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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26986, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy is known to cause a potential hazard to the offspring's health. So far, published studies have shown no consistent results with whether tobacco exposure in utero is causally linked to the development of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the association between maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy and allergic rhinitis in offspring by meta-analysis and to provide reference for clinical work. METHODS: Literatures were searched in CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Web of science and Embase up to September 30,2020. Screening, inclusion, quality assessment, data extraction and data analysis of the literatures were conducted. Meta-analysis was performed with Revman 5.3 and State15.1 software. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were used as observation indicators. RESULTS: We had retrieved 16 articles with 22 independent datasets and 11,49,879 sample size. When all the studies were analyzed together, the results showed that maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy would increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring (OR = 1.13, 95%CI:1.02-1.26), especially maternal passive smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.39, 95%CI:1.05-1.84). But subgroup analysis showed that maternal active smoking during pregnancy was only significantly associated with offspring allergic rhinitis in cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.24, 95%CI:1.07-1.45) and study done in America study (OR = 1.22, 95%CI:1.05-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco exposure during pregnancy could increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in offspring. The importance of avoiding prenatal tobacco exposure should be emphasized more for the health of next generation in the public.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371812

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that bone health may be programmed in the first years of life. Factors during the prenatal period, especially maternal nutrition, may have an influence on offspring's skeletal development and thus the risk of osteoporosis in further life, which is an increasing societal, health and economic burden. However, it is still inconclusive which early life factors are the most important and to what extent they may affect bone health. We searched through three databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library) and after eligibility criteria were met, the results of 49 articles were analyzed. This narrative review is an overall summary of up-to-date studies on maternal diet, nutritional status, and birth-related factors that may affect offspring bone development, particularly bone mineral density (BMD). Maternal vitamin D status and diet in pregnancy, anthropometry and birth weight seem to influence BMD, however other factors such as subsequent growth may mediate these associations. Due to the ambiguity of the results in the analyzed studies, future, well-designed studies are needed to address the limitations of the present study.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
4.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 279-289, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402257

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of maternal exposure to 13 chemicals mixture (CM) during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome and health status of maternal/offspring mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were given drinking water containing carbaryl dimethoate glyphosate methomyl methyl parathion triadimefon aspartame sodium benzoate calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate ethylparaben butylparaben bisphenol A and acacia gum The effects of CM exposure on pregnancy outcome, health status of dams/offspring, levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines in dams/offspring and emotional related behaviors of offspring were evaluated. CM exposure during pregnancy had no significant effect on pregnancy outcome, liver function, body weight of the dams in late pregnancy and uterine/ovarian weight after delivery, however, it led to an increase in maternal serum IFN-γ level (<0.05). CM exposure during pregnancy had no significant effect on the liver function of offspring, but increased the serum IFN-γ, prefrontal cortex IFN-γ, and TNF-α and hippocampus IFN-γ levels in the offspring(all <0.01). In addition, the offspring of CM group showed significant abnormal emotion-related (autism-like) behaviors in adulthood, especially in male offspring. Low dose CM exposure during pregnancy may induce inflammation status in dams/offspring, and lead to autism-like behaviors in offspring, indicating the potential effects of low dose CM exposure on human maternal and infant health.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360212

RESUMO

(1) This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the link between prenatal alcohol exposure and prenatal maternal depression with the offspring's low-grade inflammatory status. (2) Prenatal alcohol exposure was determined via maternal self-report during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (self-report+: n = 29) and the meconium alcohol metabolite Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG), collected at birth (≥30 ng/g: n = 23). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for prenatal maternal depressive symptoms during the 3rd trimester (≥10: n = 35). Fifteen years later, 122 adolescents (M = 13.32 years; 48.4% female) provided blood samples for the analysis of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; M = 0.91; SD = 1.28). (3) Higher hsCRP levels were found in EtG positive adolescents (p = 0.036, ηp2 = 0.04) and an inverse non-significant dose-response relation with hsCRP (r = -0.35, p = 0.113). For maternal self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.780, ηp2 = 0.00) and prenatal depressive symptoms (p = 0.360, ηp2 = 0.01) no differences for hsCRP levels between the affected and unaffected groups were found. (4) Adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure are at risk for low-grade systemic inflammation. The EtG biomarker may be more accurate compared to self-reports. The findings suggest that prenatal maternal depression does not evoke low-grade systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Depressão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mecônio , Gravidez
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
7.
Environ Res ; 200: 111690, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from observational and experimental studies indicate that exposure to air pollutants during gestation reduces birth weight, whereas little is known on potential cardiometabolic consequences for the offspring at adulthood. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effects of gestational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE) on adult offspring phenotype in a rabbit model. METHODS: The protocol was designed to mimic human exposure in large European cities. Females rabbits were exposed to diluted (1 mg/m3) DE (exposed, n = 9) or clean air (controls, n = 7), from 3 days after mating, 2 h/d and 5 d/wk in a nose-only inhalation system throughout gestation (gestation days 3-27). After birth and weaning, 72 offspring (47 exposed and 25 controls) were raised until adulthood (7.5 months) to evaluate their cardio-metabolic status, including the monitoring of body weight and food intake, fasting biochemistry, body composition (iDXA), cardiovascular parameters and glucose tolerance. After a metabolic challenge (high fat diet in males and gestation in females), animals were euthanized for postmortem phenotyping. RESULTS: Sex-specific responses to maternal exposure were observed in adult offspring. Age-related increases in blood pressure (p = 0.058), glycaemia (p = 0.029), and perirenal fat mass (p = 0.026) as well as reductions in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.025) and fat-to-body weight ratio (p = 0.011) were observed in exposed males, suggesting a metabolic syndrome. Almost only trends were observed in exposed females with higher triglycerides and decreased bone density compared to control females. Metabolic challenges triggered or amplified some biological responses, especially in females. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to air pollution predisposed rabbit offspring to cardiometabolic disorders in a sex-specific manner.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Coelhos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
8.
Environ Int ; 156: 106762, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal cadmium exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, previous findings are contradictory, and little is known about the potential modifiers of the cadmium-related neurodevelopmental risk. We investigated the associations between prenatal cadmium exposure and neurodevelopment in 2-year-old children and examined the influence of mother/child characteristics. METHODS: We recruited 3545 mother-child pairs from the Japan Environment and Children's Study. We collected maternal blood during mid/late pregnancy and cord blood at delivery, and measured cadmium concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD), which includes cognitive-adaptive (C-A), language-social (L-S), postural-motor (P-M) and developmental quotient (DQ) domains. Associations between cadmium and KSPD scores were tested using multivariable models after controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Median levels (interquartile ranges) of cadmium in maternal and cord blood were 0.70 (0.52-0.95) and 0.04 (0.03-0.06) µg/L, respectively. Maternal blood cadmium concentrations were inversely associated with P-M scores in boys (ß = -1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.7, -0.038), DQ in children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy (ß = -2.9, 95% CI: -5.7, -0.12), P-M (ß = -5.4, 95% CI: -10, -0.67), C-A (ß = -6.1, 95% CI: -11, -1.8), L-S (ß = -9.0, 95% CI: -13, -4.8) and DQ scores (ß = -6.4, 95% CI: -9.6, -3.1) in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. Cord blood cadmium concentrations were negatively associated with L-S scores (ß = -6.0., 95% CI: -11, -0.91) in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal cadmium exposure was negatively associated with neurodevelopment in boys, in children whose mothers smoked, and in children born to mothers with gestational diabetes. Further studies in other populations are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Cádmio/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
9.
Environ Res ; 200: 111640, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302828

RESUMO

Prenatal particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) is associated with adverse birth growth. However, the longitudinal growth impacts have been little studied, and no mechanistic relationships have been described. We investigated the association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and growth trajectories, and the possible role of epigenetics. We enrolled 1313 neonates with PM2.5 data measured by ordinary kriging from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases, followed up at 1, 3, and 5 years to evaluate growth. Differential DNA methylation and pyrosequencing of cord blood leukocytes was evaluated according to the prenatal PM2.5 levels and birth weight (BW). PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester (T2) caused the lowest BW in both sexes, further adjusted for indoor PM2.5 levels [female, aOR 1.39 (95% CI 1.05-1.83); male, aOR 1.36 (95% CI 1.04-1.79)]. Bayesian distributed lag models with indoor PM2.5 adjustments revealed a sensitive window for BW effects at 10-26 weeks gestation, but only in females. Latent class mixture models indicated that a persistently low weight-for-height percentile trajectory was more prevalent in the highest PM2.5 exposure quartile at T2 in females, compared to a persistently high trajectory (36.5% vs. 20.3%, P = 0.022). Also, in the females only, the high PM2.5 and low BW neonates showed significantly greater ARRDC3 methylation changes. ARRDC3 methylation was also higher only in females with low weight at 5 years of age. Higher fetal PM2.5 exposure during T2 may cause a decreased growth trajectory, especially in females, mediated by ARRDC3 hyper-methylation-associated energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Arrestinas , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 648196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307271

RESUMO

Background: Triclosan (TCS) is an environmental chemical with endocrine disrupting effects and can enter the body through the skin or oral mucosa. Human data about the effect of TCS exposure during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight and TCS exposure during childhood on children's growth are scarce. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal urinary TCS level and neonatal birth weight, as well as children's urinary TCS level and children's body mass index (BMI). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Finally, seven epidemiological articles with 5,006 participants from September 25, 2014 to August 10, 2018 were included in the meta-analysis to identify the relationship between maternal exposure to TCS and neonatal birth weight. On the other hand, three epidemiological articles with 5,213 participants from July 22, 2014 to September 1, 2017 were included in another meta-analysis to identify the relationship between children's exposure to TCS and children's BMI. We used Stata 16.0 to test the heterogeneity among the studies and calculating the combined effect value 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected corresponding models. Results: TCS exposure during pregnancy was not significant associated with neonatal birth weight. The results of forest plots were as follows: ES (Estimate) = 0.41 (95% CI: -11.97-12.78). Children's urinary TCS level was also irrelevant associated with children's BMI: ES = 0.03 (95% CI: -0.54-0.60). Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that there was no significant association between maternal TCS level and neonatal birth weight, also there has no relationship between children's urinary TCS level and children's BMI.


Assuntos
Triclosan , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Triclosan/efeitos adversos
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 72, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development. METHOD: In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) PM. We highlight the established and emerging findings from epidemiologic studies and experimental models. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health. CONCLUSION: Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM2.5 levels are regulated, yet it is recognized that minority and low socioeconomic status groups experience disproportionate exposures. Moreover, PM0.1 levels are not routinely measured or currently regulated. Consequently, preventive strategies that inform neighborhood/regional planning and clinical/nutritional recommendations are needed to mitigate maternal exposure and ultimately protect children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148775, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323766

RESUMO

Sodium ρ-perfluorous nonenoxybenzene sulfonate (OBS), a novel kind of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl compound, has been widely detected in the environment. The toxicity of OBS to living organisms has become a public concern. A growing body of research showed that maternal exposure to environmental pollutants caused intestinal and metabolic diseases that could be conserved across offspring. Here, female C57BL/6 mice were treated OBS at dietary levels of 0.0 mg/L (CON), 0.5 mg/L (OBS-L) and 5.0 mg/L (OBS-H) during the gestation and lactation periods. The results demonstrated that OBS treatment not only induced significant changes in the mucus secretion and ionic transport, but also disrupted the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the intestine of F0 and F1 generations. Additionally, OBS exposure altered bile acids metabolism and affected the transcriptional levels of critical genes involved in bile acids synthesis, signaling transfer, transportation and apical uptake. Together, all these results indicated that OBS exposure was perceived as a major stress by the intestinal epithelium that strongly affected the intestinal barrier function (including mucus, CFTR, AMPs, inflammation), and ultimately led to imbalance in the metabolism of bile acids (BAs). Moreover, we found that maternal OBS exposure had a more obvious toxicity effect on the male offspring in this experiment. Taken together, maternal OBS exposure during pregnancy and lactation had the intestinal and metabolism toxic effects on the dams and offspring, indicating that effects of maternal exposure on the toxicity of offspring could not be ignored.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos , Lactação , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Sódio
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281082

RESUMO

The intrauterine environment is critical for healthy prenatal growth and affects neonatal survival and later health. Mercury is a toxic metal which can freely cross the placenta and disrupt a wide range of cellular processes. Many observational studies have investigated mercury exposure and prenatal growth, but no prior review has synthesised this evidence. Four relevant publication databases (Embase, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) were systematically searched to identify studies of prenatal mercury exposure and birth weight, birth length, or head circumference. Study quality was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool, and results synthesised in a narrative review. Twenty-seven studies met the review criteria, these were in 17 countries and used 8 types of mercury biomarker. Studies of birth weight (total = 27) involving populations with high levels of mercury exposure, non-linear methods, or identified as high quality were more likely to report an association with mercury, but overall results were inconsistent. Most studies reported no strong evidence of association between mercury and birth length (n = 14) or head circumference (n = 14). Overall, our review did not identify strong evidence that mercury exposure leads to impaired prenatal growth, although there was some evidence of a negative association of mercury with birth weight.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Biomarcadores , Peso ao Nascer , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Placenta/química , Gravidez
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200176

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase the risk of abnormal birth outcomes, and DNA methylation might mediate these adverse effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal BPA exposure on maternal and fetal DNA methylation levels and explore whether epigenetic changes are related to the associations between BPA and low birth weight. We collected urine and blood samples originating from 162 mother-infant pairs in a Taiwanese cohort study. We measured DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip in 34 maternal blood samples with high and low BPA levels based on the 75th percentile level (9.5 µg/g creatinine). Eighty-seven CpGs with the most differentially methylated probes possibly interacting with BPA exposure or birth weight were selected using two multiple regression models. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was utilized to narrow down 18 candidate CpGs related to disease categories, including developmental disorders, skeletal and muscular disorders, skeletal and muscular system development, metabolic diseases, and lipid metabolism. We then validated these genes by pyrosequencing, and 8 CpGs met the primer design score requirements in 82 cord blood samples. The associations among low birth weight, BPA exposure, and DNA methylation were analyzed. Exposure to BPA was associated with low birth weight. Analysis of the epigenome-wide findings did not show significant associations between BPA and DNA methylation in cord blood of the 8 CpGs. However, the adjusted odds ratio for the dehydrogenase/reductase member 9 (DHRS9) gene, at the 2nd CG site, in the hypermethylated group was significantly associated with low birth weight. These results support a role of BPA, and possibly DHRS9 methylation, in fetal growth. However, additional studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112530, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280840

RESUMO

Maternal gut microbiota play an important role in the modulation of offspring disease susceptibility and gut microbiota dysbiosis has been proposed as a mechanism through which toxic environmental chemicals exert their adverse impacts on health. The brominated flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are developmental toxicants and induce dysbiotic gut microbiota in offspring. Yet, whether and how PBDEs impact the maternal gut microbiota remain unclear. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) exposure from preconception through lactation cessation on maternal gut microbiota and its link to host serum metabolic consequences. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were daily exposed to 10 mg/kg PBDE-47 via oral gavage from ten days before conception until offspring were weaned on postnatal day 21, then maternal fecal and blood samples were collected for microbiome and metabolome analyses by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Maternal exposure to PBDE-47 showed a distinct profile in gut microbiota compared to control dams, as evidenced by increased Actinobacteria phylum and genera Blautia, Gemella and Phascolarctobacterium, and decreased genera AF12 and Oscillospira. Additionally, global metabolomics analysis identified 26 differential serum metabolites to distinguish PBDE-47 from controls, which were mainly involved in amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, further confirmed by pathway analysis. Importantly, the differential serum metabolites are closely correlated with the disturbed gut microbiota in response to PBDE-47. Collectively, our results suggest that maternal gut microbial dysbiosis may serve as a potential mechanism underlying PBDE-47-elicited health hazards to mothers or even offspring.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Animais , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206994

RESUMO

(1) Background: The aim of this study was to assess associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and natriuretic peptide concentrations in cord blood from newborns. (2) Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study in Mexico City with 101 pregnant women from CIMIGEN Hospital. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were measured in plasma from cord blood in 51 newborns by ELISA. We estimated PM exposure (PM2.5 and PM10) at first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. (3) Results: The median and interquartile range for ANP, BNP and CNP plasma concentrations were 66.71 (46.92-80.23), 98.23 (73.64-112.30) and 1129.11 (944.10-1452.02) pg/mL, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 levels for the whole pregnancy period were 22.2 µg/m3 and 41.63 µg/m3, respectively. Employing multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, newborn sex, smoking before pregnancy, maternal occupation and newborns' length and height, we observed a 2.47 pg/mL (95%CI: -4.67, -0.27) decrease in BNP associated with PM2.5 exposure during second trimester. Adjusted for the same set of confounders, third trimester PM10 exposure was inversely associated with ANP concentrations (beta estimate: -0.90; 95% CI: -1.80, -0.03). Neither PM10 nor PM2.5 were associated with CNP at any trimester of pregnancy. (4) Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to particulate matter was associated with ANP and BNP decrease in newborns.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Material Particulado , Fator Natriurético Atrial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , México , Peptídeos Natriuréticos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208324

RESUMO

Introduction: Phthalates are substances that are added to plastic products to increase their plasticity. These substances are released easily into the environment and can act as endocrine disruptors. Epidemiological studies in children have showed inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between prenatal or postnatal exposure to phthalates and the risk of allergic disease. Our hypothesis is that prenatal exposure to phthalates may contribute to the development of allergies in children. Material and methods: The objective of this study was to determine the associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in pregnant women, maternal atopic diathesis, maternal lifestyle, and cord blood IgE. Pregnant mothers and paired newborns (n = 101) were enrolled from an antenatal clinic. The epidemiologic data and the clinical information were collected using standard questionnaires and medical records. The maternal blood and urine samples were collected at 24-28 weeks gestation, and cord blood IgE, IL-12p70, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were determined from the newborns at birth. The link between phthalates and maternal IgE was also assessed. To investigate the effects of phthalates on neonatal immunity, cord blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) were used for cytokine induction in another in vitro experiment. Results: We found that maternal urine monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (a metabolite of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP)) concentrations are positively correlated with the cord blood IgE of the corresponding newborns. The cord blood IL-12p70 levels of mothers with higher maternal urine MEP groups (high DEP exposure) were lower than mothers with low DEP exposure. In vitro experiments demonstrated that DEP could enhance IL-4 production of cord blood MNCs rather than adult MNCs. Conclusion: Prenatal DEP exposure is related to neonatal IgE level and alternation of cytokines relevant to Th1/Th2 polarization. This suggests the existence of a link between prenatal exposure to specific plasticizers and the future development of allergies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Linfócitos T
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199136

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant, found in human fluids and tissues. Maternal BPA exposure is associated with alterations in pregnancy outcomes. Because maternal uterine circulation plays a crucial role in normal placenta and fetal growth, we hypothesized that BPA compromises the function of uterine arteries (UAs) and fetoplacental development. Female rats were orally administered with BPA (2.5, 25 and 250 µg/kg/day) or with its vehicle (ethanol) for 30 days before pregnancy and during the first 20 days of pregnancy. To compare the effect of BPA in the reproductive vs. systemic circulation, it was tested on UAs and mesenteric arteries (MAs). Arteries were isolated and examined by pressure myography. Moreover, fetuses and placentas were weighed to provide an index of reproductive performance. In UAs of BPA-treated rats, lumen diameter, acetylcholine-relaxation and expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor É£ (PPARÉ£) were reduced. Conversely, no changes were observed in MAs. BPA treatment also reduced placental weights, while fetal weights were increased. For the first time, our results indicate that UAs represent a specific target of BPA during pregnancy and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie its negative effects on pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Artéria Uterina/metabolismo , Artéria Uterina/patologia
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277546

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity of thallium (Tl). However, the effects of prenatal exposure to Tl on birth weight and placental weight and the mediating role of placental weight in the association of Tl with birth weight remain unclear. Methods: We recruited 2,748 participants from the ongoing Prenatal Environment and Offspring Health Cohort (PEOH Cohort) study, which was initiated in 2016 in Guangzhou, China. The Tl concentrations in maternal urine samples collected during the first and third trimester were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Birth weight and placental weight were extracted from maternal medical records. Results: Pregnant women exposed to the highest tertile of Tl in the first trimester (ß = -42.7 g, 95% CI: -82.3, -3.1 g) and third trimester (ß = -50.6 g, 95% CI: -99.0, -2.3 g) had babies with lower birth weights than those exposed to the lowest tertile. We also found significant negative associations of exposure to Tl concentrations in the first and third trimester with placental weight. Mediation analyses showed that 50.3% (95% CI: 15.9, 79.2%) and 33.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 80.3%) of the effects of Tl exposure in the first and third trimester on birth weight were mediated by decreased placental weight. Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to Tl is negatively associated with birth weight and that this association may be mediated by decreased placental weight.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Tálio , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Environ Res ; 200: 111386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of how prenatal exposure to environmental mixtures influences birth weight or other adverse outcomes is essential in protecting child health. OBJECTIVE: We illustrate a novel exposure continuum mapping (ECM) framework that combines the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm with generalized additive modeling (GAM) in order to integrate spatially-correlated learning into the study mixtures of environmental chemicals. We demonstrate our method using biomarker data on chemical mixtures collected from a diverse mother-child cohort. METHODS: We obtained biomarker concentrations for 16 prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) collected in the first-trimester from a large, ethnically/racially diverse cohort of healthy pregnant women (n = 604) during 2009-2012. This included 4 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 4 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 4 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). We applied a two-stage exposure continuum mapping (ECM) approach to investigate the combined impact of the EDCs on birth weight. First, we analyzed our EDC data with SOM in order to reduce the dimensionality of our exposure matrix into a two-dimensional grid (i.e., map) where nodes depict the types of EDC mixture profiles observed within our data. We define this map as the 'exposure continuum map', as the gridded surface reflects a continuous sequence of exposure profiles where adjacent nodes are composed of similar mixtures and profiles at more distal nodes are more distinct. Lastly, we used GAM to estimate a joint-dose response based on the coordinates of our ECM in order to capture the relationship between participant location on the ECM and infant birth weight after adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, serum cotinine, total plasma lipids, and infant sex. Single chemical regression models were applied to facilitate comparison. RESULTS: We found that an ECM with 36 mixture profiles retained 70% of the total variation in the exposure data. Frequency analysis showed that the most common profiles included relatively low concentrations for most EDCs (~10%) and that profiles with relatively higher concentrations (for single or multiple EDCs) tended to be rarer (~1%) but more distinct. Estimation of a joint-dose response function revealed that lower birth weights mapped to locations where profile compositions were dominated by relatively high PBDEs and select OCPs. Higher birth weights mapped to locations where profiles consisted of higher PCBs. These findings agreed well with results from single chemical models. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from our study revealed a wide range of prenatal exposure scenarios and found that combinations exhibiting higher levels of PBDEs were associated with lower birth weight and combinations with higher levels of PCBs and PFAS were associated with increased birth weight. Our ECM approach provides a promising framework for supporting studies of other exposure mixtures.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Peso ao Nascer , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
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