Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.977
Filtrar
1.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 20-31, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923465

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from combustion processes has been associated with oxidative stress to DNA, whereas effects related to telomere dysfunction are less investigated. We collected air-borne PM from a passenger cabin of a diesel-propelled train and at a training facility for smoke diving exercises. Effects on oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity measured by the comet assay and telomere length in PM-exposed A549 cells were compared with the genotoxicity and telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human volunteers exposed to the same aerosol source. Although elevated levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of Fpg-sensitive sites were observed in PBMCs from exposed humans, the PM collected at same locations did not cause genotoxicity in the comet assay in A549 cells. Nevertheless, A549 cells displayed telomere length shortening after four weeks exposure to PM. This is in line with slightly shorter telomere length in PBMCs from exposed humans, although it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the results indicate that genotoxic potency measured by the comet assay of PM in A549 cells may not predict genotoxicity in exposed humans, whereas telomere length measurements may be a novel indicator of genotoxic stress in cell cultures and humans.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Células A549 , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bombeiros , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Tamanho da Partícula , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
2.
BJOG ; 127(3): 335-342, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asian dust is a natural phenomenon in which dust particles are transported from desert areas in China and Mongolia to East Asia. Short-term exposure to Asian dust has been associated with cardiovascular disease through mechanisms such as systemic inflammation. Because inflammation is a potential trigger of placental abruption, exposure may also lead to abruption. We examined whether exposure to Asian dust was associated with abruption. DESIGN: A bi-directional, time-stratified case-crossover design. SETTING AND POPULATION: From the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database, we identified 3014 patients who delivered singleton births in hospitals in nine Japanese prefectures from 2009 to 2014 with a diagnosis of placental abruption. METHODS: Asian dust levels were measured at Light Detection and Ranging monitoring stations, and these measurements were used to define the Asian dust days. As there was no information on the onset day of abruption, we assumed this day was the day before delivery (lag1). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental abruption. RESULTS: During the study period, the Asian dust days ranged from 15 to 71 days, depending on the prefecture. The adjusted odds ratio of placental abruption associated with exposure to Asian dust was 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 2.0) for cumulative lags of 1-2 days. Even after adjustment for co-pollutant exposures, this association did not change substantially. CONCLUSIONS: In this Japanese multi-area study, exposure to Asian dust was associated with an increased risk of placental abruption. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental factors such as Asian dust may be a trigger of placental abruption.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/diagnóstico , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113306, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matters (PM) is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A change in cardiac autonomic function is one postulated mechanism leading to PM related cardiovascular events. This study therefore evaluated the associations of short-term exposure to PM and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, which can reflect the cardiac autonomic function. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for controlled studies of rodents published prior to December 2018. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Effect sizes were calculated for five main HRV parameters, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of mean squared differences between successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and the ratio of LF and HF (LF/HF). RESULTS: The review included 23 studies with 401 animals. Short-term exposure to PM by instillation yielded statistically significant effects on SDNN (Standardized Mean Difference [SMD] = -1.11, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] = -2.22 to -0.01, P = 0.05), LF (SMD = -1.19, 95% CI = -1.99 to -0.40, P = 0.003) and LF/HF (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI = -2.03 to -0.07, P = 0.04). Short-term exposure to PM by inhalation only yielded statistically significant effect on LF/HF (SMD = -0.83, 95% CI = -1.39 to -0.27, P = 0.004). There was no evidence that animal model and exposure frequency influenced the relationship of PM and HRV. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM can decrease HRV of rodents, affecting cardiac autonomic function. Exposure methods can influence the relationships of PM and HRV parameters. Further studies should focus on the effects of long-term PM exposure, on human beings, and potential influential factors of PM-HRV associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 73-79, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Choking agent exposure, among them chlorine gas, occurs in household or industrial accidents, chemical warfare and terrorist attacks. AIMS: Review of published animal and human data regarding the history, pathophysiology, clinical effects and management of chlorine exposure. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Highly soluble agents cause quick upper respiratory tract symptoms. Chlorine gas has a medium solubility, also causing delayed lower airway symptoms, mainly due to its oxidizing potential by releasing hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid, but also by interacting with Transient Receptor Potential channels. SYMPTOMS: Eyes may show conjunctival injection, abrasions and corrosions. Burns of the oronasal mucosa and trachea can occur. Dyspnea, bronchospasm and possible retrosternal pain occur frequently. Glottis edema or laryngospasm are acute life-threatening emergencies. Chlorine gas can cause toxic pneumonitis, lung edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MANAGEMENT: General management includes physical examination, pulse oximetry and arterial blood gases. Eyes should be irrigated, humidified oxygen and inhalative bronchodilators administered. An EKG, cardiac enzymes and complete-blood-count should be obtained if there is retrosternal pain. Routine chest x-ray is not recommended - except if pulmonary edema is suspected. Laryngoscopy should be performed if glottis edema is suspected. Sodium bicarbonate inhalation after chlorine gas inhalation is discussed controversially. Mechanical ventilation with continuous-positive-airway-pressure or intubation/tracheotomy with high positive-end-expiratory-pressure may be necessary. Glucocorticoids for prevention of pulmonary edema should be applied restrictively. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended. In severe ARDS, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be considered. CONCLUSION: Treatment is mainly symptom oriented. New and promising therapies are in development.


Assuntos
Acidentes Domésticos , Acidentes de Trabalho , Queimaduras Químicas/terapia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Cloro/envenenamento , Queimaduras Oculares/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Animais , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Queimaduras Químicas/história , Queimaduras Químicas/fisiopatologia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/história , Cloro/história , Queimaduras Oculares/induzido quimicamente , Queimaduras Oculares/história , Queimaduras Oculares/fisiopatologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Respiratórias/história , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108887, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705857

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the molecular, structural, and functional impact of aerosols from candidate modified risk tobacco products (cMRTP), the Carbon Heated Tobacco Product (CHTP) 1.2 and Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, compared with that of mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) on the cardiovascular system of ApoE-/- mice. METHODS: Female ApoE-/- mice were exposed to aerosols from THS 2.2 and CHTP 1.2 or to CS from the 3R4F reference cigarette for up to 6 months at matching nicotine concentrations. A Cessation and a Switching group (3 months exposure to 3R4F CS followed by filtered air or CHTP 1.2 for 3 months) were included. Cardiovascular effects were investigated by echocardiographic, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and transcriptomics analyses. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to cMRTP aerosols did not affect atherosclerosis progression, heart function, left ventricular (LV) structure, or the cardiovascular transcriptome. Exposure to 3R4F CS triggered atherosclerosis progression, reduced systolic ejection fraction and fractional shortening, caused heart LV hypertrophy, and initiated significant dysregulation in the transcriptomes of the heart ventricle and thoracic aorta. Importantly, the structural, functional, and molecular changes caused by 3R4F CS were improved in the smoking cessation and switching groups. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cMRTP aerosols lacked most of the CS exposure-related functional, structural, and molecular effects. Smoking cessation or switching to CHTP 1.2 aerosol caused similar recovery from the 3R4F CS effects in the ApoE-/- model, with no further acceleration of plaque progression beyond the aging-related rate.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Feminino , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(2): 200-206, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a known risk factor for recurrence of Crohn's disease after surgical resection. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effect of smoking cessation on long-term surgical recurrence after primary ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease. DESIGN: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted. SETTINGS: Patient demographic data and medical and surgical details were combined from 2 specialist centers. After ethical approval, patients were contacted in case of missing data regarding smoking habit. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing ileocolic resection between 2000 and 2012 for histologically confirmed Crohn's disease were included. Those with previous intestinal resection, strictureplasty for Crohn's disease, leak after ileocolic resection, or who were never reversed were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was surgical recurrence measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and secondary medical therapy at time of follow-up. RESULTS: Over a 12-year period, 290 patients underwent ileocolic resection. Full smoking data were available for 242 (83%) of 290 patients. There were 169 nonsmokers (70%; group 1), 42 active smokers at the time of ileocolic resection who continued smoking up to last follow-up (17%; group 2), and 31 (13%) who quit smoking after ileocolic resection (group 3). The median time of smoking exposure after ileocolic resection for group 3 was 3 years (interquartile range, 0-6 y), and median follow-up time for the whole group was 112 months (9 mo; interquartile range, 84-148 mo). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significantly higher surgical recurrence rate for group 2 compared with group 3 (16/42 (38%) vs 3/31 (10%); p = 0.02; risk ratio = 3.9 (95% CI, 1-12)). In addition, significantly more patients in group 2 without surgical recurrence received immunomodulatory maintenance therapy compared with group 3 (12/26 (46%) vs 4/28 (14%); p = 0.01; risk ratio = 3.2 (95% CI, 1-9)). LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective design and small number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation after primary ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease may significantly reduce long-term risk of surgical recurrence and is associated with less use of maintenance therapy. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B86. ¿DEJAR DE FUMAR REDUCE LA RECURRENCIA QUIRÚRGICA DESPUÉS DE LA RESECCIÓN ILEOCÓLICA PRIMARIA PARA LA ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN?: Fumar tabaco es un factor de riesgo conocido para la recurrencia de la enfermedad de Crohn después de la resección quirúrgica.Evaluar el efecto de dejar de fumar en la recurrencia quirúrgica a largo plazo después de la resección ileocólica primaria para la enfermedad de Crohn.Revisión retrospectiva de una base de datos mantenida prospectivamente.Se combinaron datos demográficos del paciente, así como detalles médicos y quirúrgicos de dos centros especializados. Después de la aprobación ética, se contactó a los pacientes en caso de falta de datos sobre el hábito de fumar.Todos los pacientes sometidos a resección ileocólica entre 2000 y 2012 por enfermedad de Crohn confirmada histológicamente. Se excluyeron aquellos con resección intestinal previa, estenosis por enfermedad de Crohn, fuga después de resección ileocólica o que nunca se revirtieron.La principal variable fue la recurrencia quirúrgica medida por análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier, terapia médica secundaria en el momento del seguimiento.Durante un período de 12 años, 290 pacientes fueron sometidos a resección ileocólica. Se dispuso de datos completos sobre el tabaquismo para 242/290 (83%). Hubo 169 no fumadores (70%) (grupo 1), 42 (17%) fumadores activos en el momento de la resección ileocólica que continuaron fumando hasta el último seguimiento (grupo 2) y 31 (13%) que dejaron de fumar después de resección ileocólica (grupo 3). La mediana del tiempo de exposición al tabaquismo después de la resección ileocólica para el grupo 3 fue de 3 años (IQR 0-6) y la mediana del tiempo de seguimiento para todo el grupo fue de 112 meses (9 años) (IQR 84-148). El análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier mostró una tasa de recurrencia quirúrgica significativamente mayor para el grupo 2 en comparación con el grupo 3 (16/42 (38%) frente a 3/31 (10%), p = 0.02; razón de riesgo 3.9 (IC 95% 1-12)). Además, un número significativamente mayor de pacientes del grupo 2 sin recurrencia quirúrgica recibieron terapia de mantenimiento inmunomoduladora en comparación con el grupo 3 (12/26 (46%) frente a 4/28 (14%), p = 0.01; razón de riesgo 3.2 (IC 95% 1-9)).Diseño retrospectivo y pequeño número de pacientes.Dejar de fumar después de la resección ileocólica primaria para la enfermedad de Crohn puede reducir significativamente el riesgo a largo plazo de recurrencia quirúrgica y se asocia con un menor uso del tratamiento de mantenimiento. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B86. (Traducción-Dr. Gonzalo Federico Hagerman).


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Intestinos/cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
8.
Life Sci ; 242: 117210, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure of healthy subjects to ambient airborne dusty particulate matter (PM) causes brain dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sub-chronic inhalation of ambient PM in a designed special chamber to create factual dust storm (DS) conditions on spatial cognition, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in the brain tissue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into four groups: Sham (clean air, the concentration of dusty PM was <150 µg/m3), DS1 (200-500 µg/m3), DS2 (500-2000 µg/m3) and DS3 (2000-8000 µg/m3). Experimental rats were exposed to clean air or different sizes and concentrations of dust PM storm for four consecutive weeks (exposure was during 1-4, 8-11, 15-16 and 20-23 days, 30 min, twice daily) in a real-ambient dust exposure chamber. Subsequently, cognitive performance, hippocampal LTP, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain edema of the animals evaluated. As well as, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress indexes in the brain tissue measured using ELISA assays. RESULTS: Exposing to dust PM impaired spatial memory (p < 0.001), hippocampal LTP (p < 0.001). These disturbances were in line with the severe damage to respiratory system followed by disruption of BBB integrity (p < 0.001), increased brain edema (p < 0.001), inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.001) excretion and oxidative stress (p < 0.001) in brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that exposure to ambient dust PM increased brain edema and BBB permeability, induced memory impairment and hippocampal LTP deficiency by increasing the inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the brain of the rats.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/induzido quimicamente , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(1): 27-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498972

RESUMO

In 2011, a link between humidifier disinfectants and patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was identified in Korea, and Kathon was suggested as one of the causative agents. In this study, Kathon induced apoptotic cell death along with membrane damage at 24 h post-exposure. Additionally, on day 14 after a single instillation with Kathon, the total number of pulmonary cells and the levels of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-13, MIP-1α, and MCP-1α clearly increased in the lung of mice. The proportion of natural killer cells and eosinophils were significantly elevated in the spleen and the bloodstream, respectively, and the level of immunoglobulin (Ig) A, but not IgG, IgM, and IgE, dose-dependently increased. Therefore, we suggest that inhaled Kathon may induce eosinophilia-mediated disease in the lung by disrupting homeostasis of pulmonary surfactants. Considering that eosinophilia is closely related to cancer and fibrosis, further studies are needed to understand the relationship between them.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Eosinofilia/sangue , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 555-565, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess microbial contamination of the air and surfaces at workplaces in commercial (CD) and traditional (TD) dairies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bioaerosol (impactor) and surface (swab) samples were collected in CD and in TD. Bacterial and fungal concentrations in the air and on surfaces were calculated and all isolated microorganisms taxonomically identified, based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular features. RESULTS: Average concentrations of bacterial aerosol ranged between 70-860 CFU/m3 and 265-14639 CFU/m3, while for fungal aerosol were between 50-290 CFU/m3 and 55-480 CFU/m3 in CD and TD, respectively. Average bacterial concentrations on surfaces ranged between 1.0-49.7 CFU/cm2 and 0.2-60.4 CFU/cm2, whereas average fungal surface contamination ranged between 0-2.7 CFU/cm2 and 0-4.6 CFU/cm2 in CD and TD, respectively. Qualitative analysis revealed mainly the presence of saprophytic microorganisms; however, several pathogenic strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus intermedius, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces spp., Streptomyces spp., Candida albicans) were also isolated from both the air and surface samples in the studied dairies. CONCLUSIONS: The air and surfaces in TD were more polluted than those in CD; however, in both types of dairies, the levels of microbial contaminants did not exceed respective threshold limit values. Nevertheless, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms may increase health risk for dairy workers and influence the quality of products. Hence, proper hygienic measures should be introduced and performed to guarantee high microbial quality of both production processes and milk products.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aerossóis/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 644-655, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885240

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: Five workers (2 males and 3 females) employed in a furniture factory located in eastern Poland developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) after the pine wood used for furniture production was replaced by birch wood. All of them reported onset of respiratory and general symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, general malaise) after inhalation exposure to birch dust, showed crackles at auscultation, ground-glass attenuations in HRCT examination, and lymphocytosis in the BAL examination. The diagnosis of acute HP was set in 4 persons and the diagnosis of subacute HP in one. IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC ALLERGEN: Samples of birch wood associated with evoking disease symptoms were subjected to microbiological analysis with the conventional and molecular methods. Two bacterial isolates were found to occur in large quantities (of the order 108 CFU/g) in examined samples: Gram-negative bacterium of the species Pantoea agglomerans and a non-filamentous Gram-positive actinobacterium of the species Microbacterium barkeri. In the test for inhibition of leukocyte migration, 4 out of 5 examined patients showed a positive reaction in the presence of P. agglomerans and 2 in the presence of M. barkeri. Only one person showed the presence of precipitins to P. agglomerans and none to M. barkeri. In the inhalation challenge, which is the most relevant allergological test in the HP diagnostics, all patients reacted positively to P. agglomerans and only one to M. barkeri. The results indicate that P. agglomerans developing in birch wood was the main agent causing HP in the workers exposed to the inhalation of dust from this wood, while the etiologic role of M. barkeri is probably secondary. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that apart from fungi and filamentous actinobacteria, regarded until recently as causative agents of HP in woodworkers, Gram-negative bacteria and non-filamentous actinobacteria may also elicit disease symptoms in the workers processing wood infected with large amounts of these microorganisms. The results obtained also seem to indicate that cellular-mediated reactions are more significant for causing disease symptoms compared to those that are precipitin-mediated.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/microbiologia , Betula/microbiologia , Poeira/análise , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pantoea/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoea/genética , Pantoea/fisiologia , Polônia , Madeira/microbiologia
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 672-673, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thiram, a fungicides, is widely used on seeds and as foliar agent on turf, vegetables and fruit. It is also used in the rubber industry as a vulcanization accelerator. When absorbed through the respiratory system, it is rapidly metabolised to dimethylthiocarbamate and carbon disulphide, causing noxious effects. A brief review is presented of the literature, centering on the interesting case of a 45-year-old woman admitted to the hospital suffering from acute respiratory failure. RESULTS: Computer tomography in angiographic option (angio-CT) showed an extensive, irregular area of ground glass in both upper lobes and apical segments of the lower lobes of the lungs. A significant enlargement of both atria was also described. There was no improvement after cardiac treatment and patient was transferred to the pulmonary department where she was succesfully treated with systemic glucocortycosteroids. The patient remains under the supervision of the pulmonary out-patient department.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769860

RESUMO

Occupational exposures to gas, fumes, dust and chemicals contribute to non-malignant respiratory diseases like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and community-acquired pneumonia in more than one in ten patients. They may be sick due to inhaling various particles, gases, fumes, or chemicals in the workplace. Hence, these exposures should be considered in all patients with non-malignant respiratory diseases. In an international literature review the occupational burden of asthma was 16%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 14%, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 26% and community-acquired pneumonia 10%.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/etiologia , Asma/etiologia , Bronquite Crônica/etiologia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Sarcoidose/etiologia
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 65, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the effect of exposure to biomass fuel smoke inhalation on respiratory symptoms in the Bangladeshi population which is a major health hazard in most of the developing countries. This study aims to explore the association between respiratory symptoms and biomass fuel smoke exposure among children under 5 years of age. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Bangladesh Urban Health Survey conducted in 2013. A total of 10,575 mothers with at least one surviving children were selected. Respiratory symptoms among children under 5 years of age were considered as the primary outcome. Sequential multiple logistic regression models were used to observe the association between respiratory symptoms and biomass fuel smoke exposure adjusting the effect of residential factors and mother and child characteristics. RESULTS: Around 40% of the mothers exclusively used biomass fuel irrespective of the kitchen location and 54% of them were habituated in indoor cooking. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms of under-five children among in-house and outdoor biomass fuel users was 23.0% and 21.9%, respectively. Results of fitted multiple logistic regression models showed that the odds of having respiratory symptoms among children under 5 years of age were increased due to in-house biomass fuel use [OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.36] compared with the non-biomass user. An increased risk of respiratory symptoms was also significantly associated with mother's birth complication [OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.36-1.67], non-government organization (NGO) membership of mothers [OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16-1.51], age of the child (6-23m) [OR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.52], and nutritional status (stunting) [OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31]. CONCLUSION: This study found the use of in-house biomass fuel as a significant risk factor associated with respiratory symptoms of children under 5 years of age. More longitudinal studies should be designed to establish a causal relationship between HAP (household air pollution) and respiratory symptoms among children with more direct measures of HAP and clinical procedure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Biomassa , Pré-Escolar , Culinária/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Urbana
15.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(10): 797-800, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726516

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current status of the occupational hazards of welding fume, manganese, and manganese compounds in the welding environment of a large container manufacturing enterprise, as well as the status of occupational health examination of workers, and to provide a basis for improving the welding environment of this enterprise. Methods: In August 2016, July 2017, and August 2018, convenience sampling was used to perform an on-site occupational hygiene survey of the welding workshop for three consecutive years, and welding fume, manganese and, manganese compounds (counted as manganese dioxide) were measured for their workplace exposure concentrations and exposure levels in workers. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the results of occupational health examination. Results: Welding fume, manganese, and manganese compounds in the welding environment gradually increased from 2016 to 2018 (χ(2)(trend)=5.14 and 5.54, P<0.05). The maximum over-standard rate of concentration-short term exposure limit was 43.3% (13/30) for welding fume and 40.0% (12/30) for manganese and its compounds, and the maximum over-standard rate of time-weighted average concentration was 26.7% (8/30) for welding fume and 23.3% (7/30) for manganese and its compounds. Abnormalities were observed in the occupational health examination of welding workers in 2016-2018, among which respiratory system abnormalities (cough, expectoration, and wheezing), nervous system abnormalities (dizziness, fatigue, sleep disorders, amnesia, hyperhidrosis, and palpitations), and electrocardiogram abnormalities (bundle conduction block) had an incidence rate of above 10.0%, and the incidence rate of abnormalities on posterior-anterior X-ray high-kV chest radiograph was close to 8.9% (30/336) . Conclusion: There is severe exposure to welding fume, manganese, and manganese compounds among workers in this enterprise, which cause great hazards to the health of workers. It is necessary to strengthen occupational health management, take measures to improve the welding environment, and enhance occupational disease prevention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Manganês/efeitos adversos , Manganês/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Soldagem , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos
16.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 203-215, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its excellent psychometric properties, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has not been previously used in measuring respiratory quality of life (RQoL) among traffic police and firefighters who are at risk of poor respiratory health by virtue of their occupations. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the RQoL of the occupationally exposed (firefighters and traffic police) and the occupationally unexposed populations in Penang, Malaysia. METHODS: We recruited male traffic police and firefighters from 5 districts of Penang by convenient sampling during June to September 2018. Participants completed the SGRQ. Scores (symptoms, activity, impacts, total) were derived using a scoring calculator. Higher scores indicate poorer RQoL. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were fitted to explore the relationship of the independent predictive factors with participants' RQoL. RESULTS: We recruited 706 participants---211 firefighters, 198 traffic police, and 297 from general population. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers in all SGRQ domains. Regardless of smoking status, the "occupationally exposed group" had higher symptoms score than the "occupationally unexposed group," who had higher activity and impact scores. Smoking status, comorbidity status and monthly income were significant independent predictors of SGRQ total score. CONCLUSION: In comparison with the general population, firefighters and traffic police reported poorer RQoL; smoking further deteriorated their respiratory health. There is a need to strengthen preventive health measures against occupational disease and smoking cessation among firefighters and traffic police.


Assuntos
Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 59-67, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577921

RESUMO

Toluene-diisocyanate (TDI) is mainly used in the manufacturing process of polyurethane foams, and is a potent inducer of occupational asthma characterized by airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in the development of asthma, and correlating with the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 cells. However, the role of TSLP in TDI-induced asthma remains unclear. In this study, 96 TDI-exposed workers as well as a mouse model of TDI-induced asthma were investigated. The air exposure assessment result of TDI in the workplace showed that workers were exposed to inhalation of a very high concentration of TDI, approximately 8 times the recommended level, leading to a decrease in pulmonary function and an increase in inflammatory cells, as well as TSLP and IgE levels in the supernatant of sputum obtained from exposed workers. In order to further investigate the role of TSLP in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced asthma, a mouse model of TDI-induced asthma was also employed. Histopathological analysis of mouse lung and bronchus showed an obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells around the bronchus. The levels of inflammatory cells, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the expression levels of TSLP protein and ROR-γt and IL-17 mRNA in mouse lung tissues were also significantly increased. However, after treatment with TSLP neutralizing antibody (TSLP-Ab), the degree of pulmonary and bronchial inflammation in mice was significantly alleviated, and the levels of inflammatory cells, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 in BALF, and the expression levels of ROR-γt and IL-17 mRNA in lung tissue were significantly decreased. Our data shows that TSLP plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced asthma, and that TSLP-Ab can effectively alleviate TDI-induced airway inflammation of asthma.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Tolueno 2,4-Di-Isocianato/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113176, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520905

RESUMO

Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and size-segregated particulate matter (PM) in indoor air and outdoor air, along with personal exposure, were monitored in rural households of Northern China. The daily average concentrations of 28 species were 1310 ±â€¯811, 738 ±â€¯321, 465 ±â€¯247, and 655 ±â€¯250 ng/m3 in kitchen air, bedroom air, and outdoor air, and for personal exposure, respectively. PAHs tended to occur in the particulate phase with increasing molecular weight. Absorption by particulate organic carbon was dominant in the gas-particle partitioning process. The daily averaged concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 104 ±â€¯39.5 and 88.4 ±â€¯39.3 µg/m3 in kitchen air, 79.0 ±â€¯63.2 and 65.7 ±â€¯57.5 µg/m3 in bedroom air, 52.9 ±â€¯16.5 and 41.5 ±â€¯12.5 µg/m3 in outdoor air, and 71.7 ±â€¯30.8 and 61.5 ±â€¯28.4 µg/m3 for personal exposure, respectively. The non-priority components contributed 5.5 ±â€¯2.8% to the total PAHs, while their fraction of carcinogenic risk reached 85.6 ±â€¯6.9%. The mean cancer risk posed to rural residents via inhalation exposure to PAHs exceeded the current acceptable threshold of 1.0 × 10-6 and the national average estimated in China. The personal exposure levels of PAHs and PM in households using clean energy were lower than those in households using traditional biomass by 30.0%, 29.4%, and 38.5% for PAH28, PM2.5, and PM1.0, respectively. However, the cancer risk of personal inhalation exposure to PAH28 from using liquid petroleum gas (LPG) was higher than that from using firewood, implying the adoption of LPG may not effectively reduce the cancer risk despite the decreasing exposure levels of PAH28 and PM with respect to the use of firewood. Cooking individuals suffered higher exposure levels of PAH28 and PM1.0 compared with non-cooking individuals, and the cancer risk of personal inhalation exposure to PAH28 for cooking individuals was 1.7 times that for non-cooking individuals. Cooking was a critical factor that affected the personal exposure levels of the local male and female residents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Biomassa , China , Culinária/métodos , Poeira/análise , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , População Rural
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 58, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521105

RESUMO

Hookah or waterpipe smoking or use is an emerging trend in the US population, especially among the youth. The misperception of hookah being less harmful than cigarettes and the availability of different but "appealing" flavors are considered among the main reasons for this trend. Hookah users however are exposed to many of the same toxic compounds/by-products as cigarette users, but at dramatically higher levels, which might lead to more severe negative health effects. In fact, hookah users are at risks of infections, cancers, lung disease, and other medical conditions. Moreover, because of the overlapping toxicant/chemical profile to conventional cigarettes, hookah smoke effects on the cardiovascular system are thought to be comparable to those of conventional cigarettes. A major source of tobacco addiction is nicotine, whose levels in hookah are extremely variable as they depend on the type of tobacco used. Taken together, in this review of literature, we will provide insights on the negative health effects of hookah in general, with a focus on what is known regarding its impact on the cardiovascular system.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Cachimbos de Água , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Nicotina/análise , Nicotina/toxicidade , Tabaco/química , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 94-108, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499141

RESUMO

The toxic effects resulting from inhalation exposure depend on both the concentration (C) of the inhaled substance and the exposure duration (t), including the assumptions that the exposure-limiting toxic effect is linearly linked with the accumulated C × t (inhaled dose), and detoxification or compensatory responses diminishing this dose are negligible. This interrelationship applies for both constant and fluctuating concentrations and is usually expressed by the toxic load equation Cn × t = constant effect (k). The toxic load exponent 'n' is derived from both C- and t-dependent exponents with Cb2×tb3 = k with n = b2/b3. This model is taken as a fundamental basis for assessing the acute hazard posed by atmospheric releases of noxious substances, whether deliberate or accidental. Despite its universal use, especially for inhaled irritants, the toxicological significance of this mathematical construct is still discussed controversially. With n = 1 this equation is called Haber's rule. The underlying assumption is that the exposure-based calculated and the actually inhaled Cb2×tb3 are identical. Unlike the calculated dose, the latter is dependent on the test species and its t-dependent change in respiratory minute volume (MV). The retention patterns of inhaled irritant vapors may differ in obligate nasal breathing rodents and oronasally breathing humans as well. Thus, due to the interdependence of n on both C, t and k, this mathematical construct generates a bioassay-specific 'n' which can hardly be considered as human-equivalent, especially following exposure to sensory irritants known to elicit reflex-related changes in MV. The C- and t-dependent impact on Cn × t = k was analyzed with the sensory irritant n-butyl monoisocyanate and compared with t-dependent changes elicited by highly, moderately, and poorly water-soluble sensory irritants ammonia, toluene diisocyanate, and phosgene, respectively. This comparison reveals that n depends on several factors: In cases where MV is instantly and plateau-like depressed with onset of exposure, n appears to be most dependent on Cb2 × MV whereas for a similar slower time-dependent response n becomes more dependent on MV × tb3. For any ensuing risk characterization that focuses on acute non-lethal threshold Cb2 × tb3's, the sensory irritation-related depression in MV must be known to arrive at meaningful conclusions. In summary, both Cn- and t-dependent dosimetry-related pitfalls may occur in acute bioassays on rodents following inhalation exposure to irritants. These must be identified and dealt with judiciously prior to translation to apparently similar human exposures. By default, extrapolations from one duration to another should start with that Cn × t eliciting the least depression in MV with n = 1.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Irritantes/toxicidade , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Amônia/química , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Irritantes/química , Isocianatos/química , Isocianatos/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosgênio/química , Fosgênio/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Medição de Risco , Solubilidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tolueno 2,4-Di-Isocianato/química , Tolueno 2,4-Di-Isocianato/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA