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1.
Chemosphere ; 255: 127003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679629

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the presence of 14 phthalate metabolites in the urine of 104 lactating mothers from Valencia (Spain) who took part in the human biomonitoring project BETTERMILK. Nine of the metabolites studied showed detection frequencies >80%, whereas the rest of the metabolites presented low detection frequencies (<5%). The concentrations ranged from

Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Dietilexilftalato , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Mães , Embalagem de Produtos , Medição de Risco , Espanha
2.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702804

RESUMO

Human exposure to environmental chemicals might play a role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been suggested to affect reproductive health. However, the mechanism remains unclear. To explore the association between BPA and BPS exposure and oxidative stress and immune homeostasis, we conducted a cross-sectional study and revealed BPA and BPS levels in relation to these two factors which were supposed to be implicated in miscarriage. 111 URSA patients were recruited and we analyzed urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) and serum immune balance biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IFN-γ). Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the correlation between bisphenols exposure and outcome biomarkers. After adjustment for age, BMI, menstrual cycle, and parity history, creatinine-adjusted BPA was significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane (ß = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.41; p = 0.031) and IFN-γ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.36; p = 0.046). No statistical correlation between BPS and biomarkers of oxidative stress or immune balance was observed when all participants were analyzed. Further analysis revealed that in the subgroup of BPS > limit of detection (0.01 ng/ml), creatinine-adjusted BPS was significantly associated with increases in IL-10 (ß = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.45; p = 0.048). Our findings suggested that BPA and BPS exposure might be related to oxidative stress and immune imbalance in URSA patients. Overall, our work might suggest potential pathogenic and aetiological associations among the bisphenols, biomarkers and URSA, which offers hypotheses for further studies.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517037

RESUMO

Prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure was determined in a sub-cohort of the Caribbean Consortium for Environmental and Occupational Health's environmental epidemiologic prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Suriname's interior. The associations between Hg exposure, low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) and preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) were explored. Correlation analysis, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between maternal hair Hg levels and birth weight, LBW and PTB, and between potential confounders, LBW and PTB, respectively. Among 204 singleton births were 198 live births, five stillbirths and one miscarriage. The mean participant age was 26 years; 15.7% of participants had PTBs and 8.1% delivered a child with a LBW. The median hair Hg level was 3.48 µg/g hair. Low hair Hg exposure, based on lowest tertile < 2.34 µg/g, was associated with LBW (OR = 7.2; 95% CI 1.5-35.6; p = 0.015); this association was independent of maternal age, ethnic background, household income and village location, and no correlation was found between hair Hg and PTB. Young maternal age was associated with PTB (RR = 5.09, 95% CI: 1.92-13.85; p = 0.0004) while maternal age was not associated with hair Hg or LBW. The impact of prenatal Hg exposure on pediatric neurodevelopment is currently being evaluated in the infant sub-cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Região do Caribe , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Suriname/epidemiologia
4.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126920, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387734

RESUMO

The pathological traits or diseases susceptibility caused by maternal exposure to environmental adverse insults (infection, malnutrition, environmental toxicants) could be transmitted across generations. It remains uncertain, however, whether the neurodevelopmental disturbances of offspring induced by maternal exposure to PM2.5 during early life can be inherited by subsequent generations without further exposure. In the current study, using transgenerational animal models, we found that F1 female showed poorer performance in Morris Water Maze (MWM), and the deficits in spatial learning and memory similarly presented in F2-F3 female. The transgenerationally-transmitted neurobehavioral disorders were mediated both via maternal and paternal lineage. Since the epigenetic modifications have been reported to be involved in the disturbed neurodevelopment induced by maternal exposure to detrimental environmental factors during early life, we further explored the possible epigenetic mechanism of the transgenerational effects. Intriguingly, the results displayed the significant increase in expression of Dnmt3a in F1 female offspring. And the hypermethylation of Bdnf promoter Ⅳ and downregulated expression of Bdnf in hippocampus were stably transmitted across the generations until the third generation. There was another interesting finding that the transgenerational effects were sex-specific and only emerged in female offspring. Together, our study indicated for the first time that maternal exposure to PM2.5 during early life could detrimentally affect neurobehaviors in multiple generations, and the declined expression of Bdnf induced by hypermethylation of Bdnf promoter Ⅳ mediated by Dnmts might be the potential molecular mechanism.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Gravidez
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19607, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311929

RESUMO

Studies of maternal oral contraceptive pill (OCP) exposure and the offspring's risk of atopic diseases are of current interest due to concerns about widespread use of OCP before or during pregnancy.We evaluated whether maternal OCP exposure is associated with an increased risk of atopic diseases by reviewing the literature and performing a meta-analysis. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify potential studies for inclusion. Three common atopic outcomes were included: asthma, eczema, and rhinitis.We found 693 titles, abstracts, and citations, and 6 studies were included in this analysis. A meta-analysis revealed that maternal OCP exposure was associated with higher odds of asthma (odds ratio [OR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.19; P = .014), rhinitis (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.07-1.68; P = .011) during childhood, whereas there was no association with eczema (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.81-1.68; P = .383). This analysis was limited by the small number of studies included and the limited adjustments for the possible confounders in the studies.Current evidence suggests that maternal OCP exposure increases the risk for respiratory allergic diseases (asthma and rhinitis) in the offspring, but not for eczema. Given the few studies included, future larger, prospective studies that control for important confounders are needed to verify our findings.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
6.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126592, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289600

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been linked to changes in newborn mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), but the effects of exposure are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the effect of weekly PM exposure during pregnancy on newborn mtDNAcn. The present study included 762 mother-infant pairs who were recruited in a birth cohort established between November 2013 and March 2015 in Wuhan, China. Mother's prenatal daily exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was calculated using a spatial-temporal land use regression model. Relative mtDNAcn in cord blood leukocytes was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Distributive lag regression models (DLMs) were applied to estimate the association between PM exposure and newborn mtDNAcn. In the adjusted models, prenatal PM2.5 exposure during 25-32 weeks and PM10 exposure during 25-31weeks were significantly associated with decreased cord blood mtDNAcn. PM2.5 exposure during the third trimester was related to decreased mtDNAcn (cumulative percent change: -8.55%, 95% CI: -13.32%, -3.51%). We also identified other exposure windows (17-22 and 11-22 weeks) in which PM exposure was positively associated with mtDNAcn. Overall, exposure to particulate air pollution during mid-to-late gestation is significantly associated with alterations in newborn mtDNAcn, potentially suggesting an enhanced sensitivity to PM exposure during this period.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacologia , China , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mães , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126668, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) has a multifactorial causation with a strong genetic component and many environmental triggers. Emerging body of empirical studies suggest that air pollution is an important contributor to the development of CHDs, however, there still remains some controversy over the current evidence, and to the authors' knowledge, no studies have reviewed the most recent evidence. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological literature to investigate the relationship between maternal air pollution exposure and CHDs risk in offspring. The presence of heterogeneity and publication bias across available studies were also examined. METHODS: An extensive literature search of epidemiological studies pertaining to air pollution and CHDs, published in English language, until August 1, 2019 was conducted. Summary risk estimates of pollution-outcome combinations were calculated for i) risk per specific increment of concentration and ii) risk at high versus low exposure level in each study using fixed-effect model or random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies were finally included. In the meta-analyses, high versus low carbon monoxide (CO) exposure was associated with an increased risk of tetralogy of Fallot [odds ratio (OR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.41], yet particulate matter ≤ 5 µm (PM2.5) exposure was marginally associated with it. Increased risk of atrial septal defects (ASDs) was found for each 10 µg/m3 and 10 ppb increment in particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and ozone (O3) exposure, respectively (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09; OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). Categorical nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was associated with an increased risk of coarctation of the aorta (OR for high versus low = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26). Analyses for other combinations yielded none statistically significant associations. Sensitive analyses showed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: The summary effect estimates from this study suggest statistically significant associations between increased risk of specific CHDs subtypes and PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 exposures. Further studies, especially conducted in developing countries, with improvements in exposure assessing, outcome harmonizing, and mechanistic understanding are needed to elaborate the suggestive associations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 38, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a correlation between fluoride concentrations in urine and community water fluoride concentrations. However, there are no studies of the relationship between community water fluoridation, urine, serum, and amniotic fluid fluoride concentrations in pregnant women in the US. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal urine fluoride (MUF), maternal urine fluoride adjusted for specific gravity (MUFSG), maternal serum fluoride (MSF), amniotic fluid fluoride (AFF) concentrations during pregnancy, and community water fluoridation in Northern California. METHODS: Archived samples of urine, serum and amniotic fluid collected from second trimester pregnant women in Northern California from 47 different communities in Northern California and one from Montana (n = 48), were analyzed for fluoride using an ion specific electrode following acid microdiffusion. Women's addresses were matched to publicly reported water fluoride concentrations. We examined whether fluoride concentrations in biospecimens differed by fluoridation status of the community water, and determined the association between water fluoride concentrations and biospecimen fluoride concentrations using linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, smoking, Body Mass Index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and gestational age at sample collection. RESULTS: Fluoride concentrations in the community water supplies ranged from 0.02 to 1.00 mg/L. MUF, MSF , and AFF concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant women living in communities adhering to the U.S. recommended water fluoride concentration (0.7 mg/L), as compared with communities with less than 0.7 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. When adjusted for maternal age, smoking status, BMI, race/ethnicity, and gestational age at sample collection, a 0.1 mg/L increase in community water fluoride concentration was positively associated with higher concentrations of MUF (B = 0.052, 95% CI:0.019,0.085), MUFSG (B = 0.028, 95% CI: -0.006, 0.062), MSF (B = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.003) and AFF (B = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: We found universal exposure to fluoride in pregnant women and to the fetus via the amniotic fluid. Fluoride concentrations in urine, serum, and amniotic fluid from women were positively correlated to public records of community water fluoridation. Community water fluoridation remains a major source of fluoride exposure for pregnant women living in Northern California.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/química , Fluoretação , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Feto/química , Fluoretos/sangue , Fluoretos/urina , Humanos , Montana , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126824, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335443

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates the adverse effect of air pollution exposure during pregnancy on neurologic development among children. However, the impact on neurobehavioral development in fetus remains unknown. In 2017, a total of 1193 mother-newborns pairs were enrolled in a birth cohort study in Changsha, China. Exposures to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO and NO2 were determined by using inverse distance weighted method based on local monitoring station data. Neurobehavioral measure was administered at 48-72 h postpartum by utilizing the neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA). Basic information and covariates were collected by face to face interview. Generalized linear regression and multivariable restricted cubic spline function were performed to explore the trimester-specific association and dose-response relationship of maternal air pollution exposure with NBNA score, respectively. In adjusted three-pollutant model, PM2.5 exposure in trimester 2 was negatively associated with behavior score (ß, -0.003; 95% CI, -0.006, -0.001) and the inverse relation was more pronounced in male infants. In addition, PM2.5 level in the 2nd trimester was negatively related to activetone score (ß, -0.012; 95% CI, -0.021, -0.002) in a dose-dependent manner for both genders. Collectively, our results demonstrated that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was linked to poor neurobehavioral performance of newborns. The second trimester was the most sensitive time window for the developments of behavior and activetone, and male subject was more vulnerable as compared to females.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mães , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez
10.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126843, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339796

RESUMO

In a 3-day duplicate diet study of a nursing mother-infant cohort (n = 20), the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and 5 novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were measured in 60 24-h duplicate diet samples and 20 breast milk samples provided by the mothers. The dietary BFR intake and related health risks of the mothers and their babies due to food consumption or human milk ingestion were subsequently assessed. At median concentrations of 284, 264 and 177 pg/g wet weight (ww) in the diet, decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and HBCDD were predominant among the total BFRs. In human milk, HBCDD was the most abundant BFR, followed by BDE-209 and DBDPE, which indicates that BDE-209 and HBCDD have remained ubiquitous in the environment because of their continuous production and use in China. Meanwhile, concentrations of DBDPE were comparative to those of PBDEs and HBCDD in both diet and human milk, and DBDPE also had much higher concentrations than any other NBFRs, which indicates that the BFR consumption pattern in China is shifting from legacy BFRs to NBFRs. The median estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of BDE-209, HBCDD and DBDPE for the mothers were 6.83, 3.73 and 5.44 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, and EDIs for their nursing babies were 24.7, 41.9 and 7.83 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The nursing infants showed higher BFR body burden than the mothers. However, the EDIs obtained for both mothers and their babies discloses a low health risk to this mother-infant cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pequim , Bromobenzenos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Halogenação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Mães
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202159, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259265

RESUMO

Importance: Although phthalate exposure during pregnancy has been associated with preterm birth, the association of preconception exposure in either parent with preterm birth constitutes a knowledge gap. Objective: To examine the association of paternal and maternal preconception urinary concentrations of biomarkers of phthalates and phthalate substitutes with singleton preterm birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study, conducted at an academic fertility center in Boston, Massachusetts, included a prospective preconception cohort of subfertile couples comprising 419 mothers and 229 fathers and their 420 live-born singleton offspring born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2018. Statistical analysis was performed from August 1 to October 31, 2019. Exposures: Urinary concentrations of metabolites of phthalates and phthalate substitutes obtained before conception. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gestational age was abstracted from delivery records and validated using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for births after medically assisted reproduction. The risk ratio (RR) of preterm birth (live birth before 37 completed weeks' gestation) was estimated in association with urinary concentrations of 11 individual phthalate metabolites, the molar sum of 4 di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites, and 2 metabolites of 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH, a nonphthalate plasticizer substitute) using modified Poisson regression models adjusted for covariates. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 419 mothers was 34.7 (4.0) years, the mean (SD) age of the 229 fathers was 36.0 (4.5) years, and the mean (SD) gestational age of the 420 singleton children (217 boys) was 39.3 (1.7) weeks, with 34 (8%) born preterm. In adjusted models, maternal preconception ΣDEHP concentrations (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.09-2.06; P = .01) and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid monohydroxy isononyl ester (MHiNCH, a metabolite of DINCH) concentrations (RR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.89-3.24; P = .11) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. After additional adjustment for prenatal ΣDEHP or MHiNCH concentrations, the association of maternal preconception exposure to ΣDEHP and preterm birth remained robust (RR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.44; P = .006), while the association of maternal preconception exposure to MHiNCH and preterm birth was attenuated (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.49-2.81; P = .72). The remaining urinary metabolites examined in either parent showed no association with preterm birth. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective cohort of subfertile couples, maternal preconception exposure to ΣDEHP metabolites was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. The results suggest that female exposure to select phthalate plasticizers during the preconception period may be a potential risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, which may need to be considered in preconception care strategies.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Paterna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110339, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143103

RESUMO

Serum and breast milk are both important biological samples to evaluate body burden of dioxin-like compounds which include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We collected maternal serum at early pregnancy, and breast milk at 3-8 weeks after delivery from 55 mothers living in Beijing, China, and measured 29 dioxin-like compounds in these samples. The sampling intervals in this study were extended up to 10 months to analyze differences of contents between serum and breast milk under long sampling intervals. The results showed that mean TEq level of PCDD/Fs in serum (9.8 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was 1.7 times higher than that in milk (4.5 pg TEq g-1 lipid), while the TEq concentrations of dl-PCBs in serum (1.2 pg TEq g-1 lipid) was significantly lower than that in milk (2.0 pg TEq g-1 lipid). There were only two congeners, OCDD (r = 0.32) and PCB105 (r = 0.33), the correlations of which between serum and milk were significant. The differences in distributions of congeners in serum and milk might be influenced by number of chlorine substituents and structures of congeners. In addition, maternal age and BMI were positively and negatively correlated with mass concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in milk and serum respectively. These results suggest that, compared with serum, it is limited to use breast milk to assess long-term exposure for the wider population.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Pequim , Benzofuranos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Gravidez
13.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126422, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199162

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues can affect fetal growth and development. However, epidemiologic findings were inconsistent and there was a lack of study for BPA analogues. We aimed to examine the associations between prenatal exposure to BPA, bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and birth size. 2023 mother-infant pairs were included in this study. The associations between serum bisphenol levels and birth size were analyzed by multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for covariates, one log10-unit increase in serum BPA was correlated with a 32.10 g (95% CI: -61.10, -3.10) decrease in birth weight for all infants, and the inverse association was only observed in males when stratified analysis by gender. Additionally, higher BPF concentrations were associated with decreasing birth weight (P for trend = 0.031), ponderal index (P for trend = 0.021), and birth weight Z-scores (P for trend = 0.039) in all infants, and the inverse associations were also only observed in males when stratified analysis by gender. Similarly, higher TBBPA levels were also correlated with decreased birth weight (P for trend = 0.023). However, after gender stratification, higher TBBPA concentrations were associated with a decrease in birth weight (P for trend = 0.007), birth length (P for trend = 0.026), and birth weight Z-scores (P for trend = 0.039) in males. Our data suggested an inverse association of prenatal exposure to BPA, BPF, and TBBPA and birth size, which may be more pronounced in male infants.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , China/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Fenóis/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etnologia , Sulfonas/metabolismo , Sulfonas/toxicidade
14.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126484, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199166

RESUMO

An increased risk of developing colorectal cancer has been associated with exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and alteration in the gut bacterial community. However, there is limited understanding about the impact of maternal exposure to POPs on colorectal cancer and gut microbiota. This study characterized the influence of exposure to a human relevant mixture of POPs during gestation and lactation on colorectal cancer, intestinal metabolite composition and microbiota in the A/J Min/+ mouse model. Surprisingly, the maternal POP exposure decreased colonic tumor burden, as shown by light microscopy and histopathological evaluation, indicating a restriction of colorectal carcinogenesis. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis identified alterations in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, glycerophospholipids and energy in intestinal tissue. In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota indicated that maternal exposure modified fecal bacterial composition. In conclusion, the results showed that early-life exposure to a mixture of POPs reduced colorectal cancer initiation and promotion, possibly through modulation of the microbial and biochemical environment. Further studies should focus on the development of colorectal cancer after combined maternal and dietary exposures to environmentally relevant low-dose POP mixtures.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactação , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143391

RESUMO

Background: Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for humans, the diet being the main source of exposure. Some epidemiological studies describe a negative association between prenatal Mn and later neuropsychological development, but results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore the association between prenatal Mn exposure and neuropsychological development assessed at 4 years of age. Methods: Study subjects were 304 mother-child pairs from the Gipuzkoa cohort of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. Mn was measured in newborns' hair. Children's neuropsychological development was assessed at 4 years of age using the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multivariate linear regression models were built. Stratified analysis by sex was performed. Generalized additive models were used to assess the shape of the relation. Results: The median Mn concentration in newborns' hair was 0.42 µg/g (95% CI = 0.38, 0.46). The association between Mn levels and the neuropsychological development was not statistically significant for the general cognitive scale (ß [95% CI] = 0.36 [-5.23, 5.95]), motor scale (ß [95% CI] = 1.9 [-3.74, 7.55]) or any of the other outcomes. No sex-specific pattern was found. The best shape describing the relationship was linear for all the scales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal Mn concentrations measured in newborns' hair do not affect cognitive or motor development at 4 years of age in boys or in girls at the observed Mn levels.


Assuntos
Manganês , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155988

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of developing preeclampsia (PE) associated with gestational exposure to ambient air pollutants in southern Sweden, a low-exposure area. We used a cohort of 43,688 singleton pregnancies and monthly mean exposure levels of black carbon (BC), local and total particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and NOX at the maternal residential address estimated by Gaussian dispersion modeling from 2000 to 2009. Analyses were conducted using binary logistic regression. A subtype analysis for small-for-gestational age (SGA) was performed. All analyses were adjusted for obstetrical risk factors and socioeconomic predictors. There were 1286 (2.9%) PE cases in the analysis. An adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.35 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.11-1.63 was found when comparing the lowest quartile of BC exposure to the highest quartile in the third trimester The AOR for PE associated with each 5 µg/m3 increase in locally emitted PM2.5 was 2.74 (95% CI: 1.68, 4.47) in the entire pregnancy. Similar patterns were observed for each 5 µg/m3 increment in locally emitted PM10. In pregnancies complicated by PE with SGA, the corresponding AOR for linear increases in BC was 3.48 (95% CI: 1.67, 7.27). In this low-level setting, maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during gestation was associated with the risk of developing PE. The associations seemed more pronounced in pregnancies with SGA complications, a finding that should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Material Particulado , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126149, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062213

RESUMO

The toxicity of endocrine disruptors depends on the synergistic interactions of biological, environmental, and behavioral factors. The specific effects of diet, consumer product use, and behaviors, however, are debated in the literature, particularly with regard to endocrine disruptors found in breast milk. This study aimed to measure the levels of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan in breast milk and to investigate their associations with various lifestyle factors. The breast milk samples as well as surveys were collected from 221 first-time mothers throughout South Korea and each sample was analyzed for the presence of 15 endocrine disruptors. Phthalate metabolites were detected in 5.4-83.3% of the samples, with median concentrations of 0.08-1.72 µg/L, while bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan were detected in 25.8-88.2% of the samples, with median concentrations of 0.12-1.47 µg/L. High levels of endocrine disruptors were associated with frequent consumption of fish and cup noodles; the use of plastic and disposable food containers; the use of air fresheners, lotions and make-up; the purchase of new furniture; and socioeconomic status. We also observed the potential role of moderate walking activity on the reduction of these chemicals in breast milk. Our data provide evidence of the potential effects of diet, consumer products, and behavior on the presence of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, parabens, and triclosan in breast milk. Future studies should include community or regional impact on a mothers' exposure to endocrine disruptors, to assess the joint contribution of both individual and neighborhood factors.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Parabenos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Triclosan/metabolismo , Dieta , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Leite Humano/química , Mães , Parabenos/análise , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(2): 27004, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorder is poorly understood. Few studies have investigated the link between endocrine-disrupting chemicals and autistic traits. We examined the relationship between gestational phthalates and autistic traits in 3- to 4-y-old Canadian children. We also investigated potential effect modification by sex and folic acid supplementation. METHODS: We enrolled 2,001 women>18 years of age during the first trimester of pregnancy between 2008 and 2011 from 10 cities in Canada. At 3-4 years of age, 610 children underwent neuropsychological assessments including the Social Responsiveness Scale-II (SRS-2) as a measure of autistic traits and social impairment. We measured 11 phthalate metabolites in maternal first trimester urine samples and assessed folic acid supplementation from reported intakes. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in SRS-2 T-scores with a doubling in phthalate concentrations in 510 children with complete data. RESULTS: Mean total SRS T-score was 45.3 (SD=6.1). Children with higher gestational exposure to mono-n-butyl (MBP) and mono-3-carboxypropyl (MCPP) concentrations exhibited significantly higher total SRS T-scores, indicating greater overall social impairment, as well as higher scores on subdomains, indicating deficits in social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. A doubling in MBP or MCPP concentrations was associated with 0.6 (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.8) higher total SRS T-scores. Associations were consistently and significantly stronger in boys (ßMBP=1.0; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.6; n=252) compared with girls (ßMBP=0.1; 95% CI: -0.6, 0.7; n=258) and among children who had lower prenatal folic acid supplementation (<400µg/d) (ßMBP=1.3; 95% CI: 0.4, 2.3; n=59) compared with those who had adequate folic acid supplementation (≥400µg/d) (ßMBP=0.4; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.8; n=451). CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were associated with higher scores of autistic traits as measured by the SRS-2 in boys, but not girls; these small size effects were mitigated by first trimester-of-pregnancy folic acid supplementation. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5621.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Gravidez
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024173

RESUMO

In the United States (US), recreational cannabis use is on the rise. Since 2011, 11 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for adult recreational use. As additional states consider legalizing, there is an urgent need to assess associations between recreational cannabis legalization and maternal use in the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods-all critical windows for maternal and child health. Using cross-sectional data from the 2016 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we assessed associations between state cannabis legalization and self-reported maternal cannabis use. Using logistic regression, we estimated the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of cannabis use during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum period for women delivering a live-born infant in three states that had legalized recreational cannabis (Alaska, Colorado, and Washington) and three states that had not legalized (Maine, Michigan, and New Hampshire) by 2016. Our final sample size was 7258 women. We utilized 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a significance level of alpha = 0.05. After adjustment for potential confounders, women who resided in states with legalized recreational cannabis were significantly more likely to use cannabis during the preconception (PR 1.52; 95%CI ranging from 1.28-1.80; p < 0.001), prenatal (PR 2.21; 95% CI ranging from 1.67-2.94; p < 0.001), and postpartum (PR 1.73; 95%CI ranging from 1.30-2.30; p < 0.001) periods, compared to women who resided in states without legalized recreational cannabis. Although evidence about the effect of marijuana use during these periods is nascent, these findings show potential for increased incidence of child exposure to cannabis. Longitudinal research is needed to assess immediate and sustained impacts of maternal use before and after state legalization of recreational cannabis.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Drogas Ilícitas , Exposição Materna , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/legislação & jurisprudência , Lactente , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
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