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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062894

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the results of occupational physical examination for major occupational hazard exposed laborer in 2018 in Guangzhou, to provide scientific basis for occupational health supervise. Methods: In January 2019, descriptive epidemiological methods were used as the data sources of the Occupational Disease and Occupational Health Information Surveillance System and the report data of Guangzhou Occupational Health Inspection Agency, collecting 2733 employers from 28 Occupational Health Inspection Organizations in 11 administrative regions of Guangzhou from January to December 2018, as well as the occupational health examination data of 97688 workers exposed to the occupational-disease-risk factors, to analyze the inspection of suspected occupational diseases and contraindications during the period of work of the workers who were monitored for the occupational hazard factors (silicon dust, welding fume, benzene, lead, Ethylene Dichloride, N-hexane, high temperature and hand-transmitted vibration) . Results: Total 128 cases of suspected occupational disease were detected, including 3 suspected silicosis, 8 suspected welder's pneumoconiosis, 17 suspected other pneumoconiosis, 10 suspected benzene poisoning, 1 suspected lead poisoning and 89 suspected noise deafness. There were 2061 cases of occupational contraindication, among which 550 cases were contraindication of high temperature, 261 cases were benzene and 1089 cases were noise. Conclusion: The Occupational Health Inspection Institution of this city should continuously monitor the occupational health status of the harmful workers during their work, do a good job of prevention, and strengthen the labor protection.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exame Físico , China , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062895

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the major occupational disease surveillance and the occupational health examination of Jining in 2018, provide the basis for the government department formulating occupational disease prevention measures. Methods: In January 2019, collecting data of the occupational disease and Occupational Health Information Surveillance Network in Jining from January 1 to December 31, 2018, 37295 workers were collected, and 37295 workers who were exposed to key occupational disease risk factors and underwent occupational health check-up during their working period. The contact of occupational Hazard Factors and occupational health examination were analyzed. SPSS 22.0 was used to set up the database for statistical analysis. Results: Workers exposed to major occupational hazards were more exposed to noise (56.34%, 39935/70883) , coal dust (15.65%, 11095/70883) , welding fume (10.25%, 7262/70883) , silicon dust (5.61%, 3975/70883) . In 2018, 24 cases (38.71%, 2462) of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 21 cases (33.87%, 2162) of silicosis, 8 cases (12.90%, 82) of noise deafness and 8 cases (12.90%, 862) of brucellosis were the major occupational diseases reported. The abnormal rate of lung function examination was 14.87% (461/3100) , and the abnormal rate of high frequency hearing threshold examination was 4.56% (1492/32731) in workers exposed to coal dust (coal-silica dust) , the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01) . Conclusion: Jining should strengthen the supervision of enterprises with key occupational disease hazards, formulate classified supervision and management methods, and improve the occupational health inspection rate of workers.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , China , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 324: 54-64, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007588

RESUMO

The aims of this work were to assess the PAH exposure among roofers and to identify relevant biomarkers for monitoring occupational exposure. Several campaigns were conducted between 2004 and 2017, with 28 individual air samples and 240 urinary samples collected from 73 roofers. Seventeen parent PAHs and 14 urinary biomarkers, metabolites of pyrene (1-OHP), benzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP and TetraolBaP), naphthalene (1- and 2-naphtols), fluorene (1- 2- 3- 9-fluorenols) and phenanthrene (1- 2- 3- 4- 9-phenanthrols), were analysed. Three exposure groups were considered: soft-applied roofing using polymer-modified bitumen ("PMB"), hot-applied roofing using oxidized bitumen ("OB") and the tearing off of old roof coatings containing coal tar ("CT"). The PAHs containing 2-3 rings were much more abundant, and the highest airborne levels were observed in the "CT" group. The biomonitoring results were consistent with these results, with a large predominance of 2-3 ring PAH metabolites. 1-OHP, 3-fluorenol and 2-phenanthrol were better correlated with airborne levels and less influenced by smoking than the other metabolites. Conversely, 1-/2-naphtol levels were heavily influenced by smoking and not correlated with airborne naphthalene levels. Moreover, 3-OHBaP and TetraolBaP levels were very low when applying bitumen membranes, and much higher exposures were observed during tear-off activities. In this context, the recommended strategy for roofer biomonitoring should include 1-OHP, fluorenols and phenanthrols, as well as carcinogenic BaP metabolites (3-OHBaP or TetraolBaP) when evaluating the occupational exposure of roofers that are tearing off old roof coatings.


Assuntos
/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Benzopirenos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Pirenos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 82, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897757

RESUMO

Bacterial contamination occurs in different occupational exposures. Although the level of colony-forming units in airborne samples reveals bacterial exposure, the bacterial origin is not specified. We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate bacterial species in airborne samples and validated bacterial evaluation in an occupational exposure. As a pilot study, airborn of nurses station (n=40) was assessed according to National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 0800 method. Bacterial strain in all samples was evaluated by diagnosis gallery tests. Simultaneously, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of sampled bacteria was prepared and then classified by principal component analysis. Spectroscopy method was validated for Staphylococcus aureus quantification. For this aim, spectrum band area in different wavenumbers was evaluated for calibration curve plotting and extraction of validation parameters. The second derivatization of spectroscopy data in 1200 to 1500 cm-1 presented the best determination for gram-type discrimination by principal component analysis modeling. Moreover 900-1200 cm-1 region modeling finely differentiated gram-negative bacteria in airborne samples. Adding spectroscopy area band in 2850 and 2906 cm-1 was validated to assess the level of Staphylococcus aureus contamination. Results showed appropriate correlation between the Staphylococcus aureus level in airborne samples analyzed by commercial counting evaluation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a functional technique for assessment of airborne quality in occupational exposure. This analysis was recommended as an alternative method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of bio-aerosols.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 20-31, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923465

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Although elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of Fpg-sensitive sites were observed in PBMCs from exposed humans, the PM collected at same locations did not cause genotoxicity in the comet assay in A549 cells. Nevertheless, A549 cells displayed telomere length shortening after four weeks exposure to PM. This is in line with slightly shorter telomere length in PBMCs from exposed humans, although it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the results indicate that genotoxic potency measured by the comet assay of PM in A549 cells may not predict genotoxicity in exposed humans, whereas telomere length measurements may be a novel indicator of genotoxic stress in cell cultures and humans.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombeiros , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1118-1123, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dairy farming feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins, affecting animals' health and milk quality. Dairy farming is also prone to occupational exposure to mycotoxins, and feed is recognized as a source of contamination in the workplace. An exploratory study was developed in a dairy farm located in Portugal intending to assess the mycotoxins present in the feed. RESULTS: All the samples analyzed presented contamination by at least two mycotoxins and up to a maximum of 13 mycotoxins in the same sample. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in all the samples (n = 10) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON), which was reported in eight samples, and ochratoxin A (OTA), reported in five samples. CONCLUSION: The results point to the possible contamination of milk by several mycotoxins and raise the possibility of occupational exposure to mycotoxins due to feed contamination. An adequate One Health approach for dairy production should address these issues through effective preventive actions such as avoiding the use of feed contaminated with mycotoxins. This represents an important challenge due to climate change. It requires proper attention and accurate management measures. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Leite/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Ocratoxinas/análise , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Portugal , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/toxicidade
9.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125014, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600621

RESUMO

People living or working in and around artisanal small-scale gold mining communities can be exposed to mercury vapour, which may negatively affect their health. In this study, the human exposure to air borne mercury in an artisanal mining community in the Upper East region of Ghana was investigated using Lumex RA 915 M mercury analyser, an active sampler. The concentration of mercury in air was measured inside and outside households and was related to human health risk standards. For each household, one measurement was taken from outside and three from inside at different positions. About 91% of the households where amalgam burning was reported had concentrations higher than the USEPA reference dose of 300 ng m-3 whereas 64% of the households where amalgam burning was not reported exceeded the reference dose above. The maximal (upper) instrumental limit (50,000 ng m-3) was passed for the highest concentrations, so, the upper 97.5% concentration was estimated, using censored statistics, to exceed 800,000 ng m-3 for the fireplaces. This exceeds any reported indoor household air concentration of Hg, identified by the literature review in this paper. Estimated hazard quotients were found to range from <1 to 108 within the households that are reported not to burn amalgam. In the households where amalgam burning reportedly takes place, the hazard quotient had a range of 0.01-160. Mercury concentrations measured in households with reported amalgam burning are approximately ten times higher than those households with no reported burning of amalgam. The censored data predicted hazard quotients up to 966. The results indicate that both miners and non-miners of the community are at risk of adverse health effects resulting from inhalation of mercury vapour.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gases , Gana , Ouro , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
10.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4725, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755114

RESUMO

For the analysis of methylhippuric acids (MHAs) in human urine samples, in this study, a new method based on the metal-organic framework (MOF) of MIL-53-NH2 (Al) in microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was developed. The synthesis of MIL-53-NH2 (Al) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the influences of several parameters including type and volume of elution, type of conditional solvent, sample volume and extraction cycle on MEPS efficiency. The results showed good recoveries (>94%) and excellent extraction efficiencies (>96%) at three different concentrations of 50, 500 and 1500 µg ml-1 (as low, mid and high concentrations, respectively) of MHA isomers. Calibration curves of MHAs were linear over the concentration range of 1-1500 µg ml-1 , with high correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.998). The reproducibility of the proposed MIL-53-MEPS for determination of three isomers of MHA was found to be in the range of 3.5-11.1%. After optimization of the proposed technique, it was used to analyze MHAs in urine samples of workers exposed to xylenes in a petrochemical plant in Asalouyah, Iran. The results indicated that the MOF-MEPS method was selective, sensitive, rapid and efficient for the extraction of urinary MHAs. The technique is also environmentally friendly and inexpensive, and the MOF sorbent is reusable.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hipuratos/urina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação
11.
Gene ; 724: 144156, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626960

RESUMO

Cadmium is a common environmental and occupational pollutant and can produce toxic effects in a range of organs, especially in kidneys, after long-term exposure. MicroRNAs are ideal candidate biomarkers for various types of disorders, including renal diseases. In this study, we profiled the global miRNA expressions in rat kidneys using miRNA microarrays and found a collection of differentially expressed miRNAs induced by cadmium exposure. Among all of the candidate miRNAs, we identified miR-122-5p and miR-326-3p as early biomarkers for cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity. The two-miRNA signature was validated by quantitative real-time PCR in HK-2 and NRK-52E cells, rat kidney, serum and urine samples, and serum of an occupational population. Our results indicate that miR-122-5p and miR-326-3p may be potential biomarkers for cadmium exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Biomarcadores Ambientais/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/análise , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcriptoma
12.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(11): 823-826, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826546

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the occupational hazard and distribution of silica dust (free SiO(2)≥10%) in the workplace environment of the enterprises in Fengxian District, and to provide scientific basis for improving the working environment and protecting the physical and mental health of the workers. Methods: Individual sampling monitoring and on-site labor hygiene investigation were conducted on 421 workers involved in 87 silicon dust enterprises in the jurisdiction from 2014 to 2018, and measured concentration-time weighted average (C(TWA)) . Results: The results showed that the range of the C(TWA) was (0.021~17.000) mg/m(3), the median was 1.600 mg/m(3), and the qualified rate of 30.88%. The difference of total dust concentration was statistically significant in different years (Z=38.831, P<0.05) . The qualified rate of small-scale enterprises is higher than that of medium-scale enterprises (χ(2)=9.472, P<0.05) . The qualified rate of other domestic enterprises is higher than that of private enterprises and foreign enterprises (χ(2)=10.089, P<0.05) . The acceptance rate of metal products manufacturing is lower than that of general equipment manufacturing and other manufacturing enterprises (χ(2)=64.626, P<0.05) . The qualification rate of natural ventilation is higher than that of mechanical ventilation (χ(2)=6.278, P<0.05) . Conclusion: The enterprises involved in silicon production in Fengxian District need to further strengthen the production process reform and improve the ventilation and dust removal protection measures. Widely carry out the publicity of occupational disease prevention and control law, conduct targeted pre-job training, improve workers' awareness of self-protection, and protect the occupational health of workers in many ways.


Assuntos
Poeira , Exposição Ocupacional , Dióxido de Silício , Local de Trabalho , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Local de Trabalho/normas
13.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(11): 831-834, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826548

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the benzene concentration in the workplace of benzene-related enterprises in Yangzhou City from 2014 to 2018, and the abnormal blood routine of workers exposed to benzene, and to assess their occupational hazards. Methods: The environmental monitoring data of benzene-related enterprises and the health examination data of benzene exposed workers were collected in March 2019. The inhalation risk assessment model of the National Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of benzene workers. Results: The qualified rate of benzene detection in the workplace was 100% from 2014 to 2018, the highest concentration was 1.42 mg/m(3) in five years. The abnormal rates of blood routine detection in benzene exposed workers in five years was 7.10% (213/2 998) 、5.17% (218/4 214) 、5.61% (196/3 493) 、7.65% (288/3 767) 、7.83% (280/3 574) and 7.83%. respectively. The results of risk assessment showed that the minimum carcinogenic risk value was 7.56×10(-6) and the maximum carcinogenic risk value was 31.33×10(-6) in 2014-2018. The hazard quotient values were than 1. Conclusion: Benzene monitoring concentration in benzene-related enterprises in Yangzhou City from 2014 to 2018 was low, which meets the occupational exposure limit in China. However, the abnormal rate of blood routine in five years is still high, and there are both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. We should pay more attention to the health risk of workers exposed to low concentrat in benzene.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco , Benzeno/análise , China , Cidades , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 555-565, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess microbial contamination of the air and surfaces at workplaces in commercial (CD) and traditional (TD) dairies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bioaerosol (impactor) and surface (swab) samples were collected in CD and in TD. Bacterial and fungal concentrations in the air and on surfaces were calculated and all isolated microorganisms taxonomically identified, based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular features. RESULTS: Average concentrations of bacterial aerosol ranged between 70-860 CFU/m3 and 265-14639 CFU/m3, while for fungal aerosol were between 50-290 CFU/m3 and 55-480 CFU/m3 in CD and TD, respectively. Average bacterial concentrations on surfaces ranged between 1.0-49.7 CFU/cm2 and 0.2-60.4 CFU/cm2, whereas average fungal surface contamination ranged between 0-2.7 CFU/cm2 and 0-4.6 CFU/cm2 in CD and TD, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed mainly the presence of saprophytic microorganisms; however, several pathogenic strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces spp., Streptomyces spp., Candida albicans) were also isolated from both the air and surface samples in the studied dairies. CONCLUSIONS: The air and surfaces in TD were more polluted than those in CD; however, in both types of dairies, the levels of microbial contaminants did not exceed respective threshold limit values. Nevertheless, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms may increase health risk for dairy workers and influence the quality of products. Hence, proper hygienic measures should be introduced and performed to guarantee high microbial quality of both production processes and milk products.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aerossóis/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17959, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725656

RESUMO

Observational phantom study.This study aimed to evaluate the radiation exposure dose of practitioner's hands when performing C-arm guided procedures and to determine the usefulness of our newly designed radiation shielding device.C-arm guided procedures including lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) are commonly used for pain control induced by lumbar radiculopathy. The practitioner's hands are vulnerable to radiation exposure because of the long exposure time and short distance from the radiation resource. No studies to date have reported the cumulative exposure of the physician's hands according to location and exposure time.Using a chest phantom irradiated with X-rays under lumbar TFESI conditions, cumulative scatter radiation dose was measured at 36 points using a dosimeter. The measurements were checked at 1, 3, 5, 10 minutes of radiation exposure. The experiment was repeated using our newly designed shielding device.Significant radiation accumulation was observed in the field where the practitioner's hands might be placed during C-arm guided procedures. The further the distance from the radiation resource and the shorter the exposure time, the smaller was the cumulative radiation expose dose. The new shielding device showed an excellent shielding rate (66.0%-99.9%) when the dosimeter was within the shielding range. However, at some points, increased accumulated radiation exposure dose was observed, although the dosimeter was within the range of the shielding device.To reduce radiation exposure of the practitioner's hands when performing C-arm-guided procedures, the radiation exposure time should be decreased and a greater distance from the radiation resource should be maintained. When using our shielding device, placing the hand close to the device surface and minimizing the time using fluoroscopy minimized the radiation exposure of the hand.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/métodos , Mãos/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Doses de Radiação , Proteção Radiológica , Processo Xifoide/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133942, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756860

RESUMO

During the past decades, farmers in low to middle-income countries have increased their use of pesticides, and thereby the risk of being exposed to potentially genotoxic chemicals that can cause adverse health effects. Here, the aim was to investigate the correlation between exposure to pesticides and genotoxic damage in a Bolivian agricultural population. Genotoxic effects were assessed in peripheral blood samples by comet and micronucleus (MN) assays, and exposure levels by measurements of 10 urinary pesticide metabolites. Genetic susceptibility was assessed by determination of null frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. The results showed higher MN frequency in women and farmers active ≥8 years compared to their counterpart (P < 0.05). In addition, age, GST genotype, alcohol consumption, and type of water source influenced levels of genotoxic damage. Individuals with high exposure to tebuconazole, 2,4-D, or cyfluthrin displayed increased levels of genotoxic damage (P < 0.05-0.001). Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate associations between pesticide exposure and risk of genotoxic damage. After adjustment for confounders, a significant increased risk of DNA strand breaks was found for high exposure to 2,4-D, odds ratio (OR) = 1.99 (P < 0.05). In contrast, high exposure to pyrethroids was associated with a reduced risk of DNA strand breaks, OR = 0.49 (P < 0.05). It was also found that high exposure to certain mixtures of pesticides (containing mainly 2,4-D or cyfluthrin) was significantly associated with increased level and risk of genotoxic damage (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data show that high exposure levels to some pesticides is associated with an increased risk of genotoxic damage among Bolivian farmers, suggesting that their use should be better controlled or limited.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Adulto , Agricultura , Bolívia , Dano ao DNA , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 716, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686222

RESUMO

The data presented here are from the Offinso North District Farm Health Study (ONFAHS), a population-based cross-sectional study among vegetable farmers in Ghana. The paper addresses knowledge, pesticide handling practices, and protective measures related to pesticide use by self-reported symptoms for 310 adult farmers who completed a comprehensive questionnaire on pesticide management practices and health. In addition, an inventory was prepared using information supplied by pesticide sellers/dealers in this district. We report that cough and wheezing (but not breathlessness) are positively associated with stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water while mixing/applying pesticides, and stirring pesticide preparations with bare hands/drinking water/smoking cigarettes while mixing/applying pesticides. There is a significant exposure-response association between the number of precautionary measures practiced while handling pesticides and cough and wheezing but not with breathlessness. We also found unsafe practices to be associated with sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. The results also suggest a negative association between practice of any precautionary measure when mixing/applying pesticides and sexual dysfunction, nervousness, and lack of concentration. We found that in spite of the fact that farmers have adequate knowledge about the environment and health effects of pesticides, several unhygienic practices are in widespread use, indicating that knowledge is not necessarily always translated in action. Further action is necessary to promote the safe use of pesticides and to replace existing poor management practices among these and other farmers in Ghana.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas , Adulto , Agricultura , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Humanos , Sons Respiratórios , Autorrelato
18.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 239-244, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the concentration of microbial aerosol and species composition of airborne staphylococci in 10 healthcare facilities in southern Poland including primary healthcare units and hospital wards; and to assess whether the selected components of microbial aerosol pose a threat of severe infections to either patients or the personnel. METHODS: The study was conducted at monthly intervals over a period of one year. Air samples were collected by MAS-100 sampler. The number of mesophilic bacteria, mould fungi, actinomycetes and staphylococci was determined on general and selective media. The species identification of staphylococci was conducted using API tests for strains that were pre-selected based on macroscopic and microscopic observations. RESULTS: A total number of 1,584 samples were collected during the sampling period. The numbers of airborne microorganisms varied between the examined premises and between the seasons of the year. The observed differences were statistically significant with one exception for actinomycetes and their differences between the examined premises. The concentrations of mesophilic bacteria varied from 5 to 297 CFU/m3 of air, for Staphylococcus the values ranged from 1 to 96 CFU/m3, for fungi - from 1 to 100 CFU/m3, and the number of actinomycetes ranged from 7 to 321 CFU/m3. Ten species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were identified among 55 isolates with S. saprophyticus and S. warneri being the most frequently detected (n = 14 and 13, respectively). S. haemolyticus, which is one of the most common causal agents of nosocomial infections was observed in four facilities (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The microbial concentrations varied both between the seasons of the year and between the examined facilities. The highest bioaerosol concentrations were observed in most crowded premises. The identified species of staphylococci, although not typically associated with human infections, are common causal agents of nosocomial infections and infections in immunocompromised people.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Aerossóis , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Fungos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Polônia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33541-33554, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583521

RESUMO

Lead and zinc are usually found at the same occupational places and occur as co-contaminants. Effects of lead toxicity are detrimental on human health as it is probable carcinogen and impairs normal growth and development. On the other hand, zinc is an important nutritional element, the deficiency of which causes debilitating effects on growth and development. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association of blood lead and zinc levels and any influence of zinc over DNA damage, blood cell membrane aberration and oxidative stress among lead and zinc co-exposed workers. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for lead and zinc measurement and comet assay for DNA damage assessment. Haematological aberrations were studied using light and electron microscopy (LM and EM) followed by electron density X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping. Occupational exposure was observed to cause significant elevation in blood lead levels among workers. This elevation in lead levels and associated DNA damage among workers was significantly high in comparison to controls. Further light and electron micrographs of red blood cells revealed significant morphological alterations associated with increased lead ions in workers. It was clear from SEM-based elemental maps and EDS graphs that elevated lead levels were associated with low levels of zinc. The results suggest that lead absorption is highly influenced due to zinc levels in body which has an impact over DNA damage, blood cell aberration and oxidative stress caused by lead exposure. Efforts are going on to understand the role of other trace metals on lead toxicity in order to develop a sustainably nutrition-based therapeutic intervention. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Zinco/toxicidade , Adulto , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Oligoelementos/farmacologia , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614696

RESUMO

Background: Due to the drastic reduction of the eye lens dose limit from 150 mSv per year to 20 mSv per year since 2018, the prospective investigation of the estimated dose of the eye lens by radiological imaging procedures at the surgical site during trauma surgery in the daily work process was carried out. This was also necessary because, as experience shows, with changes in surgical techniques, there are also changes in the use of radiological procedures, and thus an up-to-date inventory can provide valuable information for the assessment of occupationally induced radiation exposure of surgical personnel under the current conditions. Methods: The eye lens radiation exposure was measured over three months for five trauma surgeons, four hand surgeons and four surgical assistants with personalized LPS-TLD-TD 07 partial body dosimeters Hp (0.07). A reference dosimeter was deposited at the surgery changing room. The dosimeters were sent to the LPS (Landesanstalt für Personendosimetrie und Strahlenschutzausbildung) measuring institute (National Institute for Personal Dosimetry and Radiation Protection Training, Berlin) for evaluation after 3 months. The duration of the operation, occupation (assistant, surgeon, etc.), type of surgery (procedure, diagnosis), designation of the X-ray unit, total duration of radiation exposure per operation and dose area product per operation were recorded. Results: Both the evaluation of the dosimeters by the trauma surgeons and the evaluation of the dosimeters by the hand surgeons and the surgical assistants revealed no significant radiation exposure of the eye lens in comparison to the respective measured reference dosimeters. Conclusions: Despite the drastic reduction of the eye lens dose limit from 150 mSv per year to 20 mSv per year, the limit for orthopedic, trauma and hand surgery operations is well below the limit in this setting.


Assuntos
Cristalino/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiometria , Cirurgiões , Local de Trabalho , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
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