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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111706, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396037

RESUMO

High water iodine concentration in drinking water can lead to excessive iodine, which will affect normal thyroid function, blood glucose, and blood pressure, especially among pregnant and lactating women. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose level among adults, and pregnant and lactating women in areas that are iodine-adequate (IA) and iodine-excess (IE) with respect to iodine concentrations in drinking water. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 144 pregnant and 237 lactating women in Shanxi Province, and 828 adults in Shandong Province. Water iodine, urinary iodine, thyroid function, blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. Compared with the IA area, the water iodine concentration (WIC) in the IE area was higher (adults, 325.00 µg/L vs. 71.40 µg/L; pregnant and lactating women, 464.80 µg/L vs. 57.50 µg/L). For adults, and pregnant and lactating women, in the IE area, the urinary iodine concentration (UIC), free thyroxine (FT4 [except for lactating women]), and systolic blood pressure (only adults 18-40 years of age) were significantly higher, while the blood glucose level and the prevalence of hyperglycemia (except for adults) was lower, and the free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and hypertension-positive rates of the three populations were not significantly different. For adults, systolic and diastolic pressure were positively correlated with FT3 and FT4, respectively, while the blood glucose level were inversely associated with the WIC. For pregnant women, systolic pressure and the WIC, diastolic pressure and FT4, blood glucose level and FT3 were all positively correlated, while the blood glucose level was inversely associated with TSH, WIC and UIC. For lactating women, systolic pressure was positively correlated with WIC and UIC, while blood glucose level were inversely associated with WIC and UIC. Pregnant and lactating women in the IE area were at lower risk for an association with hyperglycemia. Collectively, our research showed that long-term exposure to high water iodine is a high-risk factor for abnormal blood pressure and a low-risk factor for abnormal blood glucose level, especially for special populations such as pregnant and lactating women. Moreover, enhanced monitoring of blood pressure and blood glucose level in people with abnormal thyroid function in areas with high water iodine is important.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo/análise , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111642, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mercury (Hg), a ubiquitous heavy metal, could affect the neurodevelopment of the children, however, these associations are still equivocal. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in the central nervous system development in children. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-level mercury exposure on serum BDNF levels and the influence of sex and dietary intake on these relationships in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 541 pre-school children were recruited, the blood mercury concentrations and serum BDNF levels were measured. The background information on demographic characteristics and dietary habits of the children was collected through questionnaires. Multivariable linear models after adjustment for potential confounders were used to evaluate the associations between mercury exposure and levels of BDNF in children. RESULTS: The GMs of blood mercury concentrations and serum BDNF levels were 1.06 µg/L, 20.4 ng/mL, respectively. A significant positive association between blood mercury concentrations and serum BDNF levels was found. After stratification by sex, the blood mercury concentrations in children were positive associated with serum BDNF levels in girls but not in boys. However, these associations were attenuated when we further adjusted the children's dietary intake variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that low-levels of mercury exposure may have sex-specific effects on BDNF levels in young children and that dietary intake may be potential confounders in these relationships. However, further studies are warranted to investigate the role of BDNF in the effects of mercury on neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Exposição Dietética/análise , Mercúrio/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111670, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396180

RESUMO

Exposure to excessive fluoride has been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes; however, there is a lack of evidence on the relation between fluoride exposure and serum uric acid levels, especially in human populations. The present study examined a potential relationship between fluoride exposure, measured as both plasma and water fluoride concentrations, and uric acid levels in an adolescent population. A nationally representative subsample of 1933 adolescents, aged 12-19 years, in the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for the association of fluoride concentrations with serum uric acid levels using multivariate general linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Since uric acid levels change during development, hyperuricemia was defined in this study as over the mean plus one standard deviation for each sex and age group of adolescents. Of the study participants, 276 adolescents (weighted prevalence, 16.56%) had hyperuricemia. A significant and dose-dependent increase in prevalence of hyperuricemia was seen among the participants cross increasing quartiles of plasma fluoride (p-trend = 0.0017). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that adolescents in the higher quartiles of plasma fluoride (≥0.32 µmol/L) and in the highest quartile of water fluoride (≥0.73 mg/L) had significantly increased odds of hyperuricemia compared with those in the lowest quartile. A 1.95-fold increased odds (95% CI: 1.37, 2.77) of hyperuricemia was also observed when analyzing plasma fluoride concentrations as continuous variable. A general linear model revealed that a 1 µmol/L increase in ln-plasma fluoride was associated with a 0.212 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) increased serum uric acid level. Furthermore, a positive relationship was observed between water and plasma fluoride concentrations (ß = 0.1907; p < 0.0001). Our study demonstrates a potential relation between fluoride exposure and hyperuricemia in adolescents. Further studies are warranted to overcome the limitations of this study to examine the impact of long-term exposure to low levels of fluoride during development on hyperuricemia and its related health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128249, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182142

RESUMO

Saltwater fish is rich in health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Excessive fish intake may also cause health hazards due to methylmercury (MeHg). A novel dose estimation method was proposed in this study to improve the quality of food matching by considering the usage ratio of cooking and processing methods in sampling design. In total, 39 table-ready samples were specified according to 2-3 common cooking methods, and MeHg and total mercury (THg) were analyzed. The results showed that mercury was detected in 20 samples (LOD = 0.01 µg/g). High MeHg samples included fried-Spanish mackerel (1.23 µg/g), non-cooked shredded swordfish (0.325 µg/g), pan-fried Spanish mackerel (0.248 µg/g), and non-cooked shredded salmon (0.208 µg/g). Consumption data (n = 166,911) were obtained from 24-h recalls in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The average whole-group estimated daily intake (EDI_WG) was 0.018 (7.9% tolerable daily intake, TDI) for women of child-bearing age and 0.031 µg/day per kg body weight (13.6% TDI) for children. However, 95th percentile values (P95) of 90.4% TDI and 185% TDI were estimated for the two consumer-only populations, which have raised public health concerns. The ratio of % TDI to % daily reference intake (% DRI) was used as a risk-benefit (R/B) indicator. The top 4 R/B foods were: tuna sashimi (0.089 and 0.14), non-cooked shredded swordfish (0.033 and 0.052), fried-Spanish mackerel (0.027 and 0.043) and deep-fried fish balls (0.022 and 0.035) in the two perspective populations.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Culinária , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
5.
Food Chem ; 334: 127598, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707363

RESUMO

A multi-residue method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 78 compounds from seven different classes of veterinary drugs in eggs. This method was based on dispersive solid phase extraction where mixed-mode cation exchange sorbent was used to combine the isolation of compounds and sample purification. The analysis was performed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the chromatographic run time of one injection was 9.5 min. The mean recovery ranged from 70.5% to 119.2% and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 17.0%. The limit of quantification ranged between 0.1 and 1 µg/kg, which was sufficient to support surveillance monitoring. Lastly, the method was successfully used to detect residues of veterinary drug in real samples. The dietary exposure risk was subsequently assessed using the results of the survey, indicating that the evaluated daily intake and percentage of acceptable daily intake were at toxicologically acceptable levels.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , China , Exposição Dietética/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 127801, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798820

RESUMO

A fast high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-method based on an ACN-precipitation extraction was developed for the analysis of 41 (modified) mycotoxins in beer. Validation according to the performance criteria defined by the European Commission (EC) in Commission Decision no. 657/2002 revealed good linearity (R2 > 0.99), repeatability (RSDr < 15%), reproducibility (RSDR < 15%), and recovery (79-100%). Limits of quantification ranging from 0.04 to 75 µg/L were obtained. Matrix effects varied from -67 to +319% and were compensated for using standard addition. In total, 87 beer samples, produced worldwide, were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins with a focus on modified mycotoxins, whereof 76% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin. The most prevalent mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (63%), HT-2 toxin (15%), and tenuazonic acid (13%). Exposure estimates of deoxynivalenol and its metabolites for German beer revealed no significant contribution to intake of deoxynivalenol.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Toxina T-2/análogos & derivados , Toxina T-2/análise , Ácido Tenuazônico/análise , Tricotecenos/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 334: 127402, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711260

RESUMO

In this study, heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd in 55 Thai local rice (4 varieties) were measured using ICP-MS. Health risks were estimated from various Thai population groups, classified according to ages and genders. The potential impact on Thai population who consumed Thai local rice contained heavy metals was assessed by means of probabilistic approach. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic risks from heavy metal exposure was below the threshold limit of 1 for all rice varieties except Mn in Pka Am Pun rice and As in Pka Am Pun rice, Jek Chuey Sao Hai rice, and Leb Nok rice. Only the hazard index (HI) for consumption of Khaowong Kalasin sticky rice was below 1. The maximum cancer probabilities over the lifetime consumption of Thai local rice were in the range of 5 in 10,000 to 3 in 1000 chances in developing cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 82: 103563, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310081

RESUMO

This study determined the heavy metals (HMs) accumulation in different vegetables in different seasons and attributed a serious health hazard to human adults due to the consumption of such vegetables in Jhansi. The total amounts of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd) were analysed in 28 composite samples of soil and vegetables (Fenugreek, spinach, eggplant, and chilli) collected from seven agricultural fields. The transfer factor (TF) of HMs from soil to analysed vegetables was calculated, and significant non-carcinogenic health risks due to exposure to analysed heavy metals via consumption of these vegetables were computed. The statistical analysis involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation matrix suggested that anthropogenic activities were a major source of HMs in the study areas. The target hazard quotient of Cd, Mn, and Pb for fenugreek (2.156, 2.143, and 2.228, respectively) and spinach (3.697, 3.509, 5.539, respectively) exceeded the unity, indicating the high possibilities of non-carcinogenic health risks if regularly consumed by human beings. This study strongly suggests the continuous monitoring of soil, irrigation water, and vegetables to prohibit excessive accumulation in the food chain.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Capsicum , Monitoramento Ambiental , Frutas/química , Humanos , Índia , Folhas de Planta/química , Medição de Risco , Solanum melongena , Spinacia oleracea , Trigonella
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377427

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by the destruction of insulin-secreting ß-cells.T1D is on the rise around the world. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) is considered a contributor to TID increase. The contribution of the ingestion of 2AA toward T1D vulnerability is examined. 2AA is found in a variety of household products. Juvenile male Sprague Dawley rats ingested various amounts of 2AA contaminated diet for 12 weeks. Results showed marginal reduction in body weight gain for the 100 mg/kg treated animals. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) indicated no changes at six weeks. However, at week 12, both treated groups had higher levels of blood glucose than the control group. Serum insulin concentration was elevated in the 50 mg/kg group while reduced in the 100 mg/kg animals. Serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was elevated in treated groups. Evaluation of pancreatic inflammatory cytokines revealed overexpression of IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-7. Apoptotic genes in the pancreas of exposed rats were overly expressed. Histopathology and insulin immunohistochemistry data showed the presence of mesenteric vessels surrounded by lymphocyte and enlarged size of islet cells respectively in the high dose group. These results suggest 2AA ingestion may enhance T1D development.


Assuntos
Antracenos/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Interleucinas/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Risco
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 354-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025049

RESUMO

Heavy metals threaten communities near biodiversity hotspots, as their protein sources come from the environment. This study assessed Hg, Cd, and Se concentrations in fish, as well as the magnitude of exposure and hematological conditions of adult citizens from Puerto Nariño (Colombian Amazon). Among fish samples, greater Hg concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, including Rhaphiodon vulpinus (880 ± 130 ng/g) and Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (920 ± 87 ng/g). These species presented the highest hazard quotients and lowest Se:Hg molar ratios among those studied, showing their consumption represents a health risk to consumers. Moreover, some samples of Mylossoma duriventre and Prochilodus magdalenae had Cd levels greater than the regulated limit (100 ng/g). The average total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in human hair and blood were 5.31 µg/g and 13.7 µg/L, respectively. All hair samples exceeded the 1.0 µg/g threshold set by the USEPA, whereas 93% of the volunteers had T-Hg blood levels greater than 5 µg/L, suggesting elevated exposure. The mean Cd level was 3.1 µg/L, with 21% of samples surpassing 5 µg/L, value at which mitigating actions should be taken. Eighty-four percent of participants presented Se deficiencies (<100 µg/L). There was a significant association between fish consumption and T-Hg in hair (ρ = 0.323; p = 0.032) and blood (ρ = 0.381; p = 0.011). In this last matrix, Se correlated with Cd content, whereas lymphocytes were inversely linked to Hg concentrations. The results of this study show that there is  extensive exposure to Hg in fish, the consumption of which may promote detrimental impacts on hematology parameters within the community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Colômbia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 798-805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909074

RESUMO

In 1963, selenosis occurred in Yutangba Village, Enshi City, China. Subsequently, local residents migrated to a new area of Yutangba to avoid high selenium (Se) exposure. In this study, 19 soil samples, 43 food samples, 60 hair samples and 58 plasma samples from local residents were randomly collected in New Yutangba Village. The mean total Se concentrations in cultivated soil samples were 1753.6 ± 742.8 µg/kg (n = 14). The estimated daily Se intake in New Yutangba Village decreased to 63.2 ± 39.8 µg/day, slightly higher than the recommended dietary Se intake for adults in China (60 µg/day). The mean Se concentrations in hair and plasma samples were 549.7 ± 165.2 µg/kg (n = 60) and 98.4 ± 32.1 µg/L (n = 58), respectively. The result indicated that appropriate activities, such as relocation, consuming a mixture of local foods and market foods containing low Se concentration, could effectively reduce the risk of high Se exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cabelo/química , Selênio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adulto , China , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/sangue , Poluentes do Solo/sangue
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108800, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829187

RESUMO

The present study investigated the presence, growth potential, and public health risk posed by Listeria monocytogenes in a ready-to-eat "shrimp cocktail". The pathogen was detected in 4 out of the 104 samples, and there were no counts above the enumeration limit (1 Log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g); the product was a suitable substrate for pathogen growth owing to its chemical/physical properties. A stochastic quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to estimate the expected number of invasive listeriosis cases caused by the consumption of 10,000 servings of the product on the last day of its shelf life, considering a population comprising healthy consumers, those susceptible, and transplant recipients. The model predicted no cases for this scenario. Uncertainties were included by considering alternative scenarios; even when considering an increased mean bacterial concentration (up to 3-4 Log CFU/g), no cases were estimated. Following a producer's demand, the exposure assessment model was also used to estimate the probability of the product exceeding the threshold of 2 log CFU/g during the shelf life. The possibility of Listeria growth in the product could not be avoided. Therefore, a modification of the production process was tested to re-classify the product as unsuitable for Listeria growth (EC Reg. 2073/2005). The shrimps were conditioned in three different organic acid solutions comprising: acetic acid (1500 ppm) (A); benzoic acid (1500 ppm) + acetic acid (500 ppm) + lactic acid (750 ppm) (BLA); and lactic acid (4500 ppm) + sodium acetate (2500 ppm) (LSA). Testing was conducted over various treatment durations (1 day-5 days). Treatment for 2 days in the LSA solution was selected based on efficacy, the absence of consumer-perceptible sensorial modifications, and the producers' production rate requirements. The concentration of L. monocytogenes decreased when the new process was applied, which confirmed the usefulness and effectiveness of the treatment relative to the traditional process. Thus, the product obtained by the modified production process did not support the growth of L. monocytogenes.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Exposição Dietética/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 13-21, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659468

RESUMO

The few Belgian studies on the human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have until now concerned the Northern part of Belgium (Flanders), while data related to Wallonia (South region) are missing. To fill this gap, 8 perfluorinated carboxylic acids and 3 perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates were measured in the serum of 242 adults (>18 years old) recruited in 2015 and living in the Province of Liege. Some multivariate regression models were also built with the PFAS levels and the participant's answers to a questionnaire about their diet and lifestyle habits in order to identify some predictors of exposure. The results obtained showed that although PFAS levels observed in our population seemed to be similar or lower than those reported in other countries, and especially lower than in the Northern part of Belgium, half of the population showed PFOS and PFOA serum levels above the health guidance values set by the German HBM Commission. As expected, age and gender were the main covariates explaining the different PFAS serum levels between participants, while breastfeeding (for women), consumption of fish and seafood, consumption of rice, and use of nail polish seemed also to impact the PFAS body burden of our population. Nevertheless, the statistical models were poorly predictive suggesting that the main sources of exposure were not taken into account.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 756-766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663053

RESUMO

This study aims to establish the relationship between the consumption of certain foods and the presence of organochlorine pesticides in human milk. A total of 167 samples of breastmilk were collected. Sample analysis was carried out by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Pesticide concentrations (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT, HCB, ß-HCH) were grouped by consumption level of fish, dairy products, meat, eggs, and seafood and then were compared to each other. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated between the concentration of pesticides (higher and/or lower than median) and the exposure variable (high consumption). The results indicated low median concentrations of HCB, ß - HCH, op'DDT and pp'DDT, whose fluctuations and trends between different frequencies of food consumption were not significant. pp'DDE and Σ - DDT values according to the increase in consumption of fish were significantly increased. Women with high fish consumption have a higher risk of high concentrations of pp'DDE and Σ-DDT (OR: high consumption: 5.6 (1.3-23.6). A protective effect was observed in the consumption of dairy products (ß-HCH and op'DDT), meat (HCB), and seafood (pp'DDT). These results suggest that it is possible that the consumption of fish, dairy products, meat, and seafood influences the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the studied population.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Praguicidas/análise , Adulto , Laticínios , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Ovos/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/análise , México
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(11): 3819-3839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601907

RESUMO

Monitoring the groundwater chemical composition and identifying the presence of pollutants is an integral part of any comprehensive groundwater management strategy. The present study was conducted in a part of West Tripura, northeast India, to investigate the presence and sources of trace metals in groundwater and the risk to human health due to direct ingestion of groundwater. Samples were collected from 68 locations twice a year from 2016 to 2018. Mixed Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl were the main groundwater types. Hydrogeochemical methods showed groundwater mineralization due to (1) carbonate dissolution, (2) silicate weathering, (3) cation exchange processes and (4) anthropogenic sources. Occurrence of faecal coliforms increased in groundwater after monsoons. Nitrate and microbial contamination from wastewater infiltration were apparent. Iron, manganese, lead, cadmium and arsenic were above the drinking water limits prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Water quality index indicated 1.5% had poor, 8.7% had marginal, 16.2% had fair, 66.2% had good and 7.4% had excellent water quality. Correlation and principal component analysis reiterated the sources of major ions and trace metals identified from hydrogeochemical methods. Human exposure assessment suggests health risk due to high iron in groundwater. The presence of unsafe levels of trace metals in groundwater requires proper treatment measures before domestic use.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/análise , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Carbonatos/análise , Carbonatos/química , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/química , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrologia/métodos , Índia , Nitratos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127597, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707321

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that gibel carp A strain was more susceptible to herpesvirus infection than other strains. Thus, we hypothesized that F strain might display better defense responses than the A strain against cadmium (Cd) exposure. To test our hypothesis, gibel carp A strain and F strain were exposed to three diets comprising of different concentrations of Cd for 8 weeks to compare their resistances to Cd. Comprehensive evaluations on biochemical, physiological and histological responses were conducted post-exposure. Results showed that no adverse effects and differences were observed on growth in two strains of gibel carp, compromising of the remarkable hepatoxicity-caused liver damage as shown by histological observations. Dietary Cd exposure stimulated antioxidant defense in the liver to counteract the Cd hepatoxicity, especially in the F strain. Activation of ER stress response positively stimulated the autophagy, then triggering apoptosis in fish after dietary Cd exposure. Thus, Cd-induced autophagy served as a protective strategy to alleviate hepatoxicity, but overaction of ER stress also triggered irreparable cell death via apoptosis. Cd induced dysregulation of lipid accumulation, which might be a common mechanism in response to hepatoxicity. Last but not least, the F strain showed stronger response on antioxidant, ER stress and autophagy, but apoptosis were remitted compared with the A strain, implying the F strain showed stronger response but better defense strategies to dietary Cd exposure. Our finding provides useful information for genetic breeding in aquaculture, and ultimately contribute to the safety assessment of aquatic products for human consumption.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes , Aquicultura , Cruzamento , Carpas , Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Carpa Dourada/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Fígado
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111012, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684522

RESUMO

Planting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) instead of rice in the area contaminated with heavy metals is one of the measures to ensure people's health and agricultural economy. Therefore, it is important to screen the low accumulation cultivars of sweet potato and to find out the concentration rule of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in edible parts along with the associated health risks to humans. A field experiment was performed with fourteen of three main types (starch, purple, and edible-type) of sweet potato cultivars grown on farmland polluted with Cd and Pb in eastern Hunan Province, China. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the sweet potato tissues as well as the yield were measured. The yield of the shoot and tuberous root of the fourteen sweet potato cultivars ranged from 14.59 to 68.57 and 26.35-50.76 t ha-1 with mean values of 33.09 and 33.46 t ha-1, respectively. Compared with purple and edible-type cultivars, the starch-type cultivar had lower Cd and Pb concentrations in the flesh, but higher in the shoot. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the flesh of cultivars Shangshu 19, Sushu 24, Yushu 98, and Xiangshu 98 were lower than MCL provided in Chinese National Food Safety Standards GB2762-2017. Based on the hazard index (HI), the consumption of sweet potato flesh is lower health risk, while shoots pose a greater health risk to local people and Cd is the main cause of the risk. As a result, sweet potato cultivars Shangshu 19, Sushu 24, Yushu 98 and Xiangshu 98 can be plant in serve Cd and Pb contaminated soils with the advantages of easy cultivation, high yield and economic benefits without stopping agricultural production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Exposição Dietética/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Medição de Risco
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111003, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678765

RESUMO

Consumption of fish is one of the predominant sources of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling and frying) on the levels of PFASs in fish muscle and the intake of PFASs was explored by using grass carp collected from Tangxun Lake, Wuhan, China. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFASs in raw fish fillets, with the concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 136 ng/g ww, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (7.73-51.9 ng/g ww). The concentrations of long-chain PFASs in fish increased after cooking, while those of short-chain PFASs decreased. The amounts of PFASs in the cooked fish fillets decreased except PFOS. Short-chain PFASs, including PFBS and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), were dominant in cooking juice. The highest amounts of PFBS in the juices were observed after boiling and frying, even higher than those in cooked fish fillets, suggesting that the release of short-chain PFASs to the cooking juices could not be neglected. Based on these results, the intake of short-chain PFASs amount through cooked fish fillets slightly decreased, but the intake of PFOS amount increased. However, consumption of cooking juice (fish soup) could increase the exposure risk of PFBS. Comprehensively considering the increase of PFOS and decrease of total PFASs, boiling may be the relatively better method to cook fish. As PFASs are ubiquitous and inevitable in aquatic food, it is thus important to choose appropriate cooking processes and dietary habits for reducing the intake of different PFASs from fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Lagos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(11): 3675-3701, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488799

RESUMO

Groundwater is one of the most important sources of water for drinking and cooking in rural India. A total of 382 groundwater samples were collected from 58 villages and analyzed for HMs and Sr by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The average concentrations of HMs and Sr in water was in the order of strontium (Sr) > arsenic (As) > chromium (Cr) > lead (Pb) > mercury (Hg) > cadmium (Cd). Out of 58 villages, 21, 37, 35, 35, 35 and 39 villages had Cr, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Sr higher (WHO limit) than their respectively permissible levels. Health risk assessment of HMs and Sr for humans revealed that the non-carcinogenicity hazard quotients (HQi+d) for HMs and Sr were higher than unity for adult and children. The hazard index (HI) was 531.066 for adult and 902.926 for children. The HI > 1 was observed in 45 villages for adults and 56 villages for children. The lifetime cancer risk in adult for Asi, Asd, and Pbi in 36, 25 and 23 villages, whereas in children was 42, 20 and 22 villages, respectively. In conclusion, the health risks arising from consumption of groundwater containing HMs and Sr indicated that there is a significant carcinogenic risks for adult and children. This is the first attempt to provide information on the health risks of Sr in drinking water in India. The present findings can be useful for the development of potential strategies for risk control and management.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Estrôncio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Culinária , Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Índia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Medição de Risco , Estrôncio/toxicidade
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