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1.
Bull Cancer ; 107(4): 428-437, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204890

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An in-patient clinical service has been set up in March 2016 in the Occupational Diseases Center of Brest University Hospital, France, to seek for work-relatedness of diseases in patients hospitalized into the oncology and hematology departments. We present here data after two years of existence. METHODS: All cases of cancers or malignant hematological diseases (ICD-10 codes C00 to C97 and D37 to D48) seen between March 1, 2016, and March 1, 2018, have been identified. We present sociodemographic data, occupational exposures, occupation, business sector, and tobacco consumption. The causation level between the disease and each of the occupational exposures has been rated as strong, intermediate, weak or null by the occupational medicine specialist of the Occupational Diseases Center. RESULTS: Among the 196 patients encountered, there are 127 work-related diseases and 82 of these had one occupational exposure rated as strong or intermediate. The most frequent occupational hazards were asbestos (48 cases) and ionizing radiation (23 cases). The most frequent business sectors were metallurgy, mechanical engineering, and agriculture. Lung cancer was the most frequently reported disease (49 cases). DISCUSSION: . We identified well-known couples with occupational exposures and diseases, such as asbestos and lung cancer. We also identified a link between pesticides and leukemias. This in-patient clinical service is helpful to identify work-related exposures and in helping patients to get compensated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Feminino , França , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Linfoma/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Ocupações , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Radiação Ionizante , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Tunis Med ; 97(3): 438-444, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of occupational exposures allows to guide preventive strategies and to suggest adequate solutions. AIM: Identify occupational exposures and constrains among workers of private sector in Tunisia. METHODS: A descriptive study including all companies of the private sector who are adhering to a service of occupational health of 17 Tunisian governorates. The survey was exhaustive for the services having less than 500 companies and by sampling for the services with more than 500.The data collection was based on data sheet completed by the occupational physician. RESULTS: This investigation concerned 1653 companies employing 161 517 employees. The industrial sector represented 52.8 %.Small and medium-sized enterprises represented 92.6 % of the studied companies. Companies having a committee of Health and Safety at work represented 16.82 % and 22.14 % had a safety officer. Posturales constraints are the most represented exposures (56%) followed by gestural constraints (27%). Heavy lifting concerned 17% of workers. Exposure to noise represented the third professional nuisance, 23% of employees are exposed. The employees exposed to organic solvents were among 16695 (10.34 %), distributed on 685 companies. CONCLUSION: This study allowed us to identify and to rank the professional exposures and constrains in the Tunisian private sector. This could lead to improving targeted strategies of prevention occupational risks.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Ocupações/classificação , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia
3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(12): 1036-1040, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine military occupational specialty (MOS) codes to identify those at risk from inhalation exposures during Southwest Asia deployment. METHODS: Exposure intensity to diesel exhaust, sandstorms, burn pit smoke, combat dust, and occupational vapors/dusts/gases/fumes (VDGF) were scored for all Army/Marine MOS codes by an expert panel. Based on MOS code, panel-rated exposure scores were compared with questionnaire data from military personnel with postdeployment respiratory illnesses. RESULTS: All exposures except VDGF were rated higher (range P < 0.0001 to P = 0.003) for combat versus noncombat MOS codes. Deployers with respiratory illnesses reported more intense exposure to diesel exhaust (P < 0.0001), burn pit smoke (P < 0.0001), and sandstorms (P = 0.005) compared with panel raters. These deployers clustered in MOS codes rated highest for inhalation hazard exposure intensity. CONCLUSIONS: MOS codes are useful in identifying high-risk military occupations where medical surveillance and exposure control should be focused.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/classificação , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e023879, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure to inorganic particles or welding fumes during pregnancy is associated with negative birth outcomes. DESIGN: A prospective national cohort study. SETTING: All single births from 1994 to 2012 in Sweden. Information on birth weight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, smoking habits, nationality, age, occupation, absence from work and education was obtained from nationwide registers. Exposure to inorganic particles (mg/m3) was assessed from a job exposure matrix. PARTICIPANTS: This study included all single births by occupationally active mothers (995 843). OUTCOME MEASURES: Associations between occupational exposures and negative birth outcomes in the form of low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: Mothers who had high exposure to inorganic particles and had less than 50 days (median) of absence from work during pregnancy showed an increased risk of preterm birth (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.30), low birth weight (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48) as well as small for gestational age (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.39). The increased risks were driven by exposure to iron particles. No increased risks were found in association with exposure to stone and concrete particles. High exposure to welding fumes was associated with an increased risk of low birth weight (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.45) and preterm birth (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.42). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that pregnant women should not be exposed to high levels of iron particles or welding fumes.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/envenenamento , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Ferro/envenenamento , Estudos Longitudinais , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Ind Med ; 62(1): 59-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing datasets often lack job exposure data. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes can link work exposure data to health outcomes via a Job Exposure Matrix, but manually assigning SOC codes is laborious. We explored the utility of two SOC autocoding programs. METHODS: We entered industry and occupation descriptions from two existing cohorts into two publicly available SOC autocoding programs. SOC codes were also assigned manually by experienced coders. These SOC codes were then linked to exposures from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). RESULTS: Agreement between the SOC codes produced by autocoding programs and those produced manually was modest at the 6-digit level, and strong at the 2-digit level. Importantly, O*NET exposure values based on SOC code assignment showed strong agreement between manual and autocoded methods. CONCLUSION: Both available autocoding programs can be useful tools for assigning SOC codes, allowing linkage of occupational exposures to data containing free-text occupation descriptors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Ocupações/classificação , Medição de Risco/métodos , Automação , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Indústrias
6.
Rev Pneumol Clin ; 74(6): 483-491, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) is described as the most common respiratory disease in industrialized countries. A female predominance characterizes many populations of asthmatic workers. Differences in occupational exposures by gender as well as hormonal variations could affect OA in women. PURPOSE: To identify the socio-occupational and medical characteristics of OA in women compared to men and to investigate a possible hormonal influence on OA in women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study, based on medical records of out patients of the Department of Occupational Medicine during the period between 1st January 2009 and 30 June 2016 for OA completed by a phone call to collect missing data. RESULTS: Over 222 cases of OA, a female predominance was noted (60.81%), which was predominantly in the textile sector (61.5%). Clinically, men had more exercise dyspnea and wheezing, whereas the association with rhinitis was significantly greater in women. The majority of women with asthma had irregular menstrual cycles (46.2%), they were multiparous in 54%, menopaused in 13% of cases with a mean age of menarche of 12±1.65 years. A worsening of OA was noted in 58% of women during their perimenstrual period, 75% during pregnancy and 14% of women when taking hormonal contraceptives. In asthmatic women, only the presence of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was significantly associated with menarche age (P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Differences between men and women in OA with variability of symptoms during female genital life have been identified. Further studies to personalized care strategies for women need to be undertaken.


Assuntos
Asma Ocupacional/sangue , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Adulto , Asma Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/sangue , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 72, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution has been shown to have health effects in many studies; low birth weight, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, and stillbirth are the most often cited. However, exposure of pregnant women is difficult to quantify, especially with regard to their mobility, which is rarely taken into account in epidemiological studies. This study aimed to assess the impact of mobility of pregnant women living in Paris, France, on their exposure estimates to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). METHODS: A total of 486 pregnant women were recruited in 5 maternity hospitals in Paris between January and April 2016. A questionnaire was used to collect mothers' characteristics (demography, education, etc.) and to assess their daily mobility during pregnancy (time spent at work, commuting time and mode used to move from residential to occupational places). Daily NO2 concentrations were estimated based on the combination of annual average concentrations modeled at the census block scale and daily concentrations measured from fixed monitoring stations. Different models were used to compare the exposure of pregnant women in residential and occupational places, also taking into account travel time and travel mode. The socioeconomic profile of the census blocks was characterized using a multi-component index. RESULTS: During the first trimester of pregnancy, women living in the least deprived census blocks were exposed to higher concentrations of NO2 than those living in the most deprived ones. Occupational mobility had a small impact on exposure levels (average increase after taking account of mobility: + 0.52 µg/m3) which was not related to the socioeconomic profile of the women. The commuting mode made a greater difference (+ 1.46 µg/m3 on average), in particular among women living in the most deprived census blocks. CONCLUSIONS: Our study illustrates that air pollution exposure can be underestimated when ignoring occupational mobility and commuting mode of pregnant women. This effect might be differential according to the neighborhood deprivation profile.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Materna/classificação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dinâmica Populacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Paris , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 63: 55-59, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153627

RESUMO

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), one of the most widespread occupational health risks worldwide, is a kind of complex disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. KCNQ4 channels are crucial to the internal ear potassium recycling. To explore whether KCNQ4 polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to NIHL, we performed this genetic association study on 571 NIHL cases and 639 normal hearing controls selected from about 2700 Chinese noise-exposed workers. General information and audiometric data were obtained through questionnaires and pure-tone audiometry (PTA). DNA samples were collected and genotyping for three selected SNPs (rs709688, rs2769256 and rs4660468) was performed. Significant differences were observed between cases and controls for the genotype frequency and allele frequency in rs4660468, suggesting that rs4660468 CT/TT genotype and T allele may be risk factors for NIHL. In subjects exposed to noise for more than 16 years (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.53) and those who exposed to noise >92 dB (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.08-1.69), increased risks of NIHL were found after stratified analysis for rs4660468. Our results suggest that rs4660468 T allele of KCNQ4 involves with a higher risk of NIHL and could be one biomarker of susceptibility for Chinese noise exposed workers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/genética , Canais de Potássio KCNQ/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Audiometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação
9.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 15(5): 413-421, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494296

RESUMO

Welding fume exposure can increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal grouping schemes of welding fume exposure in shipyard welders for future accurate examination of the association between welding fume exposure and COPD. Industrial hygiene records, including welding fume measurements between 2002 and 2009 were collected from a shipyard. A total of 2,360 personal welding fume measurements was compiled with a geometric mean of 1.66 mg/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 4.02. Welding jobs were categorized into 8 groups. There were 9 working areas. To obtain the optimal grouping scheme, various grouping schemes were created using job, area, and job*area combination. To compare various grouping schemes, contrast and precision were calculated for each grouping scheme. For all measurement data, group mean ranking method created by ranking geometric means of the job*area combination into 3 groups (group mean ranking method) showed the best contrast and precision values among various grouping schemes, followed by grouping based on the job. For a subset of the data excluding job*area combinations with less than 10 measurements, grouping based on the job showed greater contrast than group mean ranking method, while for other subsets, including only repeated measurement data or further excluding job*area combinations with less than 10 measurements from the repeated measurement subset, group mean ranking method showed greater contrast than grouping based on the job. Our results showed that group mean ranking or grouping based on the job could be a candidate for the optimal grouping schemes in this shipyard. Our efforts for optimal grouping scheme may aid future cohort study to elucidate the association between welding fume exposure and COPD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Soldagem , Gases/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , República da Coreia , Navios , Local de Trabalho
10.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(5): 523-536, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to construct a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for psychosocial work factors of the job strain model, to evaluate its validity, and to compare the results over time. METHODS: The study was based on national representative data of the French working population with samples of 46,962 employees (2010 SUMER survey) and 24,486 employees (2003 SUMER survey). Psychosocial work factors included the job strain model factors (Job Content Questionnaire): psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, job strain and iso-strain. Job title was defined by three variables: occupation and economic activity coded using standard classifications, and company size. A JEM was constructed using a segmentation method (Classification and Regression Tree-CART) and cross-validation. RESULTS: The best quality JEM was found using occupation and company size for social support. For decision latitude and psychological demands, there was not much difference using occupation and company size with or without economic activity. The validity of the JEM estimates was higher for decision latitude, job strain and iso-strain, and lower for social support and psychological demands. Differential changes over time were observed for psychosocial work factors according to occupation, economic activity and company size. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that company size in addition to occupation may improve the validity of JEMs for psychosocial work factors. These matrices may be time-dependent and may need to be updated over time. More research is needed to assess the validity of JEMs given that these matrices may be able to provide exposure assessments to study a range of health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Ocupações , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Indústrias , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações/classificação , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(4): 228-235, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605270

RESUMO

In the United States, there is limited literature on occupational pesticide exposures despite being associated with adverse health outcomes, including in large states such as Texas. The purpose of this article is to characterize occupational pesticide poison center exposures in Texas. Descriptive statistics were used to describe exposures (eg, exposure routes, type of pesticide, medical outcome, clinical effects, and temporal/seasonal patterns). From 2000 to 2015, there were 2,303 occupational pesticide poison center exposures. Common types of reported pesticides were insecticides (67.3%), herbicides (17.7%), and repellents (5.8%). The highest proportion of exposures were among those aged 20 to 29 years (24.9%). The top clinical effect categories were gastrointestinal (25.8%), neurological (19.2%), and dermal (14.9%). Characterizing occupational pesticide poison center exposures can support improved surveillance systems and guide future research or interventions.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Herbicidas/envenenamento , Repelentes de Insetos/envenenamento , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Envenenamento/etiologia , Texas/epidemiologia
12.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(6): 347-350, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272207

RESUMO

Previous studies report high respirable silica exposures among clay brick workers globally; however, there are little data on exposures among workers in fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns, the predominant kiln type in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. We investigated respirable silica exposures among workers (N = 46) in five similar exposure groups (SEGs). Mean exposures were highest for red brick loading/carrying (331 µg/m3), followed by green brick stacking (223 µg/m3), fireman (102 µg/m3), coal crushing/carrying (92 µg/m3), and green brick molding (71 µg/m3). The average free silica content (13.8%) in the respirable dust fraction was similar to levels reported for clay brick workers employed in other types of kilns. Dust control measures and respiratory protection are recommended, with priority given to workers assigned to red brick loading and stacking and green brick stacking and carrying.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Indústria da Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Adulto , Argila , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 14(12): 1011-1019, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) use different constituent variables to quantify task physical exposures. Similarly, time-weighted-average (TWA), Peak, and Typical exposure techniques to quantify physical exposure from multi-task jobs make different assumptions about each task's contribution to the whole job exposure. Thus, task and job physical exposure classifications differ depending upon which model and technique are used for quantification. This study examines exposure classification agreement, disagreement, correlation, and magnitude of classification differences between these models and techniques. METHODS: Data from 710 multi-task job workers performing 3,647 tasks were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL models, as well as with the TWA, Typical and Peak job exposure techniques. Physical exposures were classified as low, medium, and high using each model's recommended, or a priori limits. Exposure classification agreement and disagreement between models (SI, TLV for HAL) and between job exposure techniques (TWA, Typical, Peak) were described and analyzed. RESULTS: Regardless of technique, the SI classified more tasks as high exposure than the TLV for HAL, and the TLV for HAL classified more tasks as low exposure. The models agreed on 48.5% of task classifications (kappa = 0.28) with 15.5% of disagreement between low and high exposure categories. Between-technique (i.e., TWA, Typical, Peak) agreement ranged from 61-93% (kappa: 0.16-0.92) depending on whether the SI or TLV for HAL was used. CONCLUSIONS: There was disagreement between the SI and TLV for HAL and between the TWA, Typical and Peak techniques. Disagreement creates uncertainty for job design, job analysis, risk assessments, and developing interventions. Task exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL might complement each other. However, TWA, Typical, and Peak job exposure techniques all have limitations. Part II of this article examines whether the observed differences between these models and techniques produce different exposure-response relationships for predicting prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Mãos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180969, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbial environment of workers in academic mouse research facilities using endotoxin, 16S qPCR, and 16S amplicon sequencing. To determine whether the work microbiome contributes to the human microbiome of workers. METHODS: We performed area air sampling from the animal rooms, dirty, middle, and setup cage wash locations in four academic mouse research facilities. 10 workers in the dirty cage wash area underwent personal air sampling as well as repeated collection of nasal, oral, and skin samples before and after the work shift. Environmental samples underwent measurement of endotoxin, mouse allergen, bacteria copy number via 16S qPCR, and microbial identification via 16S rDNA sequencing. 16S rDNA sequencing was also performed on human samples before and after the work shift. SourceTracker was used to identify the contribution of the work microbiome to the human microbiome. RESULTS: Median endotoxin levels ranged from undetectable to 1.0 EU/m3. Significant differences in mouse allergen levels, bacterial copy number, microbial richness, and microbial community structure were identified between animal, dirty, middle, and setup cage wash locations. Endotoxin levels had only a moderate correlation with microbial composition. Location within a facility was a stronger predictor of microbial community composition (R2 = 0.41, p = 0.002) than facility. The contribution of the work microbiome to the pre-shift human microbiome of workers was estimated to be 0.1 ± 0.1% for the oral microbiome; 3.1 ± 1.9% for the nasal microbiome; and 3.0 ± 1.5% for the skin microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: The microbial environment of academic animal care facilities varies significantly by location rather than facility. Endotoxin is not a proxy for assessment of environmental microbial exposures using 16S qPCR or 16S rDNA sequencing. The work microbiome contributes to the composition of the nasal and skin microbiome of workers; the clinical implications of this observation should be further studied.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Endotoxinas/genética , Microbiota , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico , Camundongos , Boca/microbiologia , Nariz/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia
15.
Med Tr Prom Ekol ; (2): 57-61, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351852

RESUMO

The study included 335 males who were exposed to occupational hazards over 5 years to the moment of cerebrovascular stroke. The authors analysed structure of clinical forms of cerebrovascular stroke, found a concept of various age groups distribution in dependence on occupational factor type, established a frequency of cardiovascular risk factors distribution among males in dependence on occupational hazards, revealed foiecasting value of intensity ranks in cerebrovascular stroke patients at the disease presentation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
16.
Mil Med ; 181(5 Suppl): 51-8, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We present a method to account for the effects of the hearing protection devices (HPDs) for use with the 8 hours equivalent A-weighted energy (LAeq8) criterion. The method involves the calculation of the LAeq8 equivalent unprotected free-field dose (LAeq8EUFF), which is obtained by using the insertion loss (IL) data of the HPD together with free-field pressure measurements. METHODS: The method was validated against the historical the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command walk-up study data with volunteers exposed to simulated large weapon noise wearing a range of HPDs. The IL data were obtained using standard acoustical test fixtures fitted with the matching HPDs in replicated field tests and using shock tubes at conditions comparable to the actual exposure intensities. Logistic regression calculations were performed to correlate the LAeq8EUFF values against the walk-up study outcomes to determine the L(95,95) threshold for the protection of 95% of the population with 95% of the time. RESULTS: Data comparison shows that L(95,95) is 89 dBA, which is slightly higher than the 85 dBA criterion but falls in the 80 to 90 dBA range as used by various NATO nations. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, considering the limitation of the walk-up dataset, it is conservative to adopt the 85 dBA threshold for general application.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/normas , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 183(11): 969-76, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27188942

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/induzido quimicamente , Hexanos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Defeitos da Visão Cromática/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hexanos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , São Francisco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
18.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 66(5): 358-64, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27067914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies of the occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease generally rely on self-reported exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes (VGDF), which are susceptible to misclassification. AIMS: To develop an airborne chemical job exposure matrix (ACE JEM) for use with the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2000) system. METHODS: We developed the ACE JEM in stages: (i) agreement of definitions, (ii) a binary assignation of exposed/not exposed to VGDF, fibres or mists (VGDFFiM), for each of the individual 353 SOC codes and (iii) assignation of levels of exposure (L; low, medium and high) and (iv) the proportion of workers (P) likely to be exposed in each code. We then expanded the estimated exposures to include biological dusts, mineral dusts, metals, diesel fumes and asthmagens. RESULTS: We assigned 186 (53%) of all SOC codes as exposed to at least one category of VGDFFiM, with 23% assigned as having medium or high exposure. We assigned over 68% of all codes as not being exposed to fibres, gases or mists. The most common exposure was to dusts (22% of codes with >50% exposed); 12% of codes were assigned exposure to fibres. We assigned higher percentages of the codes as exposed to diesel fumes (14%) compared with metals (8%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed an expert-derived JEM, using a strict set of a priori defined rules. The ACE JEM could also be applied to studies to assess risks of diseases where the main route of occupational exposure is via inhalation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Ocupações/classificação , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/normas , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/normas , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 13(9): 668-74, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029937

RESUMO

We demonstrate the regression analysis of exposure determinants using cross-classified random effects in the context of lead exposures resulting from blasting surfaces in advance of painting. We had three specific objectives for analysis of the lead data, and observed: (1) high within-worker variability in personal lead exposures, explaining 79% of variability; (2) that the lead concentration outside of half-mask respirators was 2.4-fold higher than inside supplied-air blasting helmets, suggesting that the exposure reduction by blasting helmets may be lower than expected by the Assigned Protection Factor; and (3) that lead concentrations at fixed area locations in containment were not associated with personal lead exposures. In addition, we found that, on average, lead exposures among workers performing blasting and other activities was 40% lower than among workers performing only blasting. In the process of obtaining these analyses objectives, we determined that the data were non-hierarchical: repeated exposure measurements were collected for a worker while the worker was a member of several groups, or cross-classified among groups. Since the worker is a member of multiple groups, the exposure data do not adhere to the traditionally assumed hierarchical structure. Forcing a hierarchical structure on these data led to similar within-group and between-group variability, but decreased precision in the estimate of effect of work activity on lead exposure. We hope hygienists and exposure assessors will consider non-hierarchical models in the design and analysis of exposure assessments.


Assuntos
Chumbo/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Indústria da Construção , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/classificação , Máscaras , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Saúde do Trabalhador , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
20.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(1): 22-29, ene.-mar. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-148797

RESUMO

Objetivo. Revisar y completar la información de la matriz de empleo-exposición MatEmESp sobre la prevalencia e intensidad de exposición a polvo de madera en trabajadores españoles con datos de la base de datos WOODEX. Métodos. Se relacionaron los diferentes grupos de exposición incluidos en cada actividad económica expuesta según WOODEX con las ocupaciones de la matriz MatEmESp. Se utilizaron los datos de WOODEX para calcular nuevos valores de intensidad y prevalencia de exposición para las ocupaciones incluidas en MatEmESp. Resultados. Se han podido relacionar 18 ocupaciones procedentes de MatEmESp con grupos de exposición descritos por WOODEX. Ello permitió obtener nuevos datos de intensidad para estas 18 ocupaciones y de prevalencia para 16 de ellas. También se ha identificado una nueva ocupación expuesta que MatEmESp no contemplaba. Las ocupaciones con valores de prevalencia de exposición más altos son los operadores de serrerías, código CNO-94, 8141 y los operadores de máquinas para fabricar productos de madera, código CNO-94, 8340. Los nuevos datos calculados muestran que el 10,5% del total de trabajadores expuestos en MatEmESp lo están a cantidades superiores a 5 mg/m3 . Conclusiones. Los datos aportados por WOODEX ofrecen un mayor detalle en perfiles de exposición a polvo de madera y, están basados, en gran medida, en datos españoles. En cambio, el 95% de los datos de la MatEmESp para polvo de madera, se basan en extrapolaciones de otras matrices de otros países o de consideraciones del evaluador


Objective. To revise and complete information on prevalence and intensity of wood dust exposure among Spanish workers in the MatEmESp job-exposure matrix, based on data from the WOODEX database. Methods. Exposure groups by economic activity in WOODEX were linked to the occupations in MatEmESp. The WOODEX data were then used to calculate new values of exposure prevalence and intensity for the occupations included in MatEmESp Results. A total of 18 occupations in MatEmESp were linked to exposure groups in the WOODEX database. This allowed estimation of new exposure intensity values for these 18 occupations and calculation of new exposure prevalence values for 16 of them. In addition, a new at-risk occupation, previously not in MatEmESp, was identified. The occupations with the highest prevalence values are sawmill operators (CNO-94 code 8141) and operators of machinery for making wood products (CNO-94 code 8340). The new calculations indicate that 10.5% of at-risk workers in MatEmESp are exposed to concentrations above 5 mg/m3. Conclusions. The WOODEX data provided more detailed information about exposure profiles to wood dust and are mainly based on Spanish data. In contrast, 95% of the data on wood dust exposure in MatEmESp is based on extrapolations from other countries or on expert considerations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/classificação , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Riscos Ocupacionais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Indústria da Madeira/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/organização & administração , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas
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