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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022203

RESUMO

Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects


Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos


Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Aborto , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 239-244, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the concentration of microbial aerosol and species composition of airborne staphylococci in 10 healthcare facilities in southern Poland including primary healthcare units and hospital wards; and to assess whether the selected components of microbial aerosol pose a threat of severe infections to either patients or the personnel. METHODS: The study was conducted at monthly intervals over a period of one year. Air samples were collected by MAS-100 sampler. The number of mesophilic bacteria, mould fungi, actinomycetes and staphylococci was determined on general and selective media. The species identification of staphylococci was conducted using API tests for strains that were pre-selected based on macroscopic and microscopic observations. RESULTS: A total number of 1,584 samples were collected during the sampling period. The numbers of airborne microorganisms varied between the examined premises and between the seasons of the year. The observed differences were statistically significant with one exception for actinomycetes and their differences between the examined premises. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria varied from 5 to 297 CFU/m3 of air, for Staphylococcus the values ranged from 1 to 96 CFU/m3, for fungi - from 1 to 100 CFU/m3, and the number of actinomycetes ranged from 7 to 321 CFU/m3. Ten species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were identified among 55 isolates with S. saprophyticus and S. warneri being the most frequently detected (n = 14 and 13, respectively). S. haemolyticus, which is one of the most common causal agents of nosocomial infections was observed in four facilities (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The microbial concentrations varied both between the seasons of the year and between the examined facilities. The highest bioaerosol concentrations were observed in most crowded premises. The identified species of staphylococci, although not typically associated with human infections, are common causal agents of nosocomial infections and infections in immunocompromised people.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Aerossóis , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Fungos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Polônia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17373, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574886

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation can induce deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation pattern change, and ionizing radiation-induced oxidative damage may also affect DNA methylation status. However, the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation, such as occupational radiation exposure, on DNA methylation is still controversial.By investigating the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and DNA methylation changes, we evaluated whether radiation-induced oxidative damage was related to DNA methylation alterations and then determined the relationship among occupational radiation level, DNA methylation status, and oxidative damage in interventional physicians.The study population included 117 interventional physicians and 117 controls. We measured global methylation levels of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA and expression level of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmts) and homocysteine (Hcy) in serum to assess the DNA methylation status of the body. We measured 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels as indices of oxidative damage. Relevance analysis between multiple indices can reflect the relationship among occupational radiation exposure, DNA methylation changes, and oxidative damage in interventional physicians.The expression levels of Dnmts, 4-HNE, and 8-OHDG in interventional physicians were higher than those in controls, while there was no statistical difference in total DNA methylation rate and expression of Hcy between interventional physicians and controls. Total cumulative personal dose equivalent in interventional physicians was positively correlated with the expression levels of Dnmts, 8-OHDG, and 4-HNE. The expression levels of 8-OHDG in interventional physicians were negatively correlated with global DNA methylation levels and positively correlated with the expression levels of Hcy.Occupational radiation exposure of interventional physicians has a certain effect on the expression of related enzymes in the process of DNA methylation, while ionizing radiation-induced oxidative damage also has a certain effect on DNA methylation. However, there was no evidence that dose burden of occupational exposure was associated to changes of DNA methylation status of interventional physicians, since it is rather unclear which differences are observed among the effects produced by radiation exposure and oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Metilação de DNA/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Radiologia Intervencionista/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aldeídos/sangue , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metiltransferases/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(38): 813-818, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557149

RESUMO

Silicosis is an incurable occupational lung disease caused by inhaling particles of respirable crystalline silica. These particles trigger inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, leading to progressive, irreversible, and potentially disabling disease. Silica exposure is also associated with increased risk for lung infection (notably, tuberculosis), lung cancer, emphysema, autoimmune diseases, and kidney disease (1). Because quartz, a type of crystalline silica, is commonly found in stone, workers who cut, polish, or grind stone materials can be exposed to silica dust. Recently, silicosis outbreaks have been reported in several countries among workers who cut and finish stone slabs for countertops, a process known as stone fabrication (2-5). Most worked with engineered stone, a manufactured, quartz-based composite material that can contain >90% crystalline silica (6). This report describes 18 cases of silicosis, including the first two fatalities reported in the United States, among workers in the stone fabrication industry in California, Colorado, Texas, and Washington. Several patients had severe progressive disease, and some had associated autoimmune diseases and latent tuberculosis infection. Cases were identified through independent investigations in each state and confirmed based on computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest or lung biopsy findings. Silica dust exposure reduction and effective regulatory enforcement, along with enhanced workplace medical and public health surveillance, are urgently needed to address the emerging public health threat of silicosis in the stone fabrication industry.


Assuntos
Manufaturas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Manufatureira , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Silicose/diagnóstico , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicose/epidemiologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489074

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Ghana has not been actively pursued despite the endemicity of the infection. This study measures the hepatitis B vaccine uptake among HCWs at the University of Ghana Hospital, Legon (UGHL) and identifies the factors associated with vaccination. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving all staff who have direct contact with patients was conducted. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on vaccination status, age, sex, type of staff, duration of work in the facility, exposure to blood or blood products, blood stained linens/waste, sharp instruments and performance of invasive procedures. Data was analysed using STATA 14. Continuous variables were described using median values and interquartile ranges (IQR) and categorical variables as proportions. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify the factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination status. Results: Of the 161 participants interviewed, 63.4% were females with median age 35 years (IQR: 27-45). Eighty-six (53.4%) of the respondents had taken the hepatitis B vaccine with 79.1% of them having completed the vaccination schedule. Factors associated with vaccination were working for more than 16 years (OR: 3.8, CI: 1.02-12.72), daily exposure to blood/blood products (OR: 4.1, CI: 1.43-11.81) and sharp instruments (OR: 4.45, CI: 1.39- 14.24), performing invasive procedures daily (OR: 3.0, CI: 1.07-8.45) and frequent exposure to blood stained linens/waste (OR: 6.1, CI: 1.41-26.51). Conclusion: The lack of hepatitis B vaccination among some HCWs at UGHL puts them at risk of contracting hepatitis B infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495107

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of long-term exposure to silica dust on serum CC16 and KL-6 levels. Methods: The patients with stage I silicosis who were hospitalized in our hospital from April 2016 to April 2017 were treated as silicosis group. The silica dust exposed workers without silicosis who were taken the physical examination in our hospital were taken as a dust-exposed group. The healthy control group comes from in the same period of community physical examination did not touch the dust. The levels of CC16 and KL-6 in serum of all subjects were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) , and the levels of CC16 and KL-6 in serum were compared in three groups. Results: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of CC16 in the silicosis group (P<0.01) and the dust-exposed group (P<0.01) were significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the level of serum KL-6 in the silicosis group was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared with the control group, while the level of KL-6 in the serum of the dust-exposed group was significantly increased (P<0.01) . The ROC area of CC16 for diagnosis of silicosis was 0.92 (P<0.01) , with a sensitivity of 81.37%, specificity of 92.63% and Kappa value of 0.74. Conclusion: Long-term exposure to silica dust may lead to a decrease in serum CC16 levels. Reduced serum CC16 levels may be useful in identifying the diagnosis of silicosis.


Assuntos
Poeira , Mucina-1/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/sangue , Uteroglobina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495112

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence of contact dermatitis among workers in cemented carbide production enterprises. Methods: From October 1997 to October 2017, an occupational epidemiological survey was conducted on a large-scale cemented carbide production enterprise, and occupational health examinations were conducted for employees. 152 people were exposed to hard metal dust (hard metal raw material dust and alloy dust) . The employees in the work group were contact groups, and 142 employees in the non-dusting operation of the company were in the control group. A detailed retrospective survey of hard metal production workers with contact dermatitis history in the two groups was conducted to analyze the risk factors of contact dermatitis exposure to hard metal dust. Results: The incidence of allergic diseases in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=23.793, P<0.05) . The incidence of contact dermatitis in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=24.659, P<0.05) ; the changes of contact dermatitis in the contact group were mainly allergic contact dermatitis, and some showed irritative contact dermatitis; the operator had respiratory symptoms (including work-related nasal congestion, cough, wheezing) , difficulty breathing may be the influencing factors of contact dermatitis (RR=2.60, 95%CI: 1.10-6.20, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Hard metal alloy enterprises are exposed to hard metal dust. The incidence of contact dermatitis is high in workers, and the occurrence of contact dermatitis may be associated with those with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495113

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the current situation of blood-borne occupational exposure among health care workers and evaluate the intervention effect of PDCA. Methods: Retrospective survey was adopted to investigate and analyze the blood-borne occupational exposure incidents in a hospital from January 2015 to December 2018, and to compare the intervention effects after PDCA management. Results: A total of 82 cases of occupational exposure occurred from 2015 to 2017, and only 9 cases happened after the implementation of PDCA intervention. The exposed population was mainly consisted of nurses (59 cases, 64.83%) , and mainly with low-working age (1-5 years) (56 cases, 61.54%) , and the main source of exposure was hepatitis B (34 cases, 37.36%) . In addition, after the implementation of PDCA, the vaccination rate of personnel was 77.78%, the standardized field treatment rate was 100%, the preventive drug use rate was 88.89%; The qualified rate of occupational protection assessment was higher than that before intervention, which all shows the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: With the guide of PDCA management, Strengthen the training of new employees or ones with low working years as well as their awareness of protection, and standardize the relevant operational procedures, which can significantly improve the prevention of blood-borne occupational exposure and stress management of medical staff.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Corpo Clínico , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Doenças Profissionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495115

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the detection of thyroid nodules and related risk factors in nuclear power workers, and to provide scientific evidence for thyroid protection of nuclear power workers. Methods: In December 2018, select 295 workers of a nuclear power production enterprise and 238 administrative staff of it, and select 250 staff members of a thermal power generation enterprise 70 kilometers away from the nuclear power station to conduct thyroid ultrasound examination and questionnaire survey for single factor. Analysis and further multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to study the risk factors of thyroid nodules in the population. Results: Women and smoking history were independent risk factors for the increased incidence of thyroid nodules in the study population; three shifts work pattern was an independent risk factor for the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers (P<0.05) , and other factors such as the history of nuclear exposure had no significant correlation with thyroid nodules (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Nuclear exposure has little effect on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Exposição Ocupacional , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495123

RESUMO

Objective: To Assess occupational health risks of exposuring to low concentrations (lower than occupational exposure limit, OEL) benzene, toluene and Xylenes. Methods: Qualitative evaluation, semi-quantitative evaluation and quantitative evaluation from guidelines for occupational health risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace were conducted to assess occupational health risks exposure to benzene compounds in different workplaces of 5 manufacturing enterprises, respectively. Results: Concentrations of benzene, toluene and Xylenes in all workplaces were lower than OEL. Qualitative evaluation showed that occupational health risk level was 4 exposure to benzene and Xylenes in all workpalces, while 2 exposure to toluene. Semi-quantitative evaluation showed low level (2 of 5) risks in all workplaces exposured to benzene compounds excepted 4 workpalces exposured to benzene, the latter was moderate (3 of 5) . Quantitative evaluation gave unacceptable carcinogenic risk (higher than 10(-4)) of benzene in the wood toy manufactory, and the highest risk was (1.48~5.26) ×10(-4). The occupational health risks of benzene and Xylenes were all unacceptable (HQ>1) in 9 workplaces. Conclusion: There still need more attention to occupational health risks exposure to benzene, toluene and Xylenes lower than OEL.


Assuntos
Benzeno/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495125

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the workplace and for various types of work in a carbon enterprise based on the measurement data of various components of PAHs in the air from the workplace of the carbon enterprise, and to provide a scientific basis for protection against PAHs in this enterprise. Methods: In July 2017, a carbon enterprise in Shandong Province and its on-duty workers were chosen as subjects. On-site occupational hygiene investigation and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to investigate and determine the presence and concentrations of PAHs in various workshops and various types of work in the enterprise, and toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was used to evaluate the carcinogenic level of PAHs. Results: The components of PAHs with relatively high content in the air of the workplace in the carbon enterprise were fluoranthene, pyrene, benzanthracene, X, and benzo[a]pyrene, with mean concentrations of 1 485.66, 864.66, 805.35, 500.08, and 120.88 ng/m(3), respectively. There were significant differences between the three workshops in the concentrations of PAHs components (benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, X, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, indenopyrene, and anthracene) and total TEQ (P<0.05) . The total TEQ of PAHs in the molding workshop was significantly higher than that in other workshops (P<0.05) . There were significant differences between different types of work in the exposure to pyrene and fluoranthene and TEQ (P<0.05) . Shaking-table operators, moving-sieve operators, batching operators, fabric workers, and hot-oil stove workers had higher exposure levels of PAHs. The exposure concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and benzanthracene were highly correlated with total TEQ. Conclusion: The concentration of PAHs in the working environment of the carbon enterprise is generally higher; benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene are the PAHs components against which special protective measures need to be taken; molding workshops are the workshops that are most seriously endangered by PAHs; shaking-table operators are the type of workers needing special protection against PAHs. The occupational hazards of PAHs in the carbon industry cannot be ignored, against which corresponding protective measures should be formulated based on their exposure characteristics.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Benzo(a)Antracenos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495126

RESUMO

A farm worker in Baodi District of Tianjin was diagnosed with Tsutsugamushi disease due to fever and intermittent cough for more than 3 months.The patient's diagnosis and treatment process was complicated, and the diagnosis was delayed in the early stage of the disease because the clinician neglected the occupational history and lacked knowledge about the prevention and control of tsutsugamushi disease. As an important part of the epidemiological history, occupational history is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational related diseases. Clinical thinking runs through the whole process of clinical diagnosis and disease treatment, and correct clinical thinking can effectively reduce the occurrence of misdiagnosis.Clinicians should ask and record career history in detail to improve the quality of health care.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Exposição Ocupacional , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Humanos , Anamnese , Competência Profissional
13.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 409-414, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Employees performing work underground in coal mines are exposed to the effect of many hazardous factors in their work environment which negatively affect their health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to recognize the opinions of employes working underground in one of the coal mines concerning the occurrence of factors hazardous for health in their work environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 700 persons working underground in the 'Bogdanka' coal mine in Leczna (Eastern Poland). The study was carried out using a questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using software STATISTICA v. 7.1. RESULTS: The vast majority of respondents (approximately 80%) reported that noise and dustiness at their workplace create risk for their health. More than a half of them mentioned that the microclimate in the mine threatens their health (high humidity and high temperature), and a half of respondents indicated vibration and poor lighting. The greatest differences of opinions concerning the effect of hazardous factors on health of persons employed in the mine were observed in the sub-groups distinguished according to the work position. Health risk at a workplace was most often identified by those employed as miners. CONCLUSIONS: Among actions reducing the negative effect of the work environment on health is the introduction of new, safer technologies of coal mining. Also, the human factor is very important for work safety in mining, including the proper preparation of employees who undertake work in a mine. It is recommended that new, more effective educational programmes are implemented in the area of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) at workplaces.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Atitude , Poeira/análise , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Microclima , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
14.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180093, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measure the sound pressure levels in classrooms of a university as well to verify the self-perception of noise in the educational environment and its influence on the activities carried out by students and professors. METHODS: The study was carried out with students and professors who answered a questionnaire regarding self-perception of noise in the classroom, as well as the presence of auditory and non-auditory complaints. Measurement of sound pressure levels was performed in ten classrooms of Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. The points for measuring the sound pressure level inside the classrooms were selected according to the literature and legislation: three distinct points, totaling nine measurements in each room. RESULTS: Participated in this study students and professors from the Institute of Biological and Health Sciences. The classrooms of the morning shift had the highest noise measurement. Classrooms at lunch time had the lowest average noise. The first floor has the highest average noise, being classified as the noisiest floor. Noise is perceived by both students and professors as an interfering factor in the activities performed inside the classrooms, however, professors have a greater perception of noise interference in their activities than students. CONCLUSION: Noise is present in all classrooms with values higher than those recommended by national legislation. This noise is perceived by students and professors and negatively interferes in the teaching-learning activities.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1281-1286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501370

RESUMO

At Ogaki Municipal Hospital, we expanded the preparation of anticancer drugs using a closed system drug transfer device (CSTD)when revising medical fees in 2016. In this study, we investigated the number of regimens and number of preparations for outpatients in December 2017. Subsequently, the cost of all consumables related to the preparation of anticancer drugs was calculated. In total, 574 preparations of 68 regimens were conducted, with CSTD used in the preparation of 331 (57.7%)drugs. The cost associated with preparation of anticancer drugs was 1,608,163 yen/month, of which the CSTD cost was 1,135,315 yen/month(70.6%). Given the disproportionately high cost related to CSTD, we investigated for material cost reduction. Although CSTD has a mechanism for adjusting the differential pressure inside and outside the vial, the conditions were used to calculate medical fee; however, if we use what we do not have, we estimated that the facility burden would be reduced by 24.7%. CSTD can contribute not only to safety through exposure prevention but also to medical cost reduction through introduction of "Drug Vial Optimization." We believe it will continue to act as a medical evidence to reduce medical fee remuneration and ease the conditions of fee calculation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Exposição Ocupacional , Equipamentos de Proteção
16.
JAMA ; 322(9): 824-833, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479137

RESUMO

Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P = .18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P = .10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P = .47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P = .39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P = .08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01249625.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Máscaras , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão
18.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446721

RESUMO

SummaryNoise is one of the most common environmental and occupational exposures, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has become the leading occupational disease, secondary to the age-related hearing impairment. It is a significant cause of disability and a major cost to the society. Three characteristics of NIHL have been thoroughly established through numerous studies. First, noise-induced threshold changes increases with noise intensity and duration of exposure. Second, difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing even in the presence of normal behavioral thresholds in the subjects with a history of noise exposure. Third, individual susceptibility to noise along with the degree of hearing loss varies greatly among population. NIHL is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. And much of the literature on NIHL is derived from cross-sectional studies, providing limited evidence for the natural history of the noise exposure. Then, it is urgent to explore the development tendency and identify the susceptible frequencies of NIHL through large-scaled longitudinal study, and provide a new method for estimating individual susceptibility to NIHL.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Presbiacusia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 530, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372746

RESUMO

Activities in the Bangladeshi leather industries have the potential to cause chemical pollutions thereby deteriorating the working environments, the surrounding residential areas, or even foodstuffs. Therefore, it is important to determine the chemical exposures among the industry workers and residents of the surrounding areas who may be directly or indirectly impacted by the contaminated environment. This study focused on evaluating the hazard arising from exposure to metals due to industrial contamination. Tissue samples of hair and nails were collected from both the leather industry workers and residents in the vicinity of the industries. Using chromium as an indicator of contamination/exposure from the leather industry, it was the most significant metal contaminant for industry workers ranging from 21.85 to 483 mg/kg and for industry-neighboring residents at 6.01 to 296.16 mg/kg. Both the workers and neighboring residents were found to be excessively exposed (P < 0.05) to chromium compared with the investigated control group of people living in a distant village area which had no industrial establishments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Bangladesh , Cromo/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Unhas/química
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