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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 131-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129734

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is associated with long-term hormone-dependent effects that are sometimes not revealed until maturity, middle age, or adulthood. The aim of this study was to conduct descriptive reviews on animal experimental and human epidemiological evidence of the adverse health effects of in utero and lactational exposure to selected EDCs on the first generation and subsequent generation of the exposed offspring. PubMed, Web of Science, and Toxline databases were searched for relevant human and experimental animal studies on 29 October 29 2018. Search results were screened for relevance, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated and qualitative data extracted for analysis. The search yielded 73 relevant human and 113 animal studies. Results from studies show that in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is associated with impairment of reproductive, immunologic, metabolic, neurobehavioral, and growth physiology of the exposed offspring up to the fourth generation without additional exposure. Little convergence is seen between animal experiments and human studies in terms of the reported adverse health effects which might be associated with methodologic challenges across the studies. Based on the available animal and human evidence, in utero and lactational exposure to EDCs is detrimental to the offspring. However, more human studies are necessary to clarify the toxicological and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these effects.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1329-1335, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of extreme ambient temperature on the risk of adverse birth outcomes are limited, and the results are inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the short-term effects of daily mean temperature on the risk of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in Xinxiang, China. METHODS: Daily hospitalization data for PROM, daily meteorological data, and ambient pollution data in Xinxiang from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 were collected. A quasi-Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was applied to assess the short-term impact of temperature on PROM. The model was adjusted for relative humidity, air pollution, time trend, day of the week, and public holidays. RESULTS: The number of daily hospitalizations for PROM during the study period was 3255. With a reference median temperature of 17 °C, there were significant associations between the temperature deviation from the threshold temperature (2 °C, 12th percentile; 29 °C, 91st percentile) and PROM hospitalization at lag 0-2 days. Exposure to extreme cold (-2 °C, 1st percentile) or extreme heat (32 °C, 99th percentile) were associated with 0.528 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.278-0.986) and 2.161 (95% CI: 1.240-3.764) increased risks of PROM, respectively. Younger mothers with age <35 years were more sensitive to the impact of extreme temperature. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that heat temperature is associated with higher PROM risk, while cold temperature might be a protective factor against PROM in Xinxiang, China. Given the adverse consequences of PROM and concerns over global climate change, pregnant women should take special precautions in summer when there are sudden increases in temperature.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1152-1159, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390705

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that maternal exposure to vanadium (V) is associated with adverse birth outcomes including preterm birth and low birth weight. However, the effect of V exposure on intrauterine fetal growth and the underlying biological mechanism are still unclear. The present study includes 227 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai Maternal-Child Pairs Cohort to assess the gender-specific effect of intrauterine V exposure on fetal growth and related cytokines. Maternal blood samples were collected to measure V concentration and biomarkers of growth. We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the gender-specific effect of prenatal V exposure on birth parameter and growth-related cytokines. Mixed-effect models were applied to assess the non-linear association between gestational V exposure and intrauterine fetal growth. Covariates adjusted in the regression models as potential confounders including maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weeks, parity, socio-demographic status, etc. Results showed that prenatal V exposure was negatively associated with birth weight (ß = -64.73) in female newborns and body length (ß = -0.10) in male. During the fetal period, maternal V exposure was associated with decreased biparietal diameter (ß = -0.91), head circumference (ß = -2.96), femur length (ß = -0.72) and humerus length (ß = -0.64) in male. Trimester-specific analyses showed that serum V concentration in the second trimester was associated with significant reductions in intrauterine growth parameters. Besides, prenatal V exposure could down-regulate the expression of growth hormone (GH) in both maternal blood (ß = -0.23) and umbilical cord blood (ß = -1.66) in male fetuses, and the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in cord blood in females (ß = -0.52). Our results suggest that prenatal V exposure has a gender-specific effect on fetal growth and the second trimester may be a sensitive window. The disruption of grow-related cytokines may potentially be the biological mechanism of these effects.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vanádio/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 388-399, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299572

RESUMO

In this study we reconstruct the long-term exposure of Czech mothers to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and determine the causes of high contamination of breast milk by indicator PCBs (iPCBs). A data set containing information from more than 1000 primiparous women from the Czech Republic was used, including iPCB concentrations in breast milk, individual physiology and living characteristics. The time series of PCB intakes for the whole period from the beginning of PCB production in 1958 until 2011 were reconstructed. We estimated the individual lifetime exposure of mothers for all iPCBs, i.e. congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Various model scenarios were investigated to determine the influence of physiology, age at delivery, past dietary exposure, and food composition on concentrations in breast milk for all iPCBs. The highest contributions to the presence of iPCBs in breast milk were observed for food composition. The main factor determining the concentration of higher-chlorinated PCBs (138, 153 and 180) was past exposure. The most important parameter for identification of children's postnatal exposure through breast milk was the time-span from the maximum of the exposure peak to the birth of the child. The current concentrations of iPCBs in breast milk in the Czech population are still high because the maximum of the exposure peak occurred more than 10 years later than in other European countries and was very broad, e.g. covered more than 10 years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Adulto , República Tcheca , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 599-605, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185407

RESUMO

Preterm birth is an important issue of public reproductive health worldwide. The effects of the toxic metals on the likelihood of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) are still under discussion. Our study aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to the five typical toxic metals or metalloid (i.e. arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) and the SPB likelihood. The mothers delivering fetus with SPB (cases) and those with term healthy birth (controls) were chosen from a prospective birth cohort of 3201 women carried out in Shanxi Province, China. A total of 147 SPB cases and 381 controls were included in our nested case-control study. We collected maternal general information by questionnaire and collected their blood sample during recruitment. The serum concentrations of the five toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry. We found that the demographic information between the cases and controls were well balanced. The participants in our study had relatively higher serum As concentration. For the other toxic metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb), their serum concentrations were overall in the middle range of those from general population. There were no significant associations of the serum concentrations of the five concerned toxic metals with the SPB likelihood. Our study results overall did not support that maternal exposure to As or Cd significantly contribute to the SPB risk in the current exposure level, as well as the other three toxic metals. We further proposed their upper concentration limits in maternal serum from the perspective of SPB likelihood during the early pregnant period, i.e. 18.2 ng/mL of As, 1.05 ng/mL of Cd, 0.96 ng/mL of Cr, 1.07 ng/mL of Hg, and 1.54 ng/mL of Pb.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/normas , Gravidez
6.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(2): 86-91, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216162

RESUMO

Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental effects that is used as an additive in food and beverage containers. There are no data of BPA levels in the Argentine population. The objective of this study was to measure BPA in the urine of pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Detection of BPA in pregnant women of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with a limit of quantification of 2 ng / ml and detection of 0.8 ng / ml. The proportion of women exposed to BPA within the 95% confidence interval (IC 95%) is described. Results: 149 pregnant women, average age 32 years (Standard Deviation 5.3), 81% (95% CI 73.9-86.9) workers and 83.7% (95% CI 76.7-89.1) have university or higher education, 66.4% (95% CI 58-74.0) of the urinary samples were quantifiable, with a median BPA of 4.3 ng/mg Cr (RI 3.2-6.7). Conclusions: This study shows that exposure to BPA during the process of embryonic development in a sector of the population of Argentina is widespread. In Argentina, the use of this ED is only regulated in baby bottles.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/urina , Adolescente , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 681: 235-241, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures are associated with a number of outcomes including adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although inflammation is hypothesized to play a role, the mechanistic pathways between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes, including associations between exposures and longitudinal measures of systemic and reproductive tract inflammation, need elucidation. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate whether exposure to air pollution is associated with immunologic responses in the systemic circulation and lower reproductive tract, and to evaluate whether systemic and reproductive tract immunologic responses are similar. METHODS: We quantified repeated measures of cytokines from cervico-vaginal exudates and serum obtained concurrently among 104 women with term pregnancies and estimated PM10 and CO exposure using the monitor nearest each participant's residence. Serum and cervico-vaginal cytokines were compared using Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and Spearman rank correlations for select gestational months. We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to quantify reproducibility of cytokine measurements, and Tobit regression to estimate associations between air pollution and cytokines. RESULTS: Median cervico-vaginal levels of IL-6, Eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, and TNFα were higher than corresponding serum cytokines, significantly so for IL-6 and IP-10. Cervico-vaginal and serum cytokines were not correlated, but cytokines from the same fluid were correlated. ICCs for most serum cytokines were ≤0.40, while ICCs were higher in cervico-vaginal cytokines (range 0.52-0.83). IP-10 and Eotaxin had the highest ICCs for both cytokine sources. In adjusted models, PM10 was positively associated with serum cytokines IL-6, IP-10, MIP-1ß and Eotaxin but inversely associated with cervico-vaginal cytokine TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1ß, MCP-1 and Eotaxin, controlling for false discovery rate. CO was inversely associated with cervico-vaginal TNFα, IL-6, MIP-1ß, MCP-1 and Eotaxin. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory processes are compartment-specific. Systemic inflammatory markers may provide information on immunologic processes and response to environmental exposures, but are not proxies for lower reproductive tract inflammation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , México , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 137-145, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078085

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to phthalates may cause some adverse health effects on both mother and fetus, but variations of phthalate exposure and metabolism during pregnancy have not been thoroughly characterized. A total of 946 participants were selected from a cohort study conducted in Wuhan between 2014 and 2015 through which they had provided a complete set of urine samples at three trimesters. Eight phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 2838 urine samples. Based on urinary concentrations, various parameters (i.e. phthalate metabolite concentrations, ratios of metabolites of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in DEHP, and percentages of individual metabolites in total phthalates) were compared over three visits. We observed that levels of phthalate metabolites showed a U-shaped trend across three trimesters. The significant variations in the ratios of DEHP metabolites indicated that the efficiency in metabolizing DEHP declined during pregnancy and less recent exposure occurred in mid-pregnancy. The changes of percentages of individual compound in total phthalates suggested the inconsistent pattern over trimesters. This longitudinal study found that the exposure pattern, exposure timing and metabolic susceptibility varied by trimesters, which suggests that urine samples should be collected at multiple time points and mothers should be especially careful in the early pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Chemosphere ; 231: 225-232, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129403

RESUMO

To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to single metal and multiple metals and the risk of low birth weight (LBW), we conducted a nested case-control study of 246 LBW and 406 NBW mother-infant pairs based on a prospective birth cohort study. 22 serum metals were detected by inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Categorical analyses showed serum Co and Ti were associated with LBW (Co: 3rd vs 4th. quartile: OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.14-2.92, Ptrend = 0.043; Ti: 2nd vs. 4th quartile: OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.32-0.81, P trend = 0.051), especially gestational age >13 weeks (Co: 3rd vs. 4th quartile: OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.13 - 3.32, Ptrend = 0.043; Ti: 2nd vs. 4th quartile: OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30 - 0.84, P trend= 0.073). Cubic spline analyses showed serum Co and serum Ti had non-linearity associations with LBW (Co: P for overall = 0.048, P-nonlinearity = 0.014; Ti: P for overall = 0.015, P- nonlinearity = 0.008). In multi-metal compound exposure model, 15 metals selected by elastic net model were significantly associated with the increased risk of LBW and OR (95%CI) was 5.14 (2.81-9.40). Our study suggested that lower level serum Co was positively associated with LBW and lower level serum Ti was negatively associated with LBW, especially gestational age >13 weeks, and both of them had non-linearity dose-relationships with LBW. And multi-metal compound model was significantly associated with LBW compared with single metal model.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 35, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal exposure to toxic elements on birth outcomes and child development have been an area of concern. This study aimed to assess the profile of prenatal exposure to toxic elements, arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi), cadmium (Cd), mercury (total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MHg), inorganic mercury (IHg)), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), and essential trace elements, copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), using the maternal blood, cord blood and placenta in the Tohoku Study of Child Development of Japan (N = 594-650). METHODS: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these elements (except mercury). Levels of THg and MeHg were measured using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector, respectively. RESULTS: Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the maternal blood were 4.06 (2.68-6.81), 1.18 (0.74-1.79), 10.8 (8.65-13.5), 0.2 (0.06-0.40) and 0.2 (0.1-0.38) ng mL-1 and 5.42 (3.89-7.59) ng g-1, respectively. Median concentrations (25th-75th) of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn and THg in the cord blood were 3.68 (2.58-5.25), 0.53 (0.10-1.25), 9.89 (8.02-12.5), 0.39 (0.06-0.92) and 0.2 (0.2-0.38) ng mL-1 and 9.96 (7.05-13.8) ng g-1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: THg and Sb levels in the cord blood were twofold higher than those in the maternal blood. Cord blood to maternal blood ratios for As, Cd and Sb widely varied between individuals. To understand the effects of prenatal exposure, further research regarding the variations of placental transfer of elements is necessary.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/química , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/sangue , Placenta/química , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Troca Materno-Fetal , Saúde da População Urbana
11.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 758-766, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933773

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are known to be toxic, bioaccumulative, and persistent. However, exposure routes and toxic effects to humans are still widely unknown. Our objectives were to evaluate potential correlations between concentrations of PFASs in maternal plasma and infant cord blood with home characteristics and developmental effects, including wheezing. The concentrations of 17 PFASs were measured in plasma from prenatal women (n = 414), postnatal women (n = 247), and cord blood (n = 50) from a subset of participants in a population-based birth cohort in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, using online solid phase extraction (SPE) with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Multiple linear regression and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate possible associations with PFAS concentrations. Surveys were used to collect information regarding maternal characteristics (e.g. age, parity, duration of breastfeeding), infant characteristics (e.g. birth weight, birth length, head circumference, gestational age, and incidence of recurrent wheezing), and home characteristics (e.g. home age,carpet coverage in the most used room, presence of new furniture, or recent home renovations). PFASs in plasma were associated with maternal characteristics but not home characteristics or early childhood wheezing. PFASs were not associated with developmental effects, with the exception that perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) was negatively associated with birth weight. Further studies investigating the potential influences of PFUA on birth weight are warranted.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Manitoba , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
12.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 77, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The uterine environment may influence telomere length at birth, which is essential for cellular function, aging, and disease susceptibility over the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of toxic chemicals on early-life telomeres. Therefore, we assessed the potential impact of multiple toxic metals on relative telomere length (rTL) in the maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta, as well as the potential modifying effects of pro-oxidants. METHOD: In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n = 169), we measured multiple toxic metals in the maternal blood or urine collected during late pregnancy, as well as the placenta and cord blood collected at delivery, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We assessed associations of log2-transformed metal concentrations with rTL, measured in maternal and cord blood leukocytes and the placenta by real-time PCR, using multivariable-adjusted linear regression. Additionally, we tested for modifications by antioxidants (zinc, selenium, folate, and vitamin D3). RESULTS: Exposure to boron and antimony during pregnancy was associated with shorter maternal rTL, and lithium with longer maternal rTL; a doubling of exposure was associated with changes corresponding to 0.2-0.4 standard deviations (SD) of the rTL. Arsenic concentrations in the placenta (n = 98), blood, and urine were positively associated with placental rTL, about 0.2 SD by doubled arsenic. In the cord blood (n = 88), only lead was associated with rTL (inversely), particularly in boys (p for interaction 0.09). Stratifying by newborn sex showed ten times stronger association in boys (about 0.6 SD) than in girls. The studied antioxidants did not modify the associations, except that with antimony. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated exposure to boron, lithium, arsenic, and antimony was associated with maternal or newborn rTL in a tissue-specific, for lead also sex-specific, manner. Nutritional antioxidants did not generally influence the associations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Materna , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Troca Materno-Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , Mães , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/prevenção & controle , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(15): 15677-15684, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949941

RESUMO

Maternal exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements is an important concern for fetal growth. In our previous study, we showed the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in maternal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort and their relationships between PCB levels in cord serum with birth weight of newborn. Various reports on the relationship between chemical exposure and birth status have been published; however, studies that analyze the effects of both PCB and metal exposure together in one cohort are still limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship of maternal serum levels of PCBs and toxic and essential trace elements [mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and cadmium (Cd)], with birth weight and head circumference, in the C-MACH cohort. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal serum around 32 gestational weeks (n = 62) was 360 pg g-1 wet wt (41 ng g-1 lipid wt). The levels of Hg, Mn, Se, and Cd in maternal serum were 0.89, 0.84, 100, and 0.024 ng g-1, respectively. In this study, the Bayesian linear model determined the relationships of the birth weight and head circumference with combinations of PCB levels, toxic and essential trace elements, and questionnaire data. We found that PCB concentrations in maternal serum were weakly and negatively related to birth weight, whereas trace elements were not associated with birth weight. Serum PCB and Mn levels were negatively associated with head circumference, whereas other trace elements were not associated with head circumference. These results showed that maternal exposure to PCBs may be related to birth weight and head circumference, while maternal exposure to Mn is related to head circumference, even when adjusted based on the exposure levels of other contaminants, and maternal and fetal characteristics. Therefore, our findings indicate that maternal exposure to PCBs and Mn might be negatively related with birth weight and head circumference.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio/química , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Selênio/química , Oligoelementos/química
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 673: 631-642, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999104

RESUMO

Human exposure data on dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in Ghana are limited. Based on health risks associated with dioxins and DLCs, the impact of maternal body burdens on foetal exposure is significant. This is the first study that assesses polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs) in sera of primiparous Ghanaians. Our sample selection includes 34 participants from two municipalities (Accra and Tema), and explores contributions from environmental and dietary exposures using questionnaire data. Sample preparation involved C18 solid phase extraction, purification with acidified silica and lipid removal cartridges, and detection with gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated average toxic equivalent concentration was 5.3 pg TEQ/g lw, with contributions from dlPCBs (1.25 pg TEQ/g lw), PCDD/Fs (3.10 pg TEQ/g lw), PBDD/Fs (0.49 pg TEQ/g lw) and PXDD/Fs (0.50 pg TEQ/g lw). The calculated total TEQ concentration was lower than background TEQ concentrations reported in sera of pregnant women globally. Positive correlations were obtained for total dioxins and DLC concentrations with age and Body Mass Index (BMI). Dietary intake of seafood and dairy products had a strong influence on PCDD/F and dlPCB concentrations. Statistically significant differences were observed for dioxins and DLCs in participants from Accra (in close proximity to Agbogbloshie e-waste site) and Tema. Given the significant TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs (~20%), it is essential to explore these classes of dioxins and DLCs in future biomonitoring studies as they may pose health risks, and add extra diagnostic information in source exposure investigations.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Gravidez
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 667: 718-729, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849612

RESUMO

We previously reported the adverse effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on child neurodevelopment around a former US military airbase in Vietnam. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal dioxin exposure on fetal brain development, which may predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. A total of 55 newborns with mothers from dioxin-contaminated areas were recruited in the prefecture hospital in Bien Hoa, Vietnam. Dioxins in maternal breast milk collected 1 month after birth were used as a maternal exposure marker. Relative powers and coherence were computed from neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) records during active sleep stages. Relationships between the EEG parameters and dioxin exposure markers were analyzed using linear regression and a general linear model after adjusting for gestational age, body length, and head circumference of infants at birth. Using data from 47 infants whose neurodevelopment was examined in a 2-year follow-up study, associations between EEG parameters and neurodevelopment were analyzed after adjusting for confounding factors. On the right frontal and parietal regions, relative delta powers were significantly decreased, and relative alpha and beta powers were significantly increased with increasing dioxin exposure. Increases in delta power and decreases in alpha power on the right frontal and parietal regions were associated with an increase in language scores at 2 years of age. Furthermore, intra- and inter-hemispheric coherence in theta and alpha bands were positively and inversely correlated with dioxin exposure, respectively, and increased intra-coherence in the right hemisphere was associated with lower language scores. These findings suggest that prenatal dioxin exposure affects neuronal activity and functional connectivity between brain regions, and may lead to poor language development.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Encéfalo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dioxinas/metabolismo , Eletroencefalografia , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Vietnã
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 658-667, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856574

RESUMO

Biomonitoring of human breast milk is one of the best ways to identify body burdens of contaminants and associated risk estimation. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate milk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), associated exposure estimation, and the role of body mass index (BMI) in their bioaccumulation. A total of 45 breast milk samples were collected from 24 women with BMI > 30 (obese) and 21 women with BMI < 25 (18.5-24.9, normal) from 14 different counties surrounding Lubbock in west Texas/New Mexico (age range: 18-34 years). Samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 31/45 (69%) of samples tested positive for PAHs. Phenanthrene was the most frequently detected PAH followed by pyrene and fluoranthene. The mean of individual PAH concentration for all samples ranged from 0 to 25.1 ng/g milk fat; the sum of all means of individual PAHs was 146.9 ng/g milk fat. The mean concentration of total PAHs in the BMI > 30 group was 224.8 ng/g milk fat, which was approximately 4 times the mean concentration of total PAHs in the BMI 18.5-24.9 group (57.9 ng/g milk fat). None of the samples from the BMI 18.5-24.9 group contained higher molecular weight (5-6 rings) PAHs, while in the BMI >30 group, a total of 11 PAHs including listed EPA priority pollutants were observed. In this study, benzo(b)fluoranthene was found to contribute the highest percentage of carcinogenic PAHs (32.08%), yet it was not detected in any samples from the BMI 18.5-24.9 group. The estimated total PAHs intakes by infants via obese and normal mothers' milk were 1.26 and 0.32 (µg/kg/day), which are 0.049 and 0.003 (µg/kg/day) B[a]P equivalent, respectively. These findings suggest that breastfed babies from obese mothers are potentially at higher risk of exposure to carcinogenic PAHs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , New Mexico , Obesidade , Medição de Risco , Texas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 668: 797-805, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870748

RESUMO

The present study addresses the presence of bisphenols A (BPA) and its analogs bisphenol F (BPF) and S (BPS) in milk of 120 mothers living in Valencia (Spain) and participating in the BETTERMILK project (year 2015). We also studied the factors that could influence the BPA levels and estimated the exposure and the risk for breast fed infants. The frequency of detection of total (conjugated + unconjugated) and unconjugated-BPA were 83% and 77%, with a geometric mean of 0.29 ng/mL and 0.15 ng/mL, respectively. The frequency of detection was much lower for total-BPF (22%) and total-BPS (1.1%). The place of residence of the mother and the use of personal care products showed significant association with BPA concentrations. The estimated daily intake of total-BPA for breastfed infants amounted to a geometric mean of 0.04 µg/kg bw and a 95th percentile of 1.0 µg/kg bw, below the tolerable daily intake of 4 µg/kg bw-day established by EFSA. To our knowledge, this is the largest biomonitoring study of bisphenols in human milk in Europe.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Adulto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Espanha , Sulfonas/metabolismo
18.
BMJ ; 364: l962, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between early developmental exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: California's main agricultural region, Central Valley, using 1998-2010 birth data from the Office of Vital Statistics. POPULATION: 2961 individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, revised (up to 31 December 2013), including 445 with intellectual disability comorbidity, were identified through records maintained at the California Department of Developmental Services and linked to their birth records. Controls derived from birth records were matched to cases 10:1 by sex and birth year. EXPOSURE: Data from California state mandated Pesticide Use Reporting were integrated into a geographic information system tool to estimate prenatal and infant exposures to pesticides (measured as pounds of pesticides applied per acre/month within 2000 m from the maternal residence). 11 high use pesticides were selected for examination a priori according to previous evidence of neurodevelopmental toxicity in vivo or in vitro (exposure defined as ever v never for each pesticide during specific developmental periods). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between pesticide exposure and autism spectrum disorder (with or without intellectual disabilities) in offspring, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Risk of autism spectrum disorder was associated with prenatal exposure to glyphosate (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.27), chlorpyrifos (1.13, 1.05 to 1.23), diazinon (1.11, 1.01 to 1.21), malathion (1.11, 1.01 to 1.22), avermectin (1.12, 1.04 to 1.22), and permethrin (1.10, 1.01 to 1.20). For autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability, estimated odds ratios were higher (by about 30%) for prenatal exposure to glyphosate (1.33, 1.05 to 1.69), chlorpyrifos (1.27, 1.04 to 1.56), diazinon (1.41, 1.15 to 1.73), permethrin (1.46, 1.20 to 1.78), methyl bromide (1.33, 1.07 to 1.64), and myclobutanil (1.32, 1.09 to 1.60); exposure in the first year of life increased the odds for the disorder with comorbid intellectual disability by up to 50% for some pesticide substances. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that an offspring's risk of autism spectrum disorder increases following prenatal exposure to ambient pesticides within 2000 m of their mother's residence during pregnancy, compared with offspring of women from the same agricultural region without such exposure. Infant exposure could further increase risks for autism spectrum disorder with comorbid intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764487

RESUMO

Prenatal tobacco exposure is a significant, preventable cause of childhood morbidity, yet little is known about exposure risks for many race/ethnic subpopulations. We studied active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in a population-based cohort of 13 racially/ethnically diverse pregnant women: white, African American, Hispanic, Native American, including nine Asian/Pacific Islander subgroups: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotian, Samoan, and Asian Indians (N = 3329). Using the major nicotine metabolite, cotinine, as an objective biomarker, we analyzed mid-pregnancy serum from prenatal screening banked in 1999⁻2002 from Southern California in an effort to understand differences in tobacco exposure patterns by race/ethnicity, as well as provide a baseline for future work to assess secular changes and longer-term health outcomes. Prevalence of active smoking (based on age- and race-specific cotinine cutpoints) was highest among African American, Samoan, Native Americans and whites (6.8⁻14.1%); and lowest among Filipinos, Chinese, Vietnamese and Asian Indians (0.3⁻1.0%). ETS exposure among non-smokers was highest among African Americans and Samoans, followed by Cambodians, Native Americans, Vietnamese and Koreans, and lowest among Filipinos, Japanese, whites, and Chinese. At least 75% of women had detectable cotinine. While for most groups, levels of active smoking corresponded with levels of ETS, divergent patterns were also found. For example, smoking prevalence among white women was among the highest, but the group's ETS exposure was low among non-smokers; while Vietnamese women were unlikely to be active smokers, they experienced relatively high ETS exposure. Knowledge of race/ethnic differences may be useful in assessing disparities in health outcomes and creating successful tobacco interventions.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/etnologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(7): 6717-6724, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632045

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has shown that prenatal ambient air pollution exposure is associated with elevated stillbirth risk; however, the results are inconsistent. This population-based prospective cohort study aimed to explore the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and stillbirth rate in the coastal area in China. Data of air pollution and birth outcomes between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were collected. Among the 59,868 eligible births, there were 587 stillbirths and 59,281 live births. Although the air quality in this study was relatively better than most of the major cities in China, a positive association was still found between prenatal air pollution exposure and stillbirth rate. Every 10 µg/m3 increase of fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in each trimester, as well as in the entire pregnancy, was associated with increased stillbirth rate (RR = 1.14, 1.11, 1.15, and 1.14 for the first, second, third trimester, and entire pregnancy, respectively). In addition, every 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 in the first trimester (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14), and 10 µg/m3 increase of O3 in the first (RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09) and third (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) trimesters was also associated with increased stillbirth rate. The effects of PM2.5 on stillbirth rate were found to be robust in the two-pollutant models. The findings of this study especially underscored the adverse effects of prenatal exposure of high levels of PM2.5 on stillbirth. More studies are needed to verify our findings and further investigate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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