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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1497-1502, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056953

RESUMO

On May 13, 2020, the Wisconsin Supreme Court declared the state's Safer at Home Emergency Order (https://evers.wi.gov/Documents/COVID19/EMO28-SaferAtHome.pdf) "unlawful, invalid, and unenforceable,"* thereby increasing opportunities for social and business interactions. By mid-June, Winnebago County,† Wisconsin experienced an increase in the number of infections with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the largest increase among persons aged 18-23 years (young adults) (1). This age group§ accounts for 12.5% of the population in the county. To identify factors that influence exposure to COVID-19 among young adults in Winnebago County, characteristics of COVID-19 cases and drivers of behaviors in this age group were examined. During March 1-July 18, 2020, 240 young adults received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, accounting for 32% of all Winnebago County cases. In 30 key informant interviews, most interviewees reported exposure to misinformation, conflicting messages, or opposing views about the need for and effectiveness of masks. Thirteen young adults described social or peer pressure to not wear a mask and perceived severity of disease outcome for themselves as low but high for loved ones at risk. Having low perceived severity of disease outcome might partly explain why, when not in physical contact with loved ones at risk, young adults might attend social gatherings or not wear a mask (2). Exposure to misinformation and unclear messages has been identified as a driver of behavior during an outbreak (3,4), underscoring the importance of providing clear and consistent messages about the need for and effectiveness of masks. In addition, framing communication messages that amplify young adults' responsibility to protect others and target perceived social or peer pressure to not adhere to public health guidance might persuade young adults to adhere to public health guidelines that prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Wisconsin/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127342, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947679

RESUMO

Environmental contaminations by potentially toxic metals (PTMs) are associated with energy exploitation and present a significant problem in urban areas due to their impacts on human health. The PTMs status in Urumqi total environment inevitably impacted by extensive development of coal and oil industries has been lack of understanding comprehensively. A series of PTMs (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr) in the soil-dust-plant (foliage of Ulmus pumila L.) system of Urumqi (NW China) were screened by XRF and ICPMS. Multivariate statistics, risk models, GIS-based geostatistics, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling and blood lead levels of 0-6 aged children evaluated by IEUBK model are used to determine the priority pollutants, sources and health effects of the investigated elements. The spatial distribution of PTMs in soil-dust-plant system significantly coincides with coal combustion, traffic emission, and industrial activity. Although all PTM toxicants in soil, dust and tree foliage show some effects, the priority contaminants are observed for Cu, Pb and Zn as single element. The total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from PTMs are beyond the tolerance range of 0-6 year's old children, and the dust (TCR = 1.07E-04) PTMs pose approximatively equivalent carcinogenic risk to soil PTMs (TCT = 1.09E-04). The predicted BLLs (75-83 µ g·L-1) of 1-2 years children are most strongly influenced by Pb in soil and dust, and therefore more attention should be focused on sources of Pb to support the primary health care of the toddlers in Urumqi.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue , Carcinógenos , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/sangue , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(36): 1258-1264, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915165

RESUMO

Community and close contact exposures continue to drive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CDC and other public health authorities recommend community mitigation strategies to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2). Characterization of community exposures can be difficult to assess when widespread transmission is occurring, especially from asymptomatic persons within inherently interconnected communities. Potential exposures, such as close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, have primarily been assessed among COVID-19 cases, without a non-COVID-19 comparison group (3,4). To assess community and close contact exposures associated with COVID-19, exposures reported by case-patients (154) were compared with exposures reported by control-participants (160). Case-patients were symptomatic adults (persons aged ≥18 years) with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Control-participants were symptomatic outpatient adults from the same health care facilities who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Close contact with a person with known COVID-19 was more commonly reported among case-patients (42%) than among control-participants (14%). Case-patients were more likely to have reported dining at a restaurant (any area designated by the restaurant, including indoor, patio, and outdoor seating) in the 2 weeks preceding illness onset than were control-participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.8). Restricting the analysis to participants without known close contact with a person with confirmed COVID-19, case-patients were more likely to report dining at a restaurant (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.9-4.3) or going to a bar/coffee shop (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5-10.1) than were control-participants. Exposures and activities where mask use and social distancing are difficult to maintain, including going to places that offer on-site eating or drinking, might be important risk factors for acquiring COVID-19. As communities reopen, efforts to reduce possible exposures at locations that offer on-site eating and drinking options should be considered to protect customers, employees, and communities.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800240

RESUMO

The group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are particularly dangerous for the environment and by consequence for human health because of the risk to be transmitted in the food chain. Among them, the urgent problem of obsolete and forbidden organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) needs a rigorous management in many countries, including Kazakhstan. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of pesticides content in food products on the genetic status and health of the population living on the contaminated areas near destroyed warehouses for OCPs (4 villages of Talgar district and 1 control site, Almaty region). The food products sampled in Taukaraturyk (control site), and in 4 villages where non-utilized obsolete pesticides were discovered: Beskainar, Kyzylkairat, Amangeldy, and Belbulak. The contents of 24 pesticides in food products from plant (apples, pears, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet peppers) and animal (beef meat, cow milk, honey) origin, that grown in places of localization of non-utilized OCPs, were determined, sometimes in high and unacceptably high concentrations (before 2500 times over MRL). In pears, the pesticides content (especially DDT, γ-HCH, ß-HCH, endosulfan, and aldrin pesticide group), was higher than in other fruits. Among vegetables, the highest levels of all groups of pesticide were found in cucumbers. Beef meat samples demonstrated increased contents of ß-HCH, γ-HCH, endrin and dieldrin. In cow milk samples only the high concentration of dieldrin was found. The content of pesticides in meat was 4-5 times higher than in milk. The medical examinations, carried out among the cohorts living around the polluted by pesticides territories and control cohort from ecologically favorable village, showed that there were more individuals with high and middle levels of somatic health in the control group than in groups exposed to OCPs. The long-term effect of the pesticide contamination of the environment on genetic status of the population was assessed by chromosomal aberration (CA) frequencies. The highest level of chromosomal aberrations was identified for the examined residents of Kyzylkairat (41%) and Belbulak (38%), a high level in Amangeldy (12%), and middle level in Beskainar (6.5%). The association between the CA frequency, health status and the pesticides contents in food were assessed by a Spearman rank correlation. The low indicators of somatic health status were strictly associated with high levels of CA, and good health status indicates that the CA rates did not exceed the spontaneous level of mutagenesis. The strongest correlation was shown between high levels of chromosomal aberrations and the content of different pesticides in pears (Cr = 0.979-0.467), tomatoes (Cr = 0.877-0.476), cucumbers (Cr = 0.975-0.553) and meat (Cr = 0.839-0.368). The obtained results highlight the need to improve health protection by increasing the public awareness to the security of the storage of obsolete OCPs in order to strengthen food safety by efficient control services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Aldrina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieldrin/análise , Endossulfano/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Hexaclorocicloexano , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13382, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780415

RESUMO

In barely nine months, the pandemic known as COVID-19 has spread over 200 countries, affecting more than 22 million people and causing over than 786 000 deaths. Elderly people and patients with previous comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes are at an increased risk to suffer a poor prognosis after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although the same could be expected from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), current epidemiological data are conflicting. This could lead to a reduction of precautionary measures in these patients, in the context of a particularly complex global health crisis. Most COPD patients have a long history of smoking or exposure to other harmful particles or gases, capable of impairing pulmonary defences even years after the absence of exposure. Moreover, COPD is characterized by an ongoing immune dysfunction, which affects both pulmonary and systemic cellular and molecular inflammatory mediators. Consequently, increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections have been reported in COPD, often worsened by bacterial co-infections and leading to serious clinical outcomes. The present paper is an up-to-date review that discusses the available research regarding the implications of coronavirus infection in COPD. Although validation in large studies is still needed, COPD likely increases SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and increases COVID-19 severity. Hence, specific mechanisms to monitor and assess COPD patients should be addressed in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Biomassa , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/imunologia
6.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 533-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833679

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the exposure levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in an indoor swimming pool and calculate the risks of exposure to THMs, based on the presence of each THM species, of children swimmers aged 6-17, in Beijing, China. We obtained exposure factors for the children through questionnaires and measured THM concentrations through laboratory tests, and we combined the results with an exposure model to calculate the risks, with consideration of different exposure routes (oral ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption). In terms of exposure factors for the swimmers aged 6-17, the average body weight, exposure duration, exposure frequency, swimming time, shower time, changing time, warm-up exercise and rest time, skin surface area and ingestion rate of pool water were 40.46 kg, 2.70 years, 96 events/year, 64.03 min/event, 17.04 min/event, 15.31 min/event, 12.71 min/event, 1.37 m2 and 48.93 ml/event, respectively. The THM concentrations in swimming pool water, shower water, swimming pool air and locker room air were 67.17 µg/L, 12.64 µg/L, 358.66 µg/m3 and 40.98 µg/m3, respectively. The average cancer risk of THMs was 5.44 × 10-6, which is an unacceptable risk according to the United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Guidelines. The average hazard index was 0.007, i.e., less than 1, indicating that the noncancer risk was acceptable. Chloroform (TCM) was the main substance in four species of THMs and inhalation exposure was the main exposure pathway. The risk of cancer and noncancer from inhalation exposure to THMs accounts for 97-99% of the total risk. As a result, the disease control authorities and administrative department should pay attention to the health and safety of swimming facilities and, at the same time, establish standards for THMs in the air through further research.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Piscinas , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Clorofórmio , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Natação
7.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 595-601, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833685

RESUMO

Human beings could be exposed to impacts associated with heavy metals such as lead (Pb) through drinking water. The objective of this study was to evaluate quality of water consumed by kindergarten school children in Addis Ababa city, who are highly susceptible to issues related to heavy metals in water. Through conducting chemical analysis, using microwave plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (MP-AES), the level of lead (Pb) was measured at 38 selected schools in the city. Drinking water samples were taken from three water supply sub-systems: Akaki, Legedadi, and Gefersa. Results revealed the average Pb concentration in the city was 62.37 µg/L which is significantly higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold value of 10 µg/L. The children's blood lead levels and exposure to Pb were also calculated using the integrated exposure uptake bio-kinetic (IEUBK) model as per USEPA guidelines. Estimated geometric mean blood lead levels (BLLs) for each school ranged from 4.4 to 13.2 µg/dL. On average, the model predicted that 20% of children in the city will have blood lead levels above the WHO recommended 10 µg/dL. The study can be considered as an unprecedented piece of work as it addresses critical issues and methods to mitigate problems caused by high concentration of Pb in water supply distribution infrastructure.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111035, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768746

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, with 11,669,259 positive cases and 539,906 deaths globally as of July 8, 2020. The objective of the present study was to determine whether meteorological parameters and air quality affect the transmission of COVID-19, analogous to SARS. We captured data from 29 provinces, including numbers of COVID-19 cases, meteorological parameters, air quality and population flow data, between Jan 21, 2020 and Apr 3, 2020. To evaluate the transmissibility of COVID-19, the basic reproductive ratio (R0) was calculated with the maximum likelihood "removal" method, which is based on chain-binomial model, and the association between COVID-19 and air pollutants or meteorological parameters was estimated by correlation analyses. The mean estimated value of R0 was 1.79 ± 0.31 in 29 provinces, ranging from 1.08 to 2.45. The correlation between R0 and the mean relative humidity was positive, with coefficient of 0.370. In provinces with high flow, indicators such as carbon monoxide (CO) and 24-h average concentration of carbon monoxide (CO_24 h) were positively correlated with R0, while nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 24-h average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2_24 h) and daily maximum temperature were inversely correlated to R0, with coefficients of 0.644, 0.661, -0.636, -0.657, -0.645, respectively. In provinces with medium flow, only the weather factors were correlated with R0, including mean/maximum/minimum air pressure and mean wind speed, with coefficients of -0.697, -0.697, -0.697 and -0.841, respectively. There was no correlation with R0 and meteorological parameters or air pollutants in provinces with low flow. Our findings suggest that higher ambient CO concentration is a risk factor for increased transmissibility of the novel coronavirus, while higher temperature and air pressure, and efficient ventilation reduce its transmissibility. The effect of meteorological parameters and air pollutants varies in different regions, and requires that these issues be considered in future modeling disease transmissibility.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(26): 847-849, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614809

RESUMO

On March 26, 2020, Colorado instituted stay-at-home orders to reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To inform public health messaging and measures that could be used after reopening, persons with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 9-26 from nine Colorado counties comprising approximately 80% of the state's population† (Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, El Paso, Jefferson, Larimer, and Weld) were asked about possible exposures to SARS-CoV-2 before implementation of stay-at-home orders. Among 1,738 persons meeting the inclusion criteria§ in the Colorado Electronic Disease Surveillance System, 600 were randomly selected and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire by telephone. Data collection during April 10-30 included information about demographic characteristics, occupations, and selected activities in the 2 weeks preceding symptom onset. During the period examined, SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing was widely available in Colorado; community transmission was documented before implementation of the stay-at-home order. At least three attempts were made to contact all selected patients or their proxy (for deceased patients, minors, and persons unable to be interviewed [e.g., those with dementia]) on at least 2 separate days, at different times of day. Data were entered into a Research Electronic Data Capture (version 9.5.13; Vanderbilt University) database, and descriptive analyses used R statistical software (version 3.6.3; The R Foundation).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Colorado/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social
10.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 11(3): 128-139, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collection of reliable and valid occupational history data is of utmost importance to assess work-related exposures and their health effects. Few standardized questionnaires are available for the collection of occupational history data in low-and-middle income countries. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and test a validated questionnaire developed in the United States by the National Institute of Safety and Health, in order to assess occupational chemical exposures among health care workers in Bhutan. METHODS: The questionnaire was first adapted to suit the Bhutanese context with the advice of an expert review committee. 30 health care workers then completed the questionnaire at baseline and 10-14 days later. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating Cohen's κ and percentage agreement. RESULTS: The questionnaire had high test-retest reliability. Cohen's κ ranged from 0.61 to 1.00, and percentage agreement ranged from 86.7% to 100%. Further adaptations included omitting questions on chemicals not available in Bhutan. CONCLUSION: The adapted questionnaire is appropriate for assessing occupational chemical exposures among health care workers in Bhutan.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Pessoal de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Butão/epidemiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 930-932, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673300

RESUMO

On May 12, 2020 (day 0), a hair stylist at salon A in Springfield, Missouri (stylist A), developed respiratory symptoms and continued working with clients until day 8, when the stylist received a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A second hair stylist (stylist B), who had been exposed to stylist A, developed respiratory symptoms on May 15, 2020 (day 3), and worked with clients at salon A until day 8 before seeking testing for SARS-CoV-2, which returned a positive result on day 10. A total of 139 clients were directly serviced by stylists A and B from the time they developed symptoms until they took leave from work. Stylists A and B and the 139 clients followed the City of Springfield ordinance* and salon A policy recommending the use of face coverings (i.e., surgical masks, N95 respirators,† or cloth face coverings) for both stylists and clients during their interactions. Other stylists at salon A who worked closely with stylists A and B were identified, quarantined, and monitored daily for 14 days after their last exposure to stylists A or B. None of these stylists reported COVID-19 symptoms. After stylist B received a positive test result on day 10, salon A closed for 3 days to disinfect frequently touched and contaminated areas. After public health contact tracings and 2 weeks of follow-up, no COVID-19 symptoms were identified among the 139 exposed clients or their secondary contacts. The citywide ordinance and company policy might have played a role in preventing spread of SARS-CoV-2 during these exposures. These findings support the role of source control in preventing transmission and can inform the development of public health policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. As stay-at-home orders are lifted, professional and social interactions in the community will present more opportunities for spread of SARS-CoV-2. Broader implementation of masking policies could mitigate the spread of infection in the general population.


Assuntos
Barbearia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126984, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679627

RESUMO

Experimental and epidemiological studies have suggested an association between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental toxic compounds, and the risk of hypertension. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of the association between PCB exposure and the risk of hypertension. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science and by reviewing reference lists. Study-specific risk estimates comparing the highest versus lowest quantile of PCB distribution were combined using random-effects models. We identified 10 cross-sectional studies, 6 cohort studies, and 1 nested case-control study. A pooled excess risk of hypertension was found for total PCBs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.28-2.26), dioxin-like (DL)-PCBs (OR 1.46, 1.19-1.79), but not for non-dioxin like (NDL)-PCBs (OR 1.19, 0.81-1.73) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of the distribution. According to a dose-response meta-analysis, a linear dose-effect relationship was found for total PCBs [OR 2.23 (95% CI: 1.59-3.14) for 1000 ng PCB/g lipid increase]. This positive association remained when stratifying the analyses by study design (cohort vs cross-sectional studies) and population (general population vs high exposed workers/residents). Among single PCB congeners, DL-PCB 105 and 118, and non-DL-PCB138 and 153 were related to hypertension. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that exposure to PCBs, particularly to DL-PCBs, may be a risk factor for hypertension, independently of other risk factors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Dioxinas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Fatores de Risco
13.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127452, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629313

RESUMO

Metal additive manufacturing (AM), also known as metal three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a new technology offering design freedom to create complex structures that has found increasing applications in industrial processes. However, due to the fine metal powders and high temperatures involved, the printing process is likely to generate particulate matter (PM) that has a detrimental impact on the environment and human health. Therefore, comprehensive assessement of the exposure and health hazards of PM pollution related to this technique is urgently required. This review provides general knowledge of metal AM and its possible particle release. The health issues of metal PM are described considering the exposure routes, adverse human health outcomes and influencing factors. Methods of evaluating PM exposure and risk assessment techniques are also summarized. Lastly, future research needs are suggested. The information and knowledge presented in this review will contribute to the understanding, assessment, and control of possible risks in metal AM and benefit the wider metal 3D printing community, which includes machine operators, consumers, R&D scientists, and policymakers.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Comércio , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Metais , Impressão Tridimensional , Medição de Risco
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 107-117, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615245

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess phthalate exposure of non-occupationally exposed working aged population in Finland. Studied phthalates included diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). Sample collection campaign took place in 2015. Metabolites of DEP, DnBP and DiBP were detected in all the first morning void urine samples of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers (n = 60; 42 women and 18 men; aged 25-63). Metabolite of BBP and secondary metabolites of DEHP and DiNP were detected in >90% of the samples. MCHP (1.7%), MEHP (18.3%), cx-MiNP (8.3%) and MnOP (1.7%) were less frequently detected. MiNP and OH-MPHP were not detected in any of the urine samples. The observed levels were mostly comparable to the levels published in the adult population in Europe and the US. One notable difference was the observed higher exposure of the Finnish study population to DnBP in comparison to the German, Austrian, Norwegian and US populations. The levels of individual phthalates did not often correlate very well with each other. In most cases, higher exposure to phthalates was seen in females in comparison to males, which is in accordance with other studies. The urinary levels were compared to the biomonitoring equivalents (BEs), which were calculated on the basis of published DNELs (derived no-effect levels). The P95 levels of individual phthalates remained below the respective BEs, the highest risk characterization ratio (RCR) being 0.88 for DnBP and the second highest 0.34 for DiBP. For other phthalates, the RCRs were below 0.2. Using the P95 levels, combined exposure to DnBP, DiBP, DEHP and BBP resulted in risk characterization ratio exceeding 1. This suggests a need to limit the exposure to these phthalates.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biotransformação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646069

RESUMO

Women of childbearing age who are susceptible to mercury exposure were studied to understand the relation between mercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption and mercury exposure indices from blood, hair, and urine samples. A total of 711 women of childbearing age from coastal areas with a high concentration of mercury exposure in Korea were studied. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, dietary intake of fish and shellfish using the simple Food Frequency Questionnaire. Mercury concentration was estimated from the collected samples of blood, hair, and urine. The geometric mean of blood methyl mercury concentration of mercury exposure through seafood was 3.06 µg/L for the low tertile, 3.12 µg/L for the middle tertile, and 3.60 µg/L for the high tertile, indicating a clear tendency of blood methyl mercury to increase as the mercury exposure by fish and shellfish intake ascended. For total blood mercury and hair mercury, the middle and high tertiles had higher values than the low. Mercury exposure through fish and shellfish intake is a main factor for an increase of blood methyl mercury concentration in women of childbearing age. More attention needs to be paid to mercury exposure through seafood intake, considering the serious effect mercury concentration has on women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , República da Coreia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
16.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668362

RESUMO

There is increasingly concern that PM2.5 constituents play a significant role in PM2.5-related cardiovascular outcomes. However, little is known about the associations between specific constituents of PM2.5 and risk for cardiovascular health. To evaluate the exposure to specific chemicals of PM2.5 from various sources and their cardiac effects, a longitudinal investigation was conducted with four repeated measurements of elderly participants' HRV and PM2.5 species in urban Beijing. Multiple chemicals in PM2.5 (metals, ions and PAHs) were characterized for PM2.5 source apportionment and personalized exposure assessment. Five sources were finally identified with specific chemicals as the indicators: oil combustion (1.1%, V & PAHs), secondary particle (11.3%, SO42- & NO3-), vehicle emission (1.2%, Pd), construction dust (28.7%, Mg & Ca), and coal combustion (57.7%, Se & As). As observed, each IQR increase in exposure to oil combustion (V), vehicle emission (Pd), and coal combustion (Se) significantly decreased rMSSD by 13.1% (95% CI: -25.3%, -1.0%), 27.4% (95% CI: -42.9%, -7.6%) and 24.7% (95% CI: -39.2%, -6.9%), respectively, while those of PM2.5 mass with decreases of rMSSD by 11.1% (95% CI: -19.6%, -1.9%) at lag 0. Elevated exposures to specific sources/constituents of PM2.5 disrupt cardiac autonomic function in elderly and have more adverse effects than PM2.5 mass. In the stratified analysis, medication and gender modify the associations of specific chemicals from variable sources with HRV. The findings of this study provide evidence on the roles of influential constituents of ambient air PM2.5 and their sources in terms of their adverse cardiovascular health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Emissões de Veículos/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127633, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683015

RESUMO

To investigate the status of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in indoor dust in China, published scientific studies were systematically collected and analyzed. The analysis revealed large variations among microenvironments, including offices (median: 14.59 µg/g) and e-waste workshops (median: 13.36 µg/g), with high levels of OPFRs contamination. Chlorinated organophosphate ester flame retardants (Cl-OPFRs) were the dominant OPFRs (52-75%) in most indoor dust samples; however, in e-waste workshops, aryl- and alkyl-OPFRs were the most abundant. As an alternative flame retardant to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), OPFRs concentrations have increased in recent years in indoor environments in China. Urban sources are of greatest concern: Shanghai (mean: 13.54 µg/g), Guangzhou (mean: 10.76 µg/g), and Beijing (mean: 9.37 µg/g) have high ΣOPFRs contamination levels in indoor dust. Compared to other countries, the OPFRs concentrations in indoor dust in all studied microenvironments from China (median: 8.81 µg/g) were low. The estimated daily intakes of ΣOPFRs by dust ingestion for adults and children were 2.12 and 11.06 ng/kg/body weight/day (average), respectively. Human exposure to OPFRs through the accidental intake of indoor dust does not pose a direct health risk to the Chinese population. However, indoor dust ingestion is an important route for human exposure to OPFRs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Poeira/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Halogenação , Humanos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110880, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM10 and risk of diabetes incidence, based on the "Jinchang Cohort" platform in the Northwest of China. METHODS: We selected 19884 subjects who had not yet developed diabetes in the baseline and had completed survey information from "Jinchang Cohort". The residential address was used to match the nearest pollution monitoring station for each subject, and the average concentration of PM10 from baseline to follow-up were used as an estimate of individual exposure level. Cox regression model and restricted cubic splines functions were used to evaluate the effects of PM10 on the incidence of diabetes and the dose-response relationship after adjusting for confounding covariates. RESULTS: We observed 791 new-onset diabetics with a total follow-up of 45254.16 person-years (incidence rate of 17.48 per 1000 person-years). The risk of diabetes incidence increased by 17% (HR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.08-1.26) per 10µg/m3 increase in environmental PM10, and the risk rises gradually with the rise of PM10 concentration. Comparing with the first quartile of PM10, the fully adjusted HRs (95%CI) for incident diabetes from the second to the fourth quartile of PM10 were 1.15 (95%CI: 0.93-1.43), 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.84) and 1.44 (95%CI: 1.15-1.79), respectively (P for trend<0.001). Stratified analyses suggested that the risk of diabetes incidence associated with ambient PM10 was higher in female, young to middle-aged people, overweight and obese subjects, and subjects with FPG level at baseline lower than 5.6 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient PM10 significantly associated with a higher risk of diabetes development. Some urgent strategies may be advocated to reduce air pollution that can aid in preventing the prevalence of diabetes in the population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 13975-13982, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513708

RESUMO

Arsenic is a toxic pollutant commonly found in the environment. Most of the previous studies on arsenic pollution have primarily focused on arsenic contamination in groundwater. In this study, we examine the impact on human health from atmospheric arsenic on the global scale. We first develop an improved global atmospheric arsenic emission inventory and connect it to a global model (Goddard Earth Observing System [GEOS]-Chem). Model evaluation using observational data from a variety of sources shows the model successfully reproduces the spatial distribution of atmospheric arsenic around the world. We found that for 2005, the highest airborne arsenic concentrations were found over Chile and eastern China, with mean values of 8.34 and 5.63 ng/m3, respectively. By 2015, the average atmospheric arsenic concentration in India (4.57 ng/m3) surpassed that in eastern China (4.38 ng/m3) due to the fast increase in coal burning in India. Our calculation shows that China has the largest population affected by cancer risk due to atmospheric arsenic inhalation in 2005, which is again surpassed by India in 2015. Based on potential exceedance of health-based limits, we find that the combined effect by including both atmospheric and groundwater arsenic may significantly enhance the risks, due to carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects. Therefore, this study clearly implies the necessity in accounting for both atmospheric and groundwater arsenic in future management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Atmosfera/química , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 415, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500382

RESUMO

Outdoor air pollution is a global health concern, but detailed exposure information is still limited for many parts of the world. In this study, high-resolution exposure surfaces were generated for annual and seasonal fine particulate matter (PM2.5), coarse particulate matter (PM10), and carbon monoxide (CO) for the Greater Beirut Area (GBA), Lebanon, an urban zone with a complex topography and multiple source contributions. Land use regression models (LUR) were calibrated and validated with monthly data collected from 58 locations between March 2017 and March 2018. The annual mean (±1 SD) concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and CO across the monitoring locations were 68.1 (±15.7) µg/m3, 83.5 (±19.5) µg/m3, and 2.48 (±1.12) ppm, respectively. The coefficients of determination for LUR models ranged from 56 to 67% for PM2.5, 44 to 63% for the PM10 models, and 50 to 60% for the CO. LUR model structures varied significantly by season for both PM2.5 and PM10 but not for CO. Traffic emissions were consistently the main source of CO emissions throughout the year. The relative importance of industrial emissions and power generation sources towards predicted PM levels increased during the hot season while the contribution of the international airport diminished. Moreover, the complex topography of the study area along with the seasonal changes in the predominant wind directions affected the spatial predicted concentrations of all three pollutants. Overall, the predicted exposure surfaces were able to conserve the inter-pollution correlations determined from the field monitoring campaign, with the exception of the cold season. Our pollution surfaces suggest that the entire population of Beirut is regularly exposed to concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality standards for both PM2.5 and PM10.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado , Estações do Ano , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Líbano , Material Particulado/análise , População Urbana
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