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2.
Am J Nurs ; 121(2): 63-67, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497131

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The release of radioactive iodine after a nuclear disaster, such as those that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan 10 years ago and Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, increases thyroid cancer risk among people who are exposed. Certain populations are especially vulnerable, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, children, and neonates. Potassium iodide (KI) can effectively block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland if taken immediately after a radiation release. This article examines lessons learned from Fukushima to enhance disaster readiness and nursing actions. Nurses should be directly involved in vulnerability assessments, emergency planning, and in ensuring the availability, accessibility, and distribution of KI within U.S. nuclear power plant emergency planning zones before a crisis occurs.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Iodeto de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Japão , Iodeto de Potássio/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477789

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals which can disrupt any action of the endocrine system, and are an important class of substances which play a role in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) [...].


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 1824, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138499

RESUMO

Peru declared a state of emergency on March 16 in order to prevent SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) transmissions; thus, the International Airport was closed and the soundscape of urban zones under the flight tracks have been changed in view of the fact that airplane traffic was suspended. The authors have been conducting noise monitoring since February and because of that sufficient noise data for knowing the soundscape before and during the lockdown were obtained. This article presents a case of aircraft annoyance noise in one of Lima's city districts, which is near the aircraft climbing curve, toward the ocean on departure from Lima.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humor Irritável , Ruído dos Transportes/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Isolamento Social , Saúde da População Urbana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peru , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Espectrografia do Som , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006047, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead exposure is a serious health hazard, especially for children. It is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children. There are many potential sources of lead in the environment, therefore trials have tested many household interventions to prevent or reduce lead exposure. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions intended to prevent or reduce further lead exposure in children on improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels. SEARCH METHODS: In March 2020, we updated our searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched Google Scholar, checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts to identify unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of household educational or environmental interventions, or combinations of interventions to prevent lead exposure in children (from birth to 18 years of age), where investigators reported at least one standardised outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed all eligible studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted trialists to obtain missing information. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies (three new to this update), involving 3282 children: 16 RCTs (involving 3204 children) and one quasi-RCT (involving 78 children). Children in all studies were under six years of age. Fifteen studies took place in urban areas of North America, one in Australia and one in China. Most studies were in areas with low socioeconomic status. Girls and boys were equally represented in those studies reporting this information. The duration of the intervention ranged from three months to 24 months in 15 studies, while two studies performed interventions on a single occasion. Follow-up periods ranged from three months to eight years. Three RCTs were at low risk of bias in all assessed domains. The other 14 studies were at unclear or high risk of bias; for example, we considered two RCTs and one quasi-RCT at high risk of selection bias and six RCTs at high risk of attrition bias. National or international research grants or governments funded 15 studies, while the other two did not report their funding sources. Education interventions versus no intervention None of the included studies in this comparison assessed effects on cognitive or neurobehavioural outcomes, or adverse events. All studies reported data on blood lead level outcomes. Educational interventions showed there was probably no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels (continuous: mean difference (MD) -0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to 0.07; I² = 0%; 5 studies, 815 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data), or in reducing floor dust levels (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.24; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 318 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Environmental interventions versus no intervention Dust control: one study in this comparison reported data on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes, and on adverse events in children. The study showed numerically there may be better neurobehavioural outcomes in children of the intervention group. However, differences were small and the CI included both a beneficial and non-beneficial effect of the environmental intervention (e.g. mental development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II): MD 0.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 2.4; 1 study, 302 participants; low-certainty evidence). The same study did not observe any adverse events related to the intervention during the eight-year follow-up, but observed two children with adverse events in the control group (1 study, 355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Meta-analysis also found no evidence of effectiveness on blood lead levels (continuous: MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.06; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 565 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; log-transformed data). We could not pool the data regarding floor dust levels, but studies reported that there may be no evidence of a difference between the groups (very low-certainty evidence). Soil abatement: the two studies assessing this environmental intervention only reported on the outcome of 'blood lead level'. One study showed a small effect on blood lead level reduction, while the other study showed no effect. Therefore, we deem the current evidence insufficient to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of soil abatement (very low-certainty evidence). Combination of educational and environmental interventions versus standard education Studies in this comparison only reported on blood lead levels and dust lead levels. We could not pool the studies in a meta-analysis due to substantial differences between the studies. Since the studies reported inconsistent results, the evidence is currently insufficient to clarify whether a combination of interventions reduces blood lead levels and floor dust levels (very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on available evidence, household educational interventions and environmental interventions (namely dust control measures) show no evidence of a difference in reducing blood lead levels in children as a population health measure. The evidence of the effects of environmental interventions on cognitive and neurobehavioural outcomes and adverse events is uncertain too. Further trials are required to establish the most effective intervention for reducing or even preventing further lead exposure. Key elements of these trials should include strategies to reduce multiple sources of lead exposure simultaneously using empirical dust clearance levels. It is also necessary for trials to be carried out in low- and middle-income countries and in differing socioeconomic groups in high-income countries.


Assuntos
Poeira/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Pintura/toxicidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Poluentes do Solo
7.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(700): 528-529, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122266
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25370-25377, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968019

RESUMO

China started to implement comprehensive measures to mitigate traffic pollution at the end of 1990s, but the comprehensive effects, especially on ambient air quality and public health, have not yet been systematically evaluated. In this study, we analyze the effects of vehicle emission control measures on ambient air pollution and associated deaths attributable to long-term exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 based on an integrated research framework that combines scenario analysis, air quality modeling, and population health risk assessment. We find that the total impact of these control measures was substantial. Vehicular emissions during 1998-2015 would have been 2-3 times as large as they actually were, had those measures not been implemented. The national population-weighted annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 in 2015 would have been higher by 11.7 µg/m3 and 8.3 parts per billion, respectively, and the number of deaths attributable to 2015 air pollution would have been higher by 510 thousand (95% confidence interval: 360 thousand to 730 thousand) without these controls. Our analysis shows a concentration of mortality impacts in densely populated urban areas, motivating local policymakers to design stringent vehicle emission control policies. The results imply that vehicle emission control will require policy designs that are more multifaceted than traditional controls, primarily represented by the strict emission standards, with careful consideration of the challenges in coordinated mitigation of both PM2.5 and O3 in different regions, to sustain improvement in air quality and public health given continuing swift growth in China's vehicle population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Ozônio , Material Particulado , Transportes , Emissões de Veículos/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(10): e474-e482, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to poor air quality leads to increased premature mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Among the far-reaching implications of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial improvement in air quality was observed worldwide after the lockdowns imposed by many countries. We aimed to assess the implications of different lockdown measures on air pollution levels in Europe and China, as well as the short-term and long-term health impact. METHODS: For this modelling study, observations of fine particulate matter (PM2·5) concentrations from more than 2500 stations in Europe and China during 2016-20 were integrated with chemical transport model simulations to reconstruct PM2·5 fields at high spatiotemporal resolution. The health benefits, expressed as short-term and long-term avoided mortality from PM2·5 exposure associated with the interventions imposed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, were quantified on the basis of the latest epidemiological studies. To explore the long-term variability in air quality and associated premature mortality, we built different scenarios of economic recovery (immediate or gradual resumption of activities, a second outbreak in autumn, and permanent lockdown for the whole of 2020). FINDINGS: The lockdown interventions led to a reduction in population-weighted PM2·5 of 14·5 µg m-3 across China (-29·7%) and 2·2 µg m-3 across Europe (-17·1%), with unprecedented reductions of 40 µg m-3 in bimonthly mean PM2·5 in the areas most affected by COVID-19 in China. In the short term, an estimated 24 200 (95% CI 22 380-26 010) premature deaths were averted throughout China between Feb 1 and March 31, and an estimated 2190 (1960-2420) deaths were averted in Europe between Feb 21 and May 17. We also estimated a positive number of long-term avoided premature fatalities due to reduced PM2·5 concentrations, ranging from 76 400 (95% CI 62 600-86 900) to 287 000 (233 700-328 300) for China, and from 13 600 (11 900-15 300) to 29 500 (25 800-33 300) for Europe, depending on the future scenarios of economic recovery adopted. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that lockdown interventions led to substantial reductions in PM2·5 concentrations in China and Europe. We estimated that tens of thousands of premature deaths from air pollution were avoided, although with significant differences observed in Europe and China. Our findings suggest that considerable improvements in air quality are achievable in both China and Europe when stringent emission control policies are adopted. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Pandemias/economia , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 99-103, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994598

RESUMO

In this viewpoint we briefly review the evidence for smoke-free car legislation. We find that this legislation has been consistently associated with reduced secondhand exposure in cars with children/youth in all nine jurisdictions studied. Despite this, there are various aspects of this intervention that warrant further study-especially determining its impact on reducing tobacco-related ethnic inequalities. So we argue that the New Zealand Ministry of Health should invest in a thorough evaluation of this important upcoming public health intervention. This could both help the country in further refining the design of the law (if necessary) and would also be a valuable contribution to advancing the knowledge base for international tobacco control.


Assuntos
Automóveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Automóveis/normas , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(35): e321, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed significant global public health challenges and created a substantial economic burden. Korea has experienced an extensive outbreak, which was linked to a religion-related super-spreading event. However, the implementation of various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including social distancing, spring semester postponing, and extensive testing and contact tracing controlled the epidemic. Herein, we estimated the effectiveness of each NPI using a simulation model. METHODS: A compartment model with a susceptible-exposed-infectious-quarantined-hospitalized structure was employed. Using the Monte-Carlo-Markov-Chain algorithm with Gibbs' sampling method, we estimated the time-varying effective contact rate to calibrate the model with the reported daily new confirmed cases from February 12th to March 31st (7 weeks). Moreover, we conducted scenario analyses by adjusting the parameters to estimate the effectiveness of NPI. RESULTS: Relaxed social distancing among adults would have increased the number of cases 27.4-fold until the end of March. Spring semester non-postponement would have increased the number of cases 1.7-fold among individuals aged 0-19, while lower quarantine and detection rates would have increased the number of cases 1.4-fold. CONCLUSION: Among the three NPI measures, social distancing in adults showed the highest effectiveness. The substantial effect of social distancing should be considered when preparing for the 2nd wave of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Pandemias , Prática de Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , República da Coreia
13.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 522-532, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833678

RESUMO

While the Safe Drinking Water Act mandates testing of public water supplies in the USA, private well owners are responsible for testing and treating their own water. A small percentage of well owners perform annual testing as recommended and many never test at all for common and potentially harmful groundwater contaminants. Finding effective ways to inform residents of the risks associated with their private well drinking water and promote the testing and treatment for common contaminants is a challenge faced by federal, state, and local agencies concerned with public health. Targeting residents whose wells are most at risk for having levels of regulated contaminants above the drinking water standard is a potential way to efficiently reach individuals. Results of this study show that individuals who receive specific letters that a contaminant in a neighbor's well had exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for one of five common well water contaminants (arsenic, radon, Gross Alpha, Escherichia coli, and nitrates) were more likely to test their well than were individuals who received a general letter about common contaminants in the region. Outreach that reports more localized, specific information on contaminants in well water results in an increased chance of testing when compared with more regional and generalized contaminant information.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Água , Poços de Água
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence and patterns of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the home, workplace, public places, and at all three places amongst the non-smoker respondents between the two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in India. The secondary objectives were to assess the differences in various factors associated with SHS exposure among non-smokers. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis incorporated data generated from the previous two rounds of the cross-sectional, nationally representative GATS India, which covered 69,296 and 74,037 individuals aged 15 years and above. Exposure to the SHS at home, workplace, and public places amongst the non-smokers were the primary outcome variables. Standard definitions of the surveys were used. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers inside the home and public places reduced. In contrast, the prevalence in the workplace increased marginally in round II compared to I. The proportion of adults who were exposed to SHS at all three places did not change much in two rounds of surveys. A decrease in the knowledge of the respondents exposed to SHS at home and public places was observed about the harmful effects of smoking in round II. Age, gender, occupation, place, and region of respondents were found to be significant determinants of SHS exposure at all the three places on multinomial logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The study calls for focused interventions in India and stringent implementation of anti-tobacco legislation, especially in the workplaces for reducing the exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers and to produce encouraging and motivating results by next round of the survey.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , não Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Instalações Privadas , Logradouros Públicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 847, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise exposure and associated hearing loss affects an estimated 2 million farm youth who are exposed as farm residents, farm family workers, hired workers, children of migrant or seasonal workers, and farm visitors. Risk factors for farm youth include frequent exposure to high farm noise; farm work from an early age, and exposure to high recreational noise (e.g., firearms, ATVs, and personal listening devices). METHODS: This study compared the effectiveness of two interventions and control. The programs included a community-based interactive youth educational program alone (Group A), a community-based interactive youth educational program followed by an Internet-based booster (Group B), and a no-interaction control (Group C). The study used a cluster randomized control design, with equal allocation ratio to each cluster, without blinding. Inclusion criteria included enrollment in grade 4, parental consent, English speaking, and attending a community-based educational event included in the cluster sampling. A total of 1979 youth were enrolled at 36 sites distributed across the 3 study arms in the following distribution: N = 662 in 13 sites (Group A), N = 680 in 12 sites (Group B), and N = 637 in 11 sites (Group C). RESULTS: Comparison with pre-intervention data showed no difference in intent to use hearing conservation strategies in experimental groups. However, knowledge and attitudes toward hearing conservation were improved in the groups receiving the Internet-based booster. Participants reported frequent exposure to sources of hazardous noise (e.g., loud sporting events, firecrackers, personal listening devices). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and acceptable to incorporate hearing health education into an already existing system designed to deliver health and safety educational programming to farm and rural youth. The program was adopted by the partner agency for dissemination to up to 100,000 youth annually. Results of this study inform future intervention studies, interventions aimed at farm youth, and interventions to increase use of hearing conservation strategies, as well as offer a base for developing programs for non-English speaking children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration CT02472821. Date of trial registration: 06/09/2015 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Fazendas , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
17.
Hautarzt ; 71(8): 572-579, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced malignancies, especially skin cancer, have continued to increase for decades. The main cause is natural and artificial UV radiation. The affected persons and the health care system are heavily burdened. The situation threatens to worsen, as climate change could lead to an increase in UV radiation exposure of the population and, thus, the risk of UV-related cancer in Germany as well. The prevention of UV-related diseases is, therefore, a health and radiation protection objective that needs to be considered. OBJECTIVE: Necessary and appropriate prevention measures for the precaution of UV-related cancer are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The currently recommended and applied primary behavioral and structural preventive measures and potential, prevention-related relief for the health care system are examined and summarized. RESULTS: Numerous behavioral and structural preventive measures are already being applied. Sustainably designed, multicomponent and personalized behavioral preventive measures in combination with structural prevention modules are effective and have a high economic and health-related benefit. The use of modern media and multimedia measures is recommended. CONCLUSION: Structural prevention measures in addition to behavioral measures enable a reduction of the cancer risk caused by UV radiation. The aim must be to establish these measures nationwide for the entire population.


Assuntos
Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 584, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Nunavik, Arctic rabies is still endemic due to a spillover from wildlife to dogs. The prevention of human exposure and the management of potential exposure is a significant public health concern in this region. METHODS: This study retrospectively describes cases of potential exposure to rabies in humans as reported to the Nunavik Public Health Board through their registry of reported cases. We used multi-correspondence analysis as well as univariable and multivariable regression models to test for differences between children and adults in reported cases, and to examine the contexts of exposure to dogs and dog attacks. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2017, 320 cases of potential exposure to rabies were reported, 92% of which were linked to dogs. The annual incidence rate was 2.5 per 1000 people. The incidence increased significantly during the study period, although the reasons for this are unclear. Fifteen cases of exposure were with rabid animals, mostly dogs (9 of 15). No human cases of rabies occurred thanks to adequate medical case management. Two specific profiles for potential exposure to rabies were identified based on age and gender. The first was children (< 15 y/o), male or female, who were more likely to be exposed through playing with dogs and were more often injured in the head and/or neck. The second was young male adults (aged 15 to 34 y/o), who were more involved with wildlife than other age groups and mostly injured in the upper limbs and as a result of a reaction by the animal. CONCLUSION: Rabies is a real public health threat in Nunavik. Potential human exposure needs to be prevented, and prevention measures should be tailored to the two risk profiles identified based on age, gender and animal species involved.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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