone, respectively. In addition, the moderation effects of total meat intake and red meat intake on the associations of long-term exposure to PM1 or PM2.5 with serum cortisone were observed (P < 0.05), indicating that individuals who had high levels of PM1 or PM2.5 and meat intake were more susceptible to have a higher state of serum cortisone. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that long-term exposure to PM1 or PM2.5 was associated with serum cortisone. Moreover, meat intake was found to be a significant moderator in the association of PM1 or PM2.5 with serum cortisone levels.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cortisona/sangue , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Coortes , Cortisona/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112164, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756289

RESUMO

Environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure can cause several pulmonary diseases. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) involved in the process of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the association between environmental Cd exposure and EMT was unclear in COPD patients. This study aimed to analyze the associations among circulatory Cd, EMT and COPD based on case-control study. Four hundred COPD patients and 400 control subjects were recruited. Circulatory Cd was detected using atomic adsorption spectrometer. MicroRNA-30 (miR-30) was measured by RT-PCR and the markers of pulmonary EMT were evaluated through western blotting. Circulatory Cd concentration was increased and serum miR-30 was decreased in COPD patients. Circulatory Cd was inversely associated with pulmonary function in COPD patients. Moreover, serum miR-30 was gradually decreased in parallel with FEV1 in COPD patients. Meanwhile, there was a negative association between serum miR-30 and circulatory Cd in COPD patients. Further analysis found that E-cadherin, one of epithelial biomarkers, was reduced in lung tissues of COPD patients with higher circulatory Cd. On the contrary, pulmonary N-cadherin, Vimentin and α-SMA, three of mesenchymal biomarkers, were increased in COPD patients with higher circulatory Cd. In vitro experiments revealed that Cd exposure repressed miR-30 levels and promoted EMT in BEAS-2B cells. Our results provide evidence that miR-30 reduction contributing to pulmonary EMT may involve in the process of Cd-induced COPD.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Antígenos CD , Caderinas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Vimentina
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112160, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The air pollution has become an important environmental health problem due to its adverse health effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature and pollutants on mortality of respiratory diseases (RD) in Hefei, China, a typical inland city. METHODS: Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of urban daily mean temperature (DMT) and pollutants were evaluated by distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). To further explore this effect, different genders and ages were also examined by stratified analysis. RESULTS: A total of 12876 deaths from RD were collected from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 in Hefei, China. There was a U-shaped correlation between DMT and RD mortality, and the RD mortality rised by 11.6% (95% CI: 2.2-22.0%) when the DMT was 35.8 °C (reference temperature is 20 °C). The results show that risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10 and SO2 was not significant. The maximum hysteresis and cumulative relative risk (RR) of RD mortality were 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003 ~ 1.021, lag 0 day) and 1.072 (95% CI: 1.014 ~1.133, lag 10 days) for each 10 µg/m3 augment in NO2; 1.005 (95% CI: 1.001-1.009, lag 0 day) and 1.027 (95% CI: 1.004-1.051, lag 10 days) for each 10 µg/m3 augment in O3; a negative association between CO exposure and the cumulative risk of death was observed (RR = 0.964, 95% CI: 0.935-0.993, lag 07 days). Subgroup analysis showed the effect of high temperatures, NO2, O3 and CO exposure was still statistically significant for the elderly and male. CONCLUSION: The present study found that short-term exposure to high temperature, NO2, O3 and CO were significantly associated with the risk of RD mortality and male as well as elderly are more susceptible to these factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Temperatura , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Risco
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112174, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalates, which are used as excipients of drugs, have been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. However, the relationships between medication use and phthalate exposure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between the medication intake and phthalate metabolites in urine and follicular fluid (FF). METHOD: Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine and FF samples from 274 women undergoing IVF using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Information on recent medication intake was obtained via interview by trained staff. We constructed generalized linear regression models to examine the associations of medication intake with phthalate metabolite concentrations and dose-response relationships between the number of medicines used and metabolite concentrations in two matrices. RESULTS: Four of 10 drugs were used by more than 10% of the participants, including vitamins (23.0%), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, 22.3%), antioxidants (12.4%) and amoxicillin (10.2%). Participants who had used TCM had 26.0% (95% CI: 0.0, 58.8%), 32.6% (95% CI: 4.2, 68.8%) and 32.3% (95% CI: 2.6, 70.6%) higher urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) concentrations, respectively, than those who had not. Antioxidant intake was associated with a 30.6% (95% CI: -48.5, -6.6%) decrease in the urinary MBP concentration. Compared with non-users, women who reported the use of medicines had 53.2% (95% CI: 2.7, 128.5%) higher concentrations of MMP and a 37.7% (95% CI: -60.7, -1.5%) lower level of MBP in FF, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the intake of some medications may increase phthalate exposure among women undergoing IVF.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Líquido Folicular/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Reprodução , Vitamina A , Vitaminas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(4): e202-e209, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 lockdown period from March 17 to May 11, 2020, French authorities in Paris and its suburbs relocated people experiencing recurrent homelessness to emergency shelters, hotels, and large venues. A serological survey was done at some of these locations to assess the COVID-19 exposure prevalence in this group. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional seroprevalence study at food distribution sites, emergency shelters, and workers' residences that were provided medical services by Médecins Sans Frontières in Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the Ile-de-France region. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody seropositivity was detected by Luciferase-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Pseudo Neutralization Test. Sociodemographic and exposure related information was collected via a verbal questionnaire to analyse risk factors and associations with various COVID-19 symptoms. FINDINGS: Between June 23 and July 2, 2020, 426 (52%) of 818 individuals recruited tested positive in 14 sites. Seroprevalence varied significantly by type of recruitment site (χ2 p<0·0001), being highest among those living in workers' residences (88·7%, 95% CI 81·8-93·2), followed by emergency shelters (50·5%, 46·3-54·7), and food distribution sites (27·8%, 20·8-35·7). More than two thirds of COVID-19 seropositive individuals (68%, 95% CI 64·2-72·2; 291 of 426) did not report any symptoms during the recall period. COVID-19 seropositivity was strongly associated with overcrowding (medium density: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·7, 95% CI 1·5-5·1, p=0·0020; high density: aOR 3·4, 1·7-6·9, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: These results show high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 with important variations between those at different study sites. Living in crowded conditions was the strongest factor associated with exposure level. This study underscores the importance of providing safe, uncrowded accommodation, alongside adequate testing and public health information. FUNDING: Médecins Sans Frontières, Epicentre, Institut Pasteur's URGENCE nouveau coronavirus fund, Total Foundation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Environ Res ; 196: 110904, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate matter (<2.5 mm in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) pollution, even at low concentrations is associated with increased mortality. Estimates of the magnitude of the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality are generally done on a coarse spatial scale, such as 0.5°, and may fail to capture small spatial differences in exposure and baseline rates, which can bias results and impede the ability to consider environmental justice. We estimated the burden of mortality attributable to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 among adults in the Continental United States on a 1 km scale, in order to provide information for decision makers setting health priorities. METHODS: We conducted a health impact assessment for 2015 using a model predicting U.S. PM2.5 concentrations at a spatial resolution of 1 km cells. We applied a concentration-response curve from a recently published meta-analysis of long-term PM2.5 mortality association which incorporates new findings at high and low PM2.5 concentrations. We computed the change in deaths in each grid cell, based on its grid cell population, Zip code level baseline mortality rates, and exposure under two scenarios; a decrease of PM2.5 exposure levels by 40% and a decrease of PM2.5 exposure levels to the county minimum PM2.5 concentrations. RESULTS: We estimated the deaths would fall by 104,786 (95% CI 57,016-135,726) and 112,040 (95% CI 63,261-159,116) attributable to 40% reduction and reduction to the county minimum PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. The greatest mortality impact due to 40% reduction in PM2.5 was observed in California with; 11,621 (95% CI; 7156-15,989) and Texas with; 9616 (95% CI; 5798-13,352) excess deaths attributable to annual mean PM2.5 concentrations of 9.54 and 9.12 µg m-3, respectively. Within city analyses showed substantial heterogeneity in risk. The estimated Attributable fraction (AF %) in locations with high PM2.5 levels was 8.6% (95% CI 5.4-11.7) compared to the overall AF% of 4.9% (95% CI; 2.9-6.8). In comparison, results using county average PM2.5 were smaller than the estimates from the 1 km PM2.5 datasets. Similarly, estimates using county-level mortality rates were smaller than estimates based on Zip-code level mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of major health benefits expected from reducing PM2.5 exposure, even in regions with relatively low PM2.5 concentrations. Spatial characteristics of exposure and baseline mortality (e.g., accuracy, scales, and variations) in disease burden studies can significantly impact the results.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Texas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Res ; 196: 110911, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640497

RESUMO

The prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been increasing. Research suggests that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as phthalates may play a role, but studies of in utero phthalate exposure and ADHD-related symptoms beyond early childhood are limited. We investigated associations between measures of in utero phthalate exposure and ADHD symptoms, such as inattention and impulsivity, in childhood (age 6-11 years, n = 221) and in adolescence (age 9-18 years, n = 200), as well as cross-sectional relationships between phthalate exposure and ADHD symptoms in adolescence (n = 491) among participants in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort. Women provided urine samples up to three times during pregnancy and adolescents provided a urine sample at 9-18 years of age for phthalate metabolite measurement. We administered the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) when children were age 6-11 years and again at 9-18 years of age. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between the geometric mean of phthalate metabolite levels across pregnancy and CPT scores in childhood or adolescence separately, adjusting for age, years schooling (at 9-18 only), maternal education, and specific gravity. Although average in utero phthalate concentrations were not associated with CPT scores in childhood, interquartile range (IQR) increases of in utero MBzP, MCPP, and MBP were associated with 4.2%, 4.7%, and 4.5% (p < 0.05) higher Omissions scores in adolescence, respectively, indicating higher inattention. In utero MiBP levels were also associated with higher Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI) and Variability scores (5.4% and 5.5% per IQR, p < 0.05) in adolescence. In addition, urinary DEHP metabolite levels during adolescence were cross-sectionally associated with poorer scores on several CPT indices indicating greater inattention. These findings suggest that in utero phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on attention, but these effects may not appear until adolescence, a period of extensive neurodevelopment. Future research investigating the long-term effects of in utero phthalate exposure on attention and ADHD in adolescence, as well as identification of potential mechanisms involved, is needed.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , México , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez
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