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3.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125537, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050337

RESUMO

Understanding exposure to air pollution during extreme events such as fire emergencies is critical for assessing their potential health impacts. However, air pollution emergencies often affect places without a network of air quality monitoring and characterising exposure retrospectively is methodologically challenging due to the complex behaviour of smoke and other air pollutants. Here we test the potential of roof cavity (attic) dust to act as a robust household-level exposure proxy, using a major air pollution event associated with a coal mine fire in the Latrobe Valley, Australia, as an illustrative study. To assess the relationship between roof cavity dust composition and mine fire exposure, we analysed the elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of roof cavity dust (<150µm) from 39 homes along a gradient of exposure to the mine fire plume. These homes were grouped into 12 zones along this exposure gradient: eight zones across Morwell, where mine fire impacts were greatest, and four in other Latrobe Valley towns at increasing distance from the fire. We identified two elements-barium and magnesium-as 'chemical markers' that show a clear and theoretically grounded relationship with the brown coal mine fire plume exposure. This relationship is robust to the influence of plausible confounders and contrasts with other, non-mine fire related elements, which showed distinct and varied distributional patterns. We conclude that targeted components of roof cavity dust can be a useful empirical marker of household exposure to severe air pollution events and their use could support epidemiological studies by providing spatially-resolved exposure estimates post-event.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Austrália , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mineração , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumaça/análise
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2389-2400, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967798

RESUMO

Laser printers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1) during operation. Although it is well established that toners contain multiple engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), little is known about inhalation exposures to these nanoparticles and work practices in printing centers. In this report, we present a comprehensive inhalation exposure assessment of indoor microenvironments at six commercial printing centers in Singapore, the first such assessment outside of the United States, using real-time personal and stationary monitors, time-integrated instrumentation, and multiple analytical methods. Extensive presence of ENMs, including titanium dioxide, iron oxide, and silica, was detected in toners and in airborne particles collected from all six centers studied. We document high transient exposures to emitted nanoparticles (peaks of ∼500 000 particles/cm3, lung-deposited surface area of up to 220 µm2/cm3, and PM0.1 up to 16 µg/m3) with complex PM0.1 chemistry that included 40-60 wt % organic carbon, 10-15 wt % elemental carbon, and 14 wt % trace elements. We also record 271.6-474.9 pmol/mg of Environmental Protection Agency-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These findings highlight the potentially high occupational inhalation exposures to nanoparticles with complex compositions resulting from widespread usage of nano-enabled toners in the printing industry, as well as inadequate ENM-specific exposure control measures in these settings.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Exposição Ocupacional , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação , Tamanho da Partícula , Impressão Tridimensional , Singapura , Estados Unidos
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure among patients with asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of asthma patients and non-asthmatic controls using questionnaires to identify secondhand smoke exposure at home, school, work, and public places. RESULTS: We studied 544 severe asthma patients, 452 mild/moderate asthma patients, and 454 non-asthmatic patients. Among severe patients, the mean age was 51.9 years, 444 (81.6%) were female, 74 (13.6%) were living with a smoker, 383 (71.9%) reported exposure in public spaces and, of the 242 (44.5%) who worked/ studied, 46 (19.1%) reported occupational exposure. Among those with mild/moderate asthma, the mean age was 36.8 years, 351 (77.7%) were female, 50 (11.1%) reported living with a smoker, 381 (84.9%) reported exposure in public settings and, of the 330 (73.0%) who worked/ studied, 58 (17.7%) reported occupational exposure. An association between secondhand smoke exposure and disease control was found among patients with mild/moderate asthma. Among those interviewed, 71% of severe asthma patients and 63% of mild/moderate asthma patients avoided certain places due to fear of secondhand smoke exposure. CONCLUSION: Secondhand smoke exposure is a situation frequently reported by a significant proportion of asthma patients. Individuals with asthma are exposed to this agent, which can hamper disease control, exacerbate symptoms and pose unacceptable limitations to their right to come and go in public settings.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 20-31, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923465

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Although elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of Fpg-sensitive sites were observed in PBMCs from exposed humans, the PM collected at same locations did not cause genotoxicity in the comet assay in A549 cells. Nevertheless, A549 cells displayed telomere length shortening after four weeks exposure to PM. This is in line with slightly shorter telomere length in PBMCs from exposed humans, although it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the results indicate that genotoxic potency measured by the comet assay of PM in A549 cells may not predict genotoxicity in exposed humans, whereas telomere length measurements may be a novel indicator of genotoxic stress in cell cultures and humans.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombeiros , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
7.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698210

RESUMO

PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected in the semi-arid city of Xi'an in Northwest China from November 2016 to November 2017 and analyzed to assess pollution characteristics, sources, health risks, and influencing factors of 6 priority phthalate esters (PAEs). The results showed that the sum of the 6 PAEs (Σ6PAEs) was 85.5 ng m-3 in PM2.5 and 94.5 ng m-3 in PM10, being higher at the suburban site than the urban site and winter > spring > summer > autumn. The most abundant PAE was bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) (DEHP). PM2.5- and PM10-bound PAEs were associated mainly with the use of plasticizers plus the uses of cosmetics and personal care products, construction materials, and home furnishings. Temperature, relative humidity, and visibility had stronger influences on the concentrations of PM and PM-bound PAEs than pressure and wind speed. Pressure and relative humidity were positively correlated with the concentrations of PM and most of the PM-bound PAEs, while temperature, visibility and wind speed had negative correlations with the concentrations of PM and PM-bound PAEs. The non-carcinogenic risks of human inhalation exposure to PM-bound PAEs were in the range of 10-7 to 10-3, suggesting low non-cancer risks, which were higher at the suburban site than the urban site and higher to children than adults. The cancer risks of human inhalation exposure to PM-bound DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were in the range of 10-12 to 10-10, suggesting low carcinogenic risks, being in the order of the suburban site > the urban site and DEHP > BBP. Special attention should be paid to long-term low dose exposure to PAEs in the suburb, especially in winter and spring.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
8.
BJOG ; 127(3): 335-342, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asian dust is a natural phenomenon in which dust particles are transported from desert areas in China and Mongolia to East Asia. Short-term exposure to Asian dust has been associated with cardiovascular disease through mechanisms such as systemic inflammation. Because inflammation is a potential trigger of placental abruption, exposure may also lead to abruption. We examined whether exposure to Asian dust was associated with abruption. DESIGN: A bi-directional, time-stratified case-crossover design. SETTING AND POPULATION: From the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database, we identified 3014 patients who delivered singleton births in hospitals in nine Japanese prefectures from 2009 to 2014 with a diagnosis of placental abruption. METHODS: Asian dust levels were measured at Light Detection and Ranging monitoring stations, and these measurements were used to define the Asian dust days. As there was no information on the onset day of abruption, we assumed this day was the day before delivery (lag1). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental abruption. RESULTS: During the study period, the Asian dust days ranged from 15 to 71 days, depending on the prefecture. The adjusted odds ratio of placental abruption associated with exposure to Asian dust was 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 2.0) for cumulative lags of 1-2 days. Even after adjustment for co-pollutant exposures, this association did not change substantially. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese multi-area study, exposure to Asian dust was associated with an increased risk of placental abruption. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental factors such as Asian dust may be a trigger of placental abruption.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/diagnóstico , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125014, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600621

RESUMO

People living or working in and around artisanal small-scale gold mining communities can be exposed to mercury vapour, which may negatively affect their health. In this study, the human exposure to air borne mercury in an artisanal mining community in the Upper East region of Ghana was investigated using Lumex RA 915 M mercury analyser, an active sampler. The concentration of mercury in air was measured inside and outside households and was related to human health risk standards. For each household, one measurement was taken from outside and three from inside at different positions. About 91% of the households where amalgam burning was reported had concentrations higher than the USEPA reference dose of 300 ng m-3 whereas 64% of the households where amalgam burning was not reported exceeded the reference dose above. The maximal (upper) instrumental limit (50,000 ng m-3) was passed for the highest concentrations, so, the upper 97.5% concentration was estimated, using censored statistics, to exceed 800,000 ng m-3 for the fireplaces. This exceeds any reported indoor household air concentration of Hg, identified by the literature review in this paper. Estimated hazard quotients were found to range from <1 to 108 within the households that are reported not to burn amalgam. In the households where amalgam burning reportedly takes place, the hazard quotient had a range of 0.01-160. Mercury concentrations measured in households with reported amalgam burning are approximately ten times higher than those households with no reported burning of amalgam. The censored data predicted hazard quotients up to 966. The results indicate that both miners and non-miners of the community are at risk of adverse health effects resulting from inhalation of mercury vapour.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gases , Gana , Ouro , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
10.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113306, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matters (PM) is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A change in cardiac autonomic function is one postulated mechanism leading to PM related cardiovascular events. This study therefore evaluated the associations of short-term exposure to PM and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, which can reflect the cardiac autonomic function. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for controlled studies of rodents published prior to December 2018. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Effect sizes were calculated for five main HRV parameters, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of mean squared differences between successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and the ratio of LF and HF (LF/HF). RESULTS: The review included 23 studies with 401 animals. Short-term exposure to PM by instillation yielded statistically significant effects on SDNN (Standardized Mean Difference [SMD] = -1.11, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] = -2.22 to -0.01, P = 0.05), LF (SMD = -1.19, 95% CI = -1.99 to -0.40, P = 0.003) and LF/HF (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI = -2.03 to -0.07, P = 0.04). Short-term exposure to PM by inhalation only yielded statistically significant effect on LF/HF (SMD = -0.83, 95% CI = -1.39 to -0.27, P = 0.004). There was no evidence that animal model and exposure frequency influenced the relationship of PM and HRV. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM can decrease HRV of rodents, affecting cardiac autonomic function. Exposure methods can influence the relationships of PM and HRV parameters. Further studies should focus on the effects of long-term PM exposure, on human beings, and potential influential factors of PM-HRV associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(2): e4752, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756277

RESUMO

A sensitive analytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of cotinine in mouse plasma after exposure to smoke of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 commercially available cigarettes, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 0.075-20.0 ng/mL with the R2 value being higher than 0.99. Both the precision (coefficient of variation; %) and accuracy (relative error; %) were within acceptable criteria of <15%. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for cotinine was 0.075 ng/mL with sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. Following exposure to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cigarette smoke, it was observed that the AUC and the Cmax increased linearly as the doses increased. The pharmacokinetics of cotinine was found linear for the range of 0.5-1.5 commercial cigarette smoke. The quantification of the concentration of cotinine in mouse plasma after smoke exposure will facilitate future behavioral and toxicological experiments in animals and may prove useful in predicting cotinine levels in humans during smoking.


Assuntos
Cotinina/sangue , Cotinina/farmacocinética , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Cotinina/química , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113055, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744686

RESUMO

Little is known about fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure among pregnant women in rural China. This study aims to characterize exposure to PM2.5 among pregnant women in rural China, and investigate potential risk factors of personal exposure to PM2.5. The data were obtained from a birth cohort study that enrolled 606 pregnant women in Xuanwei, a county known for its high rates of lung cancer. The personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured using small portable particulate monitors during each trimester of pregnancy. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires that sought information on risk factors of PM2.5 exposure. The daily exposure to PM2.5 among the pregnant women ranged from 19.68 to 97.08 µg/m3 (median = 26.08). Exposure to PM2.5 was higher in winter and autumn than other seasons (p < 0.05); higher during the day than during the night (p < 0.001); and greater during cooking hours than during the rest of the day (p < 0.001). Using a mixed effects model, domestic solid fuel for cooking (ß = 1.75, p < 0.001), winter and autumn (ß = 2.96, p < 0.001), cooking ≥ once per day (ß = 1.58, p < 0.05), heating with coal (ß = 1.69, p < 0.001), secondhand smoke exposure (ß = 1.59, p < 0.001) and township 1(ß = 2.39, p < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for personal exposure to PM2.5 of pregnant women throughout pregnancy. Indirect effects of season and township factors on personal PM2.5 exposure were mediated by heating, cooking and domestic fuel using. In conclusion, PM2.5 levels in Xuanwei exceeded WHO guidelines. Seasonal and township factors and individual behaviors like domestic solid fuel using for cooking, heating with coal and secondhand smoke exposure are associated with higher personal PM2.5 exposure among pregnant women in rural China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Culinária , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 73-79, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Choking agent exposure, among them chlorine gas, occurs in household or industrial accidents, chemical warfare and terrorist attacks. AIMS: Review of published animal and human data regarding the history, pathophysiology, clinical effects and management of chlorine exposure. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Highly soluble agents cause quick upper respiratory tract symptoms. Chlorine gas has a medium solubility, also causing delayed lower airway symptoms, mainly due to its oxidizing potential by releasing hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid, but also by interacting with Transient Receptor Potential channels. SYMPTOMS: Eyes may show conjunctival injection, abrasions and corrosions. Burns of the oronasal mucosa and trachea can occur. Dyspnea, bronchospasm and possible retrosternal pain occur frequently. Glottis edema or laryngospasm are acute life-threatening emergencies. Chlorine gas can cause toxic pneumonitis, lung edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MANAGEMENT: General management includes physical examination, pulse oximetry and arterial blood gases. Eyes should be irrigated, humidified oxygen and inhalative bronchodilators administered. An EKG, cardiac enzymes and complete-blood-count should be obtained if there is retrosternal pain. Routine chest x-ray is not recommended - except if pulmonary edema is suspected. Laryngoscopy should be performed if glottis edema is suspected. Sodium bicarbonate inhalation after chlorine gas inhalation is discussed controversially. Mechanical ventilation with continuous-positive-airway-pressure or intubation/tracheotomy with high positive-end-expiratory-pressure may be necessary. Glucocorticoids for prevention of pulmonary edema should be applied restrictively. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended. In severe ARDS, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be considered. CONCLUSION: Treatment is mainly symptom oriented. New and promising therapies are in development.


Assuntos
Acidentes Domésticos , Acidentes de Trabalho , Queimaduras Químicas/terapia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Cloro/envenenamento , Queimaduras Oculares/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Animais , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Queimaduras Químicas/história , Queimaduras Químicas/fisiopatologia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/história , Cloro/história , Queimaduras Oculares/induzido quimicamente , Queimaduras Oculares/história , Queimaduras Oculares/fisiopatologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/história , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108887, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705857

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the molecular, structural, and functional impact of aerosols from candidate modified risk tobacco products (cMRTP), the Carbon Heated Tobacco Product (CHTP) 1.2 and Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, compared with that of mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) on the cardiovascular system of ApoE-/- mice. METHODS: Female ApoE-/- mice were exposed to aerosols from THS 2.2 and CHTP 1.2 or to CS from the 3R4F reference cigarette for up to 6 months at matching nicotine concentrations. A Cessation and a Switching group (3 months exposure to 3R4F CS followed by filtered air or CHTP 1.2 for 3 months) were included. Cardiovascular effects were investigated by echocardiographic, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and transcriptomics analyses. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to cMRTP aerosols did not affect atherosclerosis progression, heart function, left ventricular (LV) structure, or the cardiovascular transcriptome. Exposure to 3R4F CS triggered atherosclerosis progression, reduced systolic ejection fraction and fractional shortening, caused heart LV hypertrophy, and initiated significant dysregulation in the transcriptomes of the heart ventricle and thoracic aorta. Importantly, the structural, functional, and molecular changes caused by 3R4F CS were improved in the smoking cessation and switching groups. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cMRTP aerosols lacked most of the CS exposure-related functional, structural, and molecular effects. Smoking cessation or switching to CHTP 1.2 aerosol caused similar recovery from the 3R4F CS effects in the ApoE-/- model, with no further acceleration of plaque progression beyond the aging-related rate.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Life Sci ; 242: 117210, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure of healthy subjects to ambient airborne dusty particulate matter (PM) causes brain dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic inhalation of ambient PM in a designed special chamber to create factual dust storm (DS) conditions on spatial cognition, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in the brain tissue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into four groups: Sham (clean air, the concentration of dusty PM was <150 µg/m3), DS1 (200-500 µg/m3), DS2 (500-2000 µg/m3) and DS3 (2000-8000 µg/m3). Experimental rats were exposed to clean air or different sizes and concentrations of dust PM storm for four consecutive weeks (exposure was during 1-4, 8-11, 15-16 and 20-23 days, 30 min, twice daily) in a real-ambient dust exposure chamber. Subsequently, cognitive performance, hippocampal LTP, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain edema of the animals evaluated. As well as, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress indexes in the brain tissue measured using ELISA assays. RESULTS: Exposing to dust PM impaired spatial memory (p < 0.001), hippocampal LTP (p < 0.001). These disturbances were in line with the severe damage to respiratory system followed by disruption of BBB integrity (p < 0.001), increased brain edema (p < 0.001), inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.001) excretion and oxidative stress (p < 0.001) in brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that exposure to ambient dust PM increased brain edema and BBB permeability, induced memory impairment and hippocampal LTP deficiency by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the brain of the rats.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/induzido quimicamente , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135056, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731128

RESUMO

Limited researches are available on seasonal variation of inhalation exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its cancer risk assessment in China. We recruited 20 fresh postgraduates and measured outdoor and indoor (dormitories, offices and laboratories) daily PM2.5 concentrations in four seasons (seven consecutive days in every season) during 2014 -2015, calculated daily potential doses of personal exposure to total Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq) in the microenvironments based on the total BaPeq and the time-activity patterns, and estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using Monte Carlo method. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs on the campus ranked from high to low were winter, autumn, spring, summer in the dormitories and offices. Daily average concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs were higher in indoor environments than outdoor in the same season, except for that of PM2.5-bound ∑PAHs in laboratories in the winter. Median values of ILCR in both sexes from high to low were winter (men vs. women: 5.35e-9 vs. 4.96e-9), spring (3.71e-9 vs. 4.00e-9), autumn (2.92e-9 vs. 3.02e-9), summer (1.71e-9 vs. 1.87e-9). Indoor and outdoor PM2.5-bound PAHs concentrations showed seasonal and spatial variations. The ILCR value for PM2.5-bound PAHs was higher in women than in men.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(1): 27-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498972

RESUMO

In 2011, a link between humidifier disinfectants and patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was identified in Korea, and Kathon was suggested as one of the causative agents. In this study, Kathon induced apoptotic cell death along with membrane damage at 24 h post-exposure. Additionally, on day 14 after a single instillation with Kathon, the total number of pulmonary cells and the levels of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-13, MIP-1α, and MCP-1α clearly increased in the lung of mice. The proportion of natural killer cells and eosinophils were significantly elevated in the spleen and the bloodstream, respectively, and the level of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, but not IgG, IgM, and IgE, dose-dependently increased. Therefore, we suggest that inhaled Kathon may induce eosinophilia-mediated disease in the lung by disrupting homeostasis of pulmonary surfactants. Considering that eosinophilia is closely related to cancer and fibrosis, further studies are needed to understand the relationship between them.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Eosinofilia/sangue , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
18.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134229, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505341

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment are of significant concerns due to their high toxicity to human health. PAHs measurements at limited air quality monitoring stations alone are insufficient to gain a complete understanding of ambient levels and public exposure of PAHs in China. This study simulated the concentrations of PAHs in China, identified the source contributions, and estimated the health risks. Anthropogenic emissions of 16 priority PAHs directly associated with health risks were generated from the global high-resolution PKU-FUEL-2007 inventory. Open biomass burning emissions were generated from the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN). PAHs concentrations in January, April, July, and October 2013 were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model after incorporation of chemistry, partitioning, and deposition of PAHs. Predicted PAHs were in good agreement with seasonal and annual averaged observations from previous studies. The surface concentrations of 16-PAHs were higher in winter, with population weight average of 0.8 µg/m3 and peak value of 2.0 µg/m3 in urban areas in the North China Plain (NCP) and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Summer and spring exhibited lower concentrations of approximately 0.2 µg/m3 in most areas. The most important sources to PAHs were biomass burning and coal combustion in winter and industrial processes and oil and gas activities in summer. The cancer risk due to inhalation exposure of naphthalene (NAPH) and seven carcinogenic PAHs was significant, with the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) of >5 × 10-4 in many urban and industrial areas. Exposure to PAHs was estimated to result in 15,198 excess lifetime cancer cases in China. Oil and gas burning associated with transport, residential and commercial activities were major contributors to ILCR in China. Coal combustion was predominant in Shanxi but less important in other regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , China , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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