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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488268

RESUMO

Objective: To investigation the situation of occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among workers in automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2017-2019 in Wuhan. Methods: Workers in automobile manufacturing who underwent physical examination in Wuhan Hospital for the Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases from 2017 to 2019 were included as subjects in the cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire survey, noise detection and pure tone threshold test were used. Excluding individuals with working time less than 3 years and information deficiency, 3 948 individuals were finally included in the study. Results: Among 3 948 workers, 128 workers had hearing loss and the rate of hearing loss was 3.24%, among which 101 workers had high-frequency hearing loss and 27 workers were diagnosed as occupational noise deafness. The prevalence of hearing loss among workers previously exposed to noise was significantly higher than that without prior exposure (12.10%, 0.96%, P<0.05) . The prevalence of hearing loss among workers with occupational noise exposure <80 dB (A) , 80~<85 dB (A) and ≥85 dB (A) was 1.83%, 2.69% and 5.09%, respectively. The prevalence of high frequency hearing loss was 1.60%, 2.05% and 3.71%, respectively. The prevalence of occupational noise deafness was 0.23%, 0.64% and 1.38%, respectively. The prevalence of hearing loss and high frequency hearing loss among workers exposed to different occupational noise was statistically significant (P<0.05) , while the prevalence of occupational noise deafness was not statistically significant (P>0.05) . There were statistically significant differences in the prevalence of hearing loss (2.88%, 4.45%) and occupational noise deafness (0.46%, 1.41%) between those who used protective equipment and those who did not (P<0.05) . Compared with workers exposed to occupational noise <80 dB (A) , workers exposed to occupational noise ≥85 dB (A) had A 3.16-fold increased risk of hearing loss (OR=3.16, 95%CI: 1.44~6.95, P<0.05) . Compared to workers using hearing protective equipment, the risk of hearing loss (OR=1.96, 95%CI: 1.25~3.06, P<0.05) and occupational noise deafness (OR=3.46, 95%CI: 1.51-7.96, P<0.05) significantly increased among those without using hearing protective equipment. Conclusion: The risk of hearing loss in automobile manufacturing workers is significantly associated with occupational noise exposure and the use of hearing protective equipment. Good hearing protection may reduce the risk of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and occupational noise deafness.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Automóveis , Estudos Transversais , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469440

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these issues by describing racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational standing, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with at least some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational standing and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational standing shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower standing occupations overall and in lower standing occupations associated with high risk, and thus may be less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low standing occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
3.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 913-917, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of prolonged exposure to radiation based on dosimeter readings on hematological parameters among radiologic technologists (RTs) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study was specifically conducted on selected RTs with experience of more than 10 years and the highest thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) readings among all RTs in the Radiological Department, Sabya General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia from August to October 2020. The RTs group was compared with a control group of non-irradiated participants. Blood samples were collected for hematological and coagulation profile evaluation. RESULTS: The acquired radiation dose analysis revealed that the average accumulated dose in 10 years is 7.6 mSv. The medians of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the RTs group were significantly lower when compared to the control group. In addition, RTs group exhibited a significant reduction in neutrophil count and an elevation in lymphocyte count. CONCLUSION: Chronic exposure to radiation revealed a significant change in blood tests and may reflect an effect on RTs tissues, leading to serious health problems. However, further investigation in a large cohort to study the association between alteration in hematological parameters and chronic radiation exposure is required.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição à Radiação , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050611, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While colon cancer (CC) risk is associated with several lifestyle-related factors, including physical inactivity, smoking and diet, the contribution of occupation to CC morbidity remains largely unclear. Growing evidence indicates that gastrointestinal infections like salmonellosis could contribute to CC development. We performed a nationwide registry study to assess potential associations between occupation (history) and CC, including also those occupations with known increased exposure to gastrointestinal pathogens like Salmonella. METHODS: Person-level occupational data for all residents in The Netherlands were linked to CC diagnosis data. Differences in the incidence of (overall, proximal and distal) CC among occupational sectors and risk groups were tested for significance by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs using the general population as reference group. Effects of gender, age, exposure duration and latency were also assessed. RESULTS: Significant differences in CC incidence were observed only for a few occupational sectors, including the manufacturing of rubber and plastics, machinery and leather, the printing sector and the information service sector (SIRs 1.06-1.88). No elevated risk of CC was observed among people with increased salmonellosis risk through occupational exposure to live animals, manure or among those working in the sale of animal-derived food products (SIRs 0.93-0.95, 0.81-0.95 and 0.93-1.09 for overall, proximal and distal CC, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that occupation in itself provides a relatively small contribution to CC incidence. This is consistent with previous studies where a similar degree of variation in risk estimates was observed. The lack of an association with the high-risk occupations for salmonellosis might be due to higher levels of physical activity, a known protective factor for CC and other diseases, of people working in the agricultural sector, which might outweigh the potential Salmonella-associated risk of CC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
5.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 231, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors originating from mesenchymal or connective tissue. They represent less than 1% of all adult cancers. The etiology and epidemiology of sarcomas remain understudied and poorly understood. The main objective of our study was to systematically assess the association between various occupational exposures and risk of sarcomas. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using the PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to identify relevant cohort and case-control studies. A meta-analysis method was applied on the incidence and mortality outcomes where the estimate with 95% confidence interval (CI) was obtained. RESULTS: We included a total of 50 publications in our systematic review and 35 in meta-analysis. For exposures to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for sarcoma was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.82), based on 16 studies with 2254 participants, while the pooled standardized mortality ratio was 40.93 (95% CI 2.19, 765.90), based on 4 cohort studies with 59,289 participants. For exposure to vinyl chloride monomers the pooled risk ratios for angiosarcoma of the liver and other STS were 19.23 (95% CI 2.03, 182.46) and 2.23 (95 CI 1.55, 3.22) respectively based on 3 cohort studies with 12,816 participants. Exposure to dioxins was associated with an increased STS mortality; the pooled standardized mortality ratio was 2.56 (95% CI 1.60, 4.10) based on 4 cohort studies with 30,797 participants. Finally, woodworking occupation was associated with an increased risk of STS with the pooled OR of 2.16 (95% CI 1.39, 3.36). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a positive association between higher exposure to dioxins and increased mortality from STS, between cumulative exposure to vinyl chloride monomers and increased mortality from angiosarcoma of the liver and STS, and between woodworking occupation and STS incidence. These findings were all statistically significant.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Sarcoma , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sarcoma/epidemiologia , Sarcoma/etiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360600

RESUMO

A DNA methylation pattern represents an original plan of the function settings of individual cells and tissues. The basic strategies of its development and changes during the human lifetime are known, but the details related to its modification over the years on an individual basis have not yet been studied. Moreover, current evidence shows that environmental exposure could generate changes in DNA methylation settings and, subsequently, the function of genes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of chronic exposure to nanoparticles (NP) in occupationally exposed workers repeatedly sampled in four consecutive years (2016-2019). A detailed methylation pattern analysis of 14 persons (10 exposed and 4 controls) was performed on an individual basis. A microarray-based approach using chips, allowing the assessment of more than 850 K CpG loci, was used. Individual DNA methylation patterns were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). The results show the shift in DNA methylation patterns in individual years in all the exposed and control subjects. The overall range of differences varied between the years in individual persons. The differences between the first and last year of examination (a three-year time period) seem to be consistently greater in the NP-exposed subjects in comparison with the controls. The selected 14 most differently methylated cg loci were relatively stable in the chronically exposed subjects. In summary, the specific type of long-term exposure can contribute to the fixing of relevant epigenetic changes related to a specific environment as, e.g., NP inhalation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/genética
8.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 181-185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365447

RESUMO

The study aim was to observe the working conditions of individuals working on municipal transport, check the levels of dust and toxicity, and review from the hygienic point of view. The levels of dust and chemical pollutants in the working environment of Tbilisi municipal transport workers were examined. Methods used in hygienic practice were applied to analyze air samples. test in total was conducted to measure the concentration of dust in the air and samples were collected with air analyzers. The toxicity levels in the surrounding environment of the municipal motor vehicle drivers, as well as technicians (welders, electricians, turners, tinsmiths, electric arc welding). It was established that the toxicity of the air in the municipal transports and technical service establishments fluctuates between certain levels. The highest dust levels were found in the working zone of the driver, with dust levels twice accepted levels. Working conditions at this specific zone were identified as 3.1 class. Workplaces in different service stations were also classified in the same group, with dust levels 1.6 times higher than normal. In total 5 workplaces were given level 3.1 classification. Only the workplace of a tinsmith was classified as a level 2 acceptable hazard. The concentration of dust and toxic chemicals in the environment of municipal transport employees is lower than acceptable levels, but long-time exposure to these agents affects the health of individuals and may cause subclinical health effects, even if the disease does not fully manifest. These effects should be taken into consideration when planning regular medical examinations and rejuvenating procedures for the employees.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ocupacional , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365757

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse the dose-response relationships between the kurtosis metric of noise and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and study the role of kurtosis in the evaluation of NIHL associated with non-Gaussian noise. Methods: From January 2012 to December 2017, a total of 1869 workers in seven manufacturing industries were selected as the study subjects. The basic data of the workers were investigated by questionnaire, personal noise waveform was collected for a long time, and pure tone hearing threshold was tested. The 8-hour continuous equivalent A sound level (L(Aeq, 8 h)) , cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and kurtosis structure indexes were calculated. The dose-response relationships between kurtosis and NIHL were analyzed by stratification analysis method, which controlled the influence of CNE, L(Aeq, 8 h), exposure duration, age and sex on hearing loss using high-frequency noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS(346)) and high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (HFNIHL) as outcome indicators. Results: When CNE was <90 dB (A) ·year and ≥100 dB (A) ·year, NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis, low kurtosis and medium kurtosis group (P<0.05) . In the workers exposed to L(Aeq, 8 h)<85 dB (A) and ≥94 dB (A) , NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis group (P<0.05) . Among workers under the age of 50 or male workers, NIPTS(346) in the extremely high kurtosis group was significantly greater than that in the Gaussian kurtosis, low kurtosis and medium kurtosis group (P<0.05) . Kurtosis was positively correlated with NIPTS(346) (r=0.121, P<0.05) . When CNE was <100 dB (A) ·year, the detection rate of HFNIHL increased with the increase of kurtosis level (P<0.01) . Logistic regression analysis showed that kurtosis was an important influencing factor for HFNIHL (OR=1.321) . Conclusion: Kurtosis has a dose-response relationship with the detection rate of HFNIHL in noise exposed workers, and noise kurtosis is an influencing factor of NIHL.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365771

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the spirometer data of coal mine workers, explore the impact of coal dust on the lung function of coal mine workers. Methods: From June to December 2018, 5272 male coal mine dust-exposed workers who underwent occupational health examinations at the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment Hospital were selected as the research subjects. The basic information and spirometer data of the workers were collected and analyzed for different ages, years of service and the degree of lung function injury of workers exposed to dust and its influencing factors. Results: The total detection rate of lung function injury among dust-exposed workers was 33.9% (1785/5272) . The type of injury was mainly restrictive ventilatory dysfunction (66.7%, 1190/1785) , followed by mixed ventilatory dysfunction (31.4%, 561/1785) , obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (1.9%, 34/1785) . The detection rate of mild lung function impairment was 21.0% (1105/5272) , The detected rate of moderate or higher lung injury was 12.9% (680/5272) . The abnormal detection rate of chest radiography was 3.4% (179/5272) . The logistic regression analysis of the factors affecting lung function damage showed that employees aged 40-<50 were more likely to detect overall lung function injury and the moderate or higher lung injury (P<0.05) , and that they had been working for 35 to 45 years and excavators were more likely to detect overall function injury and different degree of lung injury (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The lung function injury of coal mine dust-exposed workers is related to their age, dust-exposed working years and type of work, mainly with mild injury and restrictive ventilation dysfunction.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Mineradores , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365773

RESUMO

Occupational noise is one of the most common occupational hazards in the workplace. Long-term exposure to occupational noise could not only lead to the damage of the hearing system, but also may cause a certain impact on the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that occupational noise exposure was positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. However, the results of studies on occupational noise exposure and stroke are still controversial. This paper reviews the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction by summarizing the epidemiological data of domestic and foreign population in recent years. Our study could provide evidence for the design and implementation of well-designed epidemiological and mechanism studies, and the recognition of the role of occupational noise exposure in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, so as to better protect workers' health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Hipertensão , Ruído Ocupacional , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(2): 248-259, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop artificial intelligence and machine learning-based models to predict alterations in liver enzymes from the exposure of low annual average effective doses in radiology and nuclear medicine personnel of Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Hospital. METHODS: Ninety workers from the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine departments were included. A high-capacity thermoluminescent was used for annual average effective radiation dose measurements. The liver function tests were conducted for all subjects and controls. Three supervised learning models (multilayer precentron; logistic regression; and random forest) were applied and cross-validated to predict any alteration in liver enzymes. The t-test was applied to see if subjects and controls were significantly different in liver function tests. RESULTS: The annual average effective doses were in the range of 0.07-1.15 mSv. Alanine transaminase was 50% high and aspartate transaminase was 20% high in radiation workers. There existed a significant difference (p=0.0008) in Alanine-aminotransferase between radiation-exposed and radiation-unexposed workers. Random forest model achieved 90-96.6% accuracies in Alanine-aminotransferase and Aspartate-aminotransferase predictions. The second best classifier model was the Multilayer perceptron (65.5-80% accuracies). CONCLUSION: As there is a need of regular monitoring of hepatic function in radiation-exposed people, our artificial intelligence-based predicting model random forest is proved accurate in prediagnosing alterations in liver enzymes.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Exposição Ocupacional , Algoritmos , Humanos , Fígado , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doses de Radiação
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The presence of new sources of occupational exposure to crystalline silica has contributed to an increased incidence of silicosis. Spain was one of the first countries to identify new occupational risk sectors such as quartz agglomerates. The objective of this work was to describe the incidence of silicosis in Spain between 1990 and 2019 and to determine the main occupational sectors affected. METHODS: Data on occupational disease cases were obtained from the Spanish Ministry of Inclusion, Social Security and Migration. Disease rates were computed by occupational sector, and analyses were conducted of their time course and their geographical, sex and age distributions. RESULTS: Data were available on 4,418 cases (96.1% male). The mean annual number of cases was 1,223% higher between 2015 and 2019 than between 1990 and 1995. By occupational sector, 50% were in "Fabrication of other mineral non-metallic products", 18.5% in "Extraction of non-metallic non-energetic minerals", 10.2% in "Construction", 6.1% in "Metallurgy", 3.1% in "Coal mining" and 12% in other sectors. Galicia registered the greatest number of cases (32.9%), followed by Castile and León (14%), Andalusia (10%) and the Basque Country (9.1%). The greatest increase in its incidence was in coal mining, possibly due to the dismantling of this sector and drastic reduction in the workforce. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the importance of the manufacturing, machining and installation of quartz agglomerates in the re-emergence of silicosis in Spain.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Silicose/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299971

RESUMO

Asbestos has been recognized as a human carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma, cancers of lung, larynx, and ovary. However, a putative association between gastric cancer and asbestos exposure remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore gastric cancer risk of workers potentially exposed to asbestos in Taiwan. The asbestos occupational cohort was established from 1950 to 2015 based on the Taiwan Labor Insurance Database, and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulatory datasets, followed by the Taiwan Cancer Registry for the period 1980-2015. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer were computed for the whole cohort using reference rates of the general population, and also reference labor population. Compared with the general population, SIR of the asbestos occupational cohort for the gastric cancer increased both in males (1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.09) and females (1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). A total of 123 worksites were identified to have cases of malignant mesothelioma, where increased risk for gastric cancer was found with a relative risk of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.63-1.90). This 35-year retrospective cohort study of asbestos-exposed workers in Taiwan may provide support for an association between occupational exposure to asbestos and gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Gástricas , Asbestos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Urologe A ; 60(8): 1061-1072, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241641

RESUMO

Cancers can be triggered by occupational causes. In the field of urology, bladder cancer is by far the most frequent occupationally induced tumor disease. Causes are particularly carcinogenic aromatic amines and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The frequency of this disease has shifted over the last decades from the classical hazard in the chemical industry to the users. Among a variety of hazardous occupations, hairdressers and painters are the best known. Rarely, renal cell carcinoma can be triggered by high trichloroethylene exposure and mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis by asbestos. If a disease that can be caused by occupational activities has been confirmed (e.g. urinary bladder cancer), the risk factors must be recorded by a complete occupational history from the first employment on in order to be able to report a suspected occupational disease. In addition, spinal cord injury due to occupational and commuting accidents can lead to urinary bladder cancer over the long term.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Urologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299125

RESUMO

Medical staff represent the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Chronic exposure to low-dose IR may result in DNA damage and genotoxicity associated with increased risk of cancer. This review aims to identify the genotoxicity biomarkers that are the most elevated in IR-exposed vs. unexposed health workers. A systematic review of the literature was performed to retrieve relevant studies with various biomarkers of genotoxicity. Subsequent meta-analyses produced a pooled effect size for several endpoints. The search procedure yielded 65 studies. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) frequencies were significantly different between IR-exposed and unexposed workers (θpooled = 3.19, 95% CI 1.46-4.93; and θpooled = 1.41, 95% CI 0.97-1.86, for total aberrant cells and MN frequencies, respectively), which was not the case for ring chromosomes and nucleoplasmic bridges. Although less frequently used, stable translocations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and comet assay endpoints were also statistically different between IR-exposed and unexposed workers. This review confirms the relevance of CA and MN as genotoxicity biomarkers that are consistently elevated in IR-exposed vs. unexposed workers. Other endpoints are strong candidates but require further studies to validate their usefulness. The integration of the identified biomarkers in future prospective epidemiological studies is encouraged.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Radiação Ionizante , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203418

RESUMO

Asbestos-cement slate roofs are one of the most common environmental causes of asbestos exposure. However, few studies have examined residential asbestos-cement slate-related exposure and its effects on human health. This study was performed to evaluate cumulative asbestos exposure levels and to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of residents of asbestos-cement slate-roofed houses. We reviewed previous Korean literature to estimate the concentration of airborne asbestos from asbestos-cement slate roofed buildings. Finally, eight studies were selected, and a pooled analysis was performed. The results derived from the pooled analysis were combined with the data from a health impact survey conducted from 2009 to 2016 at the Environmental Health Center for Asbestos (EHCA) of the Yangsan Pusan National University Hospital, and a carcinogenic risk assessment was performed. As a result, the representative value of the indoor exposure concentration related to asbestos-cement slate was found to be 0.0032 f/cc on average, and the representative value of the exposure related to occupational asbestos-cement slate dismantling and demolition was found to be 0.0034 f/cc. In addition, the ELCR of asbestos-cement slate related indoor exposure and occupational dismantling and demolition was found to be of medium risk, and the ELCR of residential dismantling and demolition of asbestos-cement slate was less than 10-6, indicating that the risk was low. Since there is no threshold for carcinogenicity related to asbestos, this should not be ignored even if the risk appears low, and it would be reasonable to calculate the carcinogenic risk based on total lifetime exposure. More studies on asbestos exposure scenarios and the scope of similar exposure groups through additional data collection and further analysis of risk are needed.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/análise , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Materiais de Construção , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
Enferm Clin (Engl Ed) ; 31(4): 247-253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the genotoxic risk of cytostatic drugs in health professionals after occupational exposure. METHOD: Literature was searched for the databases PubMed, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library and Scopus with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using boolean operators AND and OR. The research was limited to articles published between 2005-2016. RESULTS: 11 articles were selected depending on their relevancy to this review's aim. Nine of the 11 articles proved the existence of damage to genetic material (DNA) of health workers, who were exposed to cytostatics. Furthermore, current security practices do not eliminate the chance of exposure completely. Therefore, the creation of new clinical trials is required. CONCLUSIONS: Handling cytostatic drugs can cause a genotoxic risk to health workers who are exposed to these substances. This exposure may cause damage on the workers' DNA. There are not enough data to prove a cause-effect relationship between the genotoxic risk and adverse reactions on individuals. Health education will be the main way to raise the awareness and prevention this problem.


Assuntos
Citostáticos , Exposição Ocupacional , Citostáticos/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , Pessoal de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26444, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232177

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To studied epidemiological characteristics of 493 cases of acute poisoning in Nantong city, Jiangsu province.Based on the analysis platform of poisoning treatment, adopted single center and prospective investigation method, analyzed data of acute poisoning patients from May 2015 to December 2018 in the second affiliated hospital of Nantong University.Among 493 patients with acute poisoning, men 227 (46.04%), women 266 (53.96%). Age ranged from 12 to 89 years old, average age 41.6 years. In the occupational distribution, farmers were 30.02%; 351 cases (71.20%) visited the hospital within 6 hours after exposure. Oral exposure poisoning 415 cases (84.18%). Pesticide poisoning accounted for 45.45% of deaths.Using the poisoning treatment platform to analyze the clinical characteristic had accurately and reliably in Nantong. The fatality rate of pesticide poisoning in cases of acute poisoning is high. Management of highly toxic pesticides should be continued and effective health education on pesticide use should be carried out.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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