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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141824, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896789

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) can coexist with other heavy metals in the blood of chronically chromate-exposed individuals. However, few studies have explored the health impacts of other hazardous metals after exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This study aimed to assess the modification effects of blood lead (Pb) on the genetic damage induced by Cr(VI). During 2010-2019, 1000 blood samples were collected from 455 workers exposed to chromate and 545 workers not exposed to chromate from the same factory with similar labor intensity. The levels of Cr and Pb were measured in whole blood samples. Micronucleus frequency (MNF) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured to reflect different types of genetic damage. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between hazardous metals and the modification effects of Pb on genetic damage. The geometric mean levels of Cr and Pb in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group [Cr: 6.42 (6.08- 6.79) vs. 1.29 (1.22- 1.36) µg/L; Pb: 38.82 (37.22- 40.50) vs. 34.47 (33.15- 35.85) µg/L]. The geometric means of urinary 8-OHdG and MNF in exposure group were 4.00 (3.64- 4.40) µg/g and 5.40 (4.89- 5.97) ‰, respectively, significantly higher than the 3.20 (2.94- 3.48) µg/g and 4.57 (4.15- 5.03) ‰, respectively, in control group. log2Cr was independently and positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (ß-adjusted = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.082- 0.204) and MNF (ß-adjusted = 0.303, 95%CI: 0.020- 0.587). With the change in circulating Pb levels, the types of genetic damage induced by Cr(VI) were different. At low levels of circulating Pb (<30.80 µg/L), chromate mainly caused changes in 8-OHdG, while at high circulating Pb levels (≥44.88 µg/L), chromate induced alterations in MNF. The findings suggested that chromate exposure could cause multiple types of genetic damage, and circulating Pb might modify the association between circulating Cr and the form of genetic damage.


Assuntos
Cromatos , Exposição Ocupacional , Cromatos/toxicidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148588

RESUMO

Fever is a widely recognised presenting symptom of COVID-19. Consequently, other febrile illnesses may be difficult to distinguish from COVID-19-leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. One such illness is murine typhus, a fleaborne illness with worldwide distribution caused by Rickettsia typhi It often presents with fever, headache and myalgia, all of which have been commonly reported with COVID-19. Although the disease is usually mild with a good prognosis, there have been reports of severe illness and death. I present a case of murine typhus in a young male who had 2 weeks of headaches and daily fevers during the COVID-19 pandemic. He was ultimately tested for murine typhus when his occupation as a dog trainer was queried, and he experienced resolution of symptoms after treatment with doxycycline. During this pandemic, clinicians must be vigilant of other febrile illnesses whose symptoms overlap with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Febre/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Rickettsia typhi/isolamento & purificação , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Cães , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resultado do Tratamento , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/microbiologia , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/fisiopatologia
3.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 38(10): 790-794, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142391

RESUMO

Welding is an important industrial activity worldwide which involving millions of practitioners. Due to the influence of welding method, welding dust concentration, ventilation, weather and other factors, the exposure of the welder is different. And resulting in different respiratory symptoms, including decreased lung function, welder's pneumoconiosis and even lung cancer, which seriously affects the life quality of the worker. Through referring to literatures, the research status of welding dust and respiratory diseases was summarized to provide direction for future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira , Gases , Humanos , Pulmão , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds such as gasoline and other fuels are associated with a wide variety of deleterious health effects including liver and kidney diseases. Gasoline station workers are exposed to a mixture of hydrocarbons during dispensing. However, no published studies investigated the liver and renal function tests of gasoline station workers in Ethiopia. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess liver and renal function tests among gasoline station workers. METHOD: A comparative cross sectional study was conduct from January 2018 to April 2018 at Mekelle city, Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Liver and renal function tests were analyzed on gasoline exposed (n = 43) and controls (n = 47) by Pentra C400 automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Student independent t-test and one way-ANOVA statistical methods were employed using SPSS Ver23. P-value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULT: The mean level of ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine, and uric acid was significantly higher among gasoline stations workers when compared to control study participants. There was also a significant increase in ALT, AST, Urea, creatinine and uric acid among gasoline stations with above 6 years exposure when compared with those exposed for ≤2 and3-6years. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increasing liver and renal parameters may be associated with exposure to gasoline and it is dependent on time of exposure to gasoline.


Assuntos
Gasolina/análise , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/análise , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Instalações de Transporte
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Up to 10% of Bladder Cancers may arise following occupational exposure to carcinogens. We hypothesised that different cancer phenotypes reflected different patterns of occupational exposure. METHODS: Consecutive participants, with bladder cancer, self-completed a structured questionnaire detailing employment, tasks, exposures, smoking, lifestyle and family history. Our primary outcome was association between cancer phenotype and occupational details. RESULTS: We collected questionnaires from 536 patients, of whom 454 (85%) participants (352 men and 102 women) were included. Women were less likely to be smokers (68% vs. 81% Chi sq. p<0.001), but more likely than men to inhale environmental tobacco smoke at home (82% vs. 74% p = 0.08) and use hair dye (56% vs. 3%, p<0.001). Contact with potential carcinogens occurred in 282 (62%) participants (mean 3.1 per worker (range 0-14)). High-grade cancer was more common than low-grade disease in workers from the steel, foundry, metal, engineering and transport industries (p<0.05), and in workers exposed to crack detection dyes, chromium, coal/oil/gas by-products, diesel fumes/fuel/aircraft fuel and solvents (such as trichloroethylene). Higher staged cancers were frequent in workers exposed to Chromium, coal products and diesel exhaust fumes/fuel (p<0.05). Various workers (e.g. exposed to diesel fuels or fumes (Cox, HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.31-2.98) p = 0.001), employed in a garage (HR 2.19 (95% CI 1.31-3.63) p = 0.001), undertaking plumbing/gas fitting/ventilation (HR 2.15 (95% CI 1.15-4.01) p = 0.017), undertaking welding (HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.24-2.77) p = 0.003) and exposed to welding materials (HR 1.92 (95% CI 1.27-2.91) p = 0.002)) were more likely to have disease progression and receive radical treatment than others. Fewer than expected deaths were seen in healthcare workers (HR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.70) p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: We identified multiple occupational tasks and contacts associated with bladder cancer. There were some associations with phenotype, although our study design precludes robust assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Fenótipo , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036530

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the personal dose level of nuclear medical workers in a hospital, and to provide basis for health management of nuclear medicine occupational population. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018, 147 radiation workers in a hospital were selected as the monitoring objects, and the individual dose monitoring data were analyzed. The correlation between individual dose and clinical workload was analyzed. Results: The average annual personal dose of 147 staff members was below the national dose limit. Compared with the radiation department, the average annual personal dose of nuclear medical staff was higher, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . There was a positive correlation between the annual average personal dose and the corresponding injection workload (Rs=0.69, P<0.05) . Conclusion: The occupational exposure risk of nuclear medical technicians and nurses is high, and reasonable protective measures should be taken to reduce the radiation exposure dose. Conclusion The occupational exposure risk of nuclear medical technicians and nurses is high, and reasonable protective measures should be taken to reduce the radiation exposure dose.


Assuntos
Medicina Nuclear , Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição à Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Doses de Radiação
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036535

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in the urine of styrene by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-high coupled with high performance liquid chromatography. Methods: N-octanol was used as an extractant and ethanol was used as a dispersing agent. The phenylglycolic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in the urine were extracted, and the upper liquid was taken after vortexing and centrifuged, and then was injected into HPLC for analysis. Results: The linear correlation coefficient of the concentration of phenylglycolic acid in the range of 0~10.0 mg/L was greater than 0.999. The detection limit of the method was 9.9 µg/L, the recovery rates were 86.1%~101.6%. The intraday RSDs of the method were 1.07%~3.76%, and the interday RSDs were 1.24%~3.33%. The linear correlation coefficient of phenylglyoxylic acid in the range of 0.0~2.0 mg/L is greater than 0.999. The detection limit of the method was 2.6 µg/L, the recovery rates were 88.8%~100.3%. The intraday RSDs of the method were 1.02%~ 3.17%, and the interday RSDs were 1.59%~2.41%. Conclusion: The method has low detection limit, high enrichment ratio and good sensitivity, and is suitable for determination of phenylglycolic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in urine of occupational exposure to styrene.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Exposição Ocupacional , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estireno
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036541

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution and intensity of noise and ultraviolet radiation of welding posts in a refrigeration equipment manufacturing enterprise, in conjunction with the health status of welding workers, providing scientific evidence for the prevention and control of occupational diseases in this type of post. Methods: In May 2019, a cross-sectional survey method was used to select 576 welding workers in the pressure vessel workshop and the unit assembly workshop of a refrigeration complete equipment manufacturer from 2016 to 2018 as the research objects. The occupational hygiene survey and occupational hazard factor measurement were carried out in the workplace, and the measurement data and occupational health examination results were statistically analyzed. Results: The over standard rate of individual Lex in pressure vessel workshop was 82.2% (37/45) . Compared with the unit assembly workshop, the individual Lex of welding workers in pressure vessel workshop was higher than that in unit assembly workshop (t=13.43, P= 0.00) ; the effective irradiance exceeding rate of welding workers in pressure vessel workshop and unit assembly workshop was 33.3% (4/12) and 25.0% (3/12) , The meacurement of ovradiation in the moskment the occupational exposure limit. The deaf rate and hearing loss rate in pressure vessel workshop were 1.5% (5/336) 20.5% (69/336) , respectively, significantly higher than that in umit assembly workshop (P<0.05) . The detection rate of hearing loss of pressure vessel workshop workers increased year by year, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2trend)=22.42, P<0.01) ; compared with the unit assembly workshop from 2016 to 2018, the detection rates of lens opacity, corneal cloudiness and hearing loss of pressure vessel workshop workers were statistically significant (χ(2)=9.45, 14.80, 55.99, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Welding workers exposed to noise and ultraviolet radiation are easy to be ignored. The enterprise management department should attach great importance to it and take comprehensive measures to protect the health of welding workers.


Assuntos
Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Soldagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Refrigeração , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(7): 515-522, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By law, covid-19 disease and deaths in workers may lead to coroners' inquests and/or Health and Safety Executive (HSE) investigations. AIMS: This study assesses the adequacy of these statutory means to yield recommendations for prevention of acquiring covid-19 infection from work. METHODS: Covid-19 guidance from the chief coroner and the HSE was appraised, including using Office for National Statistics (ONS) data. Practitioners were asked to estimate the likelihood that covid-19 disease may have arisen from 'near-miss' scenarios. Data from the judiciary and the HSE were analysed. RESULTS: The coroners' guidance allowed a wider range of reports of death than did the HSE and conformed better with ONS data on covid-19 mortality by occupation. In the practitioner survey, 62 respondents considered a higher likelihood that reported covid-19 cases would have arisen from the scenario deemed unreportable as a 'dangerous occurrence' by HSE than the reportable scenario (P < 0.001). On average there was only one coroner's report to prevent future death from occupational disease every year in England and Wales. The HSE dealt with a yearly average of 1611 reports of work-related disease including 104 on biological agents, but has received about 9000 covid-19 reports. CONCLUSIONS: Current HSE guidance for reporting work-related covid-19 may miss many thousands of cases and needs further iteration. Coroners have very limited experience of inquiry into occupational disease caused by biological agents compared with the HSE. Concerns regarding national policy such as on protective equipment warrant a full public inquiry.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Médicos Legistas , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101787, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992157

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating and comparing exposure dose of workers and the surrounding workers. In addition, worker's exposure was also measure about lens and finger. Four intraoral portable X-ray units were evaluated. The stray radiations were measured using Pitman 37D and ionization chamber (Pitman). MyDosemini (ALOKA) was used for measurement of the finger exposure dose. Without the shield became high in anterior 0.5 m. Comparing the air dose for the four models used in this study showed a high tendency for the two NOMAD models. And using the shields, the images could be taken 4.6 times of the baseline at a maximum and 3.6 times on average. The finger radiation exposure dose was low with both of the NOMAD models, with no significant difference found. By setting the baseline value without a shield, finger radiation exposure when using a shield was lower than the detection limit for the D3000, and was reduced by approximately 94-96% for other three models. All models can photograph around 100 bodies, so it is considered that it is not necessary to switch out the operator considering the operation limit. But even if it does not reach the operation limit, the stochastic effects of radiation exposure can be increased as well as the deterministic effects of the operation limit. The operator and the surrounding workers seek to protect themselves. It is important to perform exposure management that takes into account the stochastic effects to the operator and the surrounding workers.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia/efeitos adversos , Radiografia/instrumentação , Dedos , Humanos , Cristalino , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Imagens de Fantasmas , Equipamentos de Proteção , Radiografia Dentária
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111365, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977286

RESUMO

Work in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can be associated with respiratory symptoms and diarrhea. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge about WWTP workers' exposure to airborne bacteria and endotoxin, and the inflammatory potential (TIP) of their exposure, and to evaluate the risk posed by the exposure by 1) calculating a hazard index and relating the exposure to suggested occupational exposure limits (OELs), 2) estimating the potential deposition of bacteria in the airways, 3) relating it to the risk group classification of bacteria by the European Union, and 4) estimating the TIP of the personal exposure. A cohort of 14 workers were followed over one year. Bioaerosols were collected using personal and stationary samplers in a grid chamber house and an aeration tank area. Airborne bacteria were identified using (MALDI-TOF MS), and TIP of exposure was measured using HL-60 cells. A significant effect of season, work task, and person was found on the personal exposure. A hazard index based on exposure levels indicates that the risk caused by inhalation is low. In relation to suggested OELs, 14% and 34% of the personal exposure were exceeded for endotoxin (≥50 EU/m3) and bacteria (≥500 CFU/m3). At least 70% of the airborne bacteria in the grid chamber house and the aeration tank area could potentially deposit in the lower respiratory tract. From the personal samples, three of 131 bacterial species, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica are classified within Risk Group 2. Seven additional bacteria from the stationary samples belong to Risk Group 2. The bacterial species composition was affected significantly by season (p = 0.014) and by sampling type/area (p = 0.001). The TIP of WWTP workers' exposure was higher than of a reference sample, and the highest TIP was measured in autumn. TIP of personal exposure correlated with bacterial exposure. Based on the geometric average exposures to endotoxin (9.2 EU/m3) and bacteria (299 CFU/m3) and based on the calculated hazard index, the risk associated with exposure is low. However, since 43 of 106 exposure levels exceed suggested OELs, the TIP of exposure was elevated and associated with bacterial exposure, and WWTP workers were exposed to pathogenic bacteria, a continued focus on preventive measures is important. The identification of bacteria to species level in personal samples was necessary in the risk assessment, and measurement of the microbial composition made the source tracking possible.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias , Endotoxinas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892584

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of sound insulation improvement on the noise exposure of workers in the operation room of hot rolling line for wide and heavy plate. Methods: From September 2019 to September 2017, based on the occupational health Survey, the data of 25 fixed operation rooms and workers in operation rooms of a steel rolling production line were collected retrospectively, the noise exposure levels before and after the improvement of sound insulation were statistically analyzed. Results: The noise exposure value of the workers, the qualified rate of 0 Grade 8 hours equivalent noise (L(EX, 8 h)) ≤85 dB (A) and the qualified rate of the design limit value of the operation room were all higher than those before the modification, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01) , after the renovation, the Class II and above noise hazards were eliminated, the equivalent continuous a sound level (L(Aeq, 8 h)) >75 dB (A) of the workers in the operation room was 8h, and the noise level in the operation room still did not meet the Ergonomics limit standard. Conclusion: The improvement of sound insulation can effectively improve the working environment of noise workplace operating room and reduce the workers'noise exposure level.


Assuntos
Metalurgia , Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aço , Local de Trabalho
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111100, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911453

RESUMO

Compared to the general population, firefighters are known to sustain greater levels of exposure to hazardous compounds, despite their personal protective equipment, also known as turnout gear. Among the most significant toxins that firefighters are chronically exposed to are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, firefighters have also been noted to exhibit an increased incidence of certain types of cancer. Considering a probable link between exposure to PAHs and increased rates of cancer in the fire service, we aim to document ambient chemical concentrations in the firefighter work environment. Our strategy involves the use of silicone-based wristbands that have the capacity to passively sorb PAHs. To determine if wristbands can serve as an effective chemical monitoring device for the fire service, silicone wristbands were pilot-tested as personal sampling devices for work environment risk monitoring in active-duty firefighters. Recovered wristbands underwent multiple extraction steps, followed by GC-MS analysis to demonstrate their efficacy in monitoring PAHs in the firefighter environment. Initial findings from all wristband samples taken from firefighters showed multiple exposures to various PAHs of concern for the health of the firefighters when in a fire environment. In addition to PAH monitoring, we examined known and potential sources of PAH contamination in their work environment. To that end, profiles of elevated PAH concentrations were documented at various fire stations throughout South Florida, for individual firefighters both during station duties and active fire response.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Bombeiros , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Silicones/análise
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925951

RESUMO

Enclosed underground excavation worksite has an environment with poor ventilation and exposure to hazardous substances from diesel engine exhaust and construction materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure level of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dust and crystalline silica (CS) during underground excavation work for top down construction buildings. Active local air sampling for EC, OC, and TC (n = 105), PAHs (n = 50), dust (n = 34) and CS (n = 34) was conducted from inside and outside the excavator at underground excavation workshop in four different construction sites. EC, OC, TC and CS were sampled with each respirable and total particulates. EC, OC, and TC were collected on quartz-filter and analyzed using the thermal optical transmittance method. PAHs was collected on polytetrafluorethylene filter with XAD-2 and analyzed using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. CS and particulates were collected on poly vinyl chloride filter and analyzed using fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The geometric mean of respirable EC, OC, TC, total PAHs, respirable dust and respirable CS were 8.69 µg/m3, 34.32 µg/m3, 44.96 µg/m3, 6.818 µg/m3 0.13 mg/m3 and 0.02 mg/m3 from inside the excavator and 33.20 µg/m3, 46.53 µg/m3, 78.21 µg/m3, 3.934 µg/m3, 0.9 mg/m3 and 0.08 mg/m3 from outside the excavator (underground excavation workshop), respectively. The EC and RCS concentration from outside the excavator is significantly higher than that of inside the excavator (p<0.01). The worksite with rock ground, higher vehicle density, blasting and enclosed environments had higher exposure to EC than other sites (p<0.05). There was no significant difference of EC concentration between total and respirable particulates. In top down construction sites, EC concentrations during underground excavation work exceeded recommended exposure limits as 20 µg/m3, accounted for about 50% of the total sample, and the level of concentration of RCS exceeded 1.5 times of occupational exposure limit, 0.05 mg/m3. Efforts are needed to minimize exposure to diesel engine exhaust and silica in underground excavation sites. Management of diesel engine vehicle, supply of fresh air and ventilation and introducing water facilities to create wet environment in underground worksites are strongly suggested.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Carbono/análise , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República da Coreia , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Local de Trabalho
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