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1.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131125, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467953

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36-41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Feminino , Feto , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Placenta , Gravidez
2.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 279-289, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402257

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of maternal exposure to 13 chemicals mixture (CM) during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome and health status of maternal/offspring mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were given drinking water containing carbaryl dimethoate glyphosate methomyl methyl parathion triadimefon aspartame sodium benzoate calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate ethylparaben butylparaben bisphenol A and acacia gum The effects of CM exposure on pregnancy outcome, health status of dams/offspring, levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines in dams/offspring and emotional related behaviors of offspring were evaluated. CM exposure during pregnancy had no significant effect on pregnancy outcome, liver function, body weight of the dams in late pregnancy and uterine/ovarian weight after delivery, however, it led to an increase in maternal serum IFN-γ level (<0.05). CM exposure during pregnancy had no significant effect on the liver function of offspring, but increased the serum IFN-γ, prefrontal cortex IFN-γ, and TNF-α and hippocampus IFN-γ levels in the offspring(all <0.01). In addition, the offspring of CM group showed significant abnormal emotion-related (autism-like) behaviors in adulthood, especially in male offspring. Low dose CM exposure during pregnancy may induce inflammation status in dams/offspring, and lead to autism-like behaviors in offspring, indicating the potential effects of low dose CM exposure on human maternal and infant health.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371812

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that bone health may be programmed in the first years of life. Factors during the prenatal period, especially maternal nutrition, may have an influence on offspring's skeletal development and thus the risk of osteoporosis in further life, which is an increasing societal, health and economic burden. However, it is still inconclusive which early life factors are the most important and to what extent they may affect bone health. We searched through three databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library) and after eligibility criteria were met, the results of 49 articles were analyzed. This narrative review is an overall summary of up-to-date studies on maternal diet, nutritional status, and birth-related factors that may affect offspring bone development, particularly bone mineral density (BMD). Maternal vitamin D status and diet in pregnancy, anthropometry and birth weight seem to influence BMD, however other factors such as subsequent growth may mediate these associations. Due to the ambiguity of the results in the analyzed studies, future, well-designed studies are needed to address the limitations of the present study.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
5.
Arch Oral Biol ; 130: 105246, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether null variants of Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) and GST Theta 1 (GSTT1) in infants and mothers, as well as maternal exposures to environmental factors, contribute to the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) in a Mexican population. DESIGN: We performed a matched pair case-control study, including 98 cases and 98 controls and their mothers. Sociodemographic information and environmental exposures were collected by a questionnaire. Null variants of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were assessed by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate risks. The interaction of genetic variables with smoking and adjusted ORs were evaluated by binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Homozygous null GSTM1 was associated with the risk of NSCL/P when present in mothers (OR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.23-4.86) or infants (OR = 2.98, 95 % CI 1.45-6.14). A higher risk was also found when children carried the homozygous null GSTT1 (OR = 4.89, 95 % CI 2.42-9.87). In mothers, this variant showed a crude risk of 9.17 (95 % CI 3.95-21.29), which increased to OR = 13.81 (95 % CI 1.63-117.09) upon interaction with frequent passive smoking (5-7 days/week). Sociodemographic and other environmental exposures were not significantly associated with the risk of NSCL/P. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and infant GSTT1 and GSTM1 homozygous null genotypes were associated with a higher risk of NSCL/P, and the results suggest an interaction of the maternal GSTT1-null/null genotype with frequent passive smoking.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina , Glutationa Transferase , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Fissura Palatina/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco , Deleção de Sequência
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26986, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy is known to cause a potential hazard to the offspring's health. So far, published studies have shown no consistent results with whether tobacco exposure in utero is causally linked to the development of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy and allergic rhinitis in offspring by meta-analysis and to provide reference for clinical work. METHODS: Literatures were searched in CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Web of science and Embase up to September 30,2020. Screening, inclusion, quality assessment, data extraction and data analysis of the literatures were conducted. Meta-analysis was performed with Revman 5.3 and State15.1 software. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used as observation indicators. RESULTS: We had retrieved 16 articles with 22 independent datasets and 11,49,879 sample size. When all the studies were analyzed together, the results showed that maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy would increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring (OR = 1.13, 95%CI:1.02-1.26), especially maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.39, 95%CI:1.05-1.84). But subgroup analysis showed that maternal active smoking during pregnancy was only significantly associated with offspring allergic rhinitis in cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.24, 95%CI:1.07-1.45) and study done in America study (OR = 1.22, 95%CI:1.05-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco exposure during pregnancy could increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The importance of avoiding prenatal tobacco exposure should be emphasized more for the health of next generation in the public.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360212

RESUMO

(1) This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the link between prenatal alcohol exposure and prenatal maternal depression with the offspring's low-grade inflammatory status. (2) Prenatal alcohol exposure was determined via maternal self-report during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (self-report+: n = 29) and the meconium alcohol metabolite Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG), collected at birth (≥30 ng/g: n = 23). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for prenatal maternal depressive symptoms during the 3rd trimester (≥10: n = 35). Fifteen years later, 122 adolescents (M = 13.32 years; 48.4% female) provided blood samples for the analysis of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; M = 0.91; SD = 1.28). (3) Higher hsCRP levels were found in EtG positive adolescents (p = 0.036, ηp2 = 0.04) and an inverse non-significant dose-response relation with hsCRP (r = -0.35, p = 0.113). For maternal self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.780, ηp2 = 0.00) and prenatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.360, ηp2 = 0.01) no differences for hsCRP levels between the affected and unaffected groups were found. (4) Adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure are at risk for low-grade systemic inflammation. The EtG biomarker may be more accurate compared to self-reports. The findings suggest that prenatal maternal depression does not evoke low-grade systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Depressão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mecônio , Gravidez
8.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117376, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380208

RESUMO

Despite the abundance of epidemiological evidence concerning the association between pesticide exposure and adverse health outcomes including acute childhood leukemia (AL), evidence remains inconclusive, and is inherently limited by heterogeneous exposure assessment and multiple statistical testing. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed studies, published until January 2021, without language restrictions. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from stratified random-effects meta-analyses by type of exposure and outcome, exposed populations and window of exposure to address the large heterogeneity of existing literature. Heterogeneity and small-study effects were also assessed. We identified 55 eligible studies (n = 48 case-control and n = 7 cohorts) from over 30 countries assessing >200 different exposures of pesticides (n = 160,924 participants). The summary OR for maternal environmental exposure to pesticides (broad term) during pregnancy and AL was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.15-3.08), reaching 2.51 for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 95%CI: 1.39-4.55). Analysis by pesticide subtype yielded an increased risk for maternal herbicide (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.00-1.99) and insecticide (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.11-2.29) exposure during pregnancy and AL without heterogeneity (p = 0.12-0.34). Meta-analyses of infant leukemia were only feasible for maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy. Higher magnitude risks were observed for maternal pesticide exposure and infant ALL (OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.44-3.29), and the highest for infant acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 3.42, 95%CI: 1.98-5.91). Overall, the associations were stronger for maternal exposure during pregnancy compared to childhood exposure. For occupational or mixed exposures, parental, and specifically paternal, pesticide exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of AL (ORparental: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.08-2.85; ORpaternal: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.07-1.35). The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests that pesticide exposure, mainly during pregnancy, increases the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly among infants. Sufficiently powered studies using repeated biomarker analyses are needed to confirm whether there is public health merit in reducing prenatal pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Exposição Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445282

RESUMO

Cannabis use during pregnancy has continued to rise, particularly in developed countries, as a result of the trend towards legalization and lack of consistent, evidence-based knowledge on the matter. While there is conflicting data regarding whether cannabis use during pregnancy leads to adverse outcomes such as stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, or increased admission to neonatal intensive care units, investigations into long-term effects on the offspring's health are limited. Historically, studies have focused on the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on the offspring. The effects of cannabis on other physiological aspects of the developing fetus have received less attention. Importantly, our knowledge about cannabinoid signaling in the placenta is also limited. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present at early stages of development and represents a potential target for exogenous cannabinoids in utero. The ECS is expressed in a broad range of tissues and influences a spectrum of cellular functions. The aim of this review is to explore the current evidence surrounding the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids and the role of the ECS in the placenta and the developing fetus.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Abuso de Maconha/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281082

RESUMO

The intrauterine environment is critical for healthy prenatal growth and affects neonatal survival and later health. Mercury is a toxic metal which can freely cross the placenta and disrupt a wide range of cellular processes. Many observational studies have investigated mercury exposure and prenatal growth, but no prior review has synthesised this evidence. Four relevant publication databases (Embase, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) were systematically searched to identify studies of prenatal mercury exposure and birth weight, birth length, or head circumference. Study quality was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool, and results synthesised in a narrative review. Twenty-seven studies met the review criteria, these were in 17 countries and used 8 types of mercury biomarker. Studies of birth weight (total = 27) involving populations with high levels of mercury exposure, non-linear methods, or identified as high quality were more likely to report an association with mercury, but overall results were inconsistent. Most studies reported no strong evidence of association between mercury and birth length (n = 14) or head circumference (n = 14). Overall, our review did not identify strong evidence that mercury exposure leads to impaired prenatal growth, although there was some evidence of a negative association of mercury with birth weight.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Biomarcadores , Peso ao Nascer , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Placenta/química , Gravidez
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277546

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of thallium (Tl). However, the effects of prenatal exposure to Tl on birth weight and placental weight and the mediating role of placental weight in the association of Tl with birth weight remain unclear. Methods: We recruited 2,748 participants from the ongoing Prenatal Environment and Offspring Health Cohort (PEOH Cohort) study, which was initiated in 2016 in Guangzhou, China. The Tl concentrations in maternal urine samples collected during the first and third trimester were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Birth weight and placental weight were extracted from maternal medical records. Results: Pregnant women exposed to the highest tertile of Tl in the first trimester (ß = -42.7 g, 95% CI: -82.3, -3.1 g) and third trimester (ß = -50.6 g, 95% CI: -99.0, -2.3 g) had babies with lower birth weights than those exposed to the lowest tertile. We also found significant negative associations of exposure to Tl concentrations in the first and third trimester with placental weight. Mediation analyses showed that 50.3% (95% CI: 15.9, 79.2%) and 33.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 80.3%) of the effects of Tl exposure in the first and third trimester on birth weight were mediated by decreased placental weight. Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to Tl is negatively associated with birth weight and that this association may be mediated by decreased placental weight.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Tálio , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
Toxicology ; 459: 152860, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280466

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is considered as a potential modifier of puberty. However, different results indicate that DBP plays an accelerated, delayed, or neutral role in the initiation of puberty. Furthermore, whether the effect of DBP on puberty will disrupt the function of reproductive system in the adults is still ambiguous. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of maternal exposure to DBP on the onset of puberty in male offspring mice and the subsequent changes in the development of reproductive system. Here, pregnant mice were treated with 0 (control), 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg/day DBP in 1 mL/kg corn oil administered daily by oral gavage from gestation day (GD) 12.5 to parturition. Compared with the control group, the 50 mg/kg/day DBP group accelerated puberty onset and testicular development were quite remarkable in male offspring mice during early puberty. Furthermore, in 22-day male offspring mice, 50 mg/kg/day DBP induced increased levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone in serum, and promoted the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in the testes. Testicular Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from the testes of 3-week-old mice and treated with 0 (control), 0.1, 1 mM monobutyl phthalate (MBP, the active metabolite of DBP) for 24 h. Consistent with the in vivo results, the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes and testosterone production were increased in LCs following exposure to 0.1 mM MBP. In adulthood, testes of the male offspring mice exposed to all doses of DBP exhibited adverse morphology compared with the control group. These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to 50 mg/kg/day DBP induced earlier puberty and precocious development of the testis, and eventually damaged the reproductive system in the later life.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Barreira Hematotesticular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ácidos Ftálicos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206994

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of this study was to assess associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and natriuretic peptide concentrations in cord blood from newborns. (2) Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study in Mexico City with 101 pregnant women from CIMIGEN Hospital. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were measured in plasma from cord blood in 51 newborns by ELISA. We estimated PM exposure (PM2.5 and PM10) at first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. (3) Results: The median and interquartile range for ANP, BNP and CNP plasma concentrations were 66.71 (46.92-80.23), 98.23 (73.64-112.30) and 1129.11 (944.10-1452.02) pg/mL, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 levels for the whole pregnancy period were 22.2 µg/m3 and 41.63 µg/m3, respectively. Employing multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, newborn sex, smoking before pregnancy, maternal occupation and newborns' length and height, we observed a 2.47 pg/mL (95%CI: -4.67, -0.27) decrease in BNP associated with PM2.5 exposure during second trimester. Adjusted for the same set of confounders, third trimester PM10 exposure was inversely associated with ANP concentrations (beta estimate: -0.90; 95% CI: -1.80, -0.03). Neither PM10 nor PM2.5 were associated with CNP at any trimester of pregnancy. (4) Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to particulate matter was associated with ANP and BNP decrease in newborns.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Fator Natriurético Atrial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , México , Peptídeos Natriuréticos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208324

RESUMO

Introduction: Phthalates are substances that are added to plastic products to increase their plasticity. These substances are released easily into the environment and can act as endocrine disruptors. Epidemiological studies in children have showed inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between prenatal or postnatal exposure to phthalates and the risk of allergic disease. Our hypothesis is that prenatal exposure to phthalates may contribute to the development of allergies in children. Material and methods: The objective of this study was to determine the associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in pregnant women, maternal atopic diathesis, maternal lifestyle, and cord blood IgE. Pregnant mothers and paired newborns (n = 101) were enrolled from an antenatal clinic. The epidemiologic data and the clinical information were collected using standard questionnaires and medical records. The maternal blood and urine samples were collected at 24-28 weeks gestation, and cord blood IgE, IL-12p70, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were determined from the newborns at birth. The link between phthalates and maternal IgE was also assessed. To investigate the effects of phthalates on neonatal immunity, cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) were used for cytokine induction in another in vitro experiment. Results: We found that maternal urine monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (a metabolite of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP)) concentrations are positively correlated with the cord blood IgE of the corresponding newborns. The cord blood IL-12p70 levels of mothers with higher maternal urine MEP groups (high DEP exposure) were lower than mothers with low DEP exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that DEP could enhance IL-4 production of cord blood MNCs rather than adult MNCs. Conclusion: Prenatal DEP exposure is related to neonatal IgE level and alternation of cytokines relevant to Th1/Th2 polarization. This suggests the existence of a link between prenatal exposure to specific plasticizers and the future development of allergies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Linfócitos T
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199136

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant, found in human fluids and tissues. Maternal BPA exposure is associated with alterations in pregnancy outcomes. Because maternal uterine circulation plays a crucial role in normal placenta and fetal growth, we hypothesized that BPA compromises the function of uterine arteries (UAs) and fetoplacental development. Female rats were orally administered with BPA (2.5, 25 and 250 µg/kg/day) or with its vehicle (ethanol) for 30 days before pregnancy and during the first 20 days of pregnancy. To compare the effect of BPA in the reproductive vs. systemic circulation, it was tested on UAs and mesenteric arteries (MAs). Arteries were isolated and examined by pressure myography. Moreover, fetuses and placentas were weighed to provide an index of reproductive performance. In UAs of BPA-treated rats, lumen diameter, acetylcholine-relaxation and expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor É£ (PPARÉ£) were reduced. Conversely, no changes were observed in MAs. BPA treatment also reduced placental weights, while fetal weights were increased. For the first time, our results indicate that UAs represent a specific target of BPA during pregnancy and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie its negative effects on pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Artéria Uterina/metabolismo , Artéria Uterina/patologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204640

RESUMO

Information regarding adverse birth outcomes (ABO) of Indigenous and Tribal women living in the remote tropical rainforest of Suriname, where mercury (Hg) use is abundant in artisanal gold mining, is not available. In the context of a health system analysis, we examined the association between Hg exposure, maternal sociodemographics on the ABO of Indigenous and Tribal women living in Suriname's interior and its capital, Paramaribo. ABO were determined in pregnant women enrolled from December 2016 to July 2019 in the Caribbean Consortium for Environmental and Occupational Health prospective environmental epidemiologic cohort study. Associations were explored using Pearson's χ2-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Among 351 singleton participants, 32% were Indigenous, residing mainly in the interior (86.8%), and 23.1% had ABO. Indigenous participants had higher rates of ABO (29.8% vs. 19.8%) and preterm birth (PTB) (21.2% vs. 12.4%), higher Hg levels, delivered at a younger age, were less educated, and had lower household income compared to Tribal participants. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that Indigenous participants had higher odds of ABO (OR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.70-7.63) and PTB (OR = 3.43; 95% CI 1.48-7.96) compared with Tribal participants, independent of Hg exposure and age at delivery. These results highlight the importance of effective risk reduction measures in support of Indigenous mothers, families, and communities.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Nascimento Prematuro , Região do Caribe , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Suriname
18.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 78, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution may impair children's behaviors. Our objectives were to quantify the impact of reducing indoor PM using portable HEPA filter air cleaners during pregnancy on behavioral problems in children and to assess associations between indoor fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations during pregnancy and children's behavior. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a single-blind parallel-group randomized controlled trial in which we randomly assigned 540 non-smoking pregnant women to receive 1 or 2 HEPA filter air cleaners or no air cleaners. We administered the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-3) to caregivers when children were a mean age of 23 months, and again at a mean age of 48 months. Primary outcomes were the four BASC-3 composite scales: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, adaptive skills, and the behavioral symptoms index. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation with chained equations. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. In a secondary analysis, we evaluated associations between BASC-3 composite indices and modeled trimester-specific PM2.5 concentrations inside residences. RESULTS: We enrolled participants at a median of 11 weeks gestation. After excluding miscarriages, still births and neonatal deaths, our analysis included 478 children (233 control and 245 intervention). We observed no differences in the mean BASC-3 scores between treatment groups. An interquartile increase (20.1 µg/m3) in first trimester PM2.5 concentration was associated with higher externalizing problem scores (2.4 units, 95% CI: 0.7, 4.1), higher internalizing problem scores (2.4 units, 95% CI: 0.7, 4.0), lower adaptive skills scores (-1.5 units, 95% CI: -3.0, 0.0), and higher behavior symptoms index scores (2.3 units, 95% CI: 0.7, 3.9). Third trimester PM2.5 concentrations were also associated with some behavioral indices at age 4, but effect estimates were smaller. No significant associations were observed with PM2.5 concentrations during the second trimester or for any of the BASC indices when children were 2 years old. CONCLUSION: We found no benefit of reducing indoor particulate air pollution during pregnancy on parent-reported behaviors in children. Associations between indoor PM2.5 concentrations in the first trimester and behavioral scores among 4-year old children suggest that it may be necessary to intervene early in pregnancy to protect children, but these exploratory findings should be interpreted cautiously. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01741051.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Infantil , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Problema , Filtros de Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Ultrafiltração
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 72, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development. METHOD: In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) PM. We highlight the established and emerging findings from epidemiologic studies and experimental models. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health. CONCLUSION: Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM2.5 levels are regulated, yet it is recognized that minority and low socioeconomic status groups experience disproportionate exposures. Moreover, PM0.1 levels are not routinely measured or currently regulated. Consequently, preventive strategies that inform neighborhood/regional planning and clinical/nutritional recommendations are needed to mitigate maternal exposure and ultimately protect children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
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