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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045557, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated widespread shortages of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and the creation and sharing of proposed substitutes (novel designs, repurposed materials) with limited testing against regulatory standards. We aimed to categorically test the efficacy and fit of potential N95 respirator substitutes using protocols that can be replicated in university laboratories. SETTING: Academic medical centre with occupational health-supervised fit testing along with laboratory studies. PARTICIPANTS: Seven adult volunteers who passed quantitative fit testing for small-sized (n=2) and regular-sized (n=5) commercial N95 respirators. METHODS: Five open-source potential N95 respirator substitutes were evaluated and compared with commercial National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved N95 respirators as controls. Fit testing using the 7-minute standardised Occupational Safety and Health Administration fit test was performed. In addition, protocols that can be performed in university laboratories for materials testing (filtration efficiency, air resistance and fluid resistance) were developed to evaluate alternate filtration materials. RESULTS: Among five open-source, improvised substitutes evaluated in this study, only one (which included a commercial elastomeric mask and commercial HEPA filter) passed a standard quantitative fit test. The four alternative materials evaluated for filtration efficiency (67%-89%) failed to meet the 95% threshold at a face velocity (7.6 cm/s) equivalent to that of a NIOSH particle filtration test for the control N95 FFR. In addition, for all but one material, the small surface area of two 3D-printed substitutes resulted in air resistance that was above the maximum in the NIOSH standard. CONCLUSIONS: Testing protocols such as those described here are essential to evaluate proposed improvised respiratory protection substitutes, and our testing platform could be replicated by teams with similar cross-disciplinary research capacity. Healthcare professionals should be cautious of claims associated with improvised respirators when suggested as FFR substitutes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Respiradores N95 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488265

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the application of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Screening Questionnaire and pulmonary function test in dust-exposed migrant workers. Methods: In May 2019, 149 cases of dust exposed migrant workers were selected as the research subjects through the free clinic in the countryside. COPD Screening Questionnaire and lung function test were carried out to analyze the high-risk groups and the influencing factors of positive pulmonary function test results. Results: Among 149 cases of dust-exposed migrant workers, 107 (71.8%) were positive for questionnaire screening, 73 (49.0%) were positive for pulmonary function test, 75 (50.3%) were diagnosed with coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and 101 (67.8%) were diagnosed with lung function injury. The positive rate of pulmonary function of migrant workers with positive questionnaire screening results was significantly higher than that of those with negative results (P<0.05) . The results of multivariate analysis showed that compared with non-pneumoconiosis, the risk of positive pulmonary function test results was higher in dust-exposed migrant workers with stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis (OR=16.462, 95%CI: 3.390-79.946; P<0.01) . Compared with non-smoking, the risks of positive pulmonary function test results of dust-exposed migrant workers with smoking index of 11-20 package years and >20 package years were higher (OR=19.814, 95%CI: 3.854-101.883; OR=9.733, 95%CI: 2.310-41.008; P<0.01) . Conclusion: The risk of COPD in dust-exposed migrant workers is high, so we should strengthen the early examination of the high pneumoconiosis stage and smoking population. The screening questionnaire can better screen out the high-risk groups of COPD, and it can be used as a basic screening tool.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Migrantes , Poeira , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488268

RESUMO

Objective: To investigation the situation of occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among workers in automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2017-2019 in Wuhan. Methods: Workers in automobile manufacturing who underwent physical examination in Wuhan Hospital for the Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases from 2017 to 2019 were included as subjects in the cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire survey, noise detection and pure tone threshold test were used. Excluding individuals with working time less than 3 years and information deficiency, 3 948 individuals were finally included in the study. Results: Among 3 948 workers, 128 workers had hearing loss and the rate of hearing loss was 3.24%, among which 101 workers had high-frequency hearing loss and 27 workers were diagnosed as occupational noise deafness. The prevalence of hearing loss among workers previously exposed to noise was significantly higher than that without prior exposure (12.10%, 0.96%, P<0.05) . The prevalence of hearing loss among workers with occupational noise exposure <80 dB (A) , 80~<85 dB (A) and ≥85 dB (A) was 1.83%, 2.69% and 5.09%, respectively. The prevalence of high frequency hearing loss was 1.60%, 2.05% and 3.71%, respectively. The prevalence of occupational noise deafness was 0.23%, 0.64% and 1.38%, respectively. The prevalence of hearing loss and high frequency hearing loss among workers exposed to different occupational noise was statistically significant (P<0.05) , while the prevalence of occupational noise deafness was not statistically significant (P>0.05) . There were statistically significant differences in the prevalence of hearing loss (2.88%, 4.45%) and occupational noise deafness (0.46%, 1.41%) between those who used protective equipment and those who did not (P<0.05) . Compared with workers exposed to occupational noise <80 dB (A) , workers exposed to occupational noise ≥85 dB (A) had A 3.16-fold increased risk of hearing loss (OR=3.16, 95%CI: 1.44~6.95, P<0.05) . Compared to workers using hearing protective equipment, the risk of hearing loss (OR=1.96, 95%CI: 1.25~3.06, P<0.05) and occupational noise deafness (OR=3.46, 95%CI: 1.51-7.96, P<0.05) significantly increased among those without using hearing protective equipment. Conclusion: The risk of hearing loss in automobile manufacturing workers is significantly associated with occupational noise exposure and the use of hearing protective equipment. Good hearing protection may reduce the risk of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and occupational noise deafness.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Automóveis , Estudos Transversais , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488275

RESUMO

Porcelain tooth technology is widely used in the treatment of oral diseases, but there are few reports on the possible occupational hazard factors in the process of porcelain tooth production. Porcelain teeth production will produced a large amount of silica dust and metal dust during the grinding process. The technical workers who have been engaged in this work for a long time are very prone to pneumoconiosis due to their poor personal protection awareness. This paper analyzed the clinical data of a pneumoconiosis patient engaged in porcelain tooth making, and analyzed the possible occupational hazard factors in the process of porcelain teeth production, so as to improve the understanding of relevant enterprises, technical workers and medical personnel on the disease and reduce the risk of porcelain teeth production workers suffering from pneumoconiosis.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Porcelana Dentária , Poeira , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pneumoconiose/complicações
6.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488279

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene can induce a series of immune diseases which include systemic rash, multiple system and organ damage, which are defined as occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMLDT) . This article reviews the research progress of the role of T cell immunity, humoral immunity and complement system in the immunological pathogenesis of OMLDT to provide theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of OMLDT.


Assuntos
Dermatite Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Tricloroetileno , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Tricloroetileno/toxicidade
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469440

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these issues by describing racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational standing, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with at least some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational standing and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational standing shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower standing occupations overall and in lower standing occupations associated with high risk, and thus may be less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low standing occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
8.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365756

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effect of occupational exposure to non-steady state noise on hearing loss in the general equipment manufacturing industry, and to explore the feasibility of applying kurtosis index to evaluate hearing loss caused by non-steady state noise. Methods: A total of 233 workers exposed to non-steady state noise in 6 general equipment manufacturing enterprises were selected as the observation group, and 237 workers exposed to steady noise in 4 textile enterprises were selected as the control group between 2012 and 2018. Personal normalized continuous A-weighted sound pressure level equivalent to an 8 h-working-day (L(Aeq, 8 h)) was determined by a noise dosimeter. Cumulation noise exposure (CNE) was calculated from L(Aeq, 8 h) and related working age, and the CNE was adjusted by using noise kurtosis (CNE' after adjustment) . Meanwhile, questionnaires and hearing loss tests were performed for all subjects. The changes in the threshold of high-frequency hearing and the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss caused by noise in the two groups were compared before and after the adjustment of the kurtosis of CNE. The correlation between CNE and the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss before and after kurtosis adjustment was analyzed. Results: There was an difference between the 3000-8000 Hz hearing threshold of workers in different CNE groups (P<0.05) . logistic regression analysis showed that CNE was a risk factor of high-frequency hearing loss for workers in the observation group (OR=1.189, P<0.05) , and trend Chi-square test showed that the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss increased with CNE levels (χ(2)(trend)=34.415, P<0.05) .Before the kurtosis adjustment, in the CNE 95~<110 dB (A) ·year level group, the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss and the high-frequency hearing threshold in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) . After kurtosis adjustment, there was no significant difference in the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss between the observation group and the control group in each level group (P>0.05) . The correlation between CNE after kurtosis adjustment and the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss was better than that before adjustment (after R(2) adjustment >before R(2) adjustment) . Conclusion: The effect of non-steady state noise on high-frequency hearing loss of workers in general equipment industry increases with the increase of CNE, and the effect of non-steady state noise on high-frequency hearing loss of workers is greater than that of steady noise. CNE' can be used to evaluate the hearing loss caused by non-steady state noise.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústria Manufatureira , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365757

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse the dose-response relationships between the kurtosis metric of noise and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and study the role of kurtosis in the evaluation of NIHL associated with non-Gaussian noise. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2017, a total of 1869 workers in seven manufacturing industries were selected as the study subjects. The basic data of the workers were investigated by questionnaire, personal noise waveform was collected for a long time, and pure tone hearing threshold was tested. The 8-hour continuous equivalent A sound level (L(Aeq, 8 h)) , cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and kurtosis structure indexes were calculated. The dose-response relationships between kurtosis and NIHL were analyzed by stratification analysis method, which controlled the influence of CNE, L(Aeq, 8 h), exposure duration, age and sex on hearing loss using high-frequency noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS(346)) and high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (HFNIHL) as outcome indicators. Results: When CNE was <90 dB (A) ·year and ≥100 dB (A) ·year, NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis, low kurtosis and medium kurtosis group (P<0.05) . In the workers exposed to L(Aeq, 8 h)<85 dB (A) and ≥94 dB (A) , NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis group (P<0.05) . Among workers under the age of 50 or male workers, NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis, low kurtosis and medium kurtosis group (P<0.05) . Kurtosis was positively correlated with NIPTS(346) (r=0.121, P<0.05) . When CNE was <100 dB (A) ·year, the detection rate of HFNIHL increased with the increase of kurtosis level (P<0.01) . Logistic regression analysis showed that kurtosis was an important influencing factor for HFNIHL (OR=1.321) . Conclusion: Kurtosis has a dose-response relationship with the detection rate of HFNIHL in noise exposed workers, and noise kurtosis is an influencing factor of NIHL.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365758

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the noise exposure level and the health status of workers in transportation equipment manufacturing industry, and provide a scientific basis for guidance and implementation of intervention measures. Methods: From January to December in 2019, a total of 2088 noise workers from a large enterprise were selected by cluster sampling method in railway transportation equipment manufacturing, automobile manufacturing and aerospace aircraft manufacturing enterprises. The worker's noise exposure level was detected. Occupational health checkups were performed on the noise workers including electrical audiometry, blood pressure and electrocardiogram. χ(2) test and trend χ(2) test were used to analyze the data. Results: The noise exposure level of 66.9% (1396/2088) workers exceeded 85 dB (A) , and the median noise level was 87.9 (84.3-90.3) dB (A) . Among them, workers of railway transportation equipment manufacturing enterprises had the highest noise exposure level[89.9 (87.8-91.6) dB (A) ]. The detection rate of high-frequency hearing loss, abnormal blood pressure and abnormal electrocardiogram of noise workers were 15.7% (327/2088) , 18.1% (378/2088) and 6.1% (128/2088) , respectively. The differences in the detection rates of high-frequency hearing loss, abnormal blood pressure, and abnormal electrocardiogram in workers of railway transportation equipment manufacturing enterprises, automobile manufacturing enterprises, and aerospace manufacturing enterprises were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Workers of railway transportation equipment manufacturing enterprises had higher detection rates of high-frequency hearing loss (17.6%, 186/1056) . Workers of aerospace manufacturing enterprises had higher detection rates of abnormal blood pressure and abnormal electrocardiogram (26.3%, 169/642; 10.0%, 64/642) . The differences in the detection rates of high-frequency hearing loss, abnormal blood pressure and abnormal electrocardiogram of noise workers were statistically significant in different age and working age groups, and gradually increased with age and working age (P<0.05) . The difference in the detection rate of high-frequency hearing loss of noise workers was statistically significant in different noise intensity groups, and the overall trend was increasing (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The transportation equipment manufacturing industry has serious noise hazards, especially the railway transportation equipment manufacturing industry. Long-term occupational noise exposure can adversely affect workers' hearing and cardiovascular system. Enterprises should strengthen occupational health inspections, and at the same time, take personal protective measures to protect the health of workers.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Nível de Saúde , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústria Manufatureira , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365759

RESUMO

Objective: To analysis of high-frequency hearing loss status and risk factors among male noise workers in an automobile manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou. Methods: From February 2020, a cluster sampling method was used to select 3486 male workers exposed to noise in an automobile manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou in 2018. After screening, 2608 were selected as the research objects. Pure tone hearing threshold test, noise exposure level test and questionnaire survey were conducted, and the cumulative noise exposure was calculated. Chi square test and unconditional logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between various factors and high frequency hearing loss. Results: The detection rate of high-frequency hearing loss in noise exposed workers was 34.20% (892/2608) , there were significant differences in the two groups among age, marital status, years of noise exposure, noise exposure equivalent A sound level, CNE, different working hours and exposure to electromagnetic radiation (P<0.05) . Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, CNE and exposure to electromagnetic radiation were independent risk factors for high-frequency hearing loss (P<0.05) , three shifts and two shifts were the protective factors for the occurrence of high-frequency hearing loss (OR=0.523, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Noise exposure is the main influencing factor of high-frequency hearing loss of noise-receiving workers in automobile manufacturing enterprises. Enterprises should strengthen noise control in the workplace, improve the working environment of electromagnetic radiation, and implement a scientific and healthy work shift system.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Automóveis , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365760

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the occupational noise exposure characteristics and distribution of workers in wood furniture manufacturing industry and textile industry, so as to provide the basis for the establishment of noise source database and the prevention and control of noise hazards in China. Methods: In March 2020, a total of 653 workers in wood furniture manufacturing industry and textile industry were selected by cluster sampling method. A general questionnaire survey was conducted to measure the characteristics of noise exposure and analyze the changes of 8 h equivalent A-level (L(Aeq, 8 h)) and kurtosis of different industries and types of work. Results: The noise exposure L(Aeq, 8 h) of workers was (91.2±6.9) dB (A) , the median kurtosis and mean kurtosis were 37.0 and 105.0, respectively. 84.1% (549/653) of the workers had L(Aeq, 8 h)≥85 dB (A) , 49.0% (320/653) and 68.5% (447/653) of the workers had median kurtosis and mean kurtosis >10. The L(Aeq, 8 h) level of the textile industry was higher than that of the wooden furniture manufacturing industry, while the median and mean of kurtosis levels of the textile industry was lower than the wooden furniture manufacturing industry (P<0.01) . The L(Aeq, 8 h) levels of spinners and weavers were higher, and the median and mean of kurtosis of nailers were higher (P<0.05) . The mean and median of kurtosis were highly correlated among workers of two industries (r=0.80, P<0.01) . The L(Aeq, 8 h) was positively correlated with mean and median of kurtosis among workers of wooden furniture manufacturing industry (r=0.33 and 0.35, P<0.01) , while it was negatively correlated with mean and median of kurtosis among workers of textile industry (r=-0.45 and -0.40, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Indicators for noise exposure characteristics, such as L(Aeq, 8 h) and kurtosis vary greatly by industries and type of works. Multi-indicator joint measurement is conducive to comprehensive assessment of noise exposure and its health effects.


Assuntos
Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Indústria Manufatureira , Indústria Têxtil
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365761

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the occupational hazards and the health status of workers in a candy manufacturing enterprise, to study the nonspecific effects of noise on cardiovascular and digestive systems, and to further explore the combined effect of noise and dust on workers' health. Methods: In 2019, all 564 employees of a candy manufacturing enterprise in Guangzhou were selected as the research objects. According to the exposure to occupational hazards, the research objects were divided into control group (101 persons) , noise exposure group (272 persons) and noise dust combined exposure group (191 persons) . According to the requirements of GBZ 188-2014 "Technical Specification for Occupational Health Monitoring", the employees were given occupational health examination. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, liver function, binaural pure tone audiometry and other indicators were analyzed by gender, age and length of service. Results: The abnormal hearing rate of the workers in the control group, noise exposure group, and noise dust combined exposure group were 12.9% (13/101) , 24.6% (67/272) , and 36.1% (69/191) , respectively, showing a significant increasing trend (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the abnormal rates of electrocardiogram, abnormal blood pressure and fatty liver detection rate of the workers in the noise exposure group and the noise dust combined exposure group were significantly increased (P<0.017) . The abnormal hearing rate and fatty liver detection rate of male employees showed an increasing trend among the three groups (P<0.05) . The abnormal hearing and blood pressure rates of 40 to 49-year-old employees showed an increasing trend (P<0.05) . The rates of abnormal hearing of employees with≥50 years old and working experience <10 and 10-19 years showed an increasing trend (P<0.05) . The abnormal rate of electrocardiogram and the fatty liver detection rate of employees with more than 20 years of service had an increasing trend (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Noise is the main occupational hazard factor in candy manufacturing enterprises, which may be related to cardiovascular system and digestive system damage. At the same time, dust may strengthen the hearing loss caused by noise.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Doces , Poeira , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365763

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of pneumoconiosis complicated with tuberculosis in order to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the preventive strategies. Methods: From July 2019 to January 2020, all occupational pneumoconiosis patients reported in Guangzhou from 1958 to 2018 were investigated retrospectively (n=1155) . The basic data (including gender, diagnosis time, diagnosis age, dust exposure duration, period, pneumoconiosis disease type, work type and industry) were obtained from pneumoconiosis case card and network report database. The data of pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from the occupational disease diagnosis files of Guangzhou Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Hospital, and were supplemented by telephone follow-up. The distribution of pneumoconiosis and tuberculosis in Guangzhou was analyzed. Binary logistic regression analysis model was used to analyze the influencing factors of pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: Among the 1155 new cases of pneumoconiosis, 357 cases were pneumoconiosis tuberculosis, and the complication rate of tuberculosis was 30.9%. Year of diagnosis, age of diagnosis, dust exposure duration, pneumoconiosis caused by mineral dust and construction industry were influencing factors for pneumoconiosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis (OR=0.948, 1.048, 0.972, 3.112, 2.815, P<0.05) . After the adjustment of gender, diagnosis year, diagnosis age, dust exposure duration and diagnosis period, the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in rock drilling workers was 1.462 times higher than that in other types of work (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The complication rate of tuberculosis in patients with pneumoconiosis is relatively high. The main influencing factors are the year of diagnosis, age of diagnosis, dust exposure duration, the type of pneumoconiosis and the industry. The importance of occupational health examination and health education on prevention and treatment of tuberculosis should be emphasized among dust-exposed workers and pneumoconiosis patients. People with susceptibility factors are the top priority.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Poeira , Humanos , Pneumoconiose/complicações , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365765

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the hazard degree of respirable dust (exhaled dust) in coal mine underground workplaces in China, and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis. Methods: A total of 98 representative coal mines were selected from 2016 to 2018, and the dust concentration of the underground working face was detected by the methods of on-the-spot investigation and on-the-spot detection, the dust control measures of 29 coal mines were investigated, and the hazard degree of dust exhaling in the underground working place was analyzed statistically. Results: All 1238 samples of individual coal dust (exhaled dust) were detected in 98 underground coal mines, and the concentration was 4.0 (2.2, 7.3) mg/m(3), the over-standard rate was 73.3% (908/1238) . The concentration of coal dust (exhaled dust) in coal mining face was 5.4 (3.0, 10.6) mg/m(3), and the concentration of coal dust (exhaled dust) in heading face was 3.7 (2.1, 7.2) mg/m(3). The concentration exceeding standard rate of coal dust (exhaled dust) in coal mining face was higher than that in heading face, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Coal seam water injection was found in 57.7% (15/26) coal mining face and 42.9% (9/21) heading face in the application of dust control measures, and the high pressure spray of shearer roadheader only accounted for 38.5% (10/26) and 28.6% (6/21) . Conclusion: The concentration of coal dust (exhaled dust) in the underground face of coal mine is seriously exceeding the standard, and the dust prevention measures have not been put in place.Compulsory standards for classified management of dust in underground coal mines should be formulated, and the research and implementation of dust control technologies should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365769

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution of noise exposure between non-steady state noise and steady-state noise for metal processing workers, which will provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of noise hazards in metal processing industry. Methods: The cross-section method was used to investigate the noise exposure of 737 workers from three metal processing industries in Zhejiang Province from October to December 2017. The general demographic information and occupational history were collected by questionnaire. The noise was recorded by individual noise meters, and the noise exposure intensity (equivalent continuous A-weighted noise exposure level normalized to an 8 h-working-day, L(Aeq, 8 h)) and kurtosis were calculated. Results: Workers exposed to noise in the metal processing industry were mainly 18-40 years old (527 workers, 71.51%) , men (570 workers, 77.34%) , and junior high school education background (416 workers, 56.45%) . There were 572 workers (77.61%) with noise exposure intensity (L(Aeq, 8 h)) greater than 85 dB (A) , 558 workers (75.71%) exposed to non-steady state noise (kurtosis ≥4) , and 634 workers (86.02%) with exposure duration less than 8 years. Among the 30 work types investigated, the work types with noise intensity reaching 100% were the stamping, welding and others from a children's car manufacturing factory in Ningbo, operating, chamfering, tapping, and thread rolling from an automobile parts manufacturing factory in Ningbo; The work types with a rate of 100% exposed to non-steady state noise were the grinding from a children's car manufacturing factory in Ningbo, assembling, assembly operating and others from an automobile brake manufacturing factory in Wenzhou, and polishing from an automobile parts manufacturing factory in Ningbo. Conclusion: Metal processing workers have a high rate of over-standard exposed to high noise intensity and a high proportion exposed to non-steady state noise. It is necessary to take sound insulation and noise reduction engineering control, and strengthen personal protection and occupational health management measures to prevent and control the noise hazards.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365770

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL) of workers in an automobile factory and its influencing factors, so as to provide a scientific basis for occupational health management of noise workers. Methods: From March to July 2019, 2647 workers from an automobile factory were selected as the research objects by cluster sampling method. The basic personal information (such as gender, age, education level, height, weight, etc.) , history of ear disease, the history of detonation, history of exposure to ototoxic drugs, history of exposure to occupational noise, etc., were investigated by questionnaire and occupational health examination. Chi-square test was used to compare the detection rates of HFHL in different populations, and multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of HFHL. Results: The noise level of 2647 individual workers ranged from 75.0 dB (A) to 92.0 dB (A) , with an average of (84.14±2.47) dB (A) . The detection rate of HFHL was 17.2% (456/2647) . There were significant differences in the the detection rate of HFHL among workers of different gender, age, educational level, working age, noise exposure level, diabetes history, detonation history, smoking and drinking workers (P<0.05) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male, age ≥30 years old, smoking and noise exposure were risk factors for HFHL (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The detection rate of HFHL in automobile factory workers is high. Gender, age, smoking and noise are the influencing factors of HFHL. It is necessary to strengthen the noise control in the workplace and guide workers to choose healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Automóveis , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365771

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the spirometer data of coal mine workers, explore the impact of coal dust on the lung function of coal mine workers. Methods: From June to December 2018, 5272 male coal mine dust-exposed workers who underwent occupational health examinations at the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment Hospital were selected as the research subjects. The basic information and spirometer data of the workers were collected and analyzed for different ages, years of service and the degree of lung function injury of workers exposed to dust and its influencing factors. Results: The total detection rate of lung function injury among dust-exposed workers was 33.9% (1785/5272) . The type of injury was mainly restrictive ventilatory dysfunction (66.7%, 1190/1785) , followed by mixed ventilatory dysfunction (31.4%, 561/1785) , obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (1.9%, 34/1785) . The detection rate of mild lung function impairment was 21.0% (1105/5272) , The detected rate of moderate or higher lung injury was 12.9% (680/5272) . The abnormal detection rate of chest radiography was 3.4% (179/5272) . The logistic regression analysis of the factors affecting lung function damage showed that employees aged 40-<50 were more likely to detect overall lung function injury and the moderate or higher lung injury (P<0.05) , and that they had been working for 35 to 45 years and excavators were more likely to detect overall function injury and different degree of lung injury (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The lung function injury of coal mine dust-exposed workers is related to their age, dust-exposed working years and type of work, mainly with mild injury and restrictive ventilation dysfunction.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365773

RESUMO

Occupational noise is one of the most common occupational hazards in the workplace. Long-term exposure to occupational noise could not only lead to the damage of the hearing system, but also may cause a certain impact on the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that occupational noise exposure was positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. However, the results of studies on occupational noise exposure and stroke are still controversial. This paper reviews the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction by summarizing the epidemiological data of domestic and foreign population in recent years. Our study could provide evidence for the design and implementation of well-designed epidemiological and mechanism studies, and the recognition of the role of occupational noise exposure in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, so as to better protect workers' health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Hipertensão , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
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