Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.469
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 253-270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679312

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used phthalate. DEHP is highly used in PVC floorings and PVC windows and carpeting. The objective of this study was to determine sex hormone levels, oxidative stress parameters, selenium levels, DNA damage, and phthalate levels in plastics workers (n = 24, age = 20-58 years) working in the production of rubber mechanical goods and exposed to DEHP in workplace. The control group (n = 29, age = 25-54, all male) was selected from age-matched healthy adults. Antioxidant parameters and DNA damage were determined by spectrophotometry. Selenium levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plasma hormone levels were measured by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Plasma phthalate levels were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plastic workers had lower serum testosterone and free T4 levels and higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels vs. controls. Liver enzyme activities were markedly higher in workers vs. controls. There were also increases in plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and marked decreases in plasma selenium and erythrocyte total glutathione levels in plastics workers (P < 0.05 vs. control). Plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels were 14-fold higher in plastics workers than in controls. Plasma DEHP and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were also markedly higher in workers vs. controls. The results of this study show that occupational exposure to DEHP may lead to disturbances in sex hormones, increased liver problems, higher oxidative stress and DNA damage levels, and lower trace element concentrations in workers. More comprehensive and mechanistic studies with higher numbers of subjects are needed to show the unwanted effects of occupational exposure to DEHP.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Dietilexilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/metabolismo , Adulto , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594118

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis to the workers in different occupational positions in Jinchang Cohort. Methods: In January 2014, a cohort of follow-up population in jinchang city was taken as the research object, 17843 individuals among follow-up populations in Jinchang Cohort Study, removed the individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis before 2013, and counted the new incidence individuals diagnosed by the A-Class hospital in Grade III in Jinchang City, Gansu Province, as the investigation objects to investigate the incidence rate & rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis. The statistical significance was tested by chi-square test. Results: The 2-year incidence rate of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pneumoconiosis in the population of Jinchang Cohort Study were 11.60‰, 13.51‰ for male and 8.46‰ for female. the ranks of 2-year incidence rates of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumoconiosis and other phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were 7.06‰ã€3.42‰ã€0.84‰ã€0.34‰, respectively. Incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among administrators and executive staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among service staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of pneumoconiosis among mining staffs were 3.44‰. Conclusion: The first incidence rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis in Jinchang cohort is chronic bronchitis, and the risk factors are smoking and occupational exposure.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17373, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574886

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation can induce deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation pattern change, and ionizing radiation-induced oxidative damage may also affect DNA methylation status. However, the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation, such as occupational radiation exposure, on DNA methylation is still controversial.By investigating the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and DNA methylation changes, we evaluated whether radiation-induced oxidative damage was related to DNA methylation alterations and then determined the relationship among occupational radiation level, DNA methylation status, and oxidative damage in interventional physicians.The study population included 117 interventional physicians and 117 controls. We measured global methylation levels of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA and expression level of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmts) and homocysteine (Hcy) in serum to assess the DNA methylation status of the body. We measured 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels as indices of oxidative damage. Relevance analysis between multiple indices can reflect the relationship among occupational radiation exposure, DNA methylation changes, and oxidative damage in interventional physicians.The expression levels of Dnmts, 4-HNE, and 8-OHDG in interventional physicians were higher than those in controls, while there was no statistical difference in total DNA methylation rate and expression of Hcy between interventional physicians and controls. Total cumulative personal dose equivalent in interventional physicians was positively correlated with the expression levels of Dnmts, 8-OHDG, and 4-HNE. The expression levels of 8-OHDG in interventional physicians were negatively correlated with global DNA methylation levels and positively correlated with the expression levels of Hcy.Occupational radiation exposure of interventional physicians has a certain effect on the expression of related enzymes in the process of DNA methylation, while ionizing radiation-induced oxidative damage also has a certain effect on DNA methylation. However, there was no evidence that dose burden of occupational exposure was associated to changes of DNA methylation status of interventional physicians, since it is rather unclear which differences are observed among the effects produced by radiation exposure and oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Metilação de DNA/efeitos da radiação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Radiologia Intervencionista/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aldeídos/sangue , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metiltransferases/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3194, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: using the urinary cotinine biomarker to verify the occurrence of green tobacco sickness in workers who cultivate Burley tobacco. METHOD: paired case-control study, based on smoking status and on the 1:4 ratio, with participation of 20 case workers and 91 controls. Data collection included household surveys and urine collection for cotinine examination. Student's T-Test, the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used. RESULTS: of the 23 suspected cases, 20 showed elevated levels of cotinine, signs and symptoms of headache, skin irritation, nausea, sickness and general malaise, especially in the morning. Most had worked with tobacco that was wet from the morning dew and when the weather was warm. CONCLUSION: there are signs suggestive of green tobacco sickness in Burley tobacco workers. The action of health professionals is necessary for the development of health promotion and preventive actions addressing work-related illness.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/diagnóstico , Cotinina/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Nicotina/envenenamento , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco/envenenamento
5.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022203

RESUMO

Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects


Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos


Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Aborto , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
6.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180093, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measure the sound pressure levels in classrooms of a university as well to verify the self-perception of noise in the educational environment and its influence on the activities carried out by students and professors. METHODS: The study was carried out with students and professors who answered a questionnaire regarding self-perception of noise in the classroom, as well as the presence of auditory and non-auditory complaints. Measurement of sound pressure levels was performed in ten classrooms of Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. The points for measuring the sound pressure level inside the classrooms were selected according to the literature and legislation: three distinct points, totaling nine measurements in each room. RESULTS: Participated in this study students and professors from the Institute of Biological and Health Sciences. The classrooms of the morning shift had the highest noise measurement. Classrooms at lunch time had the lowest average noise. The first floor has the highest average noise, being classified as the noisiest floor. Noise is perceived by both students and professors as an interfering factor in the activities performed inside the classrooms, however, professors have a greater perception of noise interference in their activities than students. CONCLUSION: Noise is present in all classrooms with values higher than those recommended by national legislation. This noise is perceived by students and professors and negatively interferes in the teaching-learning activities.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 409-414, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Employees performing work underground in coal mines are exposed to the effect of many hazardous factors in their work environment which negatively affect their health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to recognize the opinions of employes working underground in one of the coal mines concerning the occurrence of factors hazardous for health in their work environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 700 persons working underground in the 'Bogdanka' coal mine in Leczna (Eastern Poland). The study was carried out using a questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using software STATISTICA v. 7.1. RESULTS: The vast majority of respondents (approximately 80%) reported that noise and dustiness at their workplace create risk for their health. More than a half of them mentioned that the microclimate in the mine threatens their health (high humidity and high temperature), and a half of respondents indicated vibration and poor lighting. The greatest differences of opinions concerning the effect of hazardous factors on health of persons employed in the mine were observed in the sub-groups distinguished according to the work position. Health risk at a workplace was most often identified by those employed as miners. CONCLUSIONS: Among actions reducing the negative effect of the work environment on health is the introduction of new, safer technologies of coal mining. Also, the human factor is very important for work safety in mining, including the proper preparation of employees who undertake work in a mine. It is recommended that new, more effective educational programmes are implemented in the area of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) at workplaces.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Atitude , Poeira/análise , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Microclima , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495107

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of long-term exposure to silica dust on serum CC16 and KL-6 levels. Methods: The patients with stage I silicosis who were hospitalized in our hospital from April 2016 to April 2017 were treated as silicosis group. The silica dust exposed workers without silicosis who were taken the physical examination in our hospital were taken as a dust-exposed group. The healthy control group comes from in the same period of community physical examination did not touch the dust. The levels of CC16 and KL-6 in serum of all subjects were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) , and the levels of CC16 and KL-6 in serum were compared in three groups. Results: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of CC16 in the silicosis group (P<0.01) and the dust-exposed group (P<0.01) were significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the level of serum KL-6 in the silicosis group was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared with the control group, while the level of KL-6 in the serum of the dust-exposed group was significantly increased (P<0.01) . The ROC area of CC16 for diagnosis of silicosis was 0.92 (P<0.01) , with a sensitivity of 81.37%, specificity of 92.63% and Kappa value of 0.74. Conclusion: Long-term exposure to silica dust may lead to a decrease in serum CC16 levels. Reduced serum CC16 levels may be useful in identifying the diagnosis of silicosis.


Assuntos
Poeira , Mucina-1/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/sangue , Uteroglobina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495112

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence of contact dermatitis among workers in cemented carbide production enterprises. Methods: From October 1997 to October 2017, an occupational epidemiological survey was conducted on a large-scale cemented carbide production enterprise, and occupational health examinations were conducted for employees. 152 people were exposed to hard metal dust (hard metal raw material dust and alloy dust) . The employees in the work group were contact groups, and 142 employees in the non-dusting operation of the company were in the control group. A detailed retrospective survey of hard metal production workers with contact dermatitis history in the two groups was conducted to analyze the risk factors of contact dermatitis exposure to hard metal dust. Results: The incidence of allergic diseases in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=23.793, P<0.05) . The incidence of contact dermatitis in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=24.659, P<0.05) ; the changes of contact dermatitis in the contact group were mainly allergic contact dermatitis, and some showed irritative contact dermatitis; the operator had respiratory symptoms (including work-related nasal congestion, cough, wheezing) , difficulty breathing may be the influencing factors of contact dermatitis (RR=2.60, 95%CI: 1.10-6.20, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Hard metal alloy enterprises are exposed to hard metal dust. The incidence of contact dermatitis is high in workers, and the occurrence of contact dermatitis may be associated with those with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Ligas/efeitos adversos , Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tungstênio/efeitos adversos , Poeira , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(38): 813-818, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557149

RESUMO

Silicosis is an incurable occupational lung disease caused by inhaling particles of respirable crystalline silica. These particles trigger inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, leading to progressive, irreversible, and potentially disabling disease. Silica exposure is also associated with increased risk for lung infection (notably, tuberculosis), lung cancer, emphysema, autoimmune diseases, and kidney disease (1). Because quartz, a type of crystalline silica, is commonly found in stone, workers who cut, polish, or grind stone materials can be exposed to silica dust. Recently, silicosis outbreaks have been reported in several countries among workers who cut and finish stone slabs for countertops, a process known as stone fabrication (2-5). Most worked with engineered stone, a manufactured, quartz-based composite material that can contain >90% crystalline silica (6). This report describes 18 cases of silicosis, including the first two fatalities reported in the United States, among workers in the stone fabrication industry in California, Colorado, Texas, and Washington. Several patients had severe progressive disease, and some had associated autoimmune diseases and latent tuberculosis infection. Cases were identified through independent investigations in each state and confirmed based on computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest or lung biopsy findings. Silica dust exposure reduction and effective regulatory enforcement, along with enhanced workplace medical and public health surveillance, are urgently needed to address the emerging public health threat of silicosis in the stone fabrication industry.


Assuntos
Manufaturas/efeitos adversos , Indústria Manufatureira , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Silicose/diagnóstico , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicose/epidemiologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446721

RESUMO

SummaryNoise is one of the most common environmental and occupational exposures, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has become the leading occupational disease, secondary to the age-related hearing impairment. It is a significant cause of disability and a major cost to the society. Three characteristics of NIHL have been thoroughly established through numerous studies. First, noise-induced threshold changes increases with noise intensity and duration of exposure. Second, difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing even in the presence of normal behavioral thresholds in the subjects with a history of noise exposure. Third, individual susceptibility to noise along with the degree of hearing loss varies greatly among population. NIHL is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. And much of the literature on NIHL is derived from cross-sectional studies, providing limited evidence for the natural history of the noise exposure. Then, it is urgent to explore the development tendency and identify the susceptible frequencies of NIHL through large-scaled longitudinal study, and provide a new method for estimating individual susceptibility to NIHL.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Presbiacusia
12.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 20-26, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465813

RESUMO

Health-care personnel handling antineoplastic drugs could be at risk for adverse health effects. We aimed to evaluate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drug exposure of personnel preparing and administering such drugs in three Oncology Hospitals in Italy enrolling 42 exposed subjects and 53 controls. Furthermore, we aimed to study the possible influence of XRCC1 and hOGG1 DNA repair genes polymorphisms on genotoxicity induced on buccal cells. We performed workplace and personal monitoring of some drugs and used exposure diary informations to characterize the exposure. Urinary 5-FU metabolite (α-fluoro-ß-alanine) was measured. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay was used to evaluate DNA damage and other cellular anomalies. GEM and 5-FU contamination was found in 68% and 42% of wipe/swab samples respectively. GEM deposition was found on workers' pads while no α-fluoro-ß-alanine was found. BMCyt-assay showed higher genotoxicity and cytotoxicity on nurses administering antineoplastics than on preparators and controls. Among micronucleus (MN) positive (with MN frequency higher than 1.5‰) exposed subjects, the percentage of those carrying XRCC1 mut/het genotype was higher than in MN positive-controls. Using the sensitive BMCyt assay, we demonstrated that handling antineoplastics still represents a potential occupational health risk for workers that should be better trained/informed regarding such risks.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Enfermagem Oncológica , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/urina , Feminino , Fluoruracila/urina , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo Genético , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Urinálise , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(27): 604-607, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295233

RESUMO

Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure contributes to ill health and disease, including heart disease, lung cancer, and stroke (1). Although cigarette smoking has declined among U.S. workers, workplace exposure to SHS remains high, particularly among workers in certain industries, such as construction (2,3). Implementation of smoke-free laws has proven to be beneficial in reducing SHS exposure in general (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement to assess the prevalence of self-reported workplace SHS exposure among nonsmoking workers by smoke-free policy status in the workers' states of residence and in detailed industry categories and subcategories. In 2015, 19.9% of nonsmoking workers reported any exposure to SHS at work during the 12 months preceding the interview, and 10.1% reported frequent exposure (twice a week or more). Nonsmoking workers who resided in states with comprehensive smoke-free laws in all three categories of venues (private worksites, bars, and restaurants) were least likely to report frequent exposure to workplace SHS. Nonsmoking workers employed in the commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance industry reported the highest prevalences of any workplace SHS exposure (65.1%), whereas the construction industry had the highest reported number of exposed workers (2.9 million); these industry categories/subcategories include outdoor workplaces and other settings that are unlikely to be protected by smoke-free laws. Identifying specific at-risk workplaces and implementing targeted intervention strategies could help reduce SHS exposure at work and protect workers' health.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Indústria da Construção , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Restaurantes , Autorrelato , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 737-743, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze occupational accidents with exposure of nursing technicians to biological material in a school hospital. METHOD: nursing technicians were invited to answer a questionnaire related to occupational accidents with biological material. RESULTS: 275 professionals from 9 hospital units participated. 76% reported having suffered an accident and the variables "age group" and "employment regime" showed a significant association for accidents (p<0.05). Those hired by the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT - Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho) employment regime were 3.5 times more likely to suffer accidents (p=0.04) and institutional capacity building did not show statistical significance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: the increase in the number of training did not ensure the reduction of occupational accidents with biological material; and nursing technicians under the age of 30 were more vulnerable. Professionals with a CLT labor contract were more affected than the statutory employees.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 145, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Welders are at an increased risk of eye disorders as a result of their occupation, leading to enormous vocational and economic consequences. With limited published studies among welders in low resource settings, we sought to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors associated with ocular disorders among small-scale welders in Katwe, Kampala. METHODS: In a field-based cross-sectional study, we recruited 343 small-scale welders. Simple random sampling was done to select the study participants. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, ocular, general history, systemic and ocular examination. The proportion of small-scale welders with ocular disorders (defined as any abnormal finding on eye examination) was determined. The bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, using logistic regression methods at a level of significance of 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36 years (SD ± 12). The overall prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 59.9%. The common ocular disorders included conjunctiva disorders (32%) and presbyopia (27%). There was a statistically significant relationship between females (OR = 4.279, P-value = 0.007), age 35 and above (OR = 4.244, P-value< 0.001), history of foreign body removal (OR = 1.677, P-value = 0.041), and ocular disorders. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of ocular disorders among small-scale welders. Conjunctiva disorders, presbyopia and myopia were the commonest. Being female, age 35 and above and foreign body removal, were significantly associated with ocular disorders among welders. Policies should be put in place to ensure all welders use proper personal -protective equipment (welding helmets), and also receive regular eye checkup and health education.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Soldagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Oftalmoscopia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109453, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349105

RESUMO

Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that protect chromosome ends from degradation and fusion, which are shortened by oxidative stress, for example air pollution including benzene, toluene, Coke Oven Emissions (COEs), and so on. As a biomarker of health and disease, telomere length is associated with cardiovascular, diabetes and cancers. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of COEs exposure on telomere length and the benchmark dose (BMD) of COEs. A total of 542 coke oven workers and 235 healthy controls without exposure to toxicants were recruited. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the telomere length in human peripheral blood leukocytes DNA. Propensity scoring was used to match coke oven workers to healthy controls. Linear regression models and trend tests were used to the relationship between COEs exposure and telomere length. Telomere length in COEs exposed group 0.764 (0.536, 1.092) was significantly shorter than that in the control group 1.064(0.762, 1.438), (P < 0.001). There were significantly dose-response relationships between COEs exposure and telomere damage with telomere length as a biomarker. A BMDL value lower than the present occupational exposure limits (OELs) of COEs exposure was evaluated using the BMD approach in coke oven workers. Our results suggested that shorter telomere length is related to occupational exposure to COEs and the level of COEs exposure lower than the current national OELs in China and many other countries could induce telomere damage.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Coque/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Benchmarking , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Coque/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adulto Jovem
18.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(3): 142-148, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245976

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry eye symptoms among lecturers. Materials and Methods: The study included 254 lecturers employed at Mersin University. The lecturers were selected by simple random sampling from lists obtained from the personnel department. Data were obtained between November 15 and December 15, 2017 using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and correlation tests with the SPSS package program. Results: Of the lecturers who participated in the study, 52.8% were male and 47.2% were female, and the mean age was 39.29±9.41 years. According to OSDI scores, 20.5% of the participants had mild, 15% had moderate, and 36.5% had severe disease. There were significant differences in mean OSDI score based on sex (p<0.001), alcohol use (p=0.01), continuous drug use (p=0.03), wearing glasses (p=0.04), history of dry eye (p<0.001), and presence of dry eye symptoms (p<0.001). There were also significant differences between the OSDI score categories in terms of sex (p<0.001), smoking status (p=0.04), wearing glasses (p=0.03), history of dry eye (p<0.001), and presence of dry eye symptoms. The only factor significantly correlated with OSDI score was daily duration of computer usage (p=0.009). Conclusion: Our study showed that a substantial proportion of lecturers experience dry eye symptoms, and OSDI scores were associated with daily duration of computer use. Determining the factors associated with dry eye is important for the planning of preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensino , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(25): e16117, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232959

RESUMO

The study aimed to find novel effect biomarkers for occupational benzene exposure and chronic benzene poisoning (CBP), which might also provide clues to the mechanism of benzene toxicity.We performed a comparative serological proteome analysis between healthy control workers with no benzene exposure, workers with short-term benzene exposure, workers with long-term benzene exposure, and CBP patients using 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Two of the differentially expressed proteins were then selected to be validated by immune turbidimetric analysis.A total of 10 proteins were found to be significantly altered between different groups. The identified deferentially expressed proteins were classified according to their molecular functions, biological processes, and protein classes. The alteration of 2 important serum proteins among them, apolipoprotein A-I and transthyretin, were further confirmed.Our findings suggest that the identified differential proteins could be used as biomarkers for occupational benzene exposure and CBP, and they may also help elucidate the mechanisms of benzene toxicity.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional/métodos
20.
Work ; 63(3): 355-360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal co-exposure of human subjects is an important matter of public health concern. It has been shown that Acetylcholinesterase activity is a suitable biomarker for the neurological risk assessment of some metals. A few studies have reported neurotoxicity risk among humans in co-exposure to chromium and nickel. OBJECTIVE: In this study, AChE activity was assessed in occupational exposure to chromium (VI) and co-exposure to nickel (II) and chromium (VI). METHODS: Air sampling was done in chromium electroplating workshops with the NIOSH 7600 and OSHA ID-121 methods for chromium and nickel assessment. Thirty-two workers from hard chromium plating and 30 from decorative chromium plating were evaluated, while AChE activity was measured by the Elman method. RESULTS: Personal exposure to chromium in 20% of the studied people exceeded the TWA set by ACGIH. Occupational exposure to nickel in 47% of the DCP subjects was found to be higher than TWA. Cholinergic inhibition in plating workers was marked by a decrease in AChE compared to controls. Subjects with chromium (VI) exposure contained significantly higher inhibition of AChE activity (p < 0.001) than workers with co-exposure to nickel (II) and chromium (VI). CONCLUSIONS: The chromium-matched electroplaters have no significant difference in AChE activity. It can be concluded that cholinergic inhibition with chromium (VI) is higher than nickel (II) exposure.


Assuntos
Galvanoplastia/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Níquel/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA